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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Inhibition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa with a recombinant RNA-based viral vector expressing human ?-defensin 4.
BMC Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2014
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Harassed with extensive epithelial burn wounds, patients can be affected by complications, such as infection, hypovolemic shock, hypothermia, and respiratory failure. Immediate first aid and followed supportive cares are critical for the prevention of severe complications. However, secondary bacterial infection is hard to be controlled in burn patients, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) is one of the top listed pathogens perturbing burn wounds beyond the antibiotics spectrum.
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Prevalence and molecular characterizations of Toxoplasma gondii and Babesia microti from small mammals captured in Gyeonggi and Gangwon Provinces, Republic of Korea.
Vet. Parasitol.
PUBLISHED: 08-10-2014
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A survey was conducted to determine the distribution and prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and Babesia microti infections in small mammals captured in Gyeonggi and Gangwon Provinces, Republic of Korea (ROK). The serological prevalence of T. gondii (ELISA) and B. microti (IFAT) was 2.3% (15/667) and 2.1% (14/667), respectively. DNA extracts from small mammal heart tissues were screened by PCR for T. gondii and B. microti targeting regions of the GRA5 gene and the 18S rRNA and ?-tubulin genes, respectively. Only 0.17% (1/578) of Apodemus agrarius was positive of T. gondii by PCR, while 0.52% (3/578) was positive of B. microti. All other small mammal species [Micromys minutus (16), Mus musculus (3), Myodes regulus (22), Microtus fortis (6), and Crocidura lasiura (42)] were negative for both T. gondii and B. microti. Based on sequence polymorphism and phylogenetic analysis, T. gondii closely aligned with Type I, a highly virulent strain, while B. microti positive samples closely aligned with US-type B. microti and others observed in the ROK, Russia, and Japan. These results indicate that A. agrarius is a reservoir for both T. gondii and B. microti in the ROK.
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Hantaviruses induce antiviral and pro-inflammatory innate immune responses in astrocytic cells and the brain.
Viral Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2014
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Although hantaviruses are not generally considered neurotropic, neurological complications have been reported occasionally in patients with hemorrhagic fever renal syndrome (HFRS). In this study, we analyzed innate immune responses to hantavirus infection in vitro in human astrocytic cells (A172) and in vivo in suckling ICR mice. Infection of A172 cells with pathogenic Hantaan virus (HTNV) or a novel shrew-borne hantavirus, known as Imjin virus (MJNV), induced activation of antiviral genes and pro-inflammatory cytokines/chemokines. MicroRNA expression profiles of HTNV- and MJNV-infected A172 cells showed distinct changes in a set of miRNAs. Following intraperitoneal inoculation with HTNV or MJNV, suckling ICR mice developed rapidly progressive, fatal central nervous system-associated disease. Immunohistochemical staining of virus-infected mouse brains confirmed the detection of viral antigens within astrocytes. Taken together, these findings suggest that the neurological findings in HFRS patients may be associated with hantavirus-directed modulation of innate immune responses in the brain.
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The PDZ-binding motif of the avian NS1 protein affects transmission of the 2009 influenza A(H1N1) virus.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2014
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By nature of their segmented RNA genome, influenza A viruses (IAVs) have the potential to generate variants through a reassortment process. The influenza nonstructural (NS) gene is critical for a virus to counteract the antiviral responses of the host. Therefore, a newly acquired NS segment potentially determines the replication efficiency of the reassortant virus in a range of different hosts. In addition, the C-terminal PDZ-binding motif (PBM) has been suggested as a pathogenic determinant of IAVs. To gauge the pandemic potential from human and avian IAV reassortment, we assessed the replication properties of NS-reassorted viruses in cultured cells and in the lungs of mice and determined their transmissibility in guinea pigs. Compared with the recombinant A/Korea/01/2009 virus (rK09; 2009 pandemic H1N1 strain), the rK09/VN:NS virus, in which the NS gene was adopted from the A/Vietnam/1203/2004 virus (a human isolate of the highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus strains), exhibited attenuated virulence and reduced transmissibility. However, the rK09/VN:NS-PBM virus, harboring the PBM in the C-terminus of the NS1 protein, recovered the attenuated virulence of the rK09/VN:NS virus. In a guinea pig model, the rK09/VN:NS-PBM virus showed even greater transmission efficiency than the rK/09 virus. These results suggest that the PBM in the NS1 protein may determine viral persistence in the human and avian IAV interface.
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Muju virus, harbored by Myodes regulus in Korea, might represent a genetic variant of Puumala virus, the prototype arvicolid rodent-borne hantavirus.
