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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Simultaneous Analysis of PhIP, 4'-OH-PhIP, and Their Precursors Using UHPLC-MS/MS.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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A novel method allowing simultaneous analysis of PhIP, 4'-OH-PhIP, and their precursors (phenylalanine, tyrosine, creatine, creatinine, glucose) has been developed as a robust kinetic study tool by using ultra high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). A direct hydrochloric acid (HCl) extraction was applied to achieve the simultaneous extraction of all seven analytes, with the mean recoveries ranging from 60% to 120% at two concentration levels. Then, an Atlantis dC18 column selected from four different chromatographic columns was ultimately used to separate these compounds within 15 min. The limits of detection range of allseven analytes were calculated as 0.14-325.00 ?g L(-1). The intra- and interday precision of the proposed method were less than 15.4 and 19.9%, respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied to depict the kinetic profiles of PhIP, 4'-OH-PhIP, and their precursors in pork model, reducing the analysis time and cost in the kinetic study.
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[Timing of nasojejunal feeding tube placement and enteral nutrition in children with acute pancreatitis.]
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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To investigate the impact of timing of nasojejunal feeding tube placement and enteral nutrition on clinical outcomes in children with acute pancreatitis.
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Understanding health-care access and utilization disparities among Latino children in the United States.
J Child Health Care
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2014
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It is important to understand the source of health-care disparities between Latinos and other children in the United States. We examine parent-reported health-care access and utilization among Latino, White, and Black children (?17 years old) in the United States in the 2006-2011 National Health Interview Survey. Using Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition, we portion health-care disparities into two parts (1) those attributable to differences in the levels of sociodemographic characteristics (e.g., income) and (2) those attributable to differences in group-specific regression coefficients that measure the health-care 'return' Latino, White, and Black children receive on these characteristics. In the United States, Latino children are less likely than Whites to have a usual source of care, receive at least one preventive care visit, and visit a doctor, and are more likely to have delayed care. The return on sociodemographic characteristics explains 20-30% of the disparity between Latino and White children in the usual source of care, delayed care, and doctor visits and 40-50% of the disparity between Latinos and Blacks in emergency department use and preventive care. Much of the health-care disadvantage experienced by Latino children would persist if Latinos had the sociodemographic characteristics as Whites and Blacks.
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Interfacial Adsorption of Peptides in Oil-in-Water Emulsions Costabilized by Tween 20 and Antioxidative Potato Peptides.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-06-2014
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Previous studies have shown that soybean oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions prepared with potato protein hydrolysate (PPH) are remarkably stable against oxidative changes. It was hypothesized that partitioning of peptides at the emulsion interface plays an important role in this phenomenon. The present study was conducted to examine the structural characteristics of the interfacial membrane. As revealed by atomic force microscopy, oil droplets costabilized with PPH and Tween 20 were more uniform than those stabilized with Tween 20 only (control). Confocal laser scanning microscopy images indicated the existence of peptides directly anchored into the interfacial membrane. The adsorbed peptides were mostly short oligopeptides composed of two to seven amino acids, of which Ser-Phe-Asp-Leu(Ile)-Lys matched the sequence of patatin. The adsorption of these peptides appeared to both improve the integrity of the interface and contribute to the oxidative stability of the emulsions. Furthermore, cryogenic transmission electron microscopy illustrated the morphology of the interfacial membrane as a noncontinuous short fibril structure. Partitioning of antioxidative peptides in the interfacial membrane provided steric hindrances and electrostatic effects to inhibit oxidation.
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The association between insulin resistance and vascularization of thyroid nodules.
J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2014
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Insulin resistance (IR) is an important factor for the growth and progression of thyroid nodules, which might be associated with the distribution, construction and density of nodular vascularization.
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Cryptotanshinone Ameliorates Hepatic Normothermic Ischemia and Reperfusion Injury in Rats by Anti-mitochondrial Apoptosis.
Biol. Pharm. Bull.
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2014
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Cryptotanshinone (CT), isolated from the dried roots of Salvia militorrhiza, has been reported to have protective effects on myocardial and cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury both in vitro and in vivo. However, its effects and underlying mechanism on hepatic I/R injury remain unclear. To investigate its effects on hepatic I/R injury, thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into 3 groups: a sham group, a vehicle-treated hepatic I/R group and a CT-treated (50?mg/kg) group. The hepatic I/R and CT-treated groups were subjected to 60?min of normothermic ischemia of the left lateral lobe of the liver, followed by 4?h of reperfusion. The animals were then sacrificed to collect the serum and the left liver lobe for assay. Hepatic function was protected, as evidenced by significantly reduced alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in the CT-treated group as compared with I/R group. The terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase deoxyuridine triphosphate (dUTP) nick end labeling (TUNEL) demonstrated significantly decreased apoptosis in the CT-administration animals. Western blotting demonstrated upregulation of the proapoptotic protein Bcl-2, as well as decreased levels of the activated form of caspase-3 and the cleaved form of its substrate, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) in the CT-treated group compared with those of the I/R group. In addition, the phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) was inhibited by CT. Our data suggest that CT attenuates hepatic I/R injury by inhibiting the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis, mediated partly through the inhibition of JNK and p38 MAPK phosporylation.
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The Discovery of Potent, Selective, and Reversible Inhibitors of the House Dust Mite Peptidase Allergen Der p 1: An Innovative Approach to the Treatment of Allergic Asthma.
J. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-04-2014
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Blocking the bioactivity of allergens is conceptually attractive as a small-molecule therapy for allergic diseases but has not been attempted previously. Group 1 allergens of house dust mites (HDM) are meaningful targets in this quest because they are globally prevalent and clinically important triggers of allergic asthma. Group 1 HDM allergens are cysteine peptidases whose proteolytic activity triggers essential steps in the allergy cascade. Using the HDM allergen Der p 1 as an archetype for structure-based drug discovery, we have identified a series of novel, reversible inhibitors. Potency and selectivity were manipulated by optimizing drug interactions with enzyme binding pockets, while variation of terminal groups conferred the physicochemical and pharmacokinetic attributes required for inhaled delivery. Studies in animals challenged with the gamut of HDM allergens showed an attenuation of allergic responses by targeting just a single component, namely, Der p 1. Our findings suggest that these inhibitors may be used as novel therapies for allergic asthma.
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Systematic review comparing the safety and efficacy of conventional and drug-eluting-bead transarterial chemoembolization for inoperable hepatocellular carcinoma.
Hepatol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 11-02-2014
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Conventional transarterial chemoembolization (cTACE) is widely used for treating patients with inoperable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). A variation on the technique based on drug-eluting beads (DEB-TACE) has recently entered the clinic, but trials of its safety and efficacy have given conflicting results. This systematic review aimed to gain a current, comprehensive picture of how DEB-TACE compares with cTACE.
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Minimal adverse influence of maternal hepatitis B carrier status on perinatal outcomes and child's growth.
J. Matern. Fetal. Neonatal. Med.
PUBLISHED: 10-30-2014
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Abstract Objective: To clarify whether maternal HBsAg positivity may add risk for adverse neonatal outcomes and even affect child's growth. Methods: The perinatal data and neonatal outcomes in 380 HBsAg-positive and 428 HBsAg-negative women delivered during 2002-2004 were investigated. Furthermore, 271 (71.3%) children of HBsAg-positive and 297 (69.4%) of HBsAg-negative mothers were followed at ages of 5-7 years. Child's growth including weight, height, and health conditions were evaluated. Results: The prevalence of preterm birth was relatively higher in HBsAg-positive group (2.9% versus 1.4%), but it failed to reach statistical significance (p?=?0.140). There was no difference in other neonatal outcomes including stillbirth (0.5% versus 0.2%), neonatal death (0.5% versus 0.5%) and congenital malformation (0.8% versus 1.4%). Logistic regression analyses demonstrated maternal HBsAg positivity had no adverse influence on neonatal outcomes. Abnormal health conditions, other than adverse neonatal outcomes, was identified in one child (0.3%) of HBsAg-positive mother and four children (0.9%) of HBsAg-negative mothers at follow-up (p?=?0.444). No maternal death occurred in HBsAg-positive or -negative mothers. Conclusions: Maternal HBsAg carrier status does not add risk for adverse neonatal outcomes or child's growth; therefore, heightening surveillance for adverse neonatal complications in HBV-infected pregnant women may be unnecessary.
