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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Cloning of the Transketolase Gene from Erythritol-Producing Yeast Candida magnoliae.
J. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2014
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The entire nucleotide sequence of the TKL1 gene encoding transketolase (TKL) in an erythritolproducing yeast of Candida magnoliae was determined by degenerate polymerase chain reaction and genome walking. Sequence analysis revealed an open reading frame of C. magnoliae TKL1 (CmTKL1) that spans 2,088 bp and encodes 696 amino acids, sharing 61.7% amino acid identity to Kluyveromyces lactis TKL. Functional analysis showed that CmTKL1 complemented a Saccharomyces cerevisiae tkl1 tkl2 double mutant for growth in the absence of aromatic amino acids and restored transketolase activity in this mutant. An enzyme activity assay and RT-PCR revealed that the expression of CmTKL1 is induced by fructose, H2O2, and KCl. The GenBank accession number for C. magnoliae TKL1 is KF751756.
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Examining family meetings at end of life: The model of practice in a hospice inpatient unit.
Palliat Support Care
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2014
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Objective: Our purpose was to rigorously examine the nature of family meetings as conducted in an inpatient hospice care unit in order to generate an inductive theoretical model. Method: In this two-phase project, we first interviewed eight members of the interdisciplinary care team who participated in multiple family meetings each week. Interview questions explored why and how they conducted family meetings. Using an observation template created from these interview data, we subsequently conducted ethnographic observations during family meetings. Using the methods of grounded theory, our findings were synthesized into a theoretical model depicting the structure and process of formal family meetings within this setting. Results: The core of the family meeting was characterized by cognitive and affective elements aimed at supporting the family and facilitating quality care by clarifying the past, easing the present, and protecting the future. This inductive model was subsequently found to be highly aligned with a sense of coherence, an important influence on coping, and adaptation to the stress of a life-limiting illness. Significance of Results: Provider communication with family members is particularly critical during advanced illness and end-of-life care. The National Consensus Project clinical practice guidelines for quality palliative care list regular family meetings among the recommended practices for excellent communication during end-of-life care, but do not provide specific guidance on how and when to provide such meetings. Our findings provide a theoretical model that can inform the design of a family meeting to address family members' needs for meaningful and contextualized information, validation of their important contributions to care, and preparation for the patient's death.
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Chronic Epstein-Barr virus infection causing both benign and malignant lymphoproliferative disorders.
Korean J Pediatr
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2014
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The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is oncogenic and can transform B cells from a benign to a malignant phenotype. EBV infection is also associated with lymphoid interstitial pneumonia (LIP). Here, we report the case of a 14-year-old boy who was diagnosed with a latent EBV infection and underlying LIP, without any associated immunodeficiency. He had been EBV-seropositive for 8 years. The first clinical presentations were chronic respiratory symptoms and recurrent pneumonia. The symptoms worsened in the following 2 years. The results of in situ hybridization were positive for EBV, which led to a diagnosis of LIP. The diagnosis was confirmed by the results of a thoracoscopic lung biopsy. The EBV titer of the bronchoalveolar lavage specimens obtained after acyclovir treatment was found to be fluctuating. The patient had latent EBV infection for 8 years, until presented at the hospital with intermittent abdominal pain and distension. Physical examination and pelvic computed tomography revealed a large mesenteric mass. A biopsy of the excised mass led to a diagnosis of Burkitt's lymphoma (BL). The patient received combination chemotherapy for 4 months, consisting of vincristine, methotrexate, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, and prednisolone. He is now tumor-free, with the LIP under control, and is being followed-up at the outpatient clinic. This is the first report of a Korean case of chronic latent EBV infection that developed into LIP and BL in a nonimmunocompromised child.
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Comparison study of the eosin-5'-maleimide binding test, flow cytometric osmotic fragility test, and cryohemolysis test in the diagnosis of hereditary spherocytosis.
Am. J. Clin. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 09-21-2014
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Current guidelines recommend the eosin-5'-maleimide (EMA) binding test and cryohemolysis test for screening for hereditary spherocytosis (HS), and the flow cytometric osmotic fragility (FC OF) test was recently developed to replace the classic OF test. We evaluatedthe performance of the EMA binding test, FC OF test, cryohemolysis test, and the hemoglobin (Hb)/mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) ratio in the diagnosis of HS and assessed whether these tests reflect the clinical severity of HS.
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Biphasic nanofibrous constructs with seeded cell layers for osteochondral repair.
Tissue Eng Part C Methods
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2014
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Biphasic scaffolds have gained increasing attention for the regeneration of osteochondral interfacial tissue because they are expected to effectively define the interfacial structure of tissue that comprises stratified cartilage with a degree of calcification. Here, we propose a biphasic nanofiber construct made of poly(lactide-co-caprolactone) (PLCL) and its mineralized form (mPLCL) populated with cells. Primary rat articular chondrocytes (ACs) and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were cultured on the layers of bare PLCL and mPLCL nanofibers, respectively, for 7 days, and the biphasic cell-nanofiber construct was investigated at 4 weeks after implantation into nude mice. Before implantation, the ACs and MSCs grown on each layer of PLCL and mPLCL nanofibers exhibited phenotypes typical of chondrocytes and osteoblasts, respectively, under proper culture conditions, as analyzed by electron microscopy, histological staining, cell growth kinetics, and real-time polymerase chain reaction. The biphasic constructs also showed the development of a possible formation of cartilage and bone tissue in vivo. Results demonstrated that the cell-laden biphasic nanofiber constructs may be useful for the repair of osteochondral interfacial tissue structure.
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Simple amino acid tags improve both expression and secretion of Candida antarctica lipase B in recombinant Escherichia coli.
Biotechnol. Bioeng.
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2014
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Escherichia coli is the best-established microbial host strain for production of proteins and chemicals, but has a weakness for not secreting high amounts of active heterologous proteins to the extracellular culture medium, of which origins belong to whether prokaryotes or eukaryotes. In this study, Candida antarctica lipase B (CalB), a popular eukaryotic enzyme which catalyzes a number of biochemical reactions and barely secreted extracellularly, was expressed functionally at a gram scale in culture medium by using a simple amino acid-tag system of E. coli. New fusion tag systems consisting of a pelB signal sequence and various anion amino acid tags facilitated both intracellular expression and extracellular secretion of CalB. Among them, the N-terminal five aspartate tag changed the quaternary structure of the dimeric CalB and allowed production of 1.9?g/L active CalB with 65?U/mL activity in culture medium, which exhibited the same enzymatic properties as the commercial CalB. This PelB-anion amino acid tag-based expression system for CalB can be extended to production of other industrial proteins hardly expressed and exported from E. coli, thereby increasing target protein concentrations and minimizing purification steps. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2014;9999: 1-10. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Optimizing promoters and secretory signal sequences for producing ethanol from inulin by recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae carrying Kluyveromyces marxianus inulinase.
Bioprocess Biosyst Eng
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
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Inulin is a polyfructan that is abundant in plants such as Jerusalem artichoke, chicory and dahlia. Inulinase can easily hydrolyze inulin to fructose, which is consumed by microorganisms. Generally, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, an industrial workhorse strain for bioethanol production, is known for not having inulinase activity. The inulinase gene from Kluyveromyces marxianus (KmINU), with the ability of converting inulin to fructose, was introduced into S. cerevisiae D452-2. The inulinase gene was fused to three different types of promoter (GPD, PGK1, truncated HXT7) and secretory signal sequence (KmINU, MF?1, SUC2) to generate nine expression cassettes. The inulin fermentation performance of the nine transformants containing different promoter and signal sequence combinations for inulinase production were compared to select an optimized expression system for efficient inulin fermentation. Among the nine inulinase-producing transformants, the S. cerevisiae carrying the PGK1 promoter and MF?1 signal sequence (S. cerevisiae D452-2/p426PM) showed not only the highest specific KmINU activity, but also the best inulin fermentation capability. Finally, a batch fermentation of the selected S. cerevisiae D452-2/p426PM in a bioreactor with 188.2 g/L inulin was performed to produce 80.2 g/L ethanol with 0.43 g ethanol/g inulin of ethanol yield and 1.22 g/L h of ethanol productivity.
