JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Effect of serum hepatitis B surface antigen levels on predicting the clinical outcomes of chronic hepatitis B infection: a meta-analysis.
Hepatol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-26-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The impact of serum Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) levels on the prognosis of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remains unclear. This meta-analysis aimed to determine whether serum HBsAg levels influenced the risk of cirrhosis and HCC development. Furthermore, we explored the role played by serum HBsAg levels in prediction of spontaneous HBsAg seroclearance.
Related JoVE Video
[Dy(acac)3(dppn)]·C2H5OH: construction of a single-ion magnet based on the square-antiprism dysprosium(iii) ion.
Dalton Trans
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The present work reports a new mononuclear Dy(iii) complex [Dy(acac)3(dppn)]·C2H5OH () (acac = acetylacetone, dppn = benzo[i]dipyrido-[3, 2-a:2',3'-c]phenazine). X-ray crystallography analysis reveals that compound is a discrete molecular complex and the Dy(iii) center lies in a square-antiprism coordination environment. Furthermore, complex shows single-ion magnet (SIM) behavior. Compared to the reported complexes [Dy(dppz)(acac)3]·CH3OH, [Dy(dpq)(acac)3] and [Dy(phen)(acac)3], complex exhibits a different energy barrier, which might be raised from the different coordination environment caused by the different auxiliary co-ligand dppn. The energy barrier variations of these Dy(iii)-complexes are consistent with their square antiprism structural features.
Related JoVE Video
Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid Induces Tumor Cells Apoptosis via GABABR1·?-Arrestins·JNKs Signaling Module.
Cell Biochem. Biophys.
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), an inhibitory neurotransmitter in central nervous system, has yet been found to widely exist in tumor tissues to regulate tumor cells growth. However, the function of GABA on inducing tumor cells apoptosis and the potential mechanism are still unclear. In order to detect whether GABA via GABAB receptor GABABR1 would activate c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs) to promote tumor cells apoptosis, co-immunoprecipitation assay was used to investigate the association of ?-arrestins with GABABR1 and JNKs in the different four cancer cell lines. Our observation demonstrated that ?-arrestins, in addition to their role in G protein-coupled receptors desensitization, had an additional function as adapter proteins to recruit JNKs to GABABR1, thereby conferring distinct enzymatic activities upon the receptor, which may trigger JNKs signal pathway involved in the regulation of cellular growth. Activated JNKs subsequently phosphorylated downstream c-Jun to transcribe a wide variety of pro-apoptotic genes. Additionally, GABA up-regulated the ratio of pro-apoptotic protein Bax to anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2, and thus facilitated caspase-3 cleavage, leading to tumor cells apoptosis in a mitochondrial-dependent pathway. In contrast, GABABR antagonist CGP35348 reversed GABA-induced JNKs phosphorylation and its downstream proteins activation, which consequently restrained tumor cells apoptosis. Taken together, our study suggested that GABA via its receptor GABABR1 recruited ?-arrestins to facilitate the activation of JNKs cascade, resulting in tumor cells growth inhibition.
Related JoVE Video
[Retrospective analysis of the efficacy and safety of anti-hepatitis B virus drugs taken during pregnancy in women from the Guangdong Province].
Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To investigate the efficacy of anti-hepatitis B virus (HBV) drugs for preventing vertical transmission of HBV and the safety of these drugs when given as treatment during pregnancy (to women) or insemination (to men).