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Robust, Flexible, and Bioadhesive Free-Standing Films for the Co-Delivery of Antibiotics and Growth Factors.
Langmuir
PUBLISHED: 10-30-2014
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Free-standing polymer films that adhere strongly to tissue and can codeliver multiple therapeutic agents in a controlled manner are useful as medical plasters. In this study, a bilayer polymer film comprising a drug reservoir layer and a supporting layer is fabricated by spin-coating poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) on top of a layer-by-layer assembled film of poly(?-amino esters) (PAE), alginate sodium (ALG), and recombinant human basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). Apart from bFGF, the bilayer film can also load antibiotic drug ceftriaxone sodium (CTX) by a postdiffusion process. The PLGA supporting layer facilitates the direct peeling of the bilayer film from substrate to produce a robust and flexible free-standing film with excellent adhesion onto the human skin and porcine liver. The excellent adhesion of the bilayer film originates from the ALG component in the drug reservoir layer. CTX is quickly released by easily breaking its electrostatic interaction with the drug reservoir layer, whereas the sustained release of bFGF is due to the slow degradation of PAE component in the drug reservoir layer. Wounds can be synergetically treated by fast release of CTX to effectively eradicate invasive bacteria and by sustained release of bFGF to accelerate wound healing. Our results serve as a basis for designing multifunctional free-standing films with combination therapy for biomedical applications.
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[Comparative study on the efficacy of Hyper CVAD/MA regimen and CHOP or CHOP like regimen in the treatment of primary peripheral T cell lymphoma].
Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2014
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To evaluate the curative efficacy and safety of two regimens, Hyper CVAD/MA and CHOP/CHOP, in the treatment of primary peripheral T cell lymphoma (PTCL).
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[Correlation of coagulation indicators with inflammatory markers for sepsis in the patients with hematological malignancies].
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2014
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This study was aimed to investigate the correlation of coagulation indicators [prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), thrombin time (TT) and fibrinogen (FIB), antithrombinIII (ATIII), D-dimer (D-D) levels] with inflammatory markers [procalcitonin (PCT), C reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), serum amyloid A (SAA)] for sepsis in hematologic malignancy patients. A total of 326 febrile in patients with hematologic diseases from 2062 patients in West China Hospital, Sichuan University from March 2011 to April 2013 were retrospectively analyzed. The patients were divided into sepsis group(n = 72), non-sepsis group(n = 176) and non-sepsis with low Alb group (n = 78) according to blood culture. The results showed that the values of PT, APTT, D-dimer, Plt in sepsis group were higher than those in non-sepsis group, and the difference between them was statistically significant. While the ATIII level in the sepsis group was lower than that in non-sepsis group, and the difference between them was statistically significant (P < 0.05). And the four inflammatory biomarkers in the sepsis patients were higher than those in non-sepsis patients (P < 0.05). TT and FIB level were not significantly different (P > 0.05). There was not a significant difference in these indicators between non-sepsis group and non-sepsis with low Alb group. The correlation analysis suggested that the level of PCT positively correlated with APTT, D-dimer level (P < 0.05); and negatively correlated with the ATIII (P < 0.05). It is concluded that sepsis results in the concurrent activation of inflammatory and procoagulant pathways. The hematologic malignancy patients with sepsis have an obviously higher systemic inflammatory response, and accompanied with coagulation dysfunction.
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[Characterization of lead size distributions with different process in lead-zinc smelter].
Huan Jing Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2014
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Using a cascade impactor (Andersen Series NVA-800), the size-segregated atmospheric particulates were collected daily and characters of lead contents and size distribution in the particles were analyzed from melting preparation, blast furnace smelting and lead-cast processes within a lead-zinc smelter in Shaanxi province. The results showed that emissions of particulate matter were different in different processes, in which the emissions of blast furnace smelting process was 402.83 mg x h(-1), while melting preparation were 182.71 mg x h(-1) and 100.03 mg x h(-1) in lead-cast processes. Lead contents in different sizes of particles varied in different processes. The mass fraction of lead were 111.54 mg x kg(-1), 68.54 mg x kg(-1) and 10.5 mg x kg(-1) in melting preparation, blast furnace smelting and lead-cast respectively. For lead's size distribution, the melting preparation and blast furnace smelting were mainly concentrated in the coarse particles, and the lead proportion in coarse and fine particles was approximately in lead-cast processes. The proportions of lead in coarse particles were 43.42% and 47.48% in melting preparation and blast furnace smelting process respectively, while the proportion of lead in coarse and fine particles was 37.14% and was 45.72% in lead-cast processes. There had peaks in both coarse and fine particles of melting preparation and lead-cast process, but the lead peak appeared only in the coarse particles of blast furnace smelting. It also indicated that the lead's cumulative frequencies of all processes were conforming to lognormal distribution.
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[Research meteorological environmental factors in children's allergic rhinitis].
Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2014
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To investigate the possible effects of meteorological and environmental factors on allergic rhinitis of children.
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Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha inhibits hepatocarcinogenesis through mediating NF-?B signaling pathway.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2014
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Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR?) ligands have been reported to suppress cancer growth. However, the role of PPAR? in hepatocarcinogenesis remains unclear. We investigated the functional significance of PPAR? in HCC. PPAR?-knockout (PPAR?-/-) mice were more susceptible to diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-induced HCC at 6 months compared with wild-type (WT) littermates (80% versus 43%, P < 0.05). In resected HCCs, TUNEL-positive apoptotic cells were significantly less in PPAR?-/- mice than in WT mice (P < 0.01), commensurate with a reduction in cleaved caspase-3 and caspase-7 protein expression. Ki-67 staining showed increased cell proliferation in PPAR?-/- mice (P < 0.01), with concomitant up-regulation of cyclin-D1 and down-regulation of p15. Moreover, ectopic expression of PPAR? in HCC cells significantly suppressed cell proliferation and induced apoptosis. The anti-tumorigenic function of PPAR? was mediated via NF-?B as evidenced by inhibition of NF-?B promoter activity, diminution of phosphor-p65, phosphor-p50 and BCL2 levels, and enhancing IkB? protein. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis confirmed PPAR?directly binds to the IkB? promoter. In conclusion, PPAR? deficiency enhances susceptibility to DEN-initiated HCC. PPAR? suppresses tumor cell growth by inhibiting cell proliferation and inducing cell apoptosis via direct targeting I?B? and NF-?B signaling pathway.
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Diastereo- and enantioselective propargylation of benzofuranones catalyzed by pybox-copper complex.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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Diastereo- and enantioselective preparation of 2,2-disubstituted benzofuran-3(2H)-one has been realized by a pybox-copper catalyzed reaction between 2-substituted benzofuran-3(2H)-one and propargyl acetate. The utility of this method was demonstrated by further transformation of the terminal alkyne into a methyl ketone without loss of enantiomeric purity.
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Total Syntheses of Menisporphine and Daurioxoisoporphine C Enabled by Photoredox-Catalyzed Direct C-H Arylation of Isoquinoline with Aryldiazonium Salt.
J. Org. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 10-15-2014
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Isoquinoline alkaloids are attractive natural products due to their diverse chemical structures as well as remarkable bioactivities. Herein, we report the concise total syntheses of two isoquinoline alkaloids, menisporphine and daurioxoisoporphine C, through a mild and efficient photoredox-catalyzed direct C-H arylation of isoquinoline core with aryldiazonium salt. This new strategy is complementary to the conventional isoquinoline synthesis and would provide us a useful means to achieve a more convergent and flexible approach to access diverse isoquinoline structures.
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The prognostic value of preoperative NLR, d-NLR, PLR and LMR for predicting clinical outcome in surgical colorectal cancer patients.