Viruses
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2014
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The genome of Muju virus (MUJV), identified originally in the royal vole (Myodes regulus) in Korea, was fully sequenced to ascertain its genetic and phylogenetic relationship with Puumala virus (PUUV), harbored by the bank vole (My. glareolus), and a PUUV-like virus, named Hokkaido virus (HOKV), in the grey red-backed vole (My. rufocanus) in Japan. Whole genome sequence analysis of the 6544-nucleotide large (L), 3652-nucleotide medium (M) and 1831-nucleotide small (S) segments of MUJV, as well as the amino acid sequences of their gene products, indicated that MUJV strains from different capture sites might represent genetic variants of PUUV, the prototype arvicolid rodent-borne hantavirus in Europe. Distinct geographic-specific clustering of MUJV was found in different provinces in Korea, and phylogenetic analyses revealed that MUJV and HOKV share a common ancestry with PUUV. A better understanding of the taxonomic classification and pathogenic potential of MUJV must await its isolation in cell culture.
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Effects of a hemagglutinin D222G substitution on the pathogenicity of 2009 influenza A (H1N1) virus in mice.
Arch. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2014
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The surface glycoprotein hemagglutinin (HA) of influenza virus initiates the infection process by binding to sialic acid receptors on upper respiratory cells in the host. In contrast to avian influenza viruses, which bind to sialic acids connected by an ?2-3 linkage to the penultimate galactose, human influenza viruses prefer sialic acids with an ?2-6 linkage. Recently, there have been multiple cases of severe human infections associated with an HA D222G mutant influenza virus. In this study, we have investigated the pathogenic effects of the HA D222G substitution in a 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus in mice. Compared with the A/Korea/01/2009 (K/09) virus, the HA D222G mutant showed reduced growth in cells and reduced binding avidity to human and turkey red blood cells. In a BALB/c mouse infection model, infection with the HA D222G mutant virus resulted in less body weight loss when compared to the parental K/09 virus. Altogether, our data suggest that the HA D222G substitution in the K/09 virus might be deleterious to viral fitness.
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A novel adenovirus in Chinstrap penguins (Pygoscelis antarctica) in Antarctica.
Viruses
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2014
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Adenoviruses (family Adenoviridae) infect various organ systems and cause diseases in a wide range of host species. In this study, we examined multiple tissues from Chinstrap penguins (Pygoscelis antarctica), collected in Antarctica during 2009 and 2010, for the presence of novel adenoviruses by PCR. Analysis of a 855-bp region of the hexon gene of a newly identified adenovirus, designated Chinstrap penguin adenovirus 1 (CSPAdV-1), showed nucleotide (amino acid) sequence identity of 71.8% (65.5%) with South Polar skua 1 (SPSAdV-1), 71% (70%) with raptor adenovirus 1 (RAdV-1), 71.4% (67.6%) with turkey adenovirus 3 (TAdV-3) and 61% (61.6%) with frog adenovirus 1 (FrAdV-1). Based on the genetic and phylogenetic analyses, CSPAdV-1 was classified as a member of the genus, Siadenovirus. Virus isolation attempts from kidney homogenates in the MDTC-RP19 (ATCC® CRL-8135™) cell line were unsuccessful. In conclusion, this study provides the first evidence of new adenovirus species in Antarctic penguins.
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Whole-genome sequence of muju virus, an arvicolid rodent-borne hantavirus.
Genome Announc
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2014
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The complete genome sequence of Muju virus was determined from lung tissue samples of three royal voles (Myodes regulus) captured in Gangwon province in the Republic of Korea. Since few whole genome sequences of hantaviruses are available, this sequence may help to clarify the molecular phylogeny of arvicolid rodent-borne hantaviruses.
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Molecular phylogeny of hantaviruses harbored by insectivorous bats in Côte d'Ivoire and Vietnam.
Viruses
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2014
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The recent discovery of genetically distinct hantaviruses in multiple species of shrews and moles prompted a further exploration of their host diversification by analyzing frozen, ethanol-fixed and RNAlater®-preserved archival tissues and fecal samples from 533 bats (representing seven families, 28 genera and 53 species in the order Chiroptera), captured in Asia, Africa and the Americas in 1981-2012, using RT-PCR. Hantavirus RNA was detected in Pomona roundleaf bats (Hipposideros pomona) (family Hipposideridae), captured in Vietnam in 1997 and 1999, and in banana pipistrelles (Neoromicia nanus) (family Vespertilionidae), captured in Côte d'Ivoire in 2011. Phylogenetic analysis, based on the full-length S- and partial M- and L-segment sequences using maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods, demonstrated that the newfound hantaviruses formed highly divergent lineages, comprising other recently recognized bat-borne hantaviruses in Sierra Leone and China. The detection of bat-associated hantaviruses opens a new era in hantavirology and provides insights into their evolutionary origins.
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Hantaviruses: rediscovery and new beginnings.
