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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
18-HEPE, an n-3 fatty acid metabolite released by macrophages, prevents pressure overload-induced maladaptive cardiac remodeling.
J. Exp. Med.
PUBLISHED: 07-21-2014
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N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have potential cardiovascular benefit, although the mechanisms underlying this effect remain poorly understood. Fat-1 transgenic mice expressing Caenorhabditis elegans n-3 fatty acid desaturase, which is capable of producing n-3 PUFAs from n-6 PUFAs, exhibited resistance to pressure overload-induced inflammation and fibrosis, as well as reduced cardiac function. Lipidomic analysis revealed selective enrichment of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) in fat-1 transgenic bone marrow (BM) cells and EPA-metabolite 18-hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acid (18-HEPE) in fat-1 transgenic macrophages. BM transplantation experiments revealed that fat-1 transgenic BM cells, but not fat-1 transgenic cardiac cells, contributed to the antiremodeling effect and that the 18-HEPE-rich milieu in the fat-1 transgenic heart was generated by BM-derived cells, most likely macrophages. 18-HEPE inhibited macrophage-mediated proinflammatory activation of cardiac fibroblasts in culture, and in vivo administration of 18-HEPE reproduced the fat-1 mice phenotype, including resistance to pressure overload-induced maladaptive cardiac remodeling.
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Temporal dynamics of cardiac immune cell accumulation following acute myocardial infarction.
J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 04-20-2013
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Acute myocardial infarction (MI) causes sterile inflammation, which is characterized by recruitment and activation of innate and adaptive immune system cells. Here we delineate the temporal dynamics of immune cell accumulation following MI by flow cytometry. Neutrophils increased immediately to a peak at 3 days post-MI. Macrophages were numerically the predominant cells infiltrating the infarcted myocardium, increasing in number over the first week post-MI. Macrophages are functionally heterogeneous, whereby the first responders exhibit high expression levels of proinflammatory mediators, while the late responders express high levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10; these macrophages can be classified into M1 and M2 macrophages, respectively, based on surface-marker expression. M1 macrophages dominated at 1-3 days post-MI, whereas M2 macrophages represented the predominant macrophage subset after 5 days. The M2 macrophages expressed high levels of reparative genes in addition to proinflammatory genes to the same levels as in M1 macrophages. The predominant subset of dendritic cells (DCs) was myeloid DC, which peaked in number on day 7. Th1 and regulatory T cells were the predominant subsets of CD4(+) T cells, whereas Th2 and Th17 cells were minor populations. CD8(+) T cells, ??T cells, B cells, natural killer (NK) cells and NKT cells peaked on day 7 post-MI. Timely reperfusion reduced the total number of leukocytes accumulated in the post-MI period, shifting the peak of innate immune response towards earlier and blunting the wave of adaptive immune response. In conclusion, these results provide important knowledge necessary for developing successful immunomodulatory therapies.
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[Roles of lipid mediators in controlling vascular inflammation and the progression of atherosclerosis].
Nippon Rinsho
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2011
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Atherosclerosis is recognized as an inflammatory condition of the vessel wall, characterized by accumulation of inflammatory cells such as macrophages and T cells. There are accumulating evidences that chemokines, cytokines, and lipid mediators coordinately modulate platelet- or leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions, and contribute to the maintenance of vascular homeostasis. This review focuses on the role of lipid mediators, especially those derived from polyunsaturated fatty acids, in controlling vascular inflammation and the progression of atherosclerosis.
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[Case followed by delayed loss of consciousness after exposure to hydrogen sulfide that was treated with intermittent administration of sodium nitrite].
