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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Benzimidazole derivatives: Selective fluorescent chemosensor for the picogram detection of picric acid.
J. Org. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-12-2014
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1,3,5-Tri(1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)benzene derivatives as a new kind of fluorescent chemosensors for the detection of nitroaromatic explosives are designed and synthesized by simple N-hydrocarbylation. Among 16 obtained compounds, compound 4g has the best detection effect for picric acid (PA) with good selectivity and high sensitivity. The detection of PA with 4g solution-coated paper strips at picogram level is developed. A simple, portable and low-cost method for detecting PA in solution and contact mode is provided.
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Sub-20 nm-Fe3O4 square and circular nanoplates: synthesis and facet-dependent magnetic and electrochemical properties.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 11-10-2014
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We present an effective method to synthesize 15 nm magnetite nanocrystals with the morphology of square and circular nanoplates, which expose (001) facet and (111) facet, respectively. The magnetic property and electrochemical behavior towards As(iii) exhibit strong facet-dependent characteristics. Theoretical calculations confirm the facet-dependent characteristics and provide the corresponding explanations.
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Safety of Brucea javanica and Cantharidin Combined with Chemotherapy for Treatment of NSCLC Patients.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 11-07-2014
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To assess the safety of Brucea javanica and Cantharidin combined with chemotherapy in treating patients with non-small-cell lung carcinoma.
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Stat3-Efemp2a modulates the fibrillar matrix for cohesive movement of prechordal plate progenitors.
Development
PUBLISHED: 11-06-2014
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Recently, emerging evidence has shown that Stat3 controls tumor cell migration and invasion. However, the molecular mechanisms by which Stat3 controls the cell movement remain largely unknown. Embryonic gastrula progenitors display coordinated and orientated migration, called collective cell migration. Collective cell migration is the simultaneous movement of multiple cells and is universally involved in physiological and pathological programs. Stat3 activity is required for the migration of gastrula progenitors, but it does not affect cell specification, thus suggesting that gastrula movements are an excellent model to provide insight into Stat3 control of cell migration in vivo. In this study, we reveal a novel mechanism by which Stat3 modulates extracellular matrix (ECM) assembly to control the coherence of collective migration of prechordal plate progenitors during zebrafish embryonic gastrulation. We show that Stat3 regulates the expression of Efemp2a in the prechordal plate progenitors that migrate anteriorly during gastrulation. Alteration of Stat3-Efemp2a signaling activity disrupted the configuration of fibronectin (FN) and laminin (LM) matrices, resulting in defective coherence of prechordal plate progenitor movements in zebrafish embryos. We demonstrate that Efemp2a acts as a downstream effector of Stat3 to promote ECM configuration for coherent collective cell migrations in vivo.
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Leucogen Tablets at 60 mg Three Times per Day are Safe and Effective to Control Febrile Neutropenia.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2014
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To investigate whether it is safe to use leucogen tablets 60 mg three times per day (180 mg for a day) and whether this regimen could reduce the incidence of febrile neutropenia caused by chemotherapy.
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[Effects of twirling-rotating reinforcing and reducing technique for left ventricular morphology, concentration of ET-1 and expression of type I, III collagen mRNA in spontaneous hypertensive rats].
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2014
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To explore the effect differences between twirling-rotating reinforcing and reducing technique of acupuncture on cardiac damage in spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR).
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Copper/Silver-Mediated Direct ortho-Ethynylation of Unactivated (Hetero)aryl C?H Bonds with Terminal Alkyne.
Chemistry
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2014
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A copper/silver-mediated oxidative ortho-ethynylation of unactivated aryl C?H bonds with terminal alkyne has been developed. The reaction uses the removable PIP directing group and features broad substrate scope, high functional-group tolerance, and compatibility with a wide range of heterocycles, providing an efficient synthesis of aryl alkynes. This procedure highlights the potential of copper catalysts to promote unique, synthetically enabling C?H functionalization reactions that lie outside of the current scope of precious metal catalysis.
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Activation of EGFR, HER2 and HER3 by neurotensin/neurotensin receptor 1 renders breast tumors aggressive yet highly responsive to lapatinib and metformin in mice.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2014
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A present challenge in breast oncology research is to identify therapeutical targets which could impact tumor progression. Neurotensin (NTS) and its high affinity receptor (NTSR1) are up regulated in 20% of breast cancers, and NTSR1 overexpression was shown to predict a poor prognosis for 5 year overall survival in invasive breast carcinomas. Interactions between NTS and NTSR1 induce pro-oncogenic biological effects associated with neoplastic processes and tumor progression. Here, we depict the cellular mechanisms activated by NTS, and contributing to breast cancer cell aggressiveness. We show that neurotensin (NTS) and its high affinity receptor (NTSR1) contribute to the enhancement of experimental tumor growth and metastasis emergence in an experimental mice model. This effect ensued following EGFR, HER2, and HER3 over-expression and autocrine activation and was associated with an increase of metalloproteinase MMP9, HB-EGF and Neuregulin 2 in the culture media. EGFR over expression ensued in a more intense response to EGF on cellular migration and invasion. Accordingly, lapatinib, an EGFR/HER2 tyrosine kinase inhibitor, as well as metformin, reduced the tumor growth of cells overexpressing NTS and NTSR1. All cellular effects, such as adherence, migration, invasion, altered by NTS/NTSR1 were abolished by a specific NTSR1 antagonist. A strong statistical correlation between NTS-NTSR1-and HER3 (p< 0.0001) as well as NTS-NTSR1-and HER3- HER2 (p< 0.001) expression was found in human breast tumors. Expression of NTS/NTSR1 on breast tumoral cells creates a cellular context associated with cancer aggressiveness by enhancing epidermal growth factor receptor activity. We propose the use of labeled NTS/NTSR1 complexes to enlarge the population eligible for therapy targeting HERs tyrosine kinase inhibitor or HER2 overexpression.
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Molecular requirement for sterols in herpes simplex virus entry and infectivity.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2014
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Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) required cholesterol or desmosterol for virion-induced membrane fusion. HSV successfully entered DHCR24(-/-) cells, which lack a desmosterol-to-cholesterol conversion enzyme, indicating that entry can occur independently of cholesterol. Depletion of desmosterol from these cells resulted in diminished HSV-1 entry, suggesting a general sterol requirement for HSV-1 entry and that desmosterol can operate in virus entry. Cholesterol functioned more effectively than desmosterol, suggesting that the hydrocarbon tail of cholesterol influences viral entry.
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[Plasma concentration and pharmacokinetics of ursolic acid carried in self-microemulsifying drug delivery system in rats studied by UPLC-MS/MS].
Yao Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 09-13-2014
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This study is to report the establishment of an UPLC-MS/MS method for the determination of plasma concentration of UA carried in self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (SMEDDS) and its pharmacokinetics in rats. It was used for determination and analysis when serum with internal standard was extracted from C18 solid-phase column. Acquity UPLC BEH C18 column (100 mm x 2.1 mm, 1.7 microm) was used for separation. The mobile phase was acetonitrile -0.1% ammonia with gradient elution at the flow rate of 0.2 mL x min(-1). The column temperature was 40 degrees C and the detection wave length was 210 nm. It was detected by negative ion using electrospray ionization source (ESI) and scanned by multiple reaction ion monitoring (MRM) mode. The liner relationship of UA was very good in the range of 1.19-3 815.00 ng x mL(-1) (r = 0.999 0). Recovery rate of different concentrations were 87.42%-89.95%. The precision of inter-day and intra-day were less than 11%. The method developed in our study was proved to be sensitive, rapid and simple. It is suitable for the pharmacokinetic study of UA-SMEDDS in rats.
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Detection and diagnosis of iatrogenic inadvertent diversion of partial inferior vena cava into the left atrium by transesophageal echocardiography during large posteroinferior surgical atrial septal defect closure.