Virus Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
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Virus and host gene phylogenies, indicating that antigenically distinct hantaviruses (family Bunyaviridae, genus Hantavirus) segregate into clades, which parallel the molecular evolution of rodents belonging to the Murinae, Arvicolinae, Neotominae and Sigmodontinae subfamilies, suggested co-divergence of hantaviruses and their rodent reservoirs. Lately, this concept has been vigorously contested in favor of preferential host switching and local host-specific adaptation. To gain insights into the host range, spatial and temporal distribution, genetic diversity and evolutionary origins of hantaviruses, we employed reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction to analyze frozen, RNAlater(®)-preserved and ethanol-fixed tissues from 1546 shrews (9 genera and 47 species), 281 moles (8 genera and 10 species) and 520 bats (26 genera and 53 species), collected in Europe, Asia, Africa and North America during 1980-2012. Thus far, we have identified 24 novel hantaviruses in shrews, moles and bats. That these newfound hantaviruses are geographically widespread and genetically more diverse than those harbored by rodents suggests that the evolutionary history of hantaviruses is far more complex than previously conjectured. Phylogenetic analyses indicate four distinct clades, with the most divergent comprising hantaviruses harbored by the European mole and insectivorous bats, with evidence for both co-divergence and host switching. Future studies will provide new knowledge about the transmission dynamics and pathogenic potential of these newly discovered, still-orphan, non-rodent-borne hantaviruses.
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Combination effects of peramivir and favipiravir against oseltamivir-resistant 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1) infection in mice.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Antiviral drugs are being used for therapeutic purposes against influenza illness in humans. However, antiviral-resistant variants often nullify the effectiveness of antivirals. Combined medications, as seen in the treatment of cancers and other infectious diseases, have been suggested as an option for the control of antiviral-resistant influenza viruses. Here, we evaluated the therapeutic value of combination therapy against oseltamivir-resistant 2009 pandemic influenza H1N1 virus infection in DBA/2 mice. Mice were treated for five days with favipiravir and peramivir starting 4 hours after lethal challenge. Compared with either monotherapy, combination therapy saved more mice from viral lethality and resulted in increased antiviral efficacy in the lungs of infected mice. Furthermore, the synergism between the two antivirals, which was consistent with the survival outcomes of combination therapy, indicated that favipiravir could serve as a critical agent of combination therapy for the control of oseltamivir-resistant strains. Our results provide new insight into the feasibility of favipiravir in combination therapy against oseltamivir-resistant influenza virus infection.
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Usability test of KNRC self-feeding robot.
IEEE Int Conf Rehabil Robot
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2013
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Various assistive robots for supporting the activities of daily living have been developed. However, not many of these have been introduced into the market because they were found to be impractical in actual scenarios. In this paper, we report on the usability test results of an assistive robot designed for self-feeding for people having disabilities, which includes those having spinal cord injury, cerebral palsy, and traumatic brain injury. First, we present three versions of a novel self-feeding robot (KNRC self-feeding robot), which is suitable for use with Korean food, including sticky rice. These robots have been improved based on participatory action design over a period of three years. Next, we discuss the usability tests of the KNRC self-feeding robots. People with disabilities participated in comparative tests between the KNRC self-feeding robot and the commercialized product named My Spoon. The KNRC self-feeding robot showed positive results in relation to satisfaction and performance compared to the commercialized robot when users ate Korean food, including sticky rice.
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Hantaviruses induce cell type- and viral species-specific host microRNA expression signatures.
Virology
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2013
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The mechanisms of hantavirus-induced modulation of host cellular immunity remain poorly understood. Recently, microRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as a class of essential regulators of host immune response genes. To ascertain if differential host miRNA expression toward representative hantavirus species correlated with immune response genes, miRNA expression profiles were analyzed in human endothelial cells, macrophages and epithelial cells infected with pathogenic and nonpathogenic rodent- and shrew-borne hantaviruses. Distinct miRNA expression profiles were observed in a cell type- and viral species-specific pattern. A subset of miRNAs, including miR-151-5p and miR-1973, were differentially expressed between Hantaan virus and Prospect Hill virus. Pathway analyses confirmed that the targets of selected miRNAs were associated with inflammatory responses and innate immune receptor-mediated signaling pathways. Our data suggest that differential immune responses following hantavirus infection may be regulated in part by cellular miRNA through dysregulation of genes critical to the inflammatory process.
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Clinical and molecular epidemiological features of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in Korea over a 10-year period.
J. Clin. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2013
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Laboratory diagnosis of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS), an infectious disease caused by rodent-borne hantaviruses in Asia and Europe, depends primarily on serological methods. Since the advent of such serodiagnostic tests, few reports are available about the clinical and molecular epidemiological features of HFRS.
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Hantaan virus surveillance targeting small mammals at Dagmar North Training Area, Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea, 2001-2005.