Med. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 10-06-2014
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Accumulating evidences indicate cancer-triggered inflammation plays a pivotal role in carcinogenesis. Systematic inflammatory response biomarkers are considered as potential prognostic factors for improving predictive accuracy in colorectal cancer (CRC). Preoperative neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), derived neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (d-NLR), platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) and lymphocyte- to-monocyte ratio (LMR) were investigated and compared in 205 surgical CRC patients. ROC curve was applied to determine thresholds for four biomarkers, and their prognostic values were assessed using Kaplan-Meier curve, univariate and multivariate COX regression models. Moreover, a number of risk factors were used to form nomograms for evaluating risk of survival, and Harrell's concordance index (c-index) was used to evaluate predictive accuracy. Results showed that elevated NLR was significantly associated with diminished recurrent-free survival (RFS), overall survival (OS) and cancer-specific survival (CSS) in surgical CRC patients. Moreover, multivariate COX analysis identified elevated NLR as an independent factor for poor RFS (P < 0.001, HR 2.52, 95 % CI 1.65-3.83), OS (P < 0.001, HR 2.73, 95 % CI 1.74-4.29) and CSS (P < 0.001, HR 2.77, 95 % CI 1.72-4.46). Additionally, predictive nomograms including NLR for RFS, OS and CSS could be more effective in predicting RFS (c-index: 0.810 vs. 0.656), OS (c-index: 0.809 vs. 0.690) and CSS (c-index: 0.802 vs. 0.688) in surgical CRC patients, respectively. These findings indicate that preoperative elevated NLR can be considered as an independent prognostic biomarker for RFS, OS and CSS. Nomograms containing NLR provide improved accuracy for predicting clinical outcomes in surgical CRC patients under surgery resection.
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Lantibiotic Cyclase-like protein 2 (LanCL2) is a novel regulator of Akt.
Mol. Biol. Cell
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2014
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The Serine/Threonine protein kinase Akt controls a wide range of biochemical and cellular processes under the modulation of a variety of regulators. In this study we identify the lanthionine synthetase C-like 2 (LanCL2) protein as a positive regulator of Akt activation in human liver cells. LanCL2 knockdown dampens serum- and insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation, whereas LanCL2 overexpression enhances it. Neither insulin receptor phosphorylation nor the interaction between insulin receptor substrate and phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase is affected by LanCL2 knockdown. LanCL2 also does not function through PP2A, a phosphatase of Akt. Instead, LanCL2 directly interacts with Akt, with a preference for inactive Akt. Moreover, we show that LanCL2 also binds to the Akt kinase mTORC2, but not PDK1. Whereas LanCL2 is not required for the Akt-mTORC2 interaction, recombinant LanCL2 enhances Akt phosphorylation by mTORC2 in vitro. Finally, consistent with a function of Akt in regulating cell survival, LanCL2 knockdown increases the rate of apoptosis, which is reversed by the expression of a constitutively active Akt. Taken together, our findings reveal LanCL2 as a novel regulator of Akt, and suggest that LanCL2 facilitates optimal phosphorylation of Akt by mTORC2 via direct physical interactions with both the kinase and the substrate.
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Evaluation of the microscopic observation drug susceptibility assay for the rapid detection of MDR-TB and XDR-TB in China: a prospective multicentre study.
J. Antimicrob. Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2014
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To perform a multicentre study evaluating the performance of the microscopic observation drug susceptibility (MODS) assay for the detection of MDR-TB and XDR-TB in high-burden resource-limited settings.
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Innovative Payment Mechanisms in Maryland Hospitals: An Empirical Analysis of Readmissions under Total Patient Revenue.
Healthc (Amst)
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2014
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The state of Maryland implemented innovative budgeting of outpatient and inpatient services in eight rural hospitals under the Total Patient Revenue (TPR) system in July, 2010.
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Catalytic enantioselective bromoamination of allylic alcohols.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 09-27-2014
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An enantioselective bromoamination of allylic alcohols has been developed for the first time using a newly designed cinchona-derived thiourea as the catalyst and N,N-dibromo-4-nitrobenzenesulfonamide as a bromine and amine source.
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Comparison of pure and mixed-type clear cell carcinoma of the ovary: a clinicopathological analysis of 341 chinese patients.
Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2014
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This study aimed to analyze the clinicopathological features of pure and mixed-type ovarian clear cell carcinoma (CCC) in Chinese patients.
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Adjusting for comorbidities in cost of illness studies.
J Med Econ
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2014
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Abstract Motivation: Differences in cost of illness (COI) methodological approaches have led to disparate results. This analysis examines two sources of this variation: specification of comorbidities in the estimated cost models and assumed prevalence rates used for generating aggregate costs. The study provides guidance in determining which comorbidities are important to include and how to handle uncertainty in optimal model specification and prevalence rate assumptions. Methods: Comorbidities are categorized into four types. Type I comorbidities are those that increase the risk of the disease of interest; Type II comorbidities have no causal link to the disease of interest but are, nonetheless, highly correlated with that disease; Type III comorbidities are illnesses that the disease of interest may cause, and Type IV are comorbidities that have no causal link to the disease of interest and are only weakly correlated with that disease. Two-part models are used to estimate the direct costs of rheumatoid arthritis and diabetes mellitus using 2000-2007 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey data. Results: COI estimates are sensitive to the specification of comorbidities. The odds of incurring any expenses varies by 71% for diabetes mellitus and by 27% for rheumatoid arthritis, while conditional expenditures (e.g., expenditures among subjects incurring at least some expenditures) vary by 62% and 45%, respectively. Uncertainty in prevalence rates cause costs to vary. A sensitivity analysis estimated the COI for diabetes ranges from $131.7-$172.0 billion, while rheumatoid arthritis varies from $12.8-$26.2 billion. Conclusions: The decision to include Type II and Type III comorbidities is crucial in COI studies. Alternative models should be included with and without the Type III comorbidities to gauge the range of cost effects of the disease. In generating costs, alternative values for prevalence rates should be used and a sensitivity analysis should be performed.
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Effect of six chinese spices on heterocyclic amine profiles in roast beef patties by ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and principal component analysis.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2014
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The effects of Chinese spices on the profiles of 17 heterocyclic amines (HAs) from seven HA categories were investigated in roast beef patties using Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) and principal component analysis. Three groups of HAs, imidazopyridines (PhIP, DMIP, and 1,5,6-TMIP), imidazoquinoxalines (MeIQx and 4,8-DiMeIQx), and ?-carbolines (harman and norharman), were detected and quantified in all of the samples. The results demonstrated that the total HA and imidazopyridine profiles could clearly be affected by 1% pricklyash peel (14.1 ± 0.76 and 6.06 ± 0.32 ng/g), chilli (41.0 ± 0.01 and 23.0 ± 0.52 ng/g), and cumin (59.9 ± 2.44 and 31.1 ± 3.06 ng/g), in comparison with control values of 21.8 ± 2.40 and 14.3 ± 2.04 ng/g, respectively. The difference was only significant (p < 0.05) for cumin. The imidazoquinoxaline profile was significantly (p < 0.05) affected by 1% pricklyash peel (0.57 ± 0.05 ng/g) and cumin (2.36 ± 0.20 ng/g) compared to the control (1.16 ± 0.11 ng/g). The ?-carboline profile was only markedly (p < 0.05) affected by 1% cumin (26.4 ± 0.82 ng/g) compared to the control (6.26 ± 0.26 ng/g). In general, pricklyash peel inhibited HA formation, whereas star anise, fennel, cumin, chilli, and black pepper promoted HA formation. The findings could facilitate the selection of spices in meat processing to minimize HA formation.
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Expression of T-Helper 17 cells and signal transducers in patients with psoriasis vulgaris of blood-heat syndrome and blood-stasis syndrome.
Chin J Integr Med
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2014
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To investigate the levels of cytokines related to T-helper (Th) 17 cells in serum and signal transducers in the psoriatic lesions of patients with psoriasis vulgaris of blood-heat syndrome (BHS) and blood-stasis syndrome (BSS).
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A novel SMAD family protein, SMAD9 is involved in follicular initiation and changes egg yield of geese via synonymous mutations in exon1 and intron2.
Mol. Biol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2014
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Elevation of egg performance is vital to goose farming. Many poultry scientists are seeking for efficient molecular genetic markers associated with egg yield. In this study, mRNA differential display was adopted to investigate gene expression profiling in the follicular development of goose. For the first time, a novel SMAD family protein SMAD9 (EST CJ111007) was found to be involved in follicular initiation and used to be a candidate gene. Functional regions analysis of Smad9 indicated that SMAD9 protein is highly conserved in MH1 and MH2 domains, and the connection area is highly variable region. 6 pairs of primers (p1-p6) were designed to detect the SNPs of Smad9 by PCR-SSCP method. The results revealed that polymorphisms were discovered in the PCR products amplified with P1 primers in exon1 and P3 primers in intron2. In Smad9 exon1, 5 genotypes were found: FK, FF, JJ, JK and KK, including 2 SNPs: 243 bp G ? A, 309 bp T ? G, the mutations did not result in amino acid mutations; In intron2, 3 genotypes were found: AA, BB and AB, only 1 SNP (C ? T). The annual egg yield of FK genotype geese or allele gene A in intron2 are significantly more than those of other genotypes on the average (p < 0.05). Taken together, it is suggested that Smad9 is a promising candidate gene affecting egg performance in goose.