Related JoVE Video
Altered expression of dopamine receptors in cholinergic motoneurons of the hypoglossal nucleus in a 6-OHDA-induced Parkinson's disease rat model.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disorder that is often associated with weak tongue motility. However, the link between the degenerated dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) and lingual dysfunction remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the localization of dopamine receptor 1 (D1) and dopamine receptor 2 (D2) and alternations in their expression in cholinergic motoneurons of the hypoglossal nucleus (HN) using double-label immunofluorescence, Western blotting and semi-quantitative reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction (SqRT-PCR) in rats that received microinjections of 6-hydroxydopamine bilaterally into the SN (6-OHDA rats). The results revealed that a large population of choline acetyltransferase immunoreactive (ChAT-IR) neurons was distributed throughout HN and that almost all of the ChAT-IR motoneurons were also D1-IR and D2-IR. Several tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-IR profiles were observed in a nonuniform pattern near the ChAT-IR, D1-IR or D2-IR somas, suggesting potent dopaminergic innervation. In the 6-OHDA rats, TH immunoreactivity in the SN was significantly decreased, but food residue was increased and treadmill occupancy time was shortened. In the HN, protein expression of TH and D2 was increased, whereas that of ChAT and D1 was decreased. A similar pattern was observed in mRNA levels. The present study suggests that dopamine may modulate the activity of cholinergic neurons via binding with D1 and D2 in the HN. Changes in the expression of ChAT, TH, D1 and D2 in the HN of 6-OHDA rats might be associated with the impaired tongue motility in PD. These findings should be further investigated.
Related JoVE Video
The complete mitogenome of the Common Mormon Papilio polytes (Insecta: Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea).
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Abstract The complete mitogenome of the Common Mormon Papilio polytes has been reconstructed from the whole-genome Illumina sequencing data. The circular genome is 15,256?bp in length, and consists of 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 transfer RNAs (tRNAs), two ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) and one D-loop region. All PCGs are initiated with ATN codons except for the COI gene, which uses the unusual CGA as its start codon. Some PCGs harbor TAG (ND3) or incomplete stop codon T (COI & COII), while all the others use TAA as their stop codons. The nucleotide composition is highly asymmetric (39.6% A, 41.5% T, 7.5% G, 11.4% C) with an overall GC content of 18.9%.
Related JoVE Video
Lectin from Agrocybe aegerita as a glycophenotype probe for evaluation of progression and survival in colorectal cancer.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Agrocybe aegerita Lectin (AAL) has been identified to have high affinity for sulfated and ?2-3- linked sialic acid glycoconjugates, especially the sulfated and sialyl TF (Thomsen-Friedenreich) disaccharide. This study was conducted to investigate the clinicopathological and prognostic value of AAL in identifying aberrant glycosylation in colorectal cancer (CRC).
Related JoVE Video
Overexpression of Myo1e in mouse podocytes enhances cellular endocytosis, migration, and adhesion.
J. Cell. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Podocytes are a terminally differentiated and highly specialized cell type in the glomerulus that forms a crucial component of the glomerular filtration barrier. Recently, Myo1e was identified in the podocytes of glomeruli. Myo1e podocyte-specific knockout mice exhibit proteinuria, podocyte foot process effacement, glomerular basement membrane disorganization, signs of chronic renal injury, and kidney inflammation. After overexpression of Myo1e in a conditionally immortalized mouse podocyte cell line (MPC5), podocyte migration was evaluated via transwell assay, endocytosis was evaluated using FITC-transferrin, and adhesion was evaluated using a detachment assay after puromycin aminonucleoside treatment. Myo1e overexpression significantly increased the adherence of podocytes. ANOVA analysis indicated significant differences for cell adhesion between the overexpression and control groups (overexpression vs. control, t?=?11.3199, P?=?0.005; overexpression vs. negative control, t?=?12.0570, P?=?0.0006). Overexpression of Myo1e inhibited puromycin aminonucleoside-induced podocyte detachment, and the number of cells remaining on the bottom of the culture plate increased. Cell migration was enhanced in Myo1e-overexpressing podocytes in the transwell migration assay. Internalization of FITC-transferrin also increased in Myo1e-overexpressing podocytes relative to control cells. Overexpression of Myo1e can enhance podocyte migration ability, endocytosis, and attachment to the glomerular basement membrane. Restoration of Myo1e expression in podocytes may therefore strengthen their functional integrity against environmental and mechanical injury.