J. Vector Ecol.
PUBLISHED: 12-02-2011
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In response to a hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome case in November 2000, a seasonal rodent-borne disease surveillance program was initiated at Dagmar North Training Area (DNTA), Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea. From April 2001-December 2005, 1,848 small mammals were captured. Apodemus agrarius accounted for 92.5%, followed by Mus musculus (3.6%), Crocidura lasiura (2.1%), and Microtus fortis (1.1%). Three species of rodents were found to be antibody-positive (Ab+) for Hantaan virus (HTNV): A. agrarius (22.3%), M. musculus (9.1%), and M. fortis (5.0%). Ab+ rates for A. agrarius increased with increasing weight (age), except for those weighing <10 g. The peak HTNV transmission period in Korea coincided with the peak reproductive potential of A. agrarius during the fall (August/September) surveys. HTNV strains from DNTA were distinct from HTNV strains from the Peoples Republic of China. From these studies, more accurate risk assessments can be developed to better protect personnel from rodent-borne diseases.
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Full genome analysis of a novel adenovirus from the South Polar skua (Catharacta maccormicki) in Antarctica.
Virology
PUBLISHED: 07-14-2011
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Adenoviruses have been identified in humans and a wide range of vertebrate animals, but not previously from the polar region. Here, we report the entire 26,340-bp genome of a novel adenovirus, detected by PCR, in tissues of six of nine South Polar skuas (Catharacta maccormicki), collected in Lake King Sejong, King George Island, Antarctica, from 2007 to 2009. The DNA polymerase, penton base, hexon and fiber genes of the South Polar skua adenovirus (SPSAdV) exhibited 68.3%, 75.4%, 74.9% and 48.0% nucleotide sequence similarity with their counterparts in turkey hemorrhagic enteritis virus. Phylogenetic analysis based on the entire genome revealed that SPSAdV belonged to the genus Siadenovirus, family Adenoviridae. This is the first evidence of a novel adenovirus, SPSAdV, from a large polar seabird (family Stercorariidae) in Antarctica.
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Comparison of innate immune responses to pathogenic and putative non-pathogenic hantaviruses in vitro.
Virus Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-08-2011
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Hantaviruses are human pathogens that cause hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome or hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome. The mechanisms accounting for the differences in virulence between pathogenic and non-pathogenic hantaviruses are not well known. We have examined the pathogenesis of different hantavirus groups by comparing the innate immune responses induced in the host cell following infection by pathogenic (Sin Nombre, Hantaan, and Seoul virus) and putative non-pathogenic (Prospect Hill, Tula, and Thottapalayam virus) hantaviruses. Pathogenic hantaviruses were found to replicate more efficiently in interferon-competent A549 cells than putative non-pathogenic hantaviruses. The former also suppressed the expression of the interferon-? and myxovirus resistance protein genes, while the transcription level of both genes increased rapidly within 24 h post-infection in the latter. In addition, the induction level of interferon correlated with the activation level of interferon regulatory factor-3. Taken together, these results suggest that the observed differences are correlated with viral pathogenesis and further indicate that pathogenic and putative non-pathogenic hantaviruses differ in terms of early interferon induction via activation of the interferon regulatory factor-3 in infected host cells.
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Ecological surveillance of small mammals at Dagmar North Training Area, Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea, 2001-2005.
J. Vector Ecol.
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2011
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A seasonal rodent-borne disease surveillance program was established at Dagmar North Training Area located near the demilitarized zone, Republic of Korea, from 2001 through 2005. Selected habitats surveyed included earthen banks separating rice paddies, fighting positions along a 5 m rock-faced earthen berm, and extensive tall grasses with various degrees of herbaceous and scrub vegetation associated with dirt roads, rice paddies, ditches, ponds, or the Imjin River. Of the nine species of small mammals captured, the striped field mouse (Apodemus agrarius), the primary reservoir for Hantaan virus, was the most frequently collected, representing 92.5% of the 1,848 small mammals captured. Males were captured similarly to females during the spring and summer seasons but were captured less frequently during the fall and winter seasons. Gravid rates were highest in the fall (25.5-57.3%) with the lowest rates during the summer (0.0-2.2%). Capture rates were the lowest along earthen banks separating rice paddies (5.5%) and highest in unmanaged tall grasses and crawling vegetation (15.3-43.5%). An increased knowledge of ecological factors that impact the abundance and distribution of small mammals and the associated ectoparasites and pathogens they harbor is critical for developing accurate disease risk assessments and mitigation strategies for preventing vector- and rodent-borne diseases among soldiers training in field environments.
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Genetic diversity of Imjin virus in the Ussuri white-toothed shrew (Crocidura lasiura) in the Republic of Korea, 2004-2010.
Virol. J.
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2011
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Recently, Imjin virus (MJNV), a genetically distinct hantavirus, was isolated from lung tissues of the Ussuri white-toothed shrew (Crocidura lasiura) captured near the demilitarized zone in the Republic of Korea. To clarify the genetic diversity of MJNV, partial M- and L-segment sequences were amplified from lung tissues of 12 of 37 (32.4%) anti-MJNV IgG antibody-positive Ussuri white-toothed shrews captured between 2004 and 2010. A 531-nucleotide region of the M segment (coordinates 2,255 to 2,785) revealed that the 12 MJNV strains differed by 0-12.2% and 0-2.3% at the nucleotide and amino acid levels, respectively. A similar degree of nucleotide (0.2-11.9%) and amino acid (0-3.8%) difference was found in a 632-nucleotide length of the L segment (coordinates 962 to 1,593) of nine MJNV strains. Phylogenetic analyses, based on the partial M and L segments of MJNV strains generated by the neighbor-joining and maximum likelihood methods, showed geographic-specific clustering, akin to the phylogeography of rodent-borne hantaviruses.