J Anesth
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2014
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Iatrogenic diversion of the inferior vena cava (IVC) into the left atrium (LA) is usually reported as a rare complication following large posteroinferior atrial septal defect (ASD) surgery. It may cause acute or chronic hypoxemia, and other potentially life-threatening complications such as stroke. We present a case in which the ASD patch straddled the IVC entrance diagnosed immediately by transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) during the period of patient separated from cardiopulmonary bypass, avoiding the related complications. Our report further underlines the important role of TEE to monitor and guide ASD surgical management, especially secundum ASD with inferior extension or inferior sinus venosus defects, for the early diagnosis of iatrogenic surgical errors.
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Comparison of femoral and aortic remote ischaemia preconditioning for cardioprotection against myocardial ischaemia/reperfusion injury in a rat model.
Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg
PUBLISHED: 09-09-2014
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Remote ischaemia preconditioning (RIPC) induces some protection against heart ischaemia/reperfusion (IR) injury. However, many different methods were tried in the past, and no consensus exists. The aim of this study was to compare femoral and aortic ischaemia preconditioning on cardiac markers and on heart injury after IR.
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Let-7d suppresses growth, metastasis, and tumor macrophage infiltration in renal cell carcinoma by targeting COL3A1 and CCL7.
Mol. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 09-06-2014
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MicroRNAs are endogenous small noncoding RNAs that are functionally involved in numerous critical cellular processes including tumorigenesis. Data mining using a microRNA array database suggested that let-7d microRNA may be associated with renal cell carcinoma (RCC) malignant progression. Here, we performed further analyses to determine whether let-7d is functionally linked to RCC malignancy.
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Gel-limited synthesis of dumbbell-like Fe3O4-Ag composite microspheres and their SERS applications.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2014
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A novel gel-limited strategy was developed to synthesize dumbbell-like Fe3O4-Ag composite microspheres through a simple one-pot solvothermal method. In such a reaction system, a special precursor solution containing oleic, water, ethanol and silver ions was used and transformed into a bulk gel under heating at the very beginning of the reaction, thus all the subsequent reactions proceeded in the interior of the gel. The gel-limited reactions had two advantages, on the one hand, the magnetic Fe3O4 microspheres were fixed in the gel which avoided them aggregating together, whereas on the other hand, the silver ions stored in the gel could be gradually released and tended to diffuse towards the nearest Fe3O4 microsphere, which favored the generation of a dumbbell-like Fe3O4-Ag structure. From the time-dependent experiments under optimal conditions, the typical growth process of dumbbell-like structures clearly demonstrated that a silver seed first appeared on the surface of a single Fe3O4 microsphere, which then grew bigger slowly and finally formed a dumbbell-like Fe3O4-Ag structure. Moreover, the formation of the gel was found to be strongly affected by the ratio of water and ethanol in the precursor solution, which further influenced the morphologies of the Fe3O4-Ag microspheres. Furthermore, the effect of lattice match between Fe3O4 and Ag on the final products was also proven from the control experiments by using a template with a different surface crystalline structure. When used as SERS substrates, the final dumbbell-like Fe3O4-Ag microspheres show fast magnetic separation and the selective detection of thiram for the surface capped oleic chain during the growth process.
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Culturable heavy metal-resistant and plant growth promoting bacteria in V-Ti magnetite mine tailing soil from Panzhihua, China.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2014
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To provide a basis for using indigenous bacteria for bioremediation of heavy metal contaminated soil, the heavy metal resistance and plant growth-promoting activity of 136 isolates from V-Ti magnetite mine tailing soil were systematically analyzed. Among the 13 identified bacterial genera, the most abundant genus was Bacillus (79 isolates) out of which 32 represented B. subtilis and 14 B. pumilus, followed by Rhizobium sp. (29 isolates) and Ochrobactrum intermedium (13 isolates). Altogether 93 isolates tolerated the highest concentration (1000 mg kg(-1)) of at least one of the six tested heavy metals. Five strains were tolerant against all the tested heavy metals, 71 strains tolerated 1,000 mg kg(-1) cadmium whereas only one strain tolerated 1,000 mg kg(-1) cobalt. Altogether 67% of the bacteria produced indoleacetic acid (IAA), a plant growth-promoting phytohormone. The concentration of IAA produced by 53 isolates was higher than 20 µg ml(-1). In total 21% of the bacteria produced siderophore (5.50-167.67 µg ml(-1)) with two Bacillus sp. producing more than 100 µg ml(-1). Eighteen isolates produced both IAA and siderophore. The results suggested that the indigenous bacteria in the soil have beneficial characteristics for remediating the contaminated mine tailing soil.
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Effects of intravenous bolus injection of emulsified isoflurane on QTc interval of healthy volunteers in Pharmacokinetics study.
Pak J Pharm Sci
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
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Emulsified isoflurane is a novel intravenous anesthetic, which is a lipid emulsion of isoflurane. As some drugs have a QTc-prolongation effect which can increase a risk of arrhythmia, this study was to evaluate the effects of emulsified isoflurane on the QTc interval. This was a single-center, randomized, single-blind, non-comparative study. Subjects were randomly allocated to receive an intravenous bolus injection of 22.63, 38.26, or 49.73 mg/kg emulsified isoflurane, respectively. Standard 12-lead electrocardiograms were recorded before administration and at 28 timepoints after administration. Blood samples and the end-tidal isoflurane concentrations were collected for pharmacokinetic analysis. The primary target variable was the QTcF change from baseline at each time point. A two-sided 90% confidence interval (CI) was calculated for a QTcF change from baseline at each timepoint. The maximal 90% CIs of the mean QTcF from the baseline for 22.63, 38.26 and 49.73mg/kg emulsified isoflurane were 2.52-21.18 ms, 15.66-35.90 ms, and 17.65-40.71 ms, respectively. Non-significant relationship was observed between QTcF and the plasma concentration (or the end-tidal isoflurane concentration). Single intravenous dose of emulsified isoflurane of the anticipated therapeutic dose or supra-therapeutic doses was associated with a potential dose-dependent and non-concentration-related QTc-prolongation effect.
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2-(1H-Benzimidazol-2-yl)-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-2H-indazol-3-ol, a Benzimidazole Derivative, Inhibits T Cell Proliferation Involving H+/K+-ATPase Inhibition.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2014
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In this study, a benzimidazole derivative named BMT-1 is revealed as a potential immunomodulatory agent. BMT-1 inhibits the activity of H+/K+-ATPases from anti-CD3/CD28 activated T cells. Furthermore, inhibition the H+/K+-ATPases by use of BMT-1 should lead to intracellular acidification, inhibiting T cell proliferation. To explore this possibility, the effect of BMT-1 on intracellular pH changes was examined by using BCECF as a pH-dependent fluorescent dye. Interestingly, increases in the pHi were observed in activated T cells, and T cells treated with BMT-1 showed a more acidic intracellular pH. Finally, BMT-1 targeted the H+/K+-ATPases and inhibited the proliferative response of anti-CD3/CD28-stimulated T cells. A cell cycle analysis indicated that BMT-1 arrested the cell cycle progression of activated T cells from the G1 to the S phase without affecting CD25 expression or interleukin-2 (IL-2) production; treating IL-2-dependent PBMCs with BMT-1 also led to the inhibition of cell proliferation. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that BMT-1 inhibits the proliferation of T cells by interfering with H+/K+-ATPases and down-regulating intracellular pHi. This molecule may be an interesting lead compound for the development of new immunomodulatory agents.
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Further study on pemetrexed based chemotherapy in treating patients with advanced gastric cancer (AGC).
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2014
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To further observe the efficacy and safety of pemetrexed, combined with Irinotecan or oxaliplatin or cisplatin in treating patients with advanced gastric cancer as second-line or third-line chemotherapy.
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Design, synthesis, and characterization of 1,3,5-tri(1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)benzene-based fluorescent supramolecular columnar liquid crystals with a broad mesomorphic range.
J. Org. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
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A new kind of supramolecular columnar liquid crystal T-A with a broad mesomorphic range (up to 164.9 °C), good thermal stability, and strong fluorescence is designed and formed by the H-bonding between 1,3,5-tri(1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)benzene (T) and serial gallic acid derivatives (A). Two components are easily available because of simple routes, common reactions, high yields, commercial starting materials, and inexpensive catalysts. The introduction of the 1,2,3-triazole structure into component A makes the textures different and is slightly disadvantageous for the T-A complexes.