Related JoVE Video
A novel finding of anoctamin 5 expression in the rodent gastrointestinal tract.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Anoctamin 5 (Ano5) belongs to the anoctamin gene family and acts as a calcium-activated chloride channel (CaCC). A mutation in the Ano5 gene causes limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD) type 2L, the third most common LGMD in Northern and Central Europe. Defective sarcolemmal membrane repair has been reported in patients carrying this Ano5 mutant. It has also been noted that LGMD patients often suffer from nonspecific pharyngoesophageal motility disorders. One study reported that 8/19 patients carrying Ano5 nutations suffered from dysphagia, including the feeling that solid food items become lodged in the upper portion of the esophagus. Ano5 is widely distributed in bone, skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle, brain, heart, kidney and lung tissue, but no report has examined its expression in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. In the present study, we investigated the distribution of Ano5 in the GI tracts of mice via reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), Western blot and immunofluorescence analyses. The results indicated that Ano5 mRNA and protein are widely expressed in the esophagus, the stomach, the duodenum, the colon and the rectum but that Ano5 immunoreactivity was only detected in the mucosal layer, except for the muscular layer of the upper esophagus, which consists of skeletal muscle. In conclusion, our present results demonstrate for the first time the expression of Ano5 in the GI epithelium and in skeletal muscle in the esophagus. This novel finding facilitates clinical differential diagnosis and treatment. However, further investigation of the role of Ano5 in GI function is required.
Related JoVE Video
[Ecological risk assessment of human activity of rapid economic development regions in southern Jiangsu, China: a case study of Dantu District of Zhenjiang City].
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This article investigated the spatiotemporal variation of landscape ecological risk in Dantu District of Zhenjiang City with statistical method based on the ETM remote sensing data in 2000 and 2005, and the TM remote sensing data in 2010, and quantitative index of regional ecological risk assessment was established with the employment of landscape index, so as to enhance the ecosystem management, prevent and reduce the regional ecological risk in southern Jiangsu with rapid economic development. The results showed that the fragmentations, divergence, and ecological losses of natural landscape types, such as forestland, wetland, waters, etc., were deteriorated with the expansion of built-up lands from 2000 to 2010. The higher ecological risk zone took up 5.7%, 9.0%, and 10.2% of the whole region in 2000, 2005, and 2010, respectively, which mainly distributed in the plain hilly region. During the study period, the area aggravating to the higher ecological risk zone was approximately 296.2 km2, 48% of the whole region. The ecological risk rose up in most of the region. The interference of rapid economic development to landscape patterns was even more intensive, with obvious spatial differences in ecological risk distribution. The measures of exploiting resources near the port, utilizing natural wetlands, constructing industrial parks, and rapid urbanization, etc., intensified the ecological risk and accelerated the conversion rate. Prompt strategies should be established to manage the ecological risk of this region.
Related JoVE Video
[Comparative metabonomics study on urine in rat treated by Angelica sinensis volatile oil].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Metabonomics was employed to investigate the effect of Angelica sinensis volatile oil (ASVO) to the endogenous metabolites of normal rats, and to reveal the possible ways of metabolism in rats caused by ASVO. The fifty male Waster rats were randomly divided into five groups (each consists of 10 rats), such as control group, high dose group of ASVO, middle dose group of ASVO, low dose group of ASVO, and Aspirin group. They were given 0.9% saline, 0.352 mL x kg(-1) ASVO, 0.176 mL x kg(-1) ASVO, 0.088 mL x kg(-1) ASVO and ASP respectively with the equal volume of 0.2 mL. Drugs and vehicle were given for 3 successive days. The urine was collected at 12, 24, 36, 48 h after modeling with metabolic cages. Rat urine metabolic fingerprint in different stages was analyzed using GC-MS, based on which the principal component analysis (PCA)and orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) models were established for metabonomic analysis. Potential biomarkers were screened by using variable importance in the projection (VIP) and T test. It was revealed that the middle dose of ASVO at 36 h induces a substantial change in rat urine. Compared with control group, seven kinds of endogenous metabolites in ASP group and ASVO group change significantly (P < 0.05), among which aconitic acid, succinic acid, citric acid, alpha-ketone glutaric acid, glycine and malic acid content had an upward trend (P < 0.05) and prostaglandin content had a downward trend (P < 0.01). The mechanism of ASVO and ASP have the similarity. It is likely that ASVO intervenes the metabolic process by affecting the energy, amino acid and lipid metabolism. Our work also indicates that rats administrated with ASVO can increase the energy metabolism of the body, induce the production of inflammatory substances and strengthen the body's immune ability. The result has also provide a proof for futher interpret ASVO pharmacological effects.