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Borna disease virus antibody and RNA from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of race horses and jockeys in Korea.
Psychiatry Investig
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2010
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During the last two decades, Borna disease virus (BDV) has received much attention as a possible zoonotic agent, particularly as a cause of psychiatric disease. Although several studies have shown that BDV is present in Asia, BDV has not been detected in Korea. This study was designed to further investigate the presence of BDV infection in Korea.
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Serosurveillance of scrub typhus in small mammals collected from military training sites near the DMZ, Northern Gyeonggi-do, Korea, and analysis of the relative abundance of chiggers from mammals examined.
Korean J. Parasitol.
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2010
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Comprehensive quarterly serosurveillance on scrub typhus in small mammals collected from military training sites located near the Demilitarized Zone (DMZ), northern Gyeonggi-do (Province), ROK was conducted to determine the potential rodent-borne and associated ectoparasite disease risks to military personnel. A total of 1,196 rodents and insectivores representing 8 species, Apodemus agrarius (87.3%, n = 1,044), Mus musculus (5.4%, n = 65), Crocidura lasiura (3.3%, n = 40), Microtus fortis (2.6%, n = 31), Micromys minutus (0.3%, n = 4), Tscherskia triton (0.3%, n = 4), Rattus norvegicus (0.3%, n = 4), and Myodes regulus (0.3%, n = 4) were assayed for the presence of antibodies to Orientia tsutsugamushi. O. tsutsugamushi antibodies were detected in 6 of 8 species and seroprevalence determined; A. agrarius (45.6%), M. musculus (23.1%), M. fortis (48.4%), M. minutus (50.0%), T. triton (50.0%), and R. norvegicus (25.0%). A total of 31,184 chigger mites collected from 508 rodents and insectivores were slide-mounted and 10 species belonging to 4 genera were identified. Leptotrombidium pallidum (53.4%) was the most frequently collected, followed by L. palpale (15.7%), Neotrombicula tamiyai (14.3%), L. orientale (10.7%), L. zetum (3.1%), Walchia fragilis (2.1%), and L. gemiticulum (0.8%), while the remaining 3 species, L. subintermedium, N. gardellai, and Euschoengastia koreaensis were rarely observed (prevalence < 10%). In contrast to previous surveys, higher chigger indices of the primary scrub typhus vectors, L. pallidum (165.4), L. orientale (45.0), and L. palpale (21.4), were observed during the spring season.
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Serological surveillance of scrub typhus, murine typhus, and leptospirosis in small mammals captured at Twin Bridges Training Area, Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea, 2005-2007.
Mil Med
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2010
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Soldiers from the Republic of Korea and the United States conduct armistice military operations at Twin Bridges Training Area (TBTA) located near the demilitarized zone (DMZ) and are exposed to zoonotic disease pathogens that small mammals and their potentially disease-carrying ectoparasites transmit. TBTA is a 36 km2 rural training site with small villages and various forms of agriculture along its boundary. At TBTA, rodents, insectivores, and their ectoparasites are commonly found in association with unmanaged habitats of various densities of tall grasses, herbaceous plants, shrubs, briars, and crawling vegetation. Rodents and insectivores were collected during the winter (November-December 2005 and December 2006) and early spring (March 2007), and serologically tested for the presence of scrub typhus, murine typhus, and leptospirosis antibodies. Of the six species of small mammals collected, Apodemus agrarius, the common striped field mouse and known reservoir of scrub typhus, was the most frequently collected (96.1%), followed by Crocidura lasiura (2.5%), Micromys minutus (0.5%), Myodes regulus (0.5%), Mus musculus (0.3%), and Rattus rattus (0.1%). A. agrarius (56.1%), M. musculus (66.7%), M. minutus (25%), and R. rattus (100%) were positive for scrub typhus antibodies. Only A. agrarius (14.7%) and C. lasiura (4.5%) were positive for murine typhus antibodies, whereas only A. agrarius (1.5%) was seropositive for leptospirosis. Seroprevalence rates of scrub typhus and murine typhus based on weight and sex of A. agrarius are presented.
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Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in 4 US soldiers, South Korea, 2005.
Emerging Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 11-07-2009
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Four US soldiers acquired hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome while training near the Demilitarized Zone, South Korea, in 2005. Hantaan virus sequences were amplified by reverse transcription-PCR from patient serum samples and from lung tissues of striped field mice (Apodemus agrarius) captured at training sites. Epidemiologic investigations specified the ecology of possible sites of patient infection.