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The genetic control of aposematic black pigmentation in hemimetabolous insects: insights from Oncopeltus fasciatus.
Evol. Dev.
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2014
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Variations in body pigmentation, encompassing both the range of specific colors as well as the spatial arrangement of those colors, are among the most noticeable and lineage-specific insect features. However, the genetic mechanisms responsible for generating this diversity are still limited to several model species that are primarily holometabolous insects. To address this lack of knowledge, we utilize Oncopeltus fasciatus, an aposematic hemimetabolous insect, as a new model to study insect pigmentation. First, to determine the genetic regulation of black pigment production in Oncopeltus, we perform an RNAi analysis on three core genes involved in the melanin pathway, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), dopa decarboxylase (DDC), and laccase 2 (lac2). The black pigmentation is affected in all instances, showing that the black pigments in this species are derived from the melanin pathway. The results of the DDC RNAi are particularly informative because they reveal that it is Dopamine melanin, not DOPA melanin, which is the predominant component of black pigments in Oncopeltus. Second, we test whether pigmentation follows a two-step model where the spatial pre-mapping of enzymatic activity is followed by vein-dependent transportation of melanin substances. We confirm the existence of the first step by observing that premature wings develop black pigmentation when exposed to melanin precursors. In addition, we provide evidence for the second step by showing that wing melanin patterning is disrupted when vein transportation is halted. These findings bring novel insights from a hemimetabolous species and establish a framework for subsequent studies on the mechanisms of pigment production and patterning responsible for variations in insect coloration.
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Our Experience with Retroperitoneal Laparoendoscopic Single-Site Ureterolithotomy.
Urol. Int.
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
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Aim: To report our experience with retroperitoneal laparoendoscopic single-site (LESS) ureterolithotomy for the management of large proximal ureteral stones. Patients and Methods: From July 2011 to April 2012, 20 patients underwent retroperitoneal LESS ureterolithotomy. The indications for the operation were impacted upper ureteral stones larger than 15 mm. A reusable elastic single-port device with 3 working channels was inserted through the 2.5-cm incision at the midpoint between the costal arch and iliac crest on the mid-axillary line. A rigid 10-mm 30° extra-long laparoscope was introduced for monitoring, and a combination of lengthened pre-bent and conventional laparoscopic instruments was used for handling. The surgical procedure was similar to conventional retroperitoneal laparoscopic ureterolithotomy. Results: Retroperitoneal LESS ureterolithotomy was completed in all of the patients. The mean stone size was 18.8 mm (range 16-28). The mean operative time was 108 min (range 75-140). Significant bleeding was not observed, and no major intraoperative complications occurred in any of the patients. The mean hospital stay was 4.4 days (range 3-7). Conclusions: Retroperitoneal LESS ureterolithotomy, using a reusable elastic single-port device, is technically feasible and safe, and the combination of conventional and pre-bent laparoscopic instruments represents an attractive option for retroperitoneal LESS. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
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Screening and characterization of oleaginous Chlorella strains and exploration of photoautotrophic Chlorella protothecoides for oil production.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2014
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The growth and oil production of nine Chlorella strains were comparatively assessed and Chlorellaprotothecoides CS-41 demonstrated the greatest lipid production potential. The effects of different nitrogen forms and concentrations, phosphorus concentrations and light intensities on growth and oil production were studied in laboratory columns. C. protothecoides CS-41 accumulated lipids up to 55% of dry weight, with triacylglycerol and oleic acid being 71% of total lipids and 59% of total fatty acids, respectively. High biomass and lipid productivities were achieved in outdoor panel PBRs, up to 1.25 and 0.59gL(-1)day(-1), or 44. 1 and 16.1gm(-2)day(-1), respectively. A two-stage cultivation strategy was proposed to enhance the algal biomass and lipid production. This is the first comprehensive investigation of both indoor and outdoor photoautotrophic C. protothecoides cultures for oil production, and C. protothecoides CS-41 represents a promising biofuel feedstock worthy of further exploration.
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The Chemerin Receptor CMKLR1 is a Functional Receptor for Amyloid-? Peptide.
J. Alzheimers Dis.
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2014
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Amyloid-? peptides such as A?1-42 (A?42) play a pivotal role in the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). A?42 is neurotoxic and can activate microglial cells. These cells in turn migrate toward senile (neuritic) plaques and help to clear A? deposits through an endocytotic mechanism. It is of potential significance to characterize the A?42 receptors that mediate microglia chemotaxis and A?42 uptake. We found that the transcript of the chemerin receptor CMKLR1 was upregulated in the brain of AD patients and in mouse brain tissue following systemic LPS administration. CMKLR1 and A?42 colocalized in hippocampus and cortex of A?PP/PS1 transgenic mice. Moreover, A?42 bound specifically to CMKLR1 in stably transfected rat basophilic leukemia (RBL) cells (CMKLR1-RBL), suggesting that CMKLR1 is a receptor for A?42. A?42 induced migration of primary microglia, the mouse microglial cell line N9, and CMKLR1-RBL cells, but not untransfected RBL-2H3 cells. Mechanistic studies showed that A?42 induced CMKLR1-dependent cell migration through activation of the ERK1/2, PKA, and Akt pathways, but not Ca2+ mobilization. A?42 stimulation of CMKLR1-RBL cells and primary glial cells led to internalization of the A?42-CMKLR1 complex, suggesting a potential role for CMKLR1 in A?42 clearance. Taken together, these results indicate that A?42 activates CMKLR1, leading to glia cell migration and clearance of A?42. CMKLR1 is a new addition to the repertoire of cell surface molecules that are responsible for A? processing and clearance.
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KCNJ1 inhibits tumor proliferation and metastasis and is a prognostic factor in clear cell renal cell carcinoma.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 07-28-2014
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Potassium inwardly rectifying channel, subfamily J, member 1 (KCNJ1), as an ATP-dependent potassium channel, plays an essential role in potassium balance. KCNJ1 variation is associated with multiple diseases, such as antenatal Bartter syndrome and diabetes. However, the role of KCNJ1 in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is still unknown. Here, we studied the expression and function of KCNJ1 in ccRCC. The expression of KCNJ1 was evaluated in ccRCC tissues and cell lines by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), Western blot, and immunohistochemistry analysis. The relationship between KCNJ1 expression and clinicopathological characteristics was analyzed. p3xFLAG-CMV-14 vector containing KCNJ1 was constructed and used for transfecting ccRCC cell lines 786-O and Caki-2. The effects of KCNJ1 on cell proliferation, invasion, and apoptosis were detected in ccRCC cell lines using cell proliferation assay, transwell assay, and flow cytometry, respectively. We found that KCNJ1 was low-expressed in ccRCC tissues samples and cell lines, and its expression level was significantly associated with tumor pathology grade (P?=?0.002) and clinical stage (P?=?0.023). Furthermore, the KCNJ1 expression was a prognostic factor of ccRCC patient's survival (P?=?0.033). The re-expression of KCNJ1 in 786-O and Caki-2 significantly inhibited cancer cell growth and invasion and promoted cancer cell apoptosis. Moreover, knockdown of KCNJ1 in HK-2 cells promoted cell proliferation. Collectively, these data highlight that KCNJ1, low-expressed in ccRCC and associated with poor prognosis, plays an important role in ccRCC cell growth and metastasis.
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[siRNA-mediated CDK6 knockdown suppresses nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell growth and cell cycle transition in vitro].
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2014
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To assess the effect of small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated suppression of CDK6 expression on the proliferation and cell cycles of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cells in vitro.
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Toll-like receptor signaling directly increases functional IL-17RA expression in neuroglial cells.