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Bone marrow involvement of Langerhans cell histiocytosis: immunohistochemical evaluation of bone marrow for CD1a, Langerin, and S100 expression.
Histopathology
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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Although bone marrow (BM) involvement in Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a negative prognostic indicator, there are no widely accepted criteria to define BM involvement in LCH. We evaluated the BM of LCH patients at diagnosis by immunohistochemical (IHC) staining for S100, CD1a and Langerin, along with other features.
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CD34 and p53 Immunohistochemical Stains Differentiate Hypocellular Myelodysplastic Syndrome (hMDS) from Aplastic Anemia and a CD34 Immunohistochemical Stain Provides Useful Survival Information for hMDS.
Ann Lab Med
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2014
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The presence of significant dysplasia in bone marrow (BM) aspirates helps to distinguish between hypocellular myelodysplastic syndrome (hMDS) and aplastic anemia (AA). Occasionally, diluted BM aspirates make it difficult to recognize dysplastic changes and can also negatively affect the detection of cytogenetic abnormalities in hMDS. We evaluated the usefulness of CD34 and p53 immunoreactivity for discriminating between hMDS and AA and for estimating survival outcomes in hMDS patients.
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A novel patient-specific model to compute coronary fractional flow reserve.
Prog. Biophys. Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 07-20-2014
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The fractional flow reserve (FFR) is a widely used clinical index to evaluate the functional severity of coronary stenosis. A computer simulation method based on patients' computed tomography (CT) data is a plausible non-invasive approach for computing the FFR. This method can provide a detailed solution for the stenosed coronary hemodynamics by coupling computational fluid dynamics (CFD) with the lumped parameter model (LPM) of the cardiovascular system. In this work, we have implemented a simple computational method to compute the FFR. As this method uses only coronary arteries for the CFD model and includes only the LPM of the coronary vascular system, it provides simpler boundary conditions for the coronary geometry and is computationally more efficient than existing approaches. To test the efficacy of this method, we simulated a three-dimensional straight vessel using CFD coupled with the LPM. The computed results were compared with those of the LPM. To validate this method in terms of clinically realistic geometry, a patient-specific model of stenosed coronary arteries was constructed from CT images, and the computed FFR was compared with clinically measured results. We evaluated the effect of a model aorta on the computed FFR and compared this with a model without the aorta. Computationally, the model without the aorta was more efficient than that with the aorta, reducing the CPU time required for computing a cardiac cycle to 43.4%.
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Virtual ablation for atrial fibrillation in personalized in-silico three-dimensional left atrial modeling: Comparison with clinical catheter ablation.
Prog. Biophys. Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 07-06-2014
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Although catheter ablation is an effective rhythm control strategy for atrial fibrillation (AF), empirically-based ablation has a substantial recurrence rate. The purposes of this study were to develop a computational platform for patient-specific virtual AF ablation and to compare the anti-fibrillatory effects of 5 different virtual ablation protocols with empirically chosen clinical ablations.
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Clinical features, genetics, and outcome of pediatric patients with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis in Korea: report of a nationwide survey from Korea Histiocytosis Working Party.
Eur. J. Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2014
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We analyzed a nationwide registry of pediatric patients with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) in Korea to assess the clinical and genetic features and treatment outcomes in pediatric HLH.
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The Effectiveness Evaluation of Helicopter Ambulance Transport among Neurotrauma Patients in Korea.
J Korean Neurosurg Soc
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2014
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Helicopter ambulance transport (HAT) is a highly resource-intensive facility that is a well-established part of the trauma transport system in many developed countries. Here, we review the benefit of HAT for neurosurgical patients in Korea.
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Coil embolization in ruptured inferior thyroid artery aneurysm with active bleeding.
J Korean Neurosurg Soc
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2014
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We present a unique experience of urgent parent arterial embolization for treatment of an aneurysm of the inferior thyroid artery (ITA) that bled during tracheostomy. The event happened to a 69-year-old female patient with subarachnoid hemorrhage and hospital-acquired pneumonia that required tracheostomy. Abrupt and massive bleeding developed during the procedure, and the source could not be identified. Under manual compression, angiography revealed an 8-mm aneurysm that arose from the inferior thyroid artery. The superselected parent artery of the aneurysm was successfully occluded with a single pushable coil. The patient's postoperative course was uneventful.
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Acute myelopathy caused by a cervical synovial cyst.
J Korean Neurosurg Soc
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2014
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Synovial cysts of the cervical spine, although they occur infrequently, may cause acute radiculopathy or myelopathy. Here, we report a case of a cervical synovial cyst presenting as acute myelopathy after manual stretching. A 68-year-old man presented with gait disturbance, decreased touch senses, and increased sensitivity to pain below T12 level. These symptoms developed after manual stretching 3 days prior. Computed tomography scanning and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a 1-cm, small multilocular cystic lesion in the spinal canal with cord compression at the C7-T1 level. We performed a left partial laminectomy of C7 and T1 using a posterior approach and completely removed the cystic mass. Histological examination of the resected mass revealed fibrous tissue fragments with amorphous materials and granulation tissue compatible with a synovial cyst. The patient's symptoms resolved after surgery. We describe a case of acute myelopathy caused by a cervical synovial cyst that was treated by surgical excision. Although cervical synovial cysts are often associated with degenerative facet joints, clinicians should be aware of the possibility that these cysts can cause acute neurologic symptoms.
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Electrical tissue property imaging at low frequency using MREIT.
IEEE Trans Biomed Eng
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2014
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The tomographic imaging of tissue's electrical properties (e.g., conductivity and permittivity) has been greatly improved by recent developments in magnetic resonance (MR) imaging techniques, which include MR electrical impedance tomography (MREIT) and electrical property tomography. When the biological material is subjected to an external electric field, local changes in its electrical properties become sources of magnetic field perturbations, which are detectable by the MR signals. Controlling the external excitation and measuring the responses using an MRI scanner, we can formulate the imaging problem as an inverse problem in which unknown tissue properties are recovered from the acquired MR signals. This inverse problem is nonlinear; it involves the incorporation of Maxwell's equations and Bloch equations during data acquisition. Each method for visualizing internal conductivity and permittivity distributions has its own methodological limitations, and is restricted to imaging only a part of the ensemble or mean tissue structures or states. Therefore, imaging methods can be improved by developing complementary methods that can employ the beneficial aspects of various existing techniques. This paper focuses on recent progress in MREIT and discusses its distinct features in comparison with other imaging methods.
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Korean immigrant women's lived experience of childbirth in the United States.
J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2014
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To understand Korean immigrant women's common experiences and practices of utilizing health care services in the United States during childbirth.
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Design of a microscopic electrical impedance tomography system for 3D continuous non-destructive monitoring of tissue culture.
Biomed Eng Online
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2014
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Non-destructive continuous monitoring of regenerative tissue is required throughout the entire period of in vitro tissue culture. Microscopic electrical impedance tomography (micro-EIT) has the potential to monitor the physiological state of tissues by forming three-dimensional images of impedance changes in a non-destructive and label-free manner. We developed a new micro-EIT system and report on simulation and experimental results of its macroscopic model.