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Exposure to Nicotine During Pregnancy and Altered Learning and Memory in the Rat Offspring.
Nicotine Tob. Res.
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2014
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Prenatal exposure to nicotine can cause many fetal developmental problems. This study determined the influence of nicotine during pregnancy on the development of cognitive behavior in the offspring.
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Digital design and fabrication of simulation model for measuring orthodontic force.
Biomed Mater Eng
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2014
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Three dimensional (3D) forces are the key factors for determining movement of teeth during orthodontic treatment. Designing precise forces and torques on tooth before treatment can result accurate tooth movements, but it is too difficult to realize. In orthodontic biomechanical systems, the periodontal tissues, including bones, teeth, and periodontal ligaments (PDL), are affected by braces, and measuring the forces applied on the teeth by braces should be based on a simulated model composed of these three types of tissues. This study explores the design and fabrication of a simulated oral model for 3D orthodontic force measurements. Based on medical image processing, tissue reconstruction, 3D printing, and PDL simulation and testing, a model for measuring force was designed and fabricated, which can potentially be used for force prediction, design of treatment plans, and precise clinical operation. The experiment illustrated that bi-component silicones with 2:8 ratios had similar mechanical properties to PDL, and with a positioning guide, the teeth were assembled in the mandible sockets accurately, and so a customized oral model for 3D orthodontic force measurement was created.
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Airflow-induced triboelectric nanogenerator as a self-powered sensor for detecting humidity and airflow rate.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2014
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Humidity sensors are commonly based on the resistance change of metal oxide semiconductors, which show high sensitivity in low humidity but low sensitivity in high humidity. In this work, we design a novel humidity sensor based on the airflow-induced triboelectric nanogenerator (ATNG) that can serve as a self-powered sensor to detect humidity (especially in high humidity) and airflow rate. The output current or voltage change is investigated under different humidity (20-100% relative humidity) at fixed airflow rate and different airflow rates (15-25 L/min) at a fixed humidity. The working principle of the ATNG-based sensor is illustrated. We find that both output current and voltage can serve as a variable for detecting humidity, while only the output current can serve as a variable for determining airflow rate. Our study demonstrates an innovative approach toward detection of humidity and airflow rate with advantages of self-power, multifunction, low cost, simple fabrication, and high sensitivity.
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[Comparison of ROI-C and traditional cage with anterior plating for anterior cervical discectomy and fusion].
Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2014
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To study clinical outcomes following anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) using ROI-C compared to traditional cage with anterior plating in treating the cervical spondylotic myelopathy.
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Sulfurization induced surface constitution and its correlation to the performance of solution-processed Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 solar cells.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2014
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To obtain high photovoltaic performances for the emerging copper zinc tin sulfide/selenide (CZTSSe) thin film solar cells, much effort has deservedly been placed on CZTSSe phase purification and CZTSSe grain size enhancement. Another highly crucial but less explored factor for device performance is the elemental constitution of CZTSSe surface, which is at the heart of p-n junction where major photogenerated carriers generate and separate. In this work we demonstrate that, despite the well-built phase and large grained films are observed by common phases and morphology characterization (XRD, Raman and SEM), prominent device efficiency variations from short circuited to 6.4% are obtained. Insight study highlights that the surface (0-250 nm) compositions variation results in different bulk defect depths and doping densities in the depletion zone. We propose that suitable sulfurization (at ~ 10 kPa sulfur pressure) drives optimization of surface constitution by managing the Cu, Zn and Sn diffusion and surface reaction. Therefore, our study reveals that the balance of elemental diffusion and interface reactions is the key to tuning the surface quality CZTSSe film and thus the performance of as resulted devices.
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Bromoform reaction of tertiary amines with N,N-dibromosulfonamides or NBS/sulfonamides.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2014
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A new bromoform reaction of tertiary amines with N,N-dibromosulfonamides or NBS/sulfonamides has been developed. A series of amidines were prepared with moderate to good yields via a Csp(3)-Csp(3) bond cleavage.
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Well-dispersed lithium amidoborane nanoparticles through nanoreactor engineering for improved hydrogen release.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2014
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Well-distributed lithium amidoborane (LiAB) nanoparticles were successfully fabricated via adopting carbon nanofibers (CNFs) with homogenous pores uniformly containing Li3N as the nanoreactor and reactant, simply prepared by a single-nozzle electrospinning technique, for the subsequent interaction with AB. The hierarchical porous structure consists of various macropores, mesopores and micropores in situ produced during the formation of Li3N simultaneously serving as the reaction initiator, which not only controllably realizes the well-distribution of LiAB nanoparticles but also provides favorable channels for hydrogen release. Because of the hierarchical porous architecture and nanoscale size effects, the LiAB nanoparticles start to release hydrogen at only 40 °C, which is 30 °C lower than that of pure LiAB, and dehydrogenate completely within only 15 min at 100 °C (10.6 wt%). This work provides a new perspective to the controllable fabrication of nanosized hydrogen storage materials.
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Oxymatrine improves intestinal epithelial barrier function involving NF-?B-mediated signaling pathway in CCl4-induced cirrhotic rats.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2014
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Accumulating evidence suggests that intestinal epithelial barrier dysfunction plays an important role in the pathogenesis of hepatic cirrhosis and its complications such as gastrointestinal injury and hepatic encephalopathy. To date, there is no cure for cirrhosis-associated intestinal mucosal lesion and ulcer. This study aimed to investigate the effect of oxymatrine on intestinal epithelial barrier function and the underlying mechanism in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced cirrhotic rats. Thirty CCl4-induced cirrhotic rats were randomly divided into treatment group, which received oxymatrine treatment (63 mg/kg), and non-treatment group, which received the same dose of 5% glucose solution (vehicle). The blank group (n?=?10 healthy rats) received no treatment. Terminal ileal samples were collected for histopathological examination. The expression level of nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) p65 in ileal tissue was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. The gene and protein expression levels of tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) in ileal tissues were analyzed by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively. Additionally, plasma endotoxin level was determined. In comparison to the blank group, a significant alteration in the morphology of intestinal mucosal villi in the non-treatment group was observed. The intestinal mucosal villi were atrophic, shorter, and fractured, and inflammatory cells were infiltrated into the lamina propria and muscular layer. Besides, serious swell of villi and loose structure of mucous membrane were observed. Oxymatrine reversed the CCl4-induced histological changes and restored intestinal barrier integrity. Moreover, oxymatrine reduced the protein expression level of NF-?B p65, TNF-?, and IL-6, which were elevated in the vehicle-treated group. In addition, the serum endotoxin level was significantly decreased after oxymatrine treatment in CCl4-induced cirrhotic rats. The results indicate that oxymatrine improves intestinal barrier function via NF-?B-mediated signaling pathway and may be used as a new protecting agent for cirrhosis-associated intestinal mucosal damage.
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Morphological and molecular characterization of three Agaricus species from tropical Asia (Pakistan, Thailand) reveals a new group in section Xanthodermatei.
Mycologia
PUBLISHED: 08-24-2014
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The genus Agaricus is known for its medicinal and edible species but also includes toxic species that belong to section Xanthodermatei. Previous phylogenetic reconstruction for temperate species, based on sequence data of nuc rRNA gene (rDNA) internal transcribed spacers (ITS), has revealed two major groups in this section and a possible third lineage for A. pseudopratensis. Recent research in Agaricus has shown that classifications need improving with the addition of tropical taxa. In this study we add new tropical collections to section Xanthodermatei. We describe three species from collections made in Pakistan and Thailand and include them in a larger analysis using all available ITS data for section Xanthodermatei. Agaricus bisporiticus sp. nov. and A. fuscopunctatus sp. nov. are introduced based on molecular and morphological studies, whereas A. microvolvatulus is recorded for the first time in Asia. Specimens from Thailand however have a much larger pileus than the type specimens from Congo. In maximum likelihood (ML) and maximum parsimony (MP) phylogenetic analyses these three species cluster with A. pseudopratensis from the Mediterranean area and A. mhrinocephalus recently described from Thailand. In Agaricus section Xanthodermatei this new group is monophyletic and receives low bootstrap support whereas the two previously known groups receive strong support. Within the new group, the most closely related species share some traits, but we did not find any unifying morphological character; however the five species of the group share a unique short nucleotide sequence. Two putatively toxic species of section Xanthodermatei are now recognized in Pakistan and six in Thailand.