Clin. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2014
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IL-17, the hallmark cytokine of Th17 cells, plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases, including encephalomyelitis. In the central nervous system, neuroglial cells are the main residents that express IL-17R and respond to IL-17 by producing chemokines/cytokines and boosting local inflammation. Factors that influence the IL-17R expression in neuroglial cells can also exert their impacts on the outbreak, progression and outcome of encephalomyelitis. Here, we reported that Toll-like receptor signaling has its bias for promoting the IL-17RA, but not the IL-17RC, expression in mouse neuroglial cells in a T cell infiltration independent manner. Elevated IL-17R functionally responded to IL-17 by secreting more chemokines and accelerating CD4 cell migration. First, real-time PCR confirmed that the expression of Il-17ra, but not Il-17rc, was significantly increased in the brain and spinal cord of EAE-induced mice. This effect was elicited by something in complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA), because markedly increased IL-17R was detected in mice immunized with CFA only, even though no evidence of EAE was found. Furthermore, in Rag1(-/-) mice, it was confirmed that CFA could augment the IL-17RA expression in the CNS in the absence of T cell infiltration. In vivo immunization with TLR ligands and in vitro treatment of purified neuroglial cells demonstrated that TLR ligands directly and effectively evoke the IL-17RA expression in the CNS and in cultured astrocytes, microglia and oligodendrocytes. LPS was the most effective inducer of the IL-17RA expression in astrocytes, and polyIC was superior to LPS for microglia and oligodendrocytes. Activated CD4 cells can also promote the secretion of chemokines by LPS pre-treated astrocytes, and hence accelerate the migration of CD4 cells, which was blocked by the neutralization of IL-17RA on the surface of the astrocyte. Taken together, we concluded that TLR signaling can directly stimulate the expression of IL-17RA, but not IL-17RC, in neuroglial cells, which functionally respond to IL-17A by secreting chemokines, accelerating CD4 cell migration, and contributing to the pathogenesis of encephalomyelitis.
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Exploiting differential electrochemical stripping behaviors of Fe3O4 nanocrystals toward heavy metal ions by crystal cutting.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2014
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This study attempts to understand the intrinsic impact of different morphologies of nanocrystals on their electrochemical stripping behaviors toward heavy metal ions. Two differently shaped Fe3O4 nanocrystals, i.e., (100)-bound cubic and (111)-bound octahedral, have been synthesized for the experiments. Electrochemical results indicate that Fe3O4 nanocrystals with different shapes show different stripping behaviors toward heavy metal ions. Octahedral Fe3O4 nanocrystals show better electrochemical sensing performances toward the investigated heavy metal ions such as Zn(II), Cd(II), Pb(II), Cu(II), and Hg(II), in comparison with cubic ones. Specifically, Pb(II) is found to have the best stripping performance on both the (100) and (111) facets. To clarify these phenomena, adsorption abilities of as-prepared Fe3O4 nanocrystals have been investigated toward heavy metal ions. Most importantly, combined with theoretical calculations, their different electrochemical stripping behaviors in view of facet effects have been further studied and enclosed at the level of molecular/atom. Finally, as a trial to find a disposable platform completely free from noble metals, the potential application of the Fe3O4 nanocrystals for electrochemical detection of As(III) in drinking water is demonstrated.
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Rocuronium blockade reversal with sugammadex vs. neostigmine: randomized study in Chinese and Caucasian subjects.
BMC Anesthesiol
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2014
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This study compared efficacy and safety of the selective relaxant binding agent sugammadex (2 mg/kg) with neostigmine (50 ?g/kg) for neuromuscular blockade (NMB) reversal in Chinese and Caucasian subjects.
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Modelling of Binding Free Energy of Targeted Nanocarriers to Cell Surface.
Heat Mass Transf
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2014
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We have developed a numerical model based on Metropolis Monte Carlo (MC) and the weighted histogram analysis method (WHAM) that enables the calculation of the absolute binding free energy between functionalized nanocarriers (NC) and endothelial cell (EC) surfaces. The binding affinities are calculated according to the free energy landscapes. The model predictions quantitatively agree with the analogous measurements of specific antibody coated NCs (100?nm in diameter) to intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expressing EC surface in in vitro cell culture experiments. The model also enables an investigation of the effects of a broad range of parameters that include antibody surface coverage of NC, glycocalyx in both in vivo and in vitro conditions, shear flow and NC size. Using our model we explore the effects of shear flow and reproduce the shear-enhanced binding observed in equilibrium measurements in collagen-coated tube. Furthermore, our results indicate that the bond stiffness, representing the specific antibody-antigen interaction, significantly impacts the binding affinities. The predictive success of our computational protocol represents a sound quantitative approach for model driven design and optimization of functionalized nanocarriers in targeted vascular drug delivery.
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Seasonal dynamics of water bloom-forming Microcystis morphospecies and the associated extracellular microcystin concentrations in large, shallow, eutrophic Dianchi Lake.
J Environ Sci (China)
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2014
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The increasing occurrence of Microcystis blooms is of great concern to public health and ecosystem due to the potential hepatotoxic microcystins (MCs) produced by these colonial cyanobacteria. In order to interpret the relationships between variations of Microcystis morphospecies and extracellular MC concentrations, the seasonal dynamics of phytoplankton community composition, MC concentrations, and environmental parameters were monitored monthly from August, 2009 to July, 2010. The results indicated that Microcystis dominated total phytoplankton abundance from May to December (96%-99% of total biovolume), with toxic Microcystis viridis and non-toxic Microcystis wesenbergii dominating after July (constituting 65%-95% of the Microcystis population), followed by M. viridis as the sole dominant species from November to January (49%-93%). Correlation analysis revealed that water temperature and nutrient were the most important variables accounting for the occurrence of M. wesenbergii, while the dominance of M. viridis was related with nitrite and nitrate. The relatively low content of MCs was explained by the association with a large proportion of M. viridis and M. wesenbergii, small colony size of Microcystis populations, and low water temperature, pH and dissolved oxygen. The extracellular MC (mean of 0.5±0.2?g/L) of water samples analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) demonstrated the low concentrations of MC in Dianchi Lake which implied the low potential risk for human health in the basin. The survey provides the first whole lake study of the occurrence and seasonal variability of Microcystis population and extracellular MCs that are of particular interest for water quality monitoring and management.
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A two-stage Bayesian method for estimating accuracy and disease prevalence for two dependent dichotomous screening tests when the status of individuals who are negative on both tests is unverified.
BMC Med Res Methodol
PUBLISHED: 07-07-2014
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Estimating the disease prevalence and test accuracy (sensitivity and specificity) for two dependent screening tests when the status of individuals who are negative on both tests is unverified represents a considerable challenge, as the disease rates for individuals negative on both tests are not identifiable without additional assumptions.
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[Determination of dosage and effectiveness of propofol and ketamine for TIVA in adults].
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2014
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To evaluate the effectiveness of combined use of propofol and ketamine for total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) in adults and to determine their optimal doses.
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Impaired ossification coupled with accelerated cartilage degeneration in developmental dysplasia of the hip: evidences from ?CT arthrography in a rat model.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2014
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Developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) always leads to cartilage degeneration and osteoarthritis of the hip joint. However, the diagnosis of early cartilage degeneration in DDH is still a clinical challenge. This study aims to investigate the dynamic changes of bone and cartilage in the hip of a rat model of DDH and to explore the potential application of microcomputed tomography (?CT) arthrography to detect early cartilage degeneration in DDH.
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Highly-efficient enzymatic conversion of crude algal oils into biodiesel.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2014
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Energy-intensive chemical conversion of crude algal oils into biodiesel is a major barrier for cost-effective algal biofuel production. To overcome this problem, we developed an enzyme-based platform for conversion of crude algal oils into fatty acid methyl esters. Crude algal oils were extracted from the oleaginous microalga Nannochloropsis oceanica IMET1 and converted by an immobilized lipase from Candida antarctica. The effects of different acyl acceptors, t-butanol as a co-solvent, oil to t-butanol ratio, oil to methanol ratio, temperature and reaction time on biodiesel conversion efficiency were studied. The conversion efficiency reached 99.1% when the conversion conditions were optimized, i.e., an oil to t-butanol weight ratio of 1:1, an oil to methanol molar ratio of 1:12, and a reaction time of 4h at 25°C. The enzymatic conversion process developed in this study may hold a promise for low energy consumption, low wastewater-discharge biochemical conversion of algal feedstocks into biofuels.