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Clinical significance of previously cryptic copy number alterations and loss of heterozygosity in pediatric acute myeloid leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome determined using combined array comparative genomic hybridization plus single-nucleotide polymorphism microarr
J. Korean Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2014
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The combined array comparative genomic hybridization plus single-nucleotide polymorphism microarray (CGH+SNP microarray) platform can simultaneously detect copy number alterations (CNA) and copy-neutral loss of heterozygosity (LOH). Eighteen children with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) (n=15) or myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) (n=3) were studied using CGH+SNP microarray to evaluate the clinical significance of submicroscopic chromosomal aberrations. CGH+SNP microarray revealed CNAs at 14 regions in 9 patients, while metaphase cytogenetic (MC) analysis detected CNAs in 11 regions in 8 patients. Using CGH+SNP microarray, LOHs>10 Mb involving terminal regions or the whole chromosome were detected in 3 of 18 patients (17%). CGH+SNP microarray revealed cryptic LOHs with or without CNAs in 3 of 5 patients with normal karyotypes. CGH+SNP microarray detected additional cryptic CNAs (n=2) and LOHs (n=5) in 6 of 13 patients with abnormal MC. In total, 9 patients demonstrated additional aberrations, including CNAs (n=3) and/or LOHs (n=8). Three of 15 patients with AML and terminal LOH>10 Mb demonstrated a significantly inferior relapse-free survival rate (P=0.041). This study demonstrates that CGH+SNP microarray can simultaneously detect previously cryptic CNAs and LOH, which may demonstrate prognostic implications.
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Risk factors for delirium after spine surgery in elderly patients.
J Korean Neurosurg Soc
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2014
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Postoperative delirium is a common complication in the elderly after surgery but few papers have reported after spinal surgery. We analyzed various risk factors for postoperative delirium after spine surgery.
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Aligning population-based care management with chronic disease complexity.
Nurs Outlook
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2014
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Risk-stratified care management requires knowledge of the complexity of chronic disease and comorbidity, information that is often not readily available in the primary care setting. The purpose of this article was to describe a population-based approach to risk-stratified care management that could be applied in primary care.
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2,3-butanediol production from cellobiose by engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2014
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Production of renewable fuels and chemicals from cellulosic biomass is a critical step towards energy sustainability and reduced greenhouse gas emissions. Microbial cells have been engineered for producing chemicals from cellulosic sugars. Among these chemicals, 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BDO) is a compound of interest due to its diverse applications. While microbial production of 2,3-BDO with high yields and productivities has been reported, there are concerns associated with utilization of potential pathogenic bacteria and inefficient utilization of cellulosic sugars. To address these problems, we engineered 2,3-BDO production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, especially from cellobiose, a prevalent sugar in cellulosic hydrolysates. Specifically, we overexpressed alsS and alsD from Bacillus subtilis to convert pyruvate into 2,3-BDO via ?-acetolactate and acetoin in an engineered cellobiose fermenting S. cerevisiae. Under oxygen-limited conditions, the resulting strain was able to produce 2,3-BDO. Still, major carbon flux went to ethanol, resulting in substantial amounts of ethanol produced as a byproduct. To enhance pyruvate flux to 2,3-BDO through elimination of the pyruvate decarboxylation reaction, we employed a deletion mutant of both PDC1 and PDC5 for producing 2,3-BDO. When a cellobiose utilization pathway, consisting of a cellobiose transporter and intracellular ?-glucosidase, and the 2,3-BDO producing pathway were introduced in a pyruvate decarboxylase deletion mutant, the resulting strain produced 2,3-BDO without ethanol production from cellobiose under oxygen-limited conditions. A titer of 5.29 g/l 2,3-BDO with a productivity of 0.22 g/l h and yield of 0.29 g 2,3-BDO/g cellobiose was attained. These results suggest the possibility of producing 2,3-BDO safely and sustainably from cellulosic hydrolysates.
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A case report of seronegative cat scratch disease, emphasizing the histopathologic point of view.
Diagn Pathol
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2014
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Cat scratch disease, necrotizing granulomatous lymphadenitis caused by Bartonella henselae, usually benign and self-limited. However, various clinical manifestations and no pathognomonic histopathologic features can lead to misinterpretations and diagnostic disputes. We report a case of cat scratch disease in a 39-yr-old male patient with fever and left axillary lymphadenitis. He had a history of cat bite on the left hand dorsum. On excision, the lymph node showed follicular hyperplasia, stellate microabscesses with a rim of granulomatous inflammation. Warthin-Starry silver staining showed many clumps of silver-stained bacilli within the necrotic foci. Serological tests were negative. Diagnosis was established by PCR analysis.
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Clinical features of wrist drop caused by compressive radial neuropathy and its anatomical considerations.
J Korean Neurosurg Soc
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2014
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Posture-induced radial neuropathy, known as Saturday night palsy, occurs because of compression of the radial nerve. The clinical symptoms of radial neuropathy are similar to stroke or a herniated cervical disk, which makes it difficult to diagnose and sometimes leads to inappropriate evaluations. The purpose of our study was to establish the clinical characteristics and diagnostic assessment of compressive radial neuropathy.
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Dynamic cell culture on porous biopolymer microcarriers in a spinner flask for bone tissue engineering: a feasibility study.
Biotechnol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2014
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Porous microspherical carriers have great promise for cell culture and tissue engineering. Dynamic cultures enable more uniform cell population and effective differentiation than static cultures. Here we applied dynamic spinner flask culture for the loading and multiplication of cells onto porous biopolymer microcarriers. The abilities of the microcarriers to populate cells and to induce osteogenic differentiation were examined and the feasibility of in vivo delivery of the constructs was addressed. Over time, the porous microcarriers enabled cell adhesion and expansion under proper dynamic culture conditions. Osteogenic markers were substantially expressed by the dynamic cell cultures. The cell-cultured microcarriers implanted in the mouse subcutaneous tissue for 4 weeks showed excellent tissue compatibility, with minimal inflammatory signs and significant induction of bone tissues. This first report on dynamic culture of porous biopolymer microcarriers providing an effective tool for bone tissue engineering.
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Production of 2,3-butanediol from xylose by engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
J. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2014
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2,3-Butanediol (2,3-BD) production from xylose that is abundant in lignocellulosic hydrolyzate would make the production of 2,3-BD more sustainable and economical. Saccharomyces cerevisiae can produce only trace amounts of 2,3-BD, but also cannot ferment xylose. Therefore, it is necessary to introduce both 2,3-BD production and xylose assimilation pathways into S. cerevisiae for producing 2,3-BD from xylose. A pyruvate decarboxylase (Pdc)-deficient mutant (SOS4) was used as a host in order to increase carbon flux toward 2,3-BD instead of ethanol. The XYL1, XYL2, and XYL3 genes coding for xylose assimilating enzymes derived from Scheffersomyces stipitis were introduced into the SOS4 strain to enable xylose utilization. Additionally, the alsS and alsD genes from Bacillus subtilis and endogenous BDH1 gene were overexpressed to increase 2,3-BD production from xylose. As a result, the resulting strain (BD4X) produced 20.7g/L of 2,3-BD from xylose with a yield of 0.27g 2,3-BD/g xylose. The titer of 2,3-BD from xylose increased up to 43.6g/L under a fed-batch fermentation. The BD4X strain produced (R, R)-2,3-BD dominantly (>97% of the total 2,3-BD) with trace amounts of meso-2,3-BD. These results suggest that S. cerevisiae might be a promising host for producing 2,3-BD from lignocellulosic biomass for industrial applications.
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Circumferential submucosal incision prior to endoscopic mucosal resection provides comparable clinical outcomes to submucosal dissection for well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumors of the rectum.
Surg Endosc
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2014
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Small rectal neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) can be treated with endoscopic resection. Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) has been accepted as a reliable technique, but it is difficult. We evaluated the feasibility and efficacy of precut and endoscopic mucosal resection (CSI-EMR) for rectal NETs compared to ESD.
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A biosynthetic pathway for hexanoic acid production in Kluyveromyces marxianus.
J. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2014
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Hexanoic acid can be used for diverse industrial applications and is a precursor for fine chemistry. Although some natural microorganisms have been screened and evolved to produce hexanoic acid, the construction of an engineered biosynthetic pathway for producing hexanoic acid in yeast has not been reported. Here we constructed hexanoic acid pathways in Kluyveromyces marxianus by integrating 5 combinations of seven genes (AtoB, BktB, Crt, Hbd, MCT1, Ter, and TES1), by which random chromosomal sites of the strain are overwritten by the new genes from bacteria and yeast. One recombinant strain, H4A, which contained AtoB, BktB, Crt, Hbd, and Ter, produced 154mg/L of hexanoic acid from galactose as the sole substrate. However, the hexanoic acid produced by the H4A strain was re-assimilated during the fermentation due to the reverse activity of AtoB, which condenses two acetyl-CoAs into a single acetoacetyl-CoA. This product instability could be overcome by the replacement of AtoB with a malonyl CoA-acyl carrier protein transacylase (MCT1) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Our results suggest that Mct1 provides a slow but stable acetyl-CoA chain elongation pathway, whereas the AtoB-mediated route is fast but unstable. In conclusion, hexanoic acid was produced for the first time in yeast by the construction of chain elongation pathways comprising 5-7 genes in K. marxianus.
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Incidence of post-traumatic stress disorder after a mild traumatic brain injury: preliminary investigation using the brief neuropsychological screening test.
J Korean Neurosurg Soc
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2014
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Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a group of diseases that are observed in patients who had experienced a serious trauma or accident. However, some experienced it even after only a mild traumatic brain injury (TBI), and they are easily ignored due to the relatively favorable course of mild TBI. Herein, the authors investigated the incidence of PTSD in mild TBI using brief neuropsychological screening test (PTSD checklist, PCL).
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Electrical impedance spectroscopy for electro-mechanical characterization of conductive fabrics.
Sensors (Basel)
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2014
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When we use a conductive fabric as a pressure sensor, it is necessary to quantitatively understand its electromechanical property related with the applied pressure. We investigated electromechanical properties of three different conductive fabrics using the electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). We found that their electrical impedance spectra depend not only on the electrical properties of the conductive yarns, but also on their weaving structures. When we apply a mechanical tension or compression, there occur structural deformations in the conductive fabrics altering their apparent electrical impedance spectra. For a stretchable conductive fabric, the impedance magnitude increased or decreased under tension or compression, respectively. For an almost non-stretchable conductive fabric, both tension and compression resulted in decreased impedance values since the applied tension failed to elongate the fabric. To measure both tension and compression separately, it is desirable to use a stretchable conductive fabric. For any conductive fabric chosen as a pressure-sensing material, its resistivity under no loading conditions must be carefully chosen since it determines a measurable range of the impedance values subject to different amounts of loadings. We suggest the EIS method to characterize the electromechanical property of a conductive fabric in designing a thin and flexible fabric pressure sensor.
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Demographic and clinical characteristics of patients with restless legs syndrome in spine clinic.
J Korean Neurosurg Soc
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
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The restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common disorder affecting up to 5% to 15% of the general population, in which the incidence increases with age, and includes paresthesia in the legs. The purpose of this study is to investigate the incidence of RLS in spine center and to review clinical manifestations of this syndrome and its current treatments.
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Sensory complications in patients after scalp mass excision and its anatomical considerations.
J Korean Neurosurg Soc
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2014
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To evaluate the incidence of postsurgical sensory complications in patients with scalp masses and classify the locations of them from a surgical standpoint according to anatomical considerations.
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Strategies for osteochondral repair: Focus on scaffolds.
J Tissue Eng
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Interest in osteochondral repair has been increasing with the growing number of sports-related injuries, accident traumas, and congenital diseases and disorders. Although therapeutic interventions are entering an advanced stage, current surgical procedures are still in their infancy. Unlike other tissues, the osteochondral zone shows a high level of gradient and interfacial tissue organization between bone and cartilage, and thus has unique characteristics related to the ability to resist mechanical compression and restoration. Among the possible therapies, tissue engineering of osteochondral tissues has shown considerable promise where multiple approaches of utilizing cells, scaffolds, and signaling molecules have been pursued. This review focuses particularly on the importance of scaffold design and its role in the success of osteochondral tissue engineering. Biphasic and gradient composition with proper pore configurations are the basic design consideration for scaffolds. Surface modification is an essential technique to improve the scaffold function associated with cell regulation or delivery of signaling molecules. The use of functional scaffolds with a controllable delivery strategy of multiple signaling molecules is also considered a promising therapeutic approach. In this review, we updated the recent advances in scaffolding approaches for osteochondral tissue engineering.
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Squamous cell carcinoma of the small bowel manifesting as a jejunal perforation: a case report.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Squamous cell carcinoma arising from the small intestine is rare and difficult to identify as a primary or metastatic feature. We report a case of small intestinal squamous cell carcinoma manifesting as subacute peritonitis due to perforation. An 80-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with intermittent postprandial abdominal pain. He was diagnosed with acute peritonitis due to gastrointestinal perforation. During explorative laparotomy, a perforation site was detected in the jejunum and segmental resection to correct the perforation was performed including the perforation site located at the 70 cm inside the jejunum from the Treitz ligament. The pathology results revealed squamous cell carcinoma in the resected segment of the jejunum with two perforation sites.
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Enhanced production of 3-hydroxypropionic acid from glycerol by modulation of glycerol metabolism in recombinant Escherichia coli.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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3-Hydroxypropionic acid (3-HP) is a valuable biochemical with high potential for bioplastic manufacturing. The endogenous glycerol metabolism and by-product formation pathway in Escherichia coli were modulated to enhance 3-HP production from glycerol. Double deletion of glpK and yqhD directed the glycerol flux to 3-HP biosynthesis and reduced the formation of 1,3-propanediol. Since 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde (3-HPA), a precursor of 3-HP, is toxic to cell growth, the gene encoding Pseudomonas aeruginosa semialdehyde dehydrogenase (PSALDH) highly active on 3-HPA was expressed in E. coli. Finally, fed-batch culture of recombinant E. coli BL21star(DE3) without glpK and yqhD, and expressing Lactobacillus brevis DhaB-DhaR, and P. aeruginosa PSALDH resulted in 57.3g/L 3-HP concentration, 1.59g/L-h productivity and 0.88g/g yield. In conclusion, modulation of the glycerol metabolism in combination with enhanced activity of 3-HPA dehydrogenation improved the production of 3-HP from glycerol.
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Unrelated donor cord blood transplantation for non-malignant disorders in children and adolescents.
Pediatr Transplant
PUBLISHED: 11-22-2013
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This study analyzes the data reported to the Korean Cord Blood Registry between 1994 and 2008, involving children and adolescents with non-malignant diseases. Sixty-five patients were evaluated in this study: SAA (n = 24), iBMFS, (n = 16), and primary immune deficiency/inherited metabolic disorder (n = 25). The CI of neutrophil recovery was 73.3% on day 42. By day 100, the CI of acute grade II-IV graft-versus-host disease was 32.3%. At a median follow-up of 71 months, five-yr OS was 50.7%. The survival rate (37.5%) and CI of neutrophil engraftment (37.5%) were lowest in patients with iBMFS. Deaths were mainly due to infection, pulmonary complications, and hemorrhage. In a multivariate analysis, the presence of >3.91 × 10(5) /kg of infused CD34 +  cells was the only factor consistently identified as significantly associated with neutrophil engraftment (p = 0.04) and OS (p = 0.03). UCBT using optimal cell doses appears to be a feasible therapy for non-malignant diseases in children and adolescents for whom there is no appropriate HLA-matched related donor. Strategies to reduce transplant-related toxicities would improve the outcomes of UCBT in non-malignant diseases.
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Effect of human parathyroid hormone on hematopoietic progenitor cells in NOD/SCID mice co-transplanted with human cord blood mononuclear cells and mesenchymal stem cells.
Yonsei Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 10-30-2013
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We evaluated the effect of human parathyroid hormone (hPTH) on the engraftment and/or in vivo expansion of hematopoietic stem cells in an umbilical cord blood (UCB)-xenotransplantation model. In addition, we assessed its effect on the expression of cell adhesion molecules.