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Reduced representations capacity in visual working memory in trait anxiety.
Biol Psychol
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2014
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Neural processes that support individual differences in trait anxiety and the amount of representations in visual-spatial working memory (WM) are currently unclear. We measured the contralateral delay activity (CDA) in a lateralized change detection task to explore this question. Different levels of memory load were varied within each block. Despite their unimpaired behavioral performance, individuals with high traitanxious(HTA) displayed several changes in the neuronal markers of the memory processes. The CDA amplitudes reached asymptote at loads of three and four items for HTA and low traitanxious(LTA) individuals, respectively. This result indicates that HTA individuals reach the upper limit of representation capacity with a smaller memory load than LTA individuals. Furthermore, the smaller CDA amplitudes in HTA individuals under high memory loads could be attributed to less contralateral cortical activity, which further indicates that HTA individuals are associated with reduced representations of taskrelevantitems in WM.
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Histone deacetylase 11: A novel epigenetic regulator of myeloid derived suppressor cell expansion and function.
Mol. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2014
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Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), a heterogeneous population of cells capable of suppressing anti-tumor T cell function in the tumor microenvironment, represent an imposing obstacle in the development of cancer immunotherapeutics. Thus, identifying elements essential to the development and perpetuation of these cells will undoubtedly improve our ability to circumvent their suppressive impact. HDAC11 has emerged as a key regulator of IL-10 gene expression in myeloid cells, suggesting that this may represent an important targetable axis through which to dampen MDSC formation. Using a murine transgenic reporter model system where eGFP expression is controlled by the HDAC11 promoter (Tg-HDAC11-eGFP), we provide evidence that HDAC11 appears to function as a negative regulator of MDSC expansion/function in vivo. MDSCs isolated from EL4 tumor-bearing Tg-HDAC11-eGFP display high expression of eGFP, indicative of HDAC11 transcriptional activation at steady state. In striking contrast, immature myeloid cells in tumor-bearing mice display a diminished eGFP expression, implying that the transition of IMC to MDSC's require a decrease in the expression of HDAC11, where we postulate that it acts as a gate-keeper of myeloid differentiation. Indeed, tumor-bearing HDAC11-knockout mice (HDAC11-KO) demonstrate a more suppressive MDSC population as compared to wild-type (WT) tumor-bearing control. Notably, the HDAC11-KO tumor-bearing mice exhibit enhanced tumor growth kinetics when compare to the WT control mice. Thus, through a better understanding of this previously unknown role of HDAC11 in MDSC expansion and function, rational development of targeted epigenetic modifiers may allow us to thwart a powerful barrier to efficacious immunotherapies.
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CT evaluation of gastroenteric neuroendocrine tumors: relationship between ct features and the pathologic classification.
AJR Am J Roentgenol
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2014
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The objective of our study was to compare the CT features of gastroenteric neuroendocrine neoplasms (GE-NENs) with the pathologic classification and to analyze the correlation between the CT features and classification of GE-NENs.
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Monodisperse Hollow Spheres with Sandwich Heterostructured Shells as High-Performance Catalysts via an Extended SiO2 Template Method.
Small
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2014
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To improve and extend the SiO2 template method for preparing metal oxide hollow spheres, a general and facile "sol-gel and hydrothermal" method is developed to replace the current "sol-gel, calcination, and base-etching" processes for the construction of well-defined sandwich metal oxide@noble metal NP@metal oxide hollow spheres. As-synthesized hollow spheres exhibit high performances in various catalytic reactions.
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Rapid pressure-to-flow dynamics of cerebral autoregulation induced by instantaneous changes of arterial CO2.
Med Eng Phys
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2014
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Continuous assessment of CA is desirable in a number of clinical conditions, where cerebral hemodynamics may change within relatively short periods. In this work, we propose a novel method that can improve temporal resolution when assessing the pressure-to-flow dynamics in the presence of rapid changes in arterial CO2. A time-varying multivariate model is proposed to adaptively suppress the instantaneous effect of CO2 on CBFV by the recursive least square (RLS) method. Autoregulation is then quantified from the phase difference (PD) between arterial blood pressure (ABP) and CBFV by calculating the instantaneous PD between the signals using the Hilbert transform (HT). A Gaussian filter is used prior to HT in order to optimize the temporal and frequency resolution and show the rapid dynamics of cerebral autoregulation. In 13 healthy adult volunteers, rapid changes of arterial CO2 were induced by rebreathing expired air, while simultaneously and continuously recording ABP, CBFV and end-tidal CO2 (ETCO2). Both simulation and physiological studies show that the proposed method can reduce the transient distortion of the instantaneous phase dynamics caused by the effect of CO2 and is faster than our previous method in tracking time-varying autoregulation. The normalized mean square error (NMSE) of the predicted CBFV can be reduced significantly by 38.7% and 37.7% (p<0.001) without and with the Gaussian filter applied, respectively, when compared with the previous univariate model. These findings suggest that the proposed method is suitable to track rapid dynamics of cerebral autoregulation despite the influence of confounding covariates.
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CXCR4 WHIM-like frameshift and nonsense mutations promote ibrutinib resistance but do not supplant MYD88(L265P) -directed survival signalling in Waldenström macroglobulinaemia cells.
Br. J. Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2014
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CXCR4(WHIM) frameshift and nonsense mutations follow MYD88(L265P) as the most common somatic variants in Waldenström Macroglobulinaemia (WM), and impact clinical presentation and ibrutinib response. While the nonsense (CXCR4(S338X) ) mutation has been investigated, little is known about CXCR4 frameshift (CXCR4(FS) ) mutations. We engineered WM cells to express CXCR4(FS) mutations present in patients, and compared their CXCL12 (SDF-1a) induced signalling and ibrutinib sensitivity to CXCR4(wild-type (WT)) and CXCR4(S338X) cells. Following CXCL12 stimulation, CXCR4(FS) and CXCR4(S338X) WM cells showed impaired CXCR4 receptor internalization, and enhanced AKT1 (also termed AKT) and MAPK1 (also termed ERK) activation versus CXCR(WT) cells (P < 0·05), though MAPK1 activation was more prolonged in CXCR4(S338X) cells (P < 0·05). CXCR4(FS) and CXCR4(S338X) cells, but not CXCR4(WT) cells, were rescued from ibrutinib-triggered apoptosis by CXCL12 that was reversed by AKT1, MAPK1 or CXCR4 antagonists. Treatment with an inhibitor that blocks MYD88(L265P) signalling triggered similar levels of apoptosis that was not abrogated by CXCL12 treatment in CXCR4(WT) and CXCR4(WHIM) cells. These studies show a functional role for CXCR4(FS) mutations in WM, and provide a framework for the investigation of CXCR4 antagonists with ibrutinib in CXCR4(WHIM) -mutated WM patients. Direct inhibition of MYD88(L265P) signalling overcomes CXCL12 triggered survival effects in CXCR4(WHIM) -mutated cells supporting a primary role for this survival pathway in WM.
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Effects of chinese formula jueyin granules on psoriasis in an animal model.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2014
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Although Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is known to be effective for psoriasis patients, the responsible mechanisms still remain poorly understood. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effect of one formula, named Jueyin granules (JYG) in the mouse model of the vaginal epithelium and tail epidermis. Additionally, we also determined the anti-inflammatory effects of JYG in an imiquimod- (IMQ-) induced psoriasis-like skin mouse model. Our results show that JYG can attenuate the IMQ-induced psoriasis-like inflammation, accompanied with increased epidermal hyperplasia. We also measured estrogenic stage mitosis of vaginal epithelial cells and the formation of granular cell layers in male mouse tails per 100 scales, as well as the tissue nitric oxide (NO) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels using the ELISA method. The results suggest that JYG significantly inhibited mitosis in mouse vaginal epithelial cells, promoted the formation of the squamous epidermal granular layer in mice tails, and reduced the levels of NO and MDA in an imiquimod-induced psoriasis-like skin mouse model after 14?d (P < 0.05). These results demonstrate that JYG might be an effective clinical treatment for psoriasis and the effects may be related to inhibited keratinocytes proliferation, improved parakeratotic epidermal cells, and reduced expression of NO and MDA.
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Storage of Gold Nanoclusters in Muscle Leads to their Biphasic in Vivo Clearance.