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Seasonal and environmental determinants of leptospirosis and scrub typhus in small mammals captured at a U.S. military training site (Dagmar North), Republic of Korea, 2001-2004.
Mil Med
PUBLISHED: 11-07-2009
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This study sought to identify seasonal and environmental determinants of scrub typhus, murine typhus, and leptospirosis in small mammals trapped at Dagmar North training area, Gyeonggi Province, South Korea.
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Genetic diversity and phylogeography of Seewis virus in the Eurasian common shrew in Finland and Hungary.
Virol. J.
PUBLISHED: 09-07-2009
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Recent identification of a newfound hantavirus, designated Seewis virus (SWSV), in the Eurasian common shrew (Sorex araneus), captured in Switzerland, corroborates decades-old reports of hantaviral antigens in this shrew species from Russia. To ascertain the spatial or geographic variation of SWSV, archival liver tissues from 88 Eurasian common shrews, trapped in Finland in 1982 and in Hungary during 1997, 1999 and 2000, were analyzed for hantavirus RNAs by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. SWSV RNAs were detected in 12 of 22 (54.5%) and 13 of 66 (19.7%) Eurasian common shrews from Finland and Hungary, respectively. Phylogenetic analyses of S- and L-segment sequences of SWSV strains, using maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods, revealed geographic-specific genetic variation, similar to the phylogeography of rodent-borne hantaviruses, suggesting long-standing hantavirus-host co-evolutionary adaptation.
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Loss of the 29-kilodalton outer membrane protein in the presence of OXA-51-like enzymes in Acinetobacter baumannii is associated with decreased imipenem susceptibility.
Microb. Drug Resist.
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2009
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Carbapenem resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii is increasing these days. We investigated the roles of outer membrane proteins and efflux pumps in carbapenem resistance of A. baumannii which showed no carbapenemase activity in modified Hodge test. Among 58 carbapenem-resistant isolates collected from the Korea University Medical Center between January 2002 and March 2006, 17 isolates showed negative results in modified Hodge test. In outer membrane protein analysis, loss of the 29-kDa protein band was related with higher imipenem minimum inhibitory concentrations especially in the presence of OXA-51-like enzymes. Efflux pump-mediated carbapenem resistance was found in one out of the 17 isolates (5.9%). All of the 58 carbapenem-resistant strains and 5 of the 10 carbapenem-susceptible strains had OXA-51-like carbapenemase genes, suggesting that OXA-51-like enzymes may be naturally existing in A. baumannii and have very weak carbapenem hydrolyzing activity.
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Failure to detect borna disease virus antibody and RNA from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of psychiatric patients.
Psychiatry Investig
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2009
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Borna disease virus (BDV) is a highly neurotropic agent causing various neuropsychiatric symptoms in animals. Over the past two decades, it has been suggested that BDV might be associated with human psychiatric diseases. We aimed to investigate whether BDV is associated with psychiatric patients in Korea.
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Echinostome infections in the striped-field mouse, Apodemus agrarius, and the Ussuri white-toothed shrew, Crocidura lasiura, caught near the demilitarized zone, Gyeonggi-do (Province), Republic of Korea.
Korean J. Parasitol.
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2009
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A total of 1,498 small mammals (rodents and insectivores), including Apodemus agrarius (n = 1,366), Crocidura lasiura (54), Mus musculus (32), Micronytus fortis (28), Eothenomys regulus (9), Micronys minutes (6), and Cricetulus triton (3), were live-trapped in Gyeonggi-do (Province) (Paju-si, Pocheon-gun, and Yeoncheon-gun) near the demilitarized zone (DMZ) from December 2004 to September 2005. A. agrarius was found to be infected with 3 species of echinostomes (Echinostoma hortense, Echinostoma cinetorchis, and Euparyphium murinum), while C. lasiura was infected with 1 species (Echinochasmus japonicas) of echinostome. Other mammals were free from echinostome infections. Total 16 E. hortense were detected in 7 (0.5%) mice, 9 E. cinetorchis from 5 (0.4%), and 3 E. murinum from 2 (0.1%) out of 1.366 A. agrarius examined. E. japonicus was found only in 1 (1.9%; total 3 specimens) C. lasiura. These results demonstrate that A. agrarius and C. lasiura, inhabiting near the DMZ of Gyeonggi-do serve as the natural definitive hosts for several species of echinostomes, although their infection rates are low. This is the first record of natural infections of A. agrarius with E. cinetorchis and C. lasiura with E. japonicus in the Republic of Korea.
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Characterization of Imjin virus, a newly isolated hantavirus from the Ussuri white-toothed shrew (Crocidura lasiura).