Related JoVE Video
Designing peptide-based HIV vaccine for Chinese.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 07-06-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
CD4+ T cells are central to the induction and maintenance of CD8+ T cell and antibody-producing B cell responses, and the latter are essential for the protection against disease in subjects with HIV infection. How to elicit HIV-specific CD4+ T cell responses in a given population using vaccines is one of the major areas of current HIV vaccine research. To design vaccine that targets specifically Chinese, we assembled a database that is comprised of sequences from 821 Chinese HIV isolates and 46 human leukocyte antigen (HLA) DR alleles identified in Chinese population. We then predicted 20 potential HIV epitopes using bioinformatics approaches. The combination of these 20 epitopes has a theoretical coverage of 98.1% of the population for both the prevalent HIV genotypes and also Chinese HLA-DR types. We suggest that testing this vaccine experimentally will facilitate the development of a CD4+ T cell vaccine especially catered for Chinese.
Related JoVE Video
Biological characteristics and oxidation mechanism of a new manganese-oxidizing bacteria FM-2.
Biomed Mater Eng
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A new manganese-oxidizing strain FM-2 was screened out from biological activated carbon (BAC) filter column and was identified as Citrobacter freundii. The results of the systematic study on this species are as follows: At 27°C, the optimum pH for Citrobacter sp. FM-2 to remove manganese was 7.0-8.0.The best removal rate of manganese under 27°C, pH 7.0 by FM-2 was reached at 4 d, being 76.2%; Compared with adsorption, biological oxidation played a dominant role in this removing process. Almost 75.7% of manganese was oxidized into oxides by Citrobacter sp and there were some particular oxides analogs generated on the bacterial surface; A 296bp DNA fragment amplified from Citrobacter sp. FM-2 revealed that this species has multicopper oxidase genes. Meanwhile, the phylogenetic tree indicated that compared with other related species, Citrobacter sp. FM-2 has its own evolutional independence.
Related JoVE Video
Effects of metronidazole on proopiomelanocortin a gene expression in zebrafish.
Gen. Comp. Endocrinol.
PUBLISHED: 05-19-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The Metronidazole (MTZ), a widely used antibiotic for treating variations of infections, recently is applied in a powerful tool for specifically ablating cells or tissues when combined with E. coli nitroreductase (NTR). Although some undesired biological effects on eukaryote cells have been reported previously, the toxicological mechanism of MTZ has not been uncovered yet. In current study, we found that MTZ can induce proopiomelanocortin a (pomca) expression in zebrafish larvae. The effect of MTZ is in stage-sensitive and dose-dependent manner. A pro-proliferation activity of MTZ on pomca-expressing cells in the pituitary at larval stage was also observed. Furthermore, up-regulated levels of prolactin (prl) and glycoprotein hormone subunit ? (gsu?) were also observed after the MTZ treatment. Therefore, utilizing our zebrafish as in vivo model, we concluded that MTZ can interfere the endocrine signals in the pituitary hormone genes expression. Our current results raised the cautions to the intensively application of MTZ in clinical practices and biomedical researches.
Related JoVE Video
Two follicle-stimulating hormone receptor polymorphisms and polycystic ovary syndrome risk: a meta-analysis.