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Comparison of one versus two cages in lumbar interbody fusion for degenerative lumbar spinal disease: a meta-analysis.
Orthop Surg
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2014
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To systematically compare the fusion rate and safety of lumbar interbody fusion using one cage versus two cages for the treatment of degenerative lumbar spinal diseases.
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Differentially co-expressed genes in postmortem prefrontal cortex of individuals with alcohol use disorders: influence on alcohol metabolism-related pathways.
Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2014
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Chronic alcohol consumption may induce gene expression alterations in brain reward regions such as the prefrontal cortex (PFC), modulating the risk of alcohol use disorders (AUDs). Transcriptome profiles of 23 AUD cases and 23 matched controls (16 pairs of males and 7 pairs of females) in postmortem PFC were generated using Illumina's HumanHT-12 v4 Expression BeadChip. Probe-level differentially expressed genes and gene modules in AUD subjects were identified using multiple linear regression and weighted gene co-expression network analyses. The enrichment of differentially co-expressed genes in alcohol dependence-associated genes identified by genome-wide association studies (GWAS) was examined using gene set enrichment analysis. Biological pathways overrepresented by differentially co-expressed genes were uncovered using DAVID bioinformatics resources. Three AUD-associated gene modules in males [Module 1 (561 probes mapping to 505 genes): r = 0.42, P(correlation) = 0.020; Module 2 (815 probes mapping to 713 genes): r = 0.41, P(correlation) = 0.020; Module 3 (1,446 probes mapping to 1,305 genes): r = -0.38, P(correlation) = 0.030] and one AUD-associated gene module in females [Module 4 (683 probes mapping to 652 genes): r = 0.64, P(correlation) = 0.010] were identified. Differentially expressed genes mapped by significant expression probes (P(nominal) ? 0.05) clustered in Modules 1 and 2 were enriched in GWAS-identified alcohol dependence-associated genes [Module 1 (134 genes): P = 0.028; Module 2 (243 genes): P = 0.004]. These differentially expressed genes, including ALDH2, ALDH7A1, and ALDH9A1, are involved in cellular functions such as aldehyde detoxification, mitochondrial function, and fatty acid metabolism. Our study revealed differentially co-expressed genes in postmortem PFC of AUD subjects and demonstrated that some of these differentially co-expressed genes participate in alcohol metabolism.
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Robust electrochemical analysis of As(III) integrating with interference tests: a case study in groundwater.
J. Hazard. Mater.
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2014
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In Togtoh region of Inner Mongolia, northern China, groundwater encountered high concentrations As contamination (greater than 50 ?g L(-1)) causes an increasing concern. This work demonstrates an electrochemical protocol for robust (efficient and accurate) determination of As(III) in Togtoh water samples using Au microwire electrode without the need of pretreatment or clean-up steps. Considering the complicated conditions of Togtoh water, the efficiency of Au microwire electrode was systematically evaluated by a series of interference tests, stability and reproducibility measurements. No obvious interference on the determination of As(III) was observed. Especially, the influence of humic acid (HA) was intensively investigated. Electrode stability was also observed with long-term measurements (70 days) in Togtoh water solution and under different temperatures (0-35 °C). Excellent reproducibility (RSD:1.28%) was observed from different batches of Au microwire electrodes. The results obtained at Au microwire electrode were comparable to that obtained by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES), indicating a good accuracy. These evaluations (efficiency, robustness, and accuracy) demonstrated that the Au microwire electrode was able to determine As(III) in application to real environmental samples.
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Essential training steps to achieving competency in the basic intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography examination for Chinese anesthesiologists.
Front Med
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2014
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Guidelines for the intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) examination have defined a detailed standard for medical professionals, particularly anesthesiologists, on how a TEE exam should proceed. Over the years, TEE has gained substantial popularity and emerged as a preferred monitoring modality to aid in perioperative management and decision making during hemodynamic instability situations or critical care settings. TEE training pathways and practice guidelines have been well established in western countries and many regions of the world. However, TEE training and practice information for anesthesiologists are lacking in China. As innovative technologies develop, other educational models have emerged to aid in obtaining competency in basic TEE exam. Hence, establishing a consensus on the ideal TEE training approach for anesthesiologists in China is urgently needed. Developing an effective curriculum that can be incorporated into an anesthesiology resident's overall training is also necessary to provide knowledge and skills toward competency in basic TEE exam. With evolving medical system reforms and increasing demands for intraoperative hemodynamic monitoring to accommodate surgical innovations, anesthesiology professionals are increasingly obliged to perform intraoperative TEE exams in their current and future practices. To overcome obstacles and achieve significant progress in using the TEE modality to help in intraoperative management and surgical decision making, publishing basic TEE training guidelines for China's anesthesiologists is an important endeavor.
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KLF5 promotes hypoxia-induced survival and inhibits apoptosis in non-small cell lung cancer cells via HIF-1?.
Int. J. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2014
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Transcription factor Krüppel-like factors 5 (KLF5) is overexpressed in a wide range of tumor tissues and acts as a prognostic factor in cancer. However, the role of KLF5 in non-small cell lung cancer is not clear. Hypoxia plays a vital part in the development of cancer via hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1). Our study showed that hypoxia (1% O2) increased cell viability, clonality and proliferation and inhibited cell apoptosis in A549 cells. The expression of HIF-1? and KLF5 was increased time-dependently in hypoxia. Using small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting KLF5 or HIF-1?, we demonstrated that KLF5 or HIF-1? knockdown inhibited hypoxia-induced cell survival and promoted cell apoptosis by actively downregulating cyclin B1, survivin and upregulating caspase-3. Given the similar effect of KLF5 and HIF-1? on cell survival, an attempt was made to investigate the putative interaction of them in hypoxia. KLF5 was revealed to co-immunoprecipitate with HIF-1? and hypoxia increased the amount of KLF5 and HIF-1? complex. Moreover, silencing of KLF5 decreased HIF-1? expression while KLF5 was not affected by HIF-1? inhibition in hypoxia, confirming the effect of KLF5 on upregulation of HIF-1?. In conclusion, this study identified hypoxia as a tumor promoter by triggering KLF5 ? HIF-1? ? cyclin B1/survivin/caspase-3 in lung cancer cells.
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Mathematical and numerical model to study two-dimensional free flow isoelectric focusing.
Biomicrofluidics
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2014
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Even though isoelectric focusing (IEF) is a very useful technique for sample concentration and separation, it is challenging to extract separated samples for further processing. Moreover, the continuous sample concentration and separation are not possible in the conventional IEF. To overcome these challenges, free flow IEF (FFIEF) is introduced in which a flow field is applied in the direction perpendicular to the applied electric field. In this study, a mathematical model is developed for FFIEF to understand the roles of flow and electric fields for efficient design of microfluidic chip for continuous separation of proteins from an initial well mixed solution. A finite volume based numerical scheme is implemented to simulate two dimensional FFIEF in a microfluidic chip. Simulation results indicate that a pH gradient forms as samples flow downstream and this pH profile agrees well with experimental results validating our model. In addition, our simulation results predict the experimental behavior of pI markers in a FFIEF microchip. This numerical model is used to predict the separation behavior of two proteins (serum albumin and cardiac troponin I) in a two-dimensional straight microchip. The effect of electric field is investigated for continuous separation of proteins. Moreover, a new channel design is presented to increase the separation resolution by introducing cross-stream flow velocity. Numerical results indicate that the separation resolution can be improved by three folds in this new design compare to the conventional straight channel design.
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Likelihood ratio tests in rare variant detection for continuous phenotypes.