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2009
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Until recently, the single known exception to the rodent-hantavirus association was Thottapalayam virus (TPMV), a long-unclassified virus isolated from the Asian house shrew (Suncus murinus). Robust gene amplification techniques have now uncovered several genetically distinct hantaviruses from shrews in widely separated geographic regions. Here, we report the characterization of a newly identified hantavirus, designated Imjin virus (MJNV), isolated from the lung tissues of Ussuri white-toothed shrews of the species Crocidura lasiura (order Soricomorpha, family Soricidae, subfamily Crocidurinae) captured near the demilitarized zone in the Republic of Korea during 2004 and 2005. Seasonal trapping revealed the highest prevalence of MJNV infection during the autumn, with evidence of infected shrews clustering in distinct foci. Also, marked male predominance among anti-MJNV immunoglobulin G antibody-positive Ussuri shrews was found, whereas the male-to-female ratio among seronegative Ussuri shrews was near 1. Plaque reduction neutralization tests showed no cross neutralization for MJNV and rodent-borne hantaviruses but one-way cross neutralization for MJNV and TPMV. The nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences for the different MJNV genomic segments revealed nearly the same calculated distances from hantaviruses harbored by rodents in the subfamilies Murinae, Arvicolinae, Neotominae, and Sigmodontinae. Phylogenetic analyses of full-length S, M, and L segment sequences demonstrated that MJNV shared a common ancestry with TPMV and remained in a distinct out-group, suggesting early evolutionary divergence. Studies are in progress to determine if MJNV is pathogenic for humans.
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Evolutionary insights from a genetically divergent hantavirus harbored by the European common mole (Talpa europaea).
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2009
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The discovery of genetically distinct hantaviruses in shrews (Order Soricomorpha, Family Soricidae) from widely separated geographic regions challenges the hypothesis that rodents (Order Rodentia, Family Muridae and Cricetidae) are the primordial reservoir hosts of hantaviruses and also predicts that other soricomorphs harbor hantaviruses. Recently, novel hantavirus genomes have been detected in moles of the Family Talpidae, including the Japanese shrew mole (Urotrichus talpoides) and American shrew mole (Neurotrichus gibbsii). We present new insights into the evolutionary history of hantaviruses gained from a highly divergent hantavirus, designated Nova virus (NVAV), identified in the European common mole (Talpa europaea) captured in Hungary.
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Host switch during evolution of a genetically distinct hantavirus in the American shrew mole (Neurotrichus gibbsii).
Virology
PUBLISHED: 02-09-2009
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A genetically distinct hantavirus, designated Oxbow virus (OXBV), was detected in tissues of an American shrew mole (Neurotrichus gibbsii), captured in Gresham, Oregon, in September 2003. Pairwise analysis of full-length S- and M- and partial L-segment nucleotide and amino acid sequences of OXBV indicated low sequence similarity with rodent-borne hantaviruses. Phylogenetic analyses using maximum-likelihood and Bayesian methods, and host-parasite evolutionary comparisons, showed that OXBV and Asama virus, a hantavirus recently identified from the Japanese shrew mole (Urotrichus talpoides), were related to soricine shrew-borne hantaviruses from North America and Eurasia, respectively, suggesting parallel evolution associated with cross-species transmission.
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Ecology of Hantaan virus at Twin Bridges Training Area, Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea, 2005-2007.
J. Vector Ecol.
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2009
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The Twin Bridges Training Area (TBTA) in the Republic of Korea consists of dirt roads, barren training areas, and forested hillsides adjacent to linear and broad expanses of tall grasses, herbaceous, and scrub vegetation. Of the six species of small mammals, the striped field mouse, Apodemus agrarius, was the most frequently captured (96.1%). Apodemus agrarius capture rates varied from 17.7 to 33.2% during three trapping periods. Gravid females were observed during November-December 2006 (8.4%) and March 2007 (5.1%). In 2005, the overall seroprevalence of Hantaan virus (HTNV) was high (34.4%) and lower during surveys in 2006 (14.2%) and 2007 (13.8%). Seroprevalence was directly correlated with weight increase of A. agrarius.
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Preferential elimination of metallic single-walled carbon nanotubes using microwave irradiation.
Nanotechnology
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2009
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This study presents a simple, easy and rapid technique for the preferential destruction of metallic single-walled carbon nanotubes (m-SWNTs) using microwave irradiation. The proportion of m-SWNTs in a randomly networked film that were made of pristine SWNTs was gradually reduced with microwave irradiation of 1000 W at 2.45 GHz ranging from 0 to 20 min. Additionally it was observed that the m-SWNTs with a higher chiral angle were destroyed first. The Raman spectra and drain current-gate voltage characteristics curve show that this method facilitated the selective removal of m-SWNTs.
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Highly sensitive carbon nanotube-embedding gas sensors operating at atmospheric pressure.
Nanotechnology
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2009
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Highly sensitive palladium (Pd) decorated carbon nanotube (CNT) embedding gas sensors working at atmospheric pressure were fabricated. Two types of gas sensors of bare CNTs and Pd nanoparticle decorated CNTs were synthesized by dielectrophoresis. The CNT-containing solution was dropped onto the patterned-platinum electrodes with ac bias. The CNT-embedding sensors sensitively detected 100 ppb level of NO(2) in an atmospheric pressure condition. The Pd decoration on CNTs forming the depletion region was found to be an effective way to enhance the sensor response by the control of carrier mobility and density. Raman spectroscopy revealed a low defect ratio of D/G(-) by heat treatment at 450 degrees C. Moreover, it was investigated that there exists an optimum temperature to enhance the sensor response.