Eur. J. Obstet. Gynecol. Reprod. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The aim of this study was to explore the association between follicle stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) Thr307Ala and Asn680Ser polymorphisms and susceptibility to polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). A comprehensive literature search for relevant studies was conducted on Google Scholar, PubMed, the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) and the Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CBM). This meta-analysis was performed using the STATA 11.0 software and the pooled odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated. Ten case-control studies were included in this meta-analysis. However, meta-analysis results showed no association between both FSHR Thr307Ala polymorphism and Asn680Ser polymorphism and susceptibility to PCOS. Stratified analysis of ethnicities also showed no association. In conclusion, the present study suggested that the FSHR polymorphisms were not associated with an increased risk of PCOS and larger-scale studies of populations are needed to explore the roles played by FSHR polymorphisms during the pathogenesis of PCOS.
Related JoVE Video
Ubiquitination of p53 is involved in troglitazone induced apoptosis in cervical cancer cells.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-?), a ligand-dependent nuclear transcription factor, has been found to widely exist in tumor tissues and plays an important role in affecting tumor cell growth. In this study, we investigated the effect of PPAR-? on aspects of the cervical cancer malignant phenotype, such as cell proliferation and apoptosis. Cell growth assay, Western blotting, Annexin V and flow cytometry analysis consistently showed that treatment with troglitazone (TGZ, a PPAR-? agonist) led to dose-dependent inhibition of cervical cancer cell growth through apoptosis, whereas T0070907 (another PPAR-? antagonist???) had no effect on Hela cell proliferation and apoptosis. Furthermore, we also detected the protein expression of p53, p21 and Mdm2 to explain the underlying mechanism of PPAR-? on cellular apoptosis. Our work, finally, demonstrated the existence of the TGZ-PPAR-?-p53 signaling pathway to be a critical regulator of cell apoptosis. These results suggested that PPAR-? may be a potential therapeutic target for cervical cancer.
Related JoVE Video
Distinctive expression and cellular distribution of dopamine receptors in the pancreatic islets of rats.
Cell Tissue Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Activation of the dopamine (DA) D2 receptor inhibits glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in isolated rodent islets in vitro; however, no information is available regarding the cellular localization of DA receptors (DRs, including D1-D5 receptors) in pancreatic islets in situ. We investigate the protein expression and cellular localization of five types of DRs in pancreatic islets by means of Western blotting and double-labeling immunofluorescence in both normal control and alloxan-induced type 1 diabetes model (T1DM) rats. In control rats, D1 immunoreactivity (-IR) was distributed in the core of the islet and co-localized with insulin-IR, D2-IR was peripherally distributed and found only in somatostatin-immunoreactive cells and D5-IR was co-localized with glucagon-IR and pancreatic polypeptide-IR. No IR for either the D3 or D4 receptor was observed in rat islets. The protein level of the D1 receptor was reduced in T1DM rats (D1/D-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase [GAPDH], 0.63?±?0.05 in control rats compared with 0.16?±?0.03 in T1DM rats, n?=?8, P?
Related JoVE Video
The Association Between Lifestyle Activities and Late-Life Depressive Symptoms.
Act Adapt Aging
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The association between lifestyle activities and incident depressive symptoms was examined within the Women's Health and Aging Study II. Measures of activity and depressive symptoms were collected on four occasions, spanning six-years. Discrete-time Cox proportional hazards models were employed to examine the effects of baseline activity on depressive symptoms over time. Overall, activity was not associated with incident depressive symptoms. When specific activity domains were examined, greater participation in creative activities was associated with a reduced risk of depressive symptoms (hazard ratio = 0.92; CI 95% 0.87, 0.98). Further longitudinal research between diverse activities and incident depressive symptoms is warranted.