Ann. Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2014
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It is believed that rare variants play an important role in human phenotypes; however, the detection of rare variants is extremely challenging due to their very low minor allele frequency. In this paper, the likelihood ratio test (LRT) and restricted likelihood ratio test (ReLRT) are proposed to test the association of rare variants based on the linear mixed effects model, where a group of rare variants are treated as random effects. Like the sequence kernel association test (SKAT), a state-of-the-art method for rare variant detection, LRT and ReLRT can effectively overcome the problem of directionality of effect inherent in the burden test in practice. By taking full advantage of the spectral decomposition, exact finite sample null distributions for LRT and ReLRT are obtained by simulation. We perform extensive numerical studies to evaluate the performance of LRT and ReLRT, and compare to the burden test, SKAT and SKAT-O. The simulations have shown that LRT and ReLRT can correctly control the type I error, and the controls are robust to the weights chosen and the number of rare variants under study. LRT and ReLRT behave similarly to the burden test when all the causal rare variants share the same direction of effect, and outperform SKAT across various situations. When both positive and negative effects exist, LRT and ReLRT suffer from few power reductions compared to the other two competing methods; under this case, an additional finding from our simulations is that SKAT-O is no longer the optimal test, and its power is even lower than that of SKAT. The exome sequencing SNP data from Genetic Analysis Workshop 17 were employed to illustrate the proposed methods, and interesting results are described.
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Gap phenomenon of an abstract Willmore type functional of hypersurface in unit sphere.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2014
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For an n-dimensional hypersurface in unit sphere, we introduce an abstract Willmore type called W (n,F)-Willmore functional, which generalizes the well-known classic Willmore functional. Its critical point is called the W (n,F)-Willmore hypersurface, for which the variational equation and Simons' type integral equalities are obtained. Moreover, we construct a few examples of W (n,F)-Willmore hypersurface and give a gap phenomenon characterization by use of our integral formula.
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Investigation of the facet-dependent performance of ?-Fe2O3 nanocrystals for heavy metal determination by stripping voltammetry.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2014
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We find for the first time that the electrochemical performances of the ?-Fe2O3 nanostructures depend on their exposed facets. Density functional theory calculations are carried out to better and scientifically understand the effect of different exposed facets at the atomic-scale level.
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miR-155 Promotes T Follicular Helper Cell Accumulation during Chronic, Low-Grade Inflammation.
Immunity
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2014
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Chronic inflammation is a contributing factor to most life-shortening human diseases. However, the molecular and cellular mechanisms that sustain chronic inflammatory responses remain poorly understood, making it difficult to treat this deleterious condition. Using a mouse model of age-dependent inflammation that results from a deficiency in miR-146a, we demonstrate that miR-155 contributed to the progressive inflammatory disease that emerged as Mir146a(-/-) mice grew older. Upon analyzing lymphocytes from inflamed versus healthy middle-aged mice, we found elevated numbers of T follicular helper (Tfh) cells, germinal center (GC) B cells, and autoantibodies, all occurring in a miR-155-dependent manner. Further, Cd4-cre Mir155(fl/fl) mice were generated and demonstrated that miR-155 functions in T cells, in addition to its established role in B cells, to promote humoral immunity in a variety of contexts. Taken together, our study discovers that miR-146a and miR-155 counterregulate Tfh cell development that drives aberrant GC reactions during chronic inflammation.
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Isovolemic hemodilution with glutaraldehyde-polymerized human placenta hemoglobin (PolyPHb) attenuated rat liver ischemia/reperfusion injury.
Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2014
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This study was to investigate whether glutaraldehyde-polymerized human placenta hemoglobin (PolyPHb) could attenuate ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)-induced liver injury. Isovolemic hemodilution of SD rats was performed by exchanging 15% total blood volume with PolyPHb. I/R was induced by left liver lobes pedicle cross-clamping for 60 min and reperfusion for 2 h. Blood pressure moderately elevated after PolyPHb infusion and returned to basal level within 10 min. The hepatic histopathological damage and the activities of liver injury markers were reduced by PolyPHb. The TUNEL staining and caspase assay indicated hepatic apoptosis was also inhibited. Therefore, our findings suggest PolyPHb can reduce liver I/R injury.
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Early stage effect of ischemic preconditioning for patients undergoing on-pump coronary artery bypass grafts surgery: systematic review and meta-analysis.
Pak J Med Sci
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2014
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During the on-pump coronary artery bypass grafts surgery, ischemia/reperfusion injury would happen. Ischemia preconditioning could increase the tolerance against subsequent ischemia and reduce the ischemia/reperfusion injury. However the clinical outcomes of the available trials were different. Methods : We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials on The Cochrane Library (Issue 3, 2013), the Medline/PubMed and CNKI in March 2013. RevMan 5.1.6 and GRADEprofiler 3.6 were used for statistical analysis and evidence quality assessment. Heterogeneity was evaluated with significance set at P?0.10.
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Modification of chemokine receptor expression to enhance levels of trafficking receptors on autologous cytokine-induced killer cells derived from patients with colorectal cancer.
Biomed. Pharmacother.
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2014
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Cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells have achieved therapeutic benefit in treatment of solid tumors in clinic. However, some patients show no response after CIK treatment. Animal assays have shown that successful infiltration of CIK cells to the tumor sites could affect the outcome. Chemokines play important roles in lymphocyte trafficking. Understanding the molecular mechanism of chemokines in the process of CIK cell homing is important for further modification of CIK therapy. In this study, we investigated the spectrum of chemokine ligands in the colorectal cancer sites and observed that chemokine ligands CCL20 and CXCL10 were overexpressed in the CRC tumor tissues compared with adjacent tissues. Although the corresponding receptors CCR6 and CXCR3 increased on CIK cells compared with PBMCs, their expression on CIK cells derived from CRC patients had lower levels than healthy donors, which might be a limited factor for autologous-CIK cells trafficking to tumor site. Importantly, stimulation with chemokines CCL20 and CXCL10 promotes the expression levels of CCR6 and CXCR3 on CIK cells, thus augmenting the relative migration of CIK cells in vitro. Our results suggest that modification of surface chemokine receptors may enhance the homing ability of CIK cells for better therapeutic achievements.
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Facile synthesis of urchin-like NiCo2O4 hollow microspheres with enhanced electrochemical properties in energy and environmentally related applications.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2014
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A facile synthesis of novel urchin-like NiCo2O4 hierarchical hollow microspheres has been developed based on a template-free solvothermal and subsequent calcination method. The growth process of NiCo2O4 hollow microsphere precursors has been investigated, and a plausible mechanism was proposed. Because of their unique structure and high specific surface area, these NiCo2O4 hollow microspheres displayed enhanced electrochemical properties in methanol electrooxidation and determination of heavy-metal ions compared with solid urchin-like NiCo2O4 microspheres, Co3O4, and NiO microspheres. The good electrochemical performances suggested that these unique hierarchical NiCo2O4 hollow microspheres could be promising materials for energy and environmentally related applications.
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Tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase deficiency causes abnormal craniofacial bone development in the Alpl(-/-) mouse model of infantile hypophosphatasia.
Bone
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2014
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Tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) is an enzyme present on the surface of mineralizing cells and their derived matrix vesicles that promotes hydroxyapatite crystal growth. Hypophosphatasia (HPP) is an inborn-error-of-metabolism that, dependent upon age of onset, features rickets or osteomalacia due to loss-of function mutations in the gene (Alpl) encoding TNAP. Craniosynostosis is prevalent in infants with HPP and other forms of rachitic disease but how craniosynostosis develops in these disorders is unknown.
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Facile synthesis of porous single crystalline ZnO nanoplates and their application in photocatalytic reduction of Cr(VI) in the presence of phenol.
J. Hazard. Mater.
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2014
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Porous single crystalline ZnO nanoplates were successfully synthesized through a facile and cost-effective hydrothermal process at low temperature condition, followed by annealing of the zinc carbonate hydroxide hydrate precursors. The as-prepared products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) measurements. The porous single crystalline ZnO nanoplates are with 12nm thickness and pore ranging from 10nm to several tens of nanometers. The porous structure of the ZnO nanoplates caused large amount of surface defects which worked as photogenerated holes' shallow trappers and largely restrained the recombination of photogenerated electrons and holes, resulting in a significantly high photocatalytic activity and durability toward the photoreduction of Cr(VI) under UV irradiation. Moreover, a synergistic effect, that is, increased photocatalytic reduction of Cr(VI) and degradation of phenol, can be observed. Furthermore, the synergistic photocatalytic mechanism has also been discussed. Those results present an enlightenment to employ porous single crystalline nanomaterials to remove Cr(VI) and organic pollutants simultaneously.