Chudoku Kenkyu
PUBLISHED: 11-24-2010
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A 49-year-old man lost consciousness after being accidentally exposed to what was probably hydrogen sulfide gas while performing maintenance on a machine producing feather meal. He was immediately taken to the hospital. Upon admission, his consciousness level was 14 (E4V4M6) on the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), but it subsequently decreased, and the patient was intubated when his respirations became depressed as well. About 5 hours after the initial incident, he was transferred to our department. His consciousness level was GCS 9 (E2V2M5), his blood pressure was 95/78 mmHg, and his heart rate was 90 beats per min. There was no metabolic acidosis. Mechanical ventilation was begun and 10% sodium nitrite was intermittently administered intravenously, with the goal of lowering arterial blood methemoglobin saturation to 20%. Two days following admission, the patient regained full consciousness and sodium nitrite administration was stopped. The following day mechanical ventilation was also discontinued. This patient exhibited severe recurring neurologic symptoms without metabolic acidosis; thus, the manifestations of toxicity in this case might have been due to the direct neurologic toxicity of hydrogen sulfide, hypoxia, or delayed post-ischemic cerebral hypoperfusion syndrome. The patient made a full recovery without any sequelae; therefore we would like to hypothesize that repetitive intravenous administration of sodium nitrite is effective in cases of hydrogen sulfide exposure.
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4-hydroxy-2-nonenal protects against cardiac ischemia-reperfusion injury via the Nrf2-dependent pathway.
J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2010
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Reactive oxygen species (ROS) attack polyunsaturated fatty acids of the membrane and trigger lipid peroxidation, which results in the generation of alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes, such as 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE). There is compelling evidence that high concentrations of aldehydes are responsible for much of the damage elicited by cardiac ischemia-reperfusion injury, while sublethal concentrations of aldehydes stimulate stress resistance pathways, to achieve cardioprotection. We investigated the mechanism of cardioprotection mediated by 4-HNE. For cultured cardiomyocytes, 4-HNE was cytotoxic at higher concentrations (>or=20 microM) but had no appreciable cytotoxicity at lower concentrations. Notably, a sublethal concentration (5muM) of 4-HNE primed cardiomyocytes to become resistant to cytotoxic concentrations of 4-HNE. 4-HNE induced nuclear translocation of transcription factor NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), and enhanced the expression of gamma-glutamylcysteine ligase (GCL) and the core subunit of the Xc(-) high-affinity cystine transporter (xCT), thereby increasing 1.45-fold the intracellular GSH levels. Cardiomyocytes treated with either Nrf2-specific siRNA or the GCL inhibitor l-buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) were less tolerant to 4-HNE. Moreover, the cardioprotective effect of 4-HNE pretreatment against subsequent glucose-free anoxia followed by reoxygenation was completely abolished in these cells. Intravenous administration of 4-HNE (4 mg/kg) activated Nrf2 in the heart and increased the intramyocardial GSH content, and consequently improved the functional recovery of the left ventricle following ischemia-reperfusion in Langendorff-perfused hearts. This cardioprotective effect of 4-HNE was not observed for Nrf2-knockout mice. In summary, 4-HNE activates Nrf2-mediated gene expression and stimulates GSH biosynthesis, thereby conferring on cardiomyocytes protection against ischemia-reperfusion injury.
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Study of the outcome of suicide attempts: characteristics of hospitalization in a psychiatric ward group, critical care center group, and non-hospitalized group.
BMC Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2010
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The allocation of outcome of suicide attempters is extremely important in emergency situations. Following categorization of suicidal attempters who visited the emergency room by outcome, we aimed to identify the characteristics and potential needs of each group.
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Heart failure causes cholinergic transdifferentiation of cardiac sympathetic nerves via gp130-signaling cytokines in rodents.
J. Clin. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2010
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Although several cytokines and neurotrophic factors induce sympathetic neurons to transdifferentiate into cholinergic neurons in vitro, the physiological and pathophysiological roles of this remain unknown. During congestive heart failure (CHF), sympathetic neural tone is upregulated, but there is a paradoxical reduction in norepinephrine synthesis and reuptake in the cardiac sympathetic nervous system (SNS). Here we examined whether cholinergic transdifferentiation can occur in the cardiac SNS in rodent models of CHF and investigated the underlying molecular mechanism(s) using genetically modified mice. We used Dahl salt-sensitive rats to model CHF and found that, upon CHF induction, the cardiac SNS clearly acquired cholinergic characteristics. Of the various cholinergic differentiation factors, leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) and cardiotrophin-1 were strongly upregulated in the ventricles of rats with CHF. Further, LIF and cardiotrophin-1 secreted from cultured failing rat cardiomyocytes induced cholinergic transdifferentiation in cultured sympathetic neurons, and this process was reversed by siRNAs targeting Lif and cardiotrophin-1. Consistent with the data in rats, heart-specific overexpression of LIF in mice caused cholinergic transdifferentiation in the cardiac SNS. Further, SNS-specific targeting of the gene encoding the gp130 subunit of the receptor for LIF and cardiotrophin-1 in mice prevented CHF-induced cholinergic transdifferentiation. Cholinergic transdifferentiation was also observed in the cardiac SNS of autopsied patients with CHF. Thus, CHF causes target-dependent cholinergic transdifferentiation of the cardiac SNS via gp130-signaling cytokines secreted from the failing myocardium.