Small
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2014
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Ultrasmall gold nanoclusters (Au NCs) show great potential in biomedical applications. Long-term biodistribution, retention, toxicity, and pharmacokinetics profiles are pre-requisites in their potential clinical applications. Here, the biodistribution, clearance, and toxicity of one widely used Au NC species-glutathione-protected Au NCs or GSH-Au NCs-are systematically investigated over a relatively long period of 90 days in mice. Most of the Au NCs are cleared at 30 days post injection (p.i.) with a major accumulation in liver and kidney. However, it is surprising that an abnormal increase of the Au amount in the heart, liver, spleen, lung, and testis is observed at 60 and 90 days p.i., indicating that the injected Au NCs form a V-shaped time-dependent distribution profile in various organs. Further investigations reveal that Au NCs are steadily accumulating in the muscle in the first 30 days p.i., and the as-stored Au NCs gradually release into the blood in 30-90 days p.i., which induces a re-distribution and re-accumulation of Au NCs in all blood-rich organs. Further hematology and biochemistry studies show that the re-accumulation of Au NCs still causes some liver toxicity at 30 days p.i. The muscle storage and subsequent release may give rise to the potential accumulation and toxicity risk of functional nanomaterials over long periods of time.
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Reduced signaling of PI3K-Akt and RAS-MAPK pathways is the key target for weight-loss-induced cancer prevention by dietary calorie restriction and/or physical activity.
J. Nutr. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2014
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Weight control through either dietary calorie restriction (DCR) or exercise has been associated with cancer prevention in animal models. However, the underlying mechanisms are not fully defined. Bioinformatics using genomics, proteomics and lipidomics was employed to elucidate the molecular targets of weight control in a mouse skin cancer model. SENCAR mice were randomly assigned into four groups for 10 weeks: ad-libitum-fed sedentary control, ad-libitum-fed exercise (AE), exercise but pair-fed isocaloric amount of control (PE) and 20% DCR. Two hours after topical TPA treatment, skin epidermis was analyzed by Affymetrix for gene expression, DIGE for proteomics and lipidomics for phospholipids. Body weights were significantly reduced in both DCR and PE but not AE mice versus the control. Among 39,000 transcripts, 411, 67 and 110 genes were significantly changed in DCR, PE and AE, respectively. The expression of genes relevant to PI3K-Akt and Ras-MAPK signaling was effectively reduced by DCR and PE but not AE as measured through GenMAPP software. Proteomics analysis identified ~120 proteins, with 27 proteins significantly changed by DCR, including up-regulated apolipoprotein A-1, a key antioxidant protein that decreases Ras-MAPK activity. Of the total 338 phospholipids analyzed by lipidomics, 57 decreased by PE including 5 phophatidylinositol species that serve as PI3K substrates. Although a full impact has not been determined yet, it appears that the reduction of both Ras-MAPK and PI3K-Akt signaling pathways is a cancer preventive target that has been consistently demonstrated by three bioinformatics approaches.
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5-mehtyltetrahydrofolate rescues alcohol-induced neural crest cell migration abnormalities.
Mol Brain
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2014
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BackgroundAlcohol is detrimental to early development. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) due to maternal alcohol abuse results in a series of developmental abnormalities including cranial facial dysmorphology, ocular anomalies, congenital heart defects, microcephaly and intellectual disabilities. Previous studies have been shown that ethanol exposure causes neural crest (NC) apoptosis and perturbation of neural crest migration. However, the underlying mechanism remains elusive. In this report we investigated the fetal effect of alcohol on the process of neural crest development in the Xenopus leavis.ResultsPre-gastrulation exposure of 2-4% alcohol induces apoptosis in Xenopus embryo whereas 1% alcohol specifically impairs neural crest migration without observing discernible apoptosis. Additionally, 1% alcohol treatment considerably increased the phenotype of small head (43.4%¿±¿4.4%, total embryo n¿=¿234), and 1.5% and 2.0% dramatically augment the deformation to 81.2%¿±¿6.5% (n¿=¿205) and 91.6%¿±¿3.0% (n¿=¿235), respectively (P¿<¿0.05). Significant accumulation of Homocysteine was caused by alcohol treatment in embryos and 5-mehtyltetrahydrofolate restores neural crest migration and alleviates homocysteine accumulation, resulting in inhibition of the alcohol-induced neurocristopathies.ConclusionsOur study demonstrates that prenatal alcohol exposure causes neural crest cell migration abnormality and 5-mehtyltetrahydrofolate could be beneficial for treating FASD.
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3D printing of intracranial artery stenosis based on the source images of magnetic resonance angiograph.
Ann Transl Med
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2014
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Three dimensional (3D) printing techniques for brain diseases have not been widely studied. We attempted to 'print' the segments of intracranial arteries based on magnetic resonance imaging.
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Brain-derived neurotrophic factor Val66Met polymorphism association with antidepressant efficacy: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Asia Pac Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2014
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Previous studies of the association of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met polymorphism with antidepressant efficacy are inconsistent. Thus, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis.
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Autophagic LC3B overexpression correlates with malignant progression and predicts a poor prognosis in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2014
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Autophagy is a process that involves lysosomal degradations of cellular organelles and closely related to tumor occurrence and progression. However, its importance in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) was still controversial. Therefore, this study is aimed to address the clinicopathologic effect of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3B (LC3B) and Beclin-1, as autophagic markers, in HCC patients. Tissue microarray-based immunohistochemistry was used to examine the expression of LC3B and another autophagy key regulator (Beclin-1) in 156 operable HCC patients. Kaplan-Meier analysis, chi-square test, and Spearman's correlation analysis were used to analyze correlation of LC3B and Beclin-1 and their influence on clinical characteristics and prognosis. We found that the expression level of LC3B was significantly associated with vascular invasion (P?=?0.008), lymph node metastasis (P?
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Genotype-phenotype correlation and mutation spectrum in a large cohort of patients with inherited retinal dystrophy revealed by next-generation sequencing.
Genet. Med.
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2014
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Purpose:Inherited retinal dystrophy (IRD) is a leading cause of blindness worldwide. Because of extreme genetic heterogeneity, the etiology and genotypic spectrum of IRD have not been clearly defined, and there is limited information on genotype-phenotype correlations. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the mutational spectrum and genotype-phenotype correlations of IRD.Methods:We developed a targeted panel of 164 known retinal disease genes, 88 candidate genes, and 32 retina-abundant microRNAs, used for exome sequencing. A total of 179 Chinese families with IRD were recruited.Results:In 99 unrelated patients, a total of 124 mutations in known retinal disease genes were identified, including 79 novel mutations (detection rate, 55.3%). Moreover, novel genotype-phenotype correlations were discovered, and phenotypic trends noted. Three cases are reported, including the identification of AHI1 as a novel candidate gene for nonsyndromic retinitis pigmentosa.Conclusion:This study revealed novel genotype-phenotype correlations, including a novel candidate gene, and identified 124 genetic defects within a cohort with IRD . The identification of novel genotype-phenotype correlations and the spectrum of mutations greatly enhance the current knowledge of IRD phenotypic and genotypic heterogeneity, which will assist both clinical diagnoses and personalized treatments of IRD patients.Genet Med advance online publication 6 November 2014Genetics in Medicine (2014); doi:10.1038/gim.2014.138.
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Analysis of treatment modalities and prognosis on microinvasive cervical cancer: a 10-year cohort study in China.
J Gynecol Oncol
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2014
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To explore appropriate treatment modality of microinvasive cervical cancer (MIC) and to analyze prognosis and risk factors of recurrence.
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Transcriptome profiling using pyrosequencing shows genes associated with bast fiber development in ramie (Boehmeria nivea L.).
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 06-09-2014
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Ramie (Boehmeria nivea L.), popularly known as "China grass", is one of the oldest crops in China and the second most important fiber crop in terms of area sown. Ramie fiber, extracted from the plant bast, is important in the textile industry. However, the molecular mechanism of ramie fiber development remains unknown.
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An NN-based SRD decomposition algorithm and its application in nonlinear compensation.