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Overcoming the limitations of directed C-H functionalizations of heterocycles.
Nature
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2014
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In directed C-H activation reactions, any nitrogen or sulphur atoms present in heterocyclic substrates will coordinate strongly with metal catalysts. This coordination, which can lead to catalyst poisoning or C-H functionalization at an undesired position, limits the application of C-H activation reactions in heterocycle-based drug discovery, in which regard they have attracted much interest from pharmaceutical companies. Here we report a robust and synthetically useful method that overcomes the complications associated with performing C-H functionalization reactions on heterocycles. Our approach employs a simple N-methoxy amide group, which serves as both a directing group and an anionic ligand that promotes the in situ generation of the reactive PdX2 (X = ArCONOMe) species from a Pd(0) source using air as the sole oxidant. In this way, the PdX2 species is localized near the target C-H bond, avoiding interference from any nitrogen or sulphur atoms present in the heterocyclic substrates. This reaction overrides the conventional positional selectivity patterns observed with substrates containing strongly coordinating heteroatoms, including nitrogen, sulphur and phosphorus. Thus, this operationally simple aerobic reaction demonstrates that it is possible to bypass a fundamental limitation that has long plagued applications of directed C-H activation in medicinal chemistry.
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Detection and removal of Hg2+ based on mesoporous silica material functionalized by naphthalimide in aqueous solution.
Anal Sci
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2014
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An inorganic-organic silica material (SBA-15-1), prepared by immobilization of the naphthalimide derivative within the channels of the mesoporous silica material SBA-15, is characterized by several spectroscopic methods. SBA-15-1 can be used as a chemical sensor for detecting and removing Hg(2+) in a heterogeneous system. The fluorescence enhancement of SBA-15-1 was attributed to the formation of a complex between SBA-15-1 and Hg(2+) by a 1:1 complex ratio with the photo-induced electron transfer (PET) being forbidden. The sensor can be applied to the quantification of Hg(2+) with a linear range covering from 1.0 × 10(-7) to 1.0 × 10(-5) M under the neutral condition. Most importantly, the fluorescence changes of the sensor are remarkably specific for Hg(2+) in the presence of other metal ions. Moreover, the response of the sensor toward Hg(2+) is fast and chemically reversible. In addition, the sensor has been used for the determination of Hg(2+) in environmental samples with satisfactory results.
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Selective depletion of regulatory T cell subsets by docetaxel treatment in patients with nonsmall cell lung cancer.
J Immunol Res
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2014
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Regulatory T (Treg) cells are potent suppressors that maintain immune homeostasis. Accumulation of Treg can inhibit effective immune responses in cancer patients, leading to tumor development and progression. Despite direct cytotoxicity, several chemotherapeutic drugs have been reported to deplete Treg cells for better prognosis for cancer patients. Treg cells are a heterogenous population with at least three different subsets, nonsuppressive, resting, and activated Treg cells. However, the characteristics of Treg cell subsets in lung cancer patients and how chemotherapy affects Treg cells remain elusive. In this study, we first analyzed Treg cell subsets in peripheral blood samples from 40 nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients and 20 healthy donors. Treg cells, specifically activated Treg cell subset, significantly increased in patients with NSCLC. Compared to nonsuppressive Treg cells, activated Treg cells expressed higher level of CD39 and predominantly produced inhibitory cytokines. In vitro assay showed that docetaxel reduced all three subsets of Treg cells. More importantly, we found docetaxel-based chemotherapy significantly decreased all three Treg subsets after 4 cycles of treatment in 17 NSCLC patients. Taken together, this study revealed dynamic changes of various Treg cell subsets in NSCLC patients before and after chemotherapy, providing activated Treg cells as a potential target for chemotherapy.
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Soy isoflavones administered to rats from weaning until sexual maturity affect ovarian follicle development by inducing apoptosis.
Food Chem. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2014
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Twenty-one-day-old female Wistar rats were treated daily with orally administered soy isoflavones (SIFs) at concentrations of 50, 100, or 200 mg/kg body weight from weaning until sexual maturity (3 mo.), and ovarian follicle development was evaluated. At the end of the treatment period, the ultrastructure of the ovarian granulosa cells was examined by transmission electron microscopy. The apoptotic cell death of ovarian granulosa cells was detected using TUNEL staining. The mRNA expression levels of caspase-3, caspase-8, caspase-9, Bcl2, Bax, and Fas were determined by real-time quantitative PCR. The protein expression levels of caspase-3, Bcl2, Bax, and Fas were determined by western blotting. Our data showed that exposure to SIFs resulted in morphological changes consistent with ovarian granulosa cell apoptosis. The percentage of TUNEL-positive granulosa cells was increased. The mRNA expression levels of the apoptosis-related genes caspase-3, caspase-8, caspase-9, Bax, and Fas increased significantly. The protein levels of Bax, Fas, and cleaved caspase-3 were also increased. These results indicate that the exposure of rats to modest doses of SIFs from weaning until sexual maturity can affect ovarian follicle development by inducing apoptosis. The mechanism of SIF-induced alterations in ovarian follicle development may involve the activation of Fas-mediated and Bcl2/Bax-mediated apoptotic signaling pathways.
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Role of Fe(III) in preventing humic interference during As(III) detection on gold electrode: spectroscopic and voltammetric evidence.
J. Hazard. Mater.
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2014
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A drawback of As(III) detection using square wave anodic stripping voltammetry (SWASV) is that it is susceptible to interferences from various metals or organic compounds, especially in real sample water. This study attempts to understand the interference of co-existing of Fe(III) and humic acid (HA) molecules to the electrochemical detection of As(III) using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrum and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The electrochemical experiments include stripping of As(III) in the solutions containing HA with different concentrations, cyclic voltammetry in 0.5M H2SO4 in the presence of HA or Fe(III) with/without addition of Fe(III) or HA, and stripping of As(III) in the presence of HA or Fe(III) with/without addition of Fe(III) or HA. FTIR and XPS are employed to confirm the affinity of HA to Fe(III) or As(III) in acidic condition.
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Maternal parity and the risk of congenital heart defects in offspring: a dose-response meta-analysis of epidemiological observational studies.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Epidemiological studies have reported conflicting results regarding maternal parity and the risk of congenital heart defects (CHDs). However, a meta-analysis of the association between maternal parity and CHDs in offspring has not been conducted.
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IL-1RA +2018 polymorphism and the susceptivity to pneumoconiosis: a Meta-analysis.
Int J Clin Exp Med
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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It has been reported that host genetic factors may play a crucial role in pneumoconiosis susceptibility. The present study aimed to study the association between IL-1RA +2018 polymorphism and pneumoconiosis by Meta-analysis.
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Activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) modulates post-synaptic development and dendritic spine morphology.
Front Cell Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The ubiquitously expressed activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) has been variably reported to either promote or inhibit neuronal plasticity and memory. However, the potential cellular bases for these and other actions of ATF4 in brain are not well-defined. In this report, we focus on ATF4's role in post-synaptic synapse development and dendritic spine morphology. shRNA-mediated silencing of ATF4 significantly reduces the densities of PSD-95 and GluR1 puncta (presumed markers of excitatory synapses) in long-term cultures of cortical and hippocampal neurons. ATF4 knockdown also decreases the density of mushroom spines and increases formation of abnormally-long dendritic filopodia in such cultures. In vivo knockdown of ATF4 in adult mouse hippocampal neurons also reduces mushroom spine density. In contrast, ATF4 over-expression does not affect the densities of PSD-95 puncta or mushrooom spines. Regulation of synaptic puncta and spine densities by ATF4 requires its transcriptional activity and is mediated at least in part by indirectly controlling the stability and expression of the total and active forms of the actin regulatory protein Cdc42. In support of such a mechanism, ATF4 silencing decreases the half-life of Cdc42 in cultured cortical neurons from 31.5 to 18.5 h while knockdown of Cdc42, like ATF4 knockdown, reduces the densities of mushroom spines and PSD-95 puncta. Thus, ATF4 appears to participate in neuronal development and plasticity by regulating the post-synaptic development of synapses and dendritic mushroom spines via a mechanism that includes regulation of Cdc42 levels.