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Gene delivery techniques for adult stem cell-based regenerative therapy.
Nanomedicine (Lond)
PUBLISHED: 10-26-2013
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Over the past decade, stem cells have been considered to be a promising resource to cure and regenerate damaged or diseased tissues with research extending from basic studies to clinical application. Furthermore, genetically modified stem cells have the potential to reduce tumorigenic risks and achieve safe tissue formation. Recent advances in genetic modification of stem cells have rendered these cells more accessible and stable. The successful genetic modification of stem cells relies heavily on designing vector systems, either viral or nonviral vectors, which can efficiently deliver therapeutic genes to the cells with minimum toxicity. Currently, viral vectors showing high transfection efficiencies still raise safety issues, whereas safer nonviral vectors exhibit extremely poor transfection in stem cells. Here, we attempt to review and discuss the main factors raising concern in previous reports, and devise strategies to solve the issues in gene delivery systems for successful stem cell-targeting regenerative therapy.
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Metal artifact reduction in CT by identifying missing data hidden in metals.
J Xray Sci Technol
PUBLISHED: 09-06-2013
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There is increasing demand in the field of dental and medical radiography for effective metal artifact reduction (MAR) in computed tomography (CT) because artifact caused by metallic objects causes serious image degradation that obscures information regarding the teeth and/or other biological structures. This paper presents a new MAR method that uses the Laplacian operator to reveal background projection data hidden in regions containing data from metal. In the proposed method, we attempted to decompose the projection data into two parts: data from metal only (metal data), and background data in the absence of metal. Removing metal data from the projections enables us to perform sparsity-driven reconstruction of the metal component and subsequent removal of the metal artifact. The results of clinical experiments demonstrated that the proposed MAR algorithm improves image quality and increases the standard of 3D reconstruction images of the teeth and mandible.
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Molecular cloning and expression of fungal cellobiose transporters and ?-glucosidases conferring efficient cellobiose fermentation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
J. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2013
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Cellobiose was once regarded as a byproduct that should be removed from biomass hydrolysates because of its inhibitory activity to cellulases. It was revealed, however, that cellobiose could serve as a co-substrate for xylose fermentation by engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Despite its advantages, to date, little is known about cellodextrin transporters that endow S. cerevisiae with cellobiose transporting ability. In this study, engineered S. cerevisiae strains capable of fermenting cellobiose were constructed by expressing various fungal cellobiose transporters and intracellular ?-glucosidases. Among them, the strain expressing a putative sugar transporter from Penicillium chrysogenum (Pc_ST) and ?-glucosidase from Thielavia terrestris (Tt_BG) showed an improved cellobiose fermentation performance compared to the strain expressing a cellodextrin transporter from Neurospora crassa (Nc_CDT-1) and ?-glucosidase from N. crassa (Nc_GH1-1). Cellobiose fermentation by S. cerevisiae Pc_ST/Tt_BG under microaerobic conditions resulted in 14.5±0.5g/L of final ethanol concentration with a yield of 0.37±0.01g ethanol/g cellobiose, which are 22% and 26% higher than the corresponding values of S. cerevisiae Nc_CDT-1/Nc_GH1-1. These results suggest that the yield and rate of cellobiose fermentation can be improved by adopting optimal pairs of cellobiose transporters and ?-glucosidase.
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High CXCR4 and low VLA-4 expression predicts poor survival in adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Leuk. Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2013
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Data regarding the prognostic significance of CXCR4 and VLA-4 in ALL are limited. Especially, VLA-4 has not been evaluated at the time of diagnosis in both adult and childhood ALL patients. We prospectively analyzed the expression of VLA-4 and CXCR4 in 54 patients (VLA-4 in 29 adults and 25 children and CXCR4 in 22 adults and 24 children) newly diagnosed with ALL by flow cytometry. Expression levels of VLA-4 and CXCR4 were not different between adults and children with ALL. High CXCR4 and low VLA-4 expression each correlated with worse prognosis in adults; patients with high CXCR4 expression had shorter disease-free survival (p=0.01) and overall survival (p=0.04) and patients with low VLA-4 expression had shorter disease-free survival (p=0.02). Expression levels of CXCR4 and VLA-4 did not predict patient prognosis in children. Analysis of CXCR4 and VLA-4 expression at diagnosis in adults with ALL can provide useful information on patient prognosis.
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Effects of signal sequences and folding accessory proteins on extracellular expression of carboxypeptidase Y in recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
Bioprocess Biosyst Eng
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2013
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Carboxypeptidase Y (CPY) is a yeast vacuolar protease with useful applications including C-terminal sequencing of peptides and terminal modification of target proteins. To overexpress CPY with the pro-sequence (proCPY) encoded by the Saccharomyces cerevisiae PRC1 gene in recombinant S. cerevisiae, the proCPY gene was combined with the gene coding for a signal sequence of S. cerevisiae mating factor ? (MF?), invertase (SUC2), or Kluyveromyces marxianus inulinase (INU1). Among the three constructs, the MF? signal sequence gave the best specific activity of extracellular CPY. To enhance the CPY expression level, folding accessory proteins of Kar2p, Pdi1p and Ero1p located in the S. cerevisiae endoplasmic reticulum were expressed individually and combinatorially. A single expression of Kar2p led to a 28 % enhancement in extracellular CPY activity, relative to the control strain of S. cerevisiae CEN.PK2-1D/p426Gal1-MF?CPY. Coexpression of Kar2p, Pdi1p and Ero1p gave a synergistic effect on CPY expression, of which activity was 1.7 times higher than that of the control strain. This work showed that engineering of signal sequences and protein-folding proteins would be helpful to overexpress yeast proteins of interest.
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Molecular cloning and characterization of two novel fructose-specific transporters from the osmotolerant and fructophilic yeast Candida magnoliae JH110.
Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2013
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Sugar transport is very critical in developing an efficient and rapid conversion process of a mixture of sugars by engineered microorganisms. By using expressed sequence tag data generated for the fructophilic yeast Candida magnoliae JH110, we identified two fructose-specific transporters, CmFSY1 and CmFFZ1, which show high homology with known fructose transporters of other yeasts. The CmFSY1 and CmFFZ1 genes harbor no introns and encode proteins of 574 and 582 amino acids, respectively. Heterologous expression of the two fructose-specific transporter genes in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which is unable to utilize hexoses, revealed that both transporters are functionally expressed and specifically transport fructose. These results were further corroborated by kinetic analysis of the fructose transport that showed that CmFsy1p is a high-affinity fructose-proton symporter with low capacity (K M?=?0.13?±?0.01 mM, V max?=?2.1?±?0.3 mmol h(-1) [gdw](-1)) and that CmFfz1p is a low-affinity fructose-specific facilitator with high capacity (K M?=?105?±?12 mM, V max?=?8.6?±?0.7 mmol h(-1) [gdw](-1)). These fructose-specific transporters can be used for improving fructose transport in engineered microorganisms for the production of biofuels and chemicals from fructose-containing feedstock.
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Production of 2,3-butanediol by engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2013
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In order to produce 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BD) with a high titer, it is necessary to engineer Saccharomyces cerevisiae by deleting the competing pathway and overexpressing the 2,3-BD biosynthetic pathway. A pyruvate decarboxylase (Pdc)-deficient mutant was constructed and evolved for rapid glucose consumption without ethanol production. Genome re-sequencing of the evolved strain (SOS4) revealed a point mutation (A81P) in MTH1 coding for a transcriptional regulator involved in glucose sensing, unlike the previously reported Pdc-deficient mutant which had internal deletion in MTH1. When alsS and alsD genes from Bacillus subtilis, and endogenous BDH1 gene were overexpressed in SOS4, the resulting strain (BD4) not only produced 2,3-BD efficiently, but also consumed glucose faster than the parental strain. In fed-batch fermentation with optimum aeration, 2,3-BD concentration increased up to 96.2 g/L. These results suggest that S. cerevisiae might be a promising host for producing 2,3-BD for industrial applications.