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Glucocorticoid protects rodent hearts from ischemia/reperfusion injury by activating lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase-derived PGD2 biosynthesis.
J. Clin. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2009
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Lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase (L-PGDS), which was originally identified as an enzyme responsible for PGD2 biosynthesis in the brain, is highly expressed in the myocardium, including in cardiomyocytes. However, the factors that control expression of the gene encoding L-PGDS and the pathophysiologic role of L-PGDS in cardiomyocytes are poorly understood. In the present study, we demonstrate that glucocorticoids, which act as repressors of prostaglandin biosynthesis in most cell types, upregulated the expression of L-PGDS together with cytosolic calcium-dependent phospholipase A2 and COX2 via the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) in rat cardiomyocytes. Accordingly, PGD2 was the most prominently induced prostaglandin in vivo in mouse hearts and in vitro in cultured rat cardiomyocytes after exposure to GR-selective agonists. In isolated Langendorff-perfused mouse hearts, dexamethasone alleviated ischemia/reperfusion injury. This cardioprotective effect was completely abrogated by either pharmacologic inhibition of COX2 or disruption of the gene encoding L-PGDS. In in vivo ischemia/reperfusion experiments, dexamethasone reduced infarct size in wild-type mice. This cardioprotective effect of dexamethasone was markedly reduced in L-PGDS-deficient mice. In cultured rat cardiomyocytes, PGD2 protected against cell death induced by anoxia/reoxygenation via the D-type prostanoid receptor and the ERK1/2-mediated pathway. Taken together, these results suggest what we believe to be a novel interaction between glucocorticoid-GR signaling and the cardiomyocyte survival pathway mediated by the arachidonic acid cascade.
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Deleterious effect of the IL-23/IL-17A axis and ??T cells on left ventricular remodeling after myocardial infarction.
J Am Heart Assoc
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Left ventricular (LV) remodeling leads to chronic heart failure and is a main determinant of morbidity and mortality after myocardial infarction (MI). At the present time, therapeutic options to prevent LV remodeling are limited.
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miR-142-3p is essential for hematopoiesis and affects cardiac cell fate in zebrafish.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play a pivotal role during embryonic development and are required for proper organogenesis, including hematopoiesis. Recent studies suggest that, in the early mesoderm, there is an interaction between the hematopoietic and cardiac lineages. However, whether miRNAs can affect other lineages remains unknown. Therefore, we investigated whether hematopoietic miR-142-3p modulated the mesoderm formation. We report that knockdown (KD) of miR-142-3p, a hematopoietic-specific miRNA, in zebrafish resulted in loss of hematopoiesis during embryonic development. Intriguingly, we observed abnormal cardiac phenotypes and insufficiency of somitegenesis in KD-morphants. In the early developmental stage, a tiny heart, contractile dysfunction in the ventricle, cardiac arrhythmia (e.g. a 2:1 ratio of atrial:ventricular beating), and bradycardia were consistently observed. Histological examination revealed severe hypoplasia of the ventricle and disrupted muscle alignment. To determine the mechanism, we performed DNA microarray analysis. The results revealed that the expression of several mesodermal genes essential for the formation of cardiac and somatic mesoderm, such as no tail, T-box gene 16, mesoderm posterior a, one eye pinhead, and rho-associated, coiled-coil containing protein kinase (Rock2a), were increased in miR-142-3p KD-morphants. The luciferase reporter assay revealed that miR-142-3p repressed luciferase activity on the Rock2a 3-UTR. The findings of the present study indicate that miR-142-3p plays a critical role in hematopoiesis, cardiogenesis, and somitegenesis in the early stage of mesoderm formation via regulation of Rock2a.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.