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Distinct innate immune responses in human macrophages and endothelial cells infected with shrew-borne hantaviruses.
Virology
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Although hantaviruses have been previously considered as rodent-borne pathogens, recent studies demonstrate genetically distinct hantaviruses in evolutionarily distant non-rodent reservoirs, including shrews, moles and bats. The immunological responses to these newfound hantaviruses in humans are unknown. We compared the innate immune responses to Imjin virus (MJNV) and Thottapalayam virus (TPMV), two shrew-borne hantaviruses, with that toward two rodent-borne hantaviruses, pathogenic Hantann virus (HTNV) and nonpathogenic Prospect Hill virus (PHV). Infection of human macrophages and endothelial cells with either HTNV or MJNV triggered productive viral replication and up-regulation of anti-viral responsive gene expression from day 1 to day 3 postinfection, compared with PHV and TPMV. Furthermore, HTNV, MJNV and TPMV infection led to prolonged increased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines from days 3 to 7 postinfection. By contrast, PHV infection failed to induce pro-inflammatory responses. Distinct patterns of innate immune activation caused by MJNV suggest that it might be pathogenic to humans.
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Hantaan virus surveillance in small mammals at firing points 10 and 60, Yeoncheon, Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea.
Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis.
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We used epidemiological data and indirect fluorescent antibody tests to determine the Hantaan virus (HTNV) antibody-positive (Ab+) prevalence in small mammals captured at firing point 10 (FP-10) and firing point 60 (FP-60), Gyeonggi Province, near the demilitarized zone, Republic of Korea (ROK), from 2001 to 2005. We used these data, combined with the partial M segment amplified from HTNV recovered from lung tissues of Apodemus agrarius, to clarify the genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships among HTNV strains in the ROK. Of the eight species of rodents and one insectivore species captured, A. agrarius accounted for 93.4% and 88.5% at FP-10 and FP-60, respectively. Only two species of rodents, A. agrarius and Micromys minutus, were HTNV Ab+. The overall HTNV Ab+ prevalence for A. agrarius captured at FP-10 and FP-60 was 23.3% (121/520) and 14.5% (94/647), respectively. The hantaviral reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction-positive rate of Ab+ A. agrarius was 74.2% (167/215), and the phylogenetic trees, based on the 269-nucleotide G2-encoding M segment, demonstrated that HTNV strains from FP-10 and FP-60 were distantly segregated from HTNV of other geographic regions in Korea and China. These data are useful in the development of risk reduction strategies for the prevention of hantavirus infections among military personnel, especially during training or the event of hostilities, and civilian populations.
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Divergent lineage of a novel hantavirus in the banana pipistrelle (Neoromicia nanus) in Côte dIvoire.
Virol. J.
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Recently identified hantaviruses harbored by shrews and moles (order Soricomorpha) suggest that other mammals having shared ancestry may serve as reservoirs. To investigate this possibility, archival tissues from 213 insectivorous bats (order Chiroptera) were analyzed for hantavirus RNA by RT-PCR. Following numerous failed attempts, hantavirus RNA was detected in ethanol-fixed liver tissue from two banana pipistrelles (Neoromicia nanus), captured near Mouyassué village in Côte dIvoire, West Africa, in June 2011. Phylogenetic analysis of partial L-segment sequences using maximum-likelihood and Bayesian methods revealed that the newfound hantavirus, designated Mouyassué virus (MOUV), was highly divergent and basal to all other rodent- and soricomorph-borne hantaviruses, except for Nova virus in the European common mole (Talpa europaea). Full genome sequencing of MOUV and further surveys of other bat species for hantaviruses, now underway, will provide critical insights into the evolution and diversification of hantaviruses.
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Divergent ancestral lineages of newfound hantaviruses harbored by phylogenetically related crocidurine shrew species in Korea.
Virology
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Spurred by the recent isolation of a novel hantavirus, named Imjin virus (MJNV), from the Ussuri white-toothed shrew (Crocidura lasiura), targeted trapping was conducted for the phylogenetically related Asian lesser white-toothed shrew (Crocidura shantungensis). Pair-wise alignment and comparison of the S, M and L segments of a newfound hantavirus, designated Jeju virus (JJUV), indicated remarkably low nucleotide and amino acid sequence similarity with MJNV. Phylogenetic analyses, using maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods, showed divergent ancestral lineages for JJUV and MJNV, despite the close phylogenetic relationship of their reservoir soricid hosts. Also, no evidence of host switching was apparent in tanglegrams, generated by TreeMap 2.0?.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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