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Differential clinical characteristics of acute liver failure caused by hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis in children.
Pediatr Int
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2013
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Children with acute liver failure (ALF) caused by hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) may be at risk of undergoing unnecessary liver transplantation (LT). The aim of this study was to compare the characteristics of ALF caused by HLH with those of ALF of unknown etiology in children.
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A local region of interest imaging method for electrical impedance tomography with internal electrodes.
Comput Math Methods Med
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2013
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Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) is a very attractive functional imaging method despite the low sensitivity and resolution. The use of internal electrodes with the conventional reconstruction algorithms was not enough to enhance image resolution and accuracy in the region of interest (ROI). We propose a local ROI imaging method with internal electrodes developed from careful analysis of the sensitivity matrix that is designed to reduce the sensitivity of the voxels outside the local region and optimize the sensitivity of the voxel inside the local region. We perform numerical simulations and physical measurements to demonstrate the localized EIT imaging method. In preliminary results with multiple objects we show the benefits of using an internal electrode and the improved resolution due to the local ROI image reconstruction method. The sensitivity is further increased by allowing the surface electrodes to be unevenly spaced with a higher density of surface electrodes near the ROI. Also, we analyse how much the image quality is improved using several performance parameters for comparison. While these have not yet been studied in depth, it convincingly shows an improvement in local sensitivity in images obtained with an internal electrode in comparison to a standard reconstruction method.
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Rapid progression of solitary plasmacytoma to multiple myeloma in lumbar vertebra.
J Korean Neurosurg Soc
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2013
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The prognosis of solitary plasmacytoma varies greatly, with some patients recovering after surgical removal or local fractional radiation therapy, and others progressing to multiple myeloma years later. Primary detection of progression to multiple myeloma is important in the treatment of solitary plasmacytoma. There have been several analyses of the risk factors involved in the early progression to multiple myeloma. We describe one case of solitary plasmacytoma of the lumbar vertebra that was treated with surgical decompression with stabilization and additional radiotherapy. The patient had no factors associated with rapid progression to multiple myeloma such as age, size, immunologic results, pathological findings, and serum free light chain ratio at the time of diagnosis. However, his condition progressed to multiple myeloma less than two months after the initial diagnosis of solitary plasmacytoma. We suggest that surgeons should be vigilant in watching for rapid progression to multiple myeloma even in case that the patient with solitary plasmacytoma has no risk factors for rapid progression to multiple myeloma.
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Effects of oxygen supply and mixed sugar concentration on D-ribose production by a transketolase-deficient Bacillus subtilis SPK1.
J. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2013
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D-Ribose is a value-added five-carbon sugar used for riboflavin production. To investigate the effects of oxygen supply and mixed sugar concentration on microbial production of D-ribose, a transketolase-deficient Bacillus subtilis SPK1 was cultured batch-wise using xylose and glucose. A change of agitation speed from 300 rpm to 600 rpm at 1 vvm of air supply increased both the xylose consumption rate and D-ribose production rate. Because the sum of the specific consumption rates for xylose and glucose was similar at all agitation speeds, metabolic preferences between xylose and glucose might depend on oxygen supply. Although B. subtilis SPK1 can take up xylose and glucose by the active transport mechanism, a high initial concentration of xylose and glucose was not beneficial for high D-ribose production.
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Skeletal muscle metastases from breast cancer: two case reports.
J Breast Cancer
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2013
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The skeletal muscle is an unusual site for metastasis from breast cancer. We present two cases of breast cancer that relapsed as skeletal muscle metastasis without other distant organ metastasis. We performed the core needle biopsy of metastatic sites and confirmed discordance in estrogen receptor, progesterone receptors, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 expression between primary breast cancer and skeletal muscle metastases. In the second case, we found the skeletal muscle metastasis through F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography scans (PET/CT). Intramuscular hot spots on PET/CT scans should be considered as a sign of metastasis even in the absence of abnormalities on computed tomography scans. Our patients received systemic chemotherapy, and showed a partial response. Further studies are needed to determine the prognosis and proper management of isolated skeletal muscle metastasis in breast cancer.
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Rupture of a pseudoaneurysm as a rare cause of severe postpartum hemorrhage: analysis of 11 cases and a review of the literature.
Eur. J. Obstet. Gynecol. Reprod. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2013
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To clarify the clinical features of severe postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) resulting from a ruptured pseudoaneurysm and to determine the efficacy of selective arterial embolization as a method of management.
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Investigation of protein expression profiles of erythritol-producing Candida magnoliae in response to glucose perturbation.
Enzyme Microb. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2013
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Protein expression patterns of an erythritol-producing yeast, Candida magnoliae, were analyzed to identify differentially expressed proteins in response to glucose perturbation. Specifically, wild type C. magnoliae was grown under high and low glucose conditions and the cells were harvested at both mid-exponential and erythritol production phases for proteomic studies. In order to analyze intracellular protein abundances from the harvested cells quantitatively, total intracellular proteins were extracted and applied to two-dimensional gel electrophoresis for separation and visualization of individual proteins. Among the proteins distributed in the range of pI 4-7 and molecular weight 29-97kDa, five osmo-responsive proteins were drastically changed in response to glucose perturbation. Hsp60 (Heat-shock protein 60), transaldolase and NADH:quinone oxidoreductase were down-regulated under the high glucose condition and Bro1 (BCK1-like Resistance to Osmotic shock) and Eno1 (enolase1) were up-regulated. These proteins are directly or indirectly related with cellular stress response. Importantly, protein expression patterns of Hsp60, Bro1 and Eno1 were strongly correlated with previous studies identifying the proteins perturbed by osmotic stress for other organisms including Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
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Generation of demyelination models by targeted ablation of oligodendrocytes in the zebrafish CNS.
Mol. Cells
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2013
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Demyelination is the pathological process by which myelin sheaths are lost from around axons, and is usually caused by a direct insult targeted at the oligodendrocytes in the vertebrate central nervous system (CNS). A demyelinated CNS is usually remyelinated by a population of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells, which are widely distributed throughout the adult CNS. However, myelin disruption and remyelination failure affect the normal function of the nervous system, causing human diseases such as multiple sclerosis. In spite of numerous studies aimed at understanding the remyelination process, many questions still remain unanswered. Therefore, to study remyelination mechanisms in vivo, a demyelination animal model was generated using a transgenic zebrafish system in which oligodendrocytes are conditionally ablated in the larval and adult CNS. In this transgenic system, bacterial nitroreductase enzyme (NTR), which converts the prodrug metronidazole (Mtz) into a cytotoxic DNA cross-linking agent, is expressed in oligodendrocyte lineage cells under the control of the mbp and sox10 promoter. Exposure of transgenic zebrafish to Mtz-containing media resulted in rapid ablation of oligodendrocytes and CNS demyelination within 48 h, but removal of Mtz medium led to efficient remyelination of the demyelinated CNS within 7 days. In addition, the demyelination and remyelination processes could be easily observed in living transgenic zebrafish by detecting the fluorescent protein, mCherry, indicating that this transgenic system can be used as a valuable animal model to study the remyelination process in vivo, and to conduct high-throughput primary screens for new drugs that facilitate remyelination.
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Simultaneous integration of multiple genes into the Kluyveromyces marxianus chromosome.
J. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2013
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While Kluyveromyces marxianus is a promising yeast strain for biotechnological applications, genetic engineering of this strain is still challenging, especially when multiple genes are to be transformed. Sequential gene integration, which takes advantage of repetitive insertion/excision of the URA3 gene as a marker, has been the best option until now, because the URA3-deletion mutant is the only precondition for this method. However, we found that the introduced gene is co-excised during the URA3 excision step for next gene introduction, resulting in a very low cumulative probability (<1.57×10?? % for 4 genes) of integrating all genes of interest. To overcome this extremely low probability, and to reduce labor and time, all 4 genes were simultaneously transformed. Surprisingly, the infamously high non-homologous end joining activity of K. marxianus enabled simultaneous integration of all 4 genes in a single step, with a probability of 7.9%. Various K. marxianus strains could also be similarly transformed. Our finding not only reduces the labor and time required for such procedures, but also removes a number of preconditions, such as pre-made vectors, selection markers and knockout mutants, which are needed to introduce many genes into K. marxianus.
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Enhanced lignin biodegradation by a laccase-overexpressed white-rot fungus Polyporus brumalis in the pretreatment of wood chips.
Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2013
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The laccase gene of Polyporus brumalis was genetically transformed to overexpress its laccase. The transformants exhibited increased laccase activity and effective decolorization of the dye Remazol Brilliant Blue R than the wild type. When the transformants were pretreated with wood chips from a red pine (softwood) and a tulip tree (hardwood) for 15 and 45 days, they showed higher lignin-degradation activity as well as higher wood-chip weight loss than the wild type. When the wood chips treated with the transformant were enzymatically saccharified, the highest sugar yields were found to be 32.5 % for the red pine wood and 29.5 % for the tulip tree wood, on the basis of the dried wood weights, which were 1.6-folds higher than those for the wild type. These results suggested that overexpression of the laccase gene from P. brumalis significantly contributed to the pretreatment of lignocellulose for increasing sugar yields.
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Clinical characteristics of peroneal nerve palsy by posture.
J Korean Neurosurg Soc
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2013
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Posture induced common peroneal nerve (CPN) palsy is usually produced during the prolonged squatting or habitual leg crossing while seated, especially in Asian culture and is manifested by the onset of foot drop. Because of its similarity to discogenic foot drop, patients may be diagnosed with a lumbar disc disorder, and in some patients, surgeons may perform unnecessary examinations and even spine surgery. The purpose of our study is to establish the clinical characteristics and diagnostic assessment of posture induced CPN palsy.
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Strain engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for enhanced xylose metabolism.
Biotechnol. Adv.
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2013
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Efficient and rapid fermentation of all sugars present in cellulosic hydrolysates is essential for economic conversion of renewable biomass into fuels and chemicals. Xylose is one of the most abundant sugars in cellulosic biomass but it cannot be utilized by wild type Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which has been used for industrial ethanol production. Therefore, numerous technologies for strain development have been employed to engineer S. cerevisiae capable of fermenting xylose rapidly and efficiently. These include i) optimization of xylose-assimilating pathways, ii) perturbation of gene targets for reconfiguring yeast metabolism, and iii) simultaneous co-fermentation of xylose and cellobiose. In addition, the genetic and physiological background of host strains is an important determinant to construct efficient and rapid xylose-fermenting S. cerevisiae. Vibrant and persistent researches in this field for the last two decades not only led to the development of engineered S. cerevisiae strains ready for industrial fermentation of cellulosic hydrolysates, but also deepened our understanding of operational principles underlying yeast metabolism.
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Recent progress and future challenges in MR electric properties tomography.
Comput Math Methods Med
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2013
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MR Electric Properties Tomography (EPT) is a lately developed medical imaging modality capable of visualizing both conductivity and permittivity of the patient at the Larmor frequency using B 1 maps. The paper discusses the development of EPT reconstructions, EPT sequences, EPT experiments, and challenging issues of EPT.
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Molecular characterization of manganese peroxidases from white-rot fungus Polyporus brumalis.
Bioprocess Biosyst Eng
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2013
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The cDNAs of six manganese-dependent peroxidases (MnPs) were isolated from white-rot fungus Polyporus brumalis. The MnP proteins shared similar properties with each other in terms of size (approximately 360-365 amino acids) and primary structure, showing 62-96 % amino acid sequence identity. RT-PCR analysis indicated that these six genes were predominantly expressed in shallow stationary culture (SSC) in a liquid medium. Gene expression was induced by treatment with dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and wood chips. Expression of pbmnp4 was strongly induced by both treatments, whereas that of pbmnp5 was induced only by DBP, while pbmnp6 was induced by wood chips only. Then, we overexpressed pbmnp4 in P. brumalis under the control of the GPD promoter. Overexpression of pbmnp4 effectively increased MnP activity; the transformant that had the highest MnP activity also demonstrated the most effective decolorization of Remazol Brilliant Blue R dye. Identification of MnP cDNAs can contribute to the efficient production of lignin-degradation enzymes and may lead to utilization of basidiomycetous fungi for degradation of lignin and numerous recalcitrant xenobiotics.
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Military Rank and the Symptoms of Lumbar Disc Herniation in Young Korean Soldiers.
World Neurosurg
PUBLISHED: 02-02-2013
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OBJECTIVE: There are many factors associated with the symptom presentation of lumbar disc herniation (LDH). However, there are only few reports regarding the clinical feature of LDH in military medicine. The objective of this study is to determine the factors that affected the symptoms of LDH in young Korean soldiers. METHODS: One hundred thirty male soldiers, diagnosed with LDH, were enrolled in this study. They were divided into four groups, according to their military ranks: private, private first class, corporal, and sergeant. The visual analog scale for low back pain (VAS-LBP), the VAS for leg pain (VAS-LP), and the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) were evaluated. The education level and military rank were also reviewed and their relationship with the degree of symptoms was investigated. RESULTS: The mean age for the male subjects enrolled was 20.7 ± 1.2. The mean VAS-LBP, VAS-LP, and ODI were 6.6% ± 1.7%, 7.1% ± 1.9%, and 46.0% ± 16.3%, respectively. There was no statistically significant relationship between the degree of symptoms and the radiologic findings. However, the military rank had an inverse correlation with the VAS scores and the ODI (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Our data showed that the military rank was associated with the symptom presentation of LDH and reflected the characteristics of military life.
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Engineering of NADPH regenerators in Escherichia coli for enhanced biotransformation.
Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2013
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Efficient regeneration of NADPH is one of the limiting factors that constrain the productivity of biotransformation processes. In order to increase the availability of NADPH for enhanced biotransformation by engineered Escherichia coli, modulation of the pentose phosphate pathway and amplification of the transhydrogenases system have been conventionally attempted as primary solutions. Recently, other approaches for stimulating NADPH regeneration during glycolysis, such as replacement of native glyceradehdye-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) with NADP-dependent GAPDH from Clostridium acetobutylicum and introduction of NADH kinase catalyzing direct phosphorylation of NADH to NADPH from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, were attempted and resulted in remarkable impacts on NADPH-dependent bioprocesses. This review summarizes several metabolic engineering approaches used for improving the NADPH regenerating capacity in engineered E. coli for whole-cell-based bioprocesses and discusses the key features and progress of those attempts.
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Construction of an efficient xylose-fermenting diploid Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain through mating of two engineered haploid strains capable of xylose assimilation.
J. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2013
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Saccharomyces cerevisiae can be engineered for xylose fermentation through introduction of wild type or mutant genes (XYL1/XYL1 (R276H), XYL2, and XYL3) coding for xylose metabolic enzymes from Scheffersomyces stipitis. The resulting engineered strains, however, often yielded undesirable phenotypes such as slow xylose assimilation and xylitol accumulation. In this study, we performed the mating of two engineered strains that exhibit suboptimal xylose-fermenting phenotypes in order to develop an improved xylose-fermenting diploid strain. Specifically, we obtained two engineered haploid strains (YSX3 and SX3). The YSX3 strain consumed xylose rapidly and produced a lot of xylitol. On the contrary, the SX3 strain consumed xylose slowly with little xylitol production. After converting the mating type of SX3 from alpha to a, the resulting strain (SX3-2) was mated with YSX3 to construct a heterozygous diploid strain (KSM). The KSM strain assimilated xylose (0.25gxyloseh(-1)gcells(-1)) as fast as YSX3 and accumulated a small amount of xylitol (0.03ggxylose(-1)) as low as SX3, resulting in an improved ethanol yield (0.27ggxylose(-1)). We found that the improvement in xylose fermentation by the KSM strain was not because of heterozygosity or genome duplication but because of the complementation of the two xylose-metabolic pathways. This result suggested that mating of suboptimal haploid strains is a promising strategy to develop engineered yeast strains with improved xylose fermenting capability.