Sensors (Basel)
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2014
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In this study, a neural network-based square root of descending (SRD) order decomposition algorithm for compensating for nonlinear data generated by sensors is presented. The study aims at exploring the optimized decomposition of data 1.00,0.00,0.00 and minimizing the computational complexity and memory space of the training process. A linear decomposition algorithm, which automatically finds the optimal decomposition N and reduces the training time to 1/?N and memory cost to 1/N has been implemented on nonlinear data obtained from an encoder. Particular focus is given to the theoretical access of estimating the numbers of hidden nodes and the precision of varying the decomposition method. Numerical experiments are designed to evaluate the effect of this algorithm. Moreover, a designed device for angular sensor calibration is presented. We conduct an experiment that samples the data of an encoder and compensates for the nonlinearity of the encoder to testify this novel algorithm.
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Comparative study of ovarian clear cell carcinoma with and without endometriosis in People's Republic of China.
Fertil. Steril.
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2014
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To analyze and compare the clinicopathological features and prognosis of ovarian clear cell carcinoma (CCC) with or without endometriosis in Chinese patients.
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The application of zero-profile anchored spacer in anterior cervical discectomy and fusion.
Eur Spine J
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2014
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We aimed to analyze the clinical efficacy of the zero-profile anchored spacers in the treatment of one-level or two-level cervical degenerative disc disease.
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Intraductal tubular adenomas (pyloric gland-type) of the pancreas: clinicopathologic features are similar to gastric-type intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms and different from intraductal tubulopapillary neoplasms.
Diagn Pathol
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2014
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BackgroundIntraductal tubular adenoma of the pancreas, pyloric gland type (ITA), is an infrequent intraductal benign lesion located in the main duct and large branch duct of the pancreas. The purpose of this report is to introduce seven new cases and to compare their clinicopathologic features and KRAS mutations to gastric-type intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) and intraductal tubulopapillary neoplasms (ITPNs).MethodsClinical findings, morphologic features, immunophenotypes and KRAS alterations were investigated in 7 patients with intraductal tubular adenomas, 16 patients with gastric-type intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms and 6 patients with intraductal tubulopapillary neoplasms.ResultsThere were more female patients in the ITA and gastric-type IPMN groups, whereas the opposite pattern was observed in the ITPN group. ITAs and gastric-type IPMNs were lined by columnar cells, similar to pyloric glands, with large extracellular deposits of mucin. ITPNs were polypoid and papillary mass located in the pancreatic ducts, which did not show large deposits of mucin. All ITAs and gastric-type IPMNs expressed MUC5AC strongly and diffusely, and 3/6 ITPNs expressed MUC5AC focally and weakly. KRAS mutations were identified in 4 ITAs (4/7, 57%), 9 IPMNs (9/16, 56%) and 2 ITPNs (2/6, 33%).ConclusionThe intraductal tubular adenoma should not be considered a precursor lesion of intraductal tubulopapillary neoplasms. No adequate data established ITA should separate as a specific entity from IPMNs.Virtual SlidesThe virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/13000_2014_172.
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All-trans retinoic acid suppresses apoptosis in PC12 cells injured by oxygen and glucose deprivation via the retinoic acid receptor ? signaling pathway.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2014
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Vitamin A (VA) has a number of important biological functions in human growth and development. Previous studies by our group demonstrated that the normal VA levels improved recovery of learning and memory function and decreased apoptosis in rats with hypoxic?ischemic brain damage (HIBD). However, it has not been fully elucidated how VA regulates the apoptosis of neuronal cells. To investigate the anti?apoptotic effect of VA, an in vitro oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD) model in PC12 cells was treated with four concentrations of all?trans?retinoic acid (ATRA), an active in vivo product of VA. Following in vitro OGD injury in PC12 cells, the percentage of apoptosis and the fluorescence intensity of the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) were increased in the cells, and the expression levels of B-cell lymphoma-associated X (Bax) were enhanced. ATRA treatment at 2?4 µmol/l for 24 h decreased the percentage of apoptosis and the MMP of the PC12 cells injured by OGD. ATRA at 4 µmol/l also reduced the expression levels of Bax and enhanced the expression of B-cell lymphoma 2. Furthermore, RNA interference with retinoic acid receptor ? (RAR?) reversed the observed effect in PC12 cells following ATRA treatment at 4 µmol/l alone. In conclusion, the present study suggested that treatment with ATRA at 4 µmol/l suppressed apoptosis of PC12 cells following OGD injury, potentially through regulation of the RAR? signaling pathway.
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Aurora-A enhances malignant development of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) by phosphorylating ?-catenin.
Mol Oncol
PUBLISHED: 03-30-2014
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The Aurora-A gene encodes a serine/threonine protein kinase that is frequently overexpressed in several types of human tumors. The overexpression of Aurora-A has been observed to associate with the grades of differentiation, invasive capability and distant lymph node metastasis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). However, the molecular mechanism by which Aurora-A promotes malignant development of ESCC is still largely unknown. In this study, we show that Aurora-A overexpression enhances tumor cell invasion and metastatic potential in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, Aurora-A overexpression inhibits the degradation of ?-catenin, promotes its dissociation from cell-cell contacts and increases its nuclear translocation. We also demonstrate for the first time that Aurora-A directly interacts with ?-catenin and phosphorylates ?-catenin at Ser552 and Ser675. Substitutions of serine residue with alanine at single or both positions substantially attenuate Aurora-A-mediated stabilization of ?-catenin, abolish its cytosolic and nuclear localization as well as transcriptional activity. In addition, Aurora-A overexpression is significantly correlated with increased cytoplasmic ?-catenin expression in ESCC tissues. In view of our results, we propose that Aurora-A-mediated phosphorylation of ?-catenin is a novel mechanism of malignancy development of tumor.
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Detection of long-chain non-encoding RNA differential expression in non-small cell lung cancer by microarray analysis and preliminary verification.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2014
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Long?chain non?coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been shown to be involved in the development and progression of non?small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, the roles of lncRNAs in NSCLC are not well understood. In this study, a high?throughput microarray was used to compare the lncRNA and mRNA expression profiles in NSCLC and normal tissue (NT) samples. Several candidate adenocarcinoma?associated lncRNAs were verified by reverse transcription?quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT?qPCR). Using abundant and varied probes, we were able to assess 30,586 lncRNAs and 26,109 coding transcripts in our microarray. It was observed that 1,242 lncRNAs and 1,102 mRNAs were differentially expressed (?2?fold change) in NSCLC compared with NT samples, indicating that numerous lncRNAs were significantly upregulated or downregulated in NSCLC. We also observed via RT?qPCR that 10 lncRNAs were aberrantly expressed in NSCLC compared with histologically matched normal lung tissues. Among these, RP11?385J1.2 and TUBA4B were the most aberrantly expressed lncRNAs, as estimated by RT?qPCR in 90 pairs of NSCLC and NT samples. In conclusion, the present study detected the lncRNA expression patterns in NSCLC by microarray. The results revealed that a number of lncRNAs were differentially expressed in NSCLC tissues, suggesting that they may play a key role in tumor development.
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Overexpression of Jagged-1 combined with blockade of CD40 pathway prolongs allograft survival.
Immunol. Cell Biol.
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2014
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Dendritic cells (DCs) have the tolerogenic potential to regulate adaptive immunity and induce allografts acceptance. Here we investigated whether blockade of the CD40 pathway could enhance the immune tolerance induced by DC2.4 cells modified to express Jagged-1 (JAG1-DC) in heart transplantation. Results showed that JAG1-DC treatment combined with anti-CD40L monoclonal antibody (mAb) administration significantly prolonged cardiac allograft survival in mice, with long-term survival (>110 days) of 50% of the allografts in the recipients. The therapy specifically inhibited the immune response, induced alloantigen-specific T-cell hyporesponsiveness, upregulated transforming growth factor-? synthesis and increased the population of regulatory T cells (Tregs) driven by Jagged-1-Notch activation. These results highlight the potential application of gene therapy to induce alloantigen-specific Tregs effectively by providing the Jagged-1 stimulation.Immunology and Cell Biology advance online publication, 7 October 2014; doi:10.1038/icb.2014.84.
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Pwp1 Is Required for the Differentiation Potential of Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells through Regulating Stat3 Signaling.