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The cellular prion protein negatively regulates phagocytosis and cytokine expression in murine bone marrow-derived macrophages.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored glycoprotein on the cell surface. Previous studies have demonstrated contradictory roles for PrP(C) in connection with the phagocytic ability of macrophages. In the present work, we investigated the function of PrP(C) in phagocytosis and cytokine expression in bone marrow-derived macrophages infected with Escherichia coli. E. coli infection induced an increase in the PRNP mRNA level. Knockout of PrP(C) promoted bacterial uptake; upregulated Rab5, Rab7, and Eea1 mRNA expression; and increased the recruitment of lysosomal-associated membrane protein-2 to phagosomes, suggesting enhanced microbicidal activity. Remarkably, knockout of PrP(C) suppressed the proliferation of internalized bacteria and increased the expression of cytokines such as interleukin-1?. Collectively, our data reveal an important role of PrP(C) as a negative regulator for phagocytosis, phagosome maturation, cytokine expression, and macrophage microbicidal activity.
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New construction of an animal model for the orthotopic transplantation of an ovarian tumor.
J Ovarian Res
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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A new technique has successfully established the non-obese diabetic/severely combined immunodeficiency (NOD/SCID) mouse model of ovarian cancer. Under 4% chloral hydrate (0.1 mL/g dose) anesthesia, female mice were inoculated with tumor-cell suspension. The expression rate of OVCAR3 to CA125 was assessed using flow cytometry. The inoculated site was hand palpated and the signs and symptoms related to tumor growth were observed with the naked eye. The allophycocyanin (APC) indirectly labeled mouse-antihuman CA125 and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled anti-mouse MHC Class I molecule (H-2K(d)/H-2D(d)) were observed using a confocal laser scanning microscope. The animal model of ovarian cancer constructed using this method can more directly reflect the characteristics of cancer cells. It provides reliable experimental results and presents a technical platform for the research of ovarian cancer stem cells.
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The quaternary lidocaine derivative QX-314 produces long-lasting intravenous regional anesthesia in rats.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The lidocaine derivative, QX-314, produces long-lasting regional anesthesia in various animal models. We designed this study to examine whether QX-314 could produce long-lasting intravenous regional anesthesia (IVRA) in a rat model.
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[Expression of CDK6 in nasopharyngeal carcinoma and its clinical significance].
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 12-27-2013
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To explore the expression of CDK6 in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and explore its clinical significance.
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[Influencing factors for research ability of resident anesthesiologists].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-24-2013
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To explore the influencing factors of research ability of resident anesthesiologists to improve research training programs.
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In vitro characterization of stem cell-like properties of drug-resistant colon cancer subline.
Oncol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 12-17-2013
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The objective of this study was to investigate the stem cell-like properties of drug-resistant colon cancer cells. Oxaliplatin was used to induce the drug-resistant subline of HCT116(p53+/+) cell line. The stem cell-like characteristics of the drug-resistant subline were assayed for the proliferation capacity, cell cycle, adhesion, invasion, multiple drug resistance, and clone sphere formation capacity. The expression of ABCG2 (ATP-binding cassette superfamily G member 2) and "stemness" indicators SOX2 (SRY-related HMG box-containing transcription factor-2) and OCT4 (octamer-binding transcription factor 4) was determined by Western blot. We established the HCT116(p53+/+)-oxaliplatin subline (HCT116(p53+/+)OXA), which was resistant to oxaliplatin with a resistance index (RI) of 3.03 ± 0.14. The HCT116(p53+/+)OXA was also resistant to Taxol, showing lower proliferation, higher adhesion and invasion ability, greater proportion of G0/G1 phase, and higher sphere-forming capacity than its parental cells. SOX2, OCT4, and ABCG2 were expressed at higher levels in drug-resistant cells than in their parental cells. We verified that the HCT116(p53+/+)OXA was enriched with cancer stem cell properties and provided an ideal cell model for drug-resistance study.
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Necklace-like mesoporous MgO/TiO2 heterojunction structures with excellent capability for water treatment.
Dalton Trans
PUBLISHED: 12-02-2013
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Necklace-like MgO/TiO2 heterojunction structures were synthesized by a simple and economical precursor calcination method for the first time. The obtained unique MgO/TiO2 heterojunction structures exhibit an excellent removal performance towards toxic As(v) ions combined with good photocatalytic properties towards organic dyes.
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Phonon-induced pure-dephasing of luminescence, multiple exciton generation, and fission in silicon clusters.
J Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2013
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The size and temperature dependence of the pure-dephasing processes involved in luminescence, multiple exciton generation (MEG), and multiple exciton fission (MEF) are investigated for Sin clusters (n = 5-10, 15) using ab initio molecular dynamics and optical response function theory. The cluster bandgaps correlate with two types of binding energy, indicating that bandgaps can be used to characterize cluster stability. Ranging from 5 to 100 fs, the dephasing times are found to be longest for MEF and shortest for MEG, with luminescence falling in the middle range. Generally, the dephasing is fast, if the orbitals supporting the pair of states involved in the superpositions differ in energy, atomic localization, and number of nodes. The dephasing accelerates with temperature, because more phonon modes are activated, and lower frequency acoustic modes are able to explore the anhamonic part of the potential energy surface. The temperature dependence is stronger for larger clusters, since they possess a wider range of low-frequency anharmonic modes. Our research indicates that rapid dephasing in Si clusters favors generation of independent charge carriers from single and multiple excitons, making the clusters a promising material for photon energy conversion. The simulations of the dephasing processes reported in this work assist in understanding of the exciton evolution pathways in inorganic semiconductor clusters and other nanoscale materials.
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Facilitation of Synaptic Transmission in the Anterior Cingulate Cortex in Viscerally Hypersensitive Rats.
Cereb. Cortex
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2013
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Electrophysiological studies have shown the enhanced response of anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) to colorectal distension in viscerally hypersensitive (VH) rats, which can be observed up to 7 weeks following colonic anaphylaxis, independent of colon inflammation, suggesting a mechanism for learning and triggering of pain memories in the ACC neuronal circuitry. Activity-dependent plasticity in synaptic strength may serve as a key mechanism that reflects cortical plasticity. However, only a few reports have indicated the synaptic plasticity of ACC in vivo. In the present study, electrophysiological recording showed long-lasting potentiation of local field potential in the medial thalamus (MT)-ACC synapses in VH rats. Theta burst stimulation in the MT reliably induced long-term potentiation in the MT-ACC pathway in normal rats, but was occluded in the VH state. Further, repeated tetanization of MT increased ACC neuronal activity and visceral pain responses of normal rats, mimicking VH rats. In conclusion, we demonstrated for the first time that visceral hypersensitivity is associated with alterations of synaptic plasticity in the ACC. The ACC synaptic strengthening in chronic visceral pain may engage signal transduction pathways that are in common with those activated by electrical stimulation, and serves as an attractive cellular model of functional visceral pain.
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N-hexane alters the maturation of oocytes and induces apoptosis in mice.
Biomed. Environ. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2013
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This study was aimed to determine the effects of n-hexane on the maturation of mouse oocytes.
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Phase II study on Javanica oil emulsion injection (Yadanzi®) combined with chemotherapy in treating patients with advanced lung adenocarcinoma.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2013
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To investigate the efficacy and safety of Javanica oil emulsion injection (Yadanzi®) combined with pemetrexed and platinum (PP) for treating patients with advanced lung cancer.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.