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Excellent outcome of haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in children and adolescents with acquired severe aplastic anemia.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2013
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We evaluated the outcome of children and adolescents with acquired severe aplastic anemia (SAA) who received haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HHCT) with in vitro T cell-depleted peripheral blood stem cells. Twelve patients with acquired SAA received a total of 15 HHCTs with in vitro CD3-depleted grafts between July 2009 and July 2012. Among the 12 patients, 11 achieved neutrophil engraftment at a median of 10 days (range, 9 to 13 days) after HHCT. One patient failed to achieve primary engraftment, and two experienced graft rejection soon after engraftment. All three patients who experienced early graft failure received a second HHCT and achieved sustained engraftment. Thus, the final engraftment rate was 100%. Acute graft-versus-host disease was assessed in 9 patients, excluding the 3 patients with early graft failure. Three of these patients developed acute graft-versus-host disease (two ? grade II and one with grade III). All 12 patients survived and were transfusion-independent at a median follow-up of 14.3 months (range, 4.1 to 40.7 months). Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation from haploidentical family donors with in vitro CD3 T cell depletion is a reasonable therapeutic option for children and adolescents with acquired SAA. Our future trial with a uniform protocol will help to solve the problems associated with HHCT and provide a valuable platform for the further development of HHCT as a therapy for SAA.
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Three-dimensional vector analysis of mandibular structural asymmetry.
J Craniomaxillofac Surg
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2013
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The three-dimensional (3D) asymmetric structure of the mandible makes it necessary to analyze both its size and angle. Currently the developing 3D analysis techniques are not able to perform the simultaneous linear and angular measurements. Our aim was to evaluate mandibular asymmetry using a vector-based system by constructing 3D vectors for the mandibular functional units.
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Pre-engraftment syndrome after unrelated cord blood transplantation: a predictor of engraftment and acute graft-versus-host disease.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2013
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Pre-engraftment syndrome (PES) is poorly characterized, and its clinical significance and the prognostic impact after unrelated cord blood transplantation (CBT) are unclear. To address these issues, we retrospectively analyzed the incidence, risk factors, and clinical outcomes of PES in unrelated CBT recipients. Data of 381 patients who received unrelated CBT from 18 medical centers in Korea were reviewed. PES was defined as unexplained fever >38.3°C not associated with infection, and/or unexplained skin rash with or without evidence of fluid retention before neutrophil recovery. PES developed in 102 patients (26.8%) at a median of 7 days after CBT. Of these patients, 74 patients (72.5%) received intravenous corticosteroid at a median dose of 1 mg/kg/day, and of these, 95% showed clinical improvement. Risk factors for developing PES included low risk disease, myeloablative conditioning, graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis without methotrexate or corticosteroid, and >5.43 x 10(7)/kg infused nucleated cells. Absence of PES was one of the risk factors for graft failure in multivariate analysis. The cumulative incidence of grade II to grade IV acute GVHD by 100 days after CBT was higher in patients with PES than in those without PES (56.0% versus 34.4%, P < .01). PES was not associated with chronic GVHD, treatment-related mortality, relapse, or overall survival. PES seems to be common after CBT and may be associated with enhanced engraftment without significant morbidity.
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Effective admittivity of biological tissues as a coefficient of elliptic PDE.
Comput Math Methods Med
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2013
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The electrical properties of biological tissues can be described by a complex tensor comprising a simple expression of the effective admittivity. The effective admittivities of biological tissues depend on scale, applied frequency, proportions of extra- and intracellular fluids, and membrane structures. The effective admittivity spectra of biological tissue can be used as a means of characterizing tissue structural information relating to the biological cell suspensions, and therefore measuring the frequency-dependent effective conductivity is important for understanding tissues physiological conditions and structure. Although the concept of effective admittivity has been used widely, it seems that its precise definition has been overlooked. We consider how we can determine the effective admittivity for a cube-shaped object with several different biologically relevant compositions. These precise definitions of effective admittivity may suggest the ways of measuring it from boundary current and voltage data. As in the homogenization theory, the effective admittivity can be computed from pointwise admittivity by solving Maxwell equations. We compute the effective admittivity of simple models as a function of frequency to obtain Maxwell-Wagner interface effects and Debye relaxation starting from mathematical formulations. Finally, layer potentials are used to obtain the Maxwell-Wagner-Fricke expression for a dilute suspension of ellipses and membrane-covered spheres.
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Metabolic engineering of Corynebacterium glutamicum to produce GDP-L-fucose from glucose and mannose.
Bioprocess Biosyst Eng
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2013
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Wild-type Corynebacterium glutamicum was metabolically engineered to convert glucose and mannose into guanosine 5-diphosphate (GDP)-L-fucose, a precursor of fucosyl-oligosaccharides, which are involved in various biological and pathological functions. This was done by introducing the gmd and wcaG genes of Escherichia coli encoding GDP-D-mannose-4,6-dehydratase and GDP-4-keto-6-deoxy-D-mannose-3,5-epimerase-4-reductase, respectively, which are known as key enzymes in the production of GDP-L-fucose from GDP-D-mannose. Coexpression of the genes allowed the recombinant C. glutamicum cells to produce GDP-L-fucose in a minimal medium containing glucose and mannose as carbon sources. The specific product formation rate was much higher during growth on mannose than on glucose. In addition, the specific product formation rate was further increased by coexpressing the endogenous phosphomanno-mutase gene (manB) and GTP-mannose-1-phosphate guanylyl-transferase gene (manC), which are involved in the conversion of mannose-6-phosphate into GDP-D-mannose. However, the overexpression of manA encoding mannose-6-phosphate isomerase, catalyzing interconversion of mannose-6-phosphate and fructose-6-phosphate showed a negative effect on formation of the target product. Overall, coexpression of gmd, wcaG, manB and manC in C. glutamicum enabled production of GDP-L-fucose at the specific rate of 0.11 mg g cell(-1) h(-1). The specific GDP-L-fucose content reached 5.5 mg g cell(-1), which is a 2.4-fold higher than that of the recombinant E. coli overexpressing gmd, wcaG, manB and manC under comparable conditions. Well-established metabolic engineering tools may permit optimization of the carbon and cofactor metabolisms of C. glutamicum to further improve their production capacity.
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Presence of differentiating neuroblasts in bone marrow is a favorable prognostic factor for bone marrow metastatic neuroblastoma at diagnosis.
Ann Lab Med
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2013
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The prognostic impact of the presence of differentiating neuroblasts in bone marrow (BM) remains unclear in BM metastatic neuroblastoma (NB). We aimed to identify the prognostic impact of differentiating neuroblasts in BM at diagnosis and after chemotherapy.
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Failed transarterial embolization of subserosal uterine arteriovenous malformation.
Obstet Gynecol Sci
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2013
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Uterine arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is rare but potentially life-threatening from excessive vaginal bleeding. All uterine AVMs reported to date have been found in the endometrial or myometrial layers. Here we present a patient with a subserosal type AVM on the fundus of uterus, which spontaneously ruptured.
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Registered nurse scope of practice and ED complaint-specific protocols.
J Emerg Nurs
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2013
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The use of complaint-specific protocols (CSPs) by emergency registered nurses (RNs) can improve ED efficiency. However, RN practice is influenced by regulatory environments that may facilitate or inhibit the use of protocols. The purpose of this policy analysis was to explore the language of state boards of nursing scope-of-practice documents related to the use of RN-initiated CSPs in the ED setting.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.