Stem Cells
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2014
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LIF/Stat3 signaling is critical for maintaining the self-renewal and differentiation potential of mouse embryonic stem cells (mES cells). However, the upstream effectors of this pathway have not been clearly defined. Here, we show that periodic tryptophan protein 1 (Pwp1), a WD-40 repeat-containing protein associated with histone H4 modification, is required for the exit of mES cells from the pluripotent state into all lineages. Knockdown of Pwp1 does not affect mES cell proliferation, self-renewal or apoptosis. However, knockdown of Pwp1 impairs the differentiation potential of mES cells both in vitro and in vivo. PWP1 ChIP-seq results revealed that the PWP1-occupied regions were marked with significant levels of H4K20me3. Moreover, Pwp1 binds to sites in the upstream region of Stat3. Knockdown of Pwp1 decreases the level of H4K20me3 in the upstream region of Stat3 gene and upregulates the expression of Stat3. Furthermore, Pwp1 knockdown (KD) mES cells recover their differentiation potential through suppressing the expression of Stat3 or inhibiting the tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT3. Together, our results suggest that Pwp1 plays important roles in the differentiation potential of mES cells. Stem Cells 2014.
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Shikonin reduces endometriosis by inhibiting RANTES secretion and mononuclear macrophage chemotaxis.
Exp Ther Med
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2014
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Endometriosis is a common disease in females of reproductive age and has the classic characteristic of mononuclear cell infiltration into lesions. Shikonin is an anti-inflammatory phytocompound obtained from Lithospermum erythrorhizon whose potential therapeutic effects in the treatment of endometriosis remain unclear. The working hypothesis of the present study was that shikonin is capable of inhibiting the development of endometriosis by inhibiting the chemotactic effect. In a murine model of endometriosis, shikonin significantly inhibited the growth of human endometrial tissue implanted into severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice (P<0.05) and no adverse effects were observed. Mouse regulated upon activation normal T-cell expressed and secreted (mRANTES) levels in the peritoneal fluid of the animal endometriosis model were higher than those in normal SCID mice (P<0.05) and decreased significantly following shikonin treatment in a dose-dependent manner (P<0.05). Peritoneal fluid from SCID mice treated with shikonin inhibited the chemotaxis of monocytes; this inhibitory effect was eradicated by mRANTES antibody. In vitro, shikonin significantly inhibited RANTES expression in U937 cells that were cultured alone or co-cultured with human mesothelial and endometrial stromal cells. In addition, shikonin inhibited the RANTES-induced chemotaxis of U937 cells (P<0.05). The results indicate that shikonin inhibits the development of endometriosis by various mechanisms, including the inhibition of RANTES expression and the reduction of mononuclear cell migration to lesions. Therefore, shikonin may be a novel, useful and safe agent for treating endometriosis.
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Lyophilization as a novel approach for preparation of water resistant HA fiber membranes by crosslinked with EDC.
Carbohydr Polym
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2014
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The hyaluronic acid (HA) fibers scaffold with an extracellular matrix mimic structure has been prepared via lyophilization. The morphology of the HA fibers varying the concentration from 0.05 wt% to 0.15 wt% was characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The diameter of HA fibers increased and the morphology changed from fiber to sheet-like structure as the concentration of HA solution increased. To enhance the water-resistance, the pure HA fiber membranes were chemical cross-linked by 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC), and confirmed by fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra. In vitro degradation behavior of cross-linked HA fiber membranes in both of water and PBS solutions was investigated, the physical properties were also studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetry (TG). The results showed that the bonding water capacity increased after crosslinking, and indicated that the crosslinked HA fibers could be used as scaffold in tissue engineering.
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A multilayered representation, quantum mechanical and molecular mechanics study of the CH3 F?+?OH(-) reaction in water.
J Comput Chem
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2014
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The bimolecular nucleophilic substitution (SN 2) reaction of CH3 F?+?OH(-) in aqueous solution was investigated using a combined quantum mechanical and molecular mechanics approach. Reactant complex, transition state, and product complex along the reaction pathway were analyzed in water. The potentials of mean force were calculated using a multilayered representation with the DFT and CCSD(T) level of theory for the reactive region. The obtained free energy activation barrier for this reaction at the CCSD(T)/MM representation is 18.3 kcal/mol which agrees well with the experimental value at ?21.6 kcal/mol. Both the solvation effect and solute polarization effect play key roles on raising the activation barrier height in aqueous solution, with the former raising the barrier height by 3.1 kcal/mol, the latter 1.5 kcal/mol.
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Resistance to ACCase-inhibiting herbicides in an Asia minor bluegrass (Polypogon fugax) population in China.
Pestic Biochem Physiol
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2014
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Asia minor bluegrass (Polypogon fugax) is a common annual grass weed of winter crops distributed across China. We conducted a study on the resistance level and the mechanism of resistance to ACCase-inhibiting herbicides in a P. fugax population from China. Whole-plant dose-response experiments in greenhouse showed that the resistant P. fugax population was 1991, 364, 269, 157, and 8-fold resistant to clodinafop-propargyl, fluazifop-p-butyl, haloxyfop-R-methyl, quizalofop-p-ethyl and fenoxaprop-p-ethyl relative to the reference susceptible population, which was susceptible to all the five AOPP herbicides. Much lower R/S values of 3.5, 2.4 and 3.5, respectively, were detected for clethodim, sethoxydim and pinoxaden. Molecular analysis of resistance confirmed that the Ile2041 to Asn mutation in the resistant population conferred resistance to AOPP herbicides, but not to CHD and DEN herbicides. This is the first report of a target site mutation that corresponded to resistance to AOPP herbicides in P. fugax. Proper resistance management practices are necessary to prevent ACCase-inhibiting herbicides from becoming ineffective over wide areas.
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Efficacy and safety of dexmedetomidine versus propofol for the sedation of tube-retention after oral maxillofacial surgery.
J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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To compare the safety and efficacy of sedation induced by dexmedetomidine and propofol after oral and maxillofacial surgery.
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Blend-modification of soy protein/lauric acid edible films using polysaccharides.
Food Chem
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2014
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Different types of polysaccharides (propyleneglycol alginate (PGA), pectin, carrageenan and aloe polysaccharide) were incorporated into soy protein isolate (SPI)/lauric acid (La) films using a co-drying process or by direct addition to form biodegradable composite films with modified water vapour permeability (WVP) and mechanical properties. The WVP of SPI/La/polysaccharide films decreased when polysaccharides were added using the co-drying process, regardless of the type of polysaccharide. The tensile strength of SPI/La film was increased by the addition of polysaccharides, and the percentage elongation at break was increased by incorporating PGA using the co-drying process. Regarding oxygen-barrier performance, no notable differences were observed between the SPI/La and SPI/La/polysaccharide films. The most significant improvement was observed by blending PGA, with the co-dried preparation exhibiting better properties than the direct-addition preparation. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that the microstructures of the films are the basis for the differences in the barrier and mechanical properties of the modified blends of SPI, polysaccharides and La.
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Oligotrophy is Helpful for the Isolation of Bioactive Actinomycetes.
Indian J. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2014
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It is necessary to develop new methods for the isolation of unknown actinomycetes from soils. To evaluate the effects of oligotrophic medium on the isolation of soil actinomycetes and develop a new isolation method, the Gause's synthetic medium was diluted to one tenth the recommended concentration in the present study. Soil dilution plate technique was used to isolate actinomycetes from the soil samples. Oligotrophy decreased actinomycete and streptomycete counts, as well as the number of antagonistic actinomycete species. Oligotrophy also decreased the number of actinomycete species in five samples. Some actinomycete species were cultured only on the oligotrophic medium, whereas other species could not be cultured. Oligotrophy decreased actinomycete counts more significantly for soils with organic matter content >40 g/kg. We used 16S rRNA sequence analysis to identify 22 actinomycete species that were only cultured on the oligotrophic medium. Oligotrophic medium was helpful for the isolation of Streptomyces spp., Micromonospora spp. and Streptosporangium spp. Slightly more than 80 % of the identified actinomycete species were biologically active. Therefore, we could draw a conclusion that oligotrophic medium could be helpful for the discovery of new antibiotic producers and the exploitation and utilization of new, biologically active compounds.
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How does domain replacement affect fibril formation of the rabbit/human prion proteins.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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It is known that in vivo human prion protein (PrP) have the tendency to form fibril deposits and are associated with infectious fatal prion diseases, while the rabbit PrP does not readily form fibrils and is unlikely to cause prion diseases. Although we have previously demonstrated that amyloid fibrils formed by the rabbit PrP and the human PrP have different secondary structures and macromolecular crowding has different effects on fibril formation of the rabbit/human PrPs, we do not know which domains of PrPs cause such differences. In this study, we have constructed two PrP chimeras, rabbit chimera and human chimera, and investigated how domain replacement affects fibril formation of the rabbit/human PrPs.
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