Related JoVE Video
Anti-fibrotic effects of specific-siRNA targeting of the receptor for advanced glycation end products in a rat model of experimental hepatic fibrosis.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Since the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE)-ligand axis has been demonstrated to be important in fibrogenesis, rat models may be used to assess whether specific small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) that target RAGE are able to reduce the progression of hepatic fibrosis. However, the effect of RAGE-targeted siRNA on established hepatic fibrosis remains to be elucidated. In the present study, RAGE-specific siRNA expression vectors were constructed prior to the animal experiment. Sprague-Dawley rats were treated initially with olive oil (2 ml/kg) or 50% CCl4 (2 ml/kg; CCl4/olive oil=1:1) twice per week for six weeks to generate the fibrosis model. The rats were then treated with phosphate?buffered saline, a RAGE-specific siRNA expression vector, at different doses or a non-specific siRNA expression vector twice weekly via tail vein injection for up to six weeks, and were sacrificed at week two, four or six. Compared with the control groups, RAGE?specific siRNA therapy significantly decreased RAGE mRNA and protein expression in rat livers (P<0.01). Following six weeks of RAGE gene-silencing treatment, the liver function, which was assessed by analyzing serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and total bilirubin (TBIL), improved to varying degrees (P<0.01). The expression of nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) significantly decreased following RAGE gene?silencing therapy (P<0.01). In addition, the serum levels of inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor?? (TNF-?) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), and extracellular matrix (ECM) components, including hyaluronic acid (HA), laminin (LN) and procollagen type III (PCIII) also decreased (P<0.01). Furthermore, the expression of ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA) and collagen I, which indicate the activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), were downregulated following RAGE gene-silencing therapy (P<0.01). Furthermore, the inflammatory activity grade and fibrosis stage of rat livers also significantly improved compared with the control groups following RAGE gene-silencing therapy. Specific targeting of RAGE using siRNA may inhibit RAGE gene expression effectively in the rat hepatic fibrosis model and attenuate the progression of established hepatic fibrosis. This therapeutic effect may be mediated via inhibition of the expression of NF-?B. These findings suggest that RAGE may be a new target to prevent hepatic fibrosis.
Related JoVE Video
No direct projection is observed from the substantia nigra to the dorsal vagus complex in the rat.
J Parkinsons Dis
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder that is characterized by degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN). Destruction of the SN can lead to gastric dyskinesis accompanied by decreased expression of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and increased expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in the dorsal vagus complex (DVC), which includes the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV) and nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS). However, it is unclear if the SN and DVC are directly connected.
Related JoVE Video
Hyperplasia and cellularity changes in IGF-1-overexpressing skeletal muscle of crucian carp.
Endocrinology
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The zebrafish skeletal muscle-specific promoter mylz2 was used to cause crucian carp overexpression of the zebrafish IGF-1 cDNA. In stable transgenic germline F1 progenies, a 5-fold increase in the level of IGF-1 in skeletal muscle was observed. Evident skeletal muscle hyperplasia was observed in the transgenic fish through histologic analysis. By analyzing the RNA sequencing transcriptome of the skeletal muscle of IGF-1 transgenic fish and nontransgenic control fish at 15 months of age, 10 966 transcripts with significant expression levels were identified with definite gene descriptions based on the corresponding zebrafish genome information. Based on the results of our RNA sequencing transcriptome profiling analysis and the results of the real-time quantitative PCR analysis performed to confirm the skeletal muscle transcriptomics analysis, several pathways, including IGF-1 signaling, aerobic metabolism, and protein degradation, were found to be activated in the IGF-1-overexpressing transgenic fish. Intriguingly, our transcriptional expression and protein assays indicated that the overexpression of IGF-1 stimulated a significant shift in the myofiber type toward a more oxidative slow muscle type. Although the body weight was surprisingly decreased by IGF-1 transgenic expression, significantly higher oxygen consumption rates were measured in IGF-1-overexpressing transgenic fish compared with their nontransgenic control fish. These results indicate that the sustained overexpression of IGF-1 in crucian carp skeletal muscle promotes myofiber hyperplasia and cellularity changes, which elicit alterations in the body energy metabolism and skeletal muscle growth.
Related JoVE Video
Recurrent exercise-induced acute kidney injury by idiopathic renal hypouricemia with a novel mutation in the SLC2A9 gene and literature review.
BMC Pediatr
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Idiopathic renal hypouricemia (iRHUC) is an autosomal recessive hereditary disorder, characterized by impaired tubular uric acid transport, re-absorption insufficiency and/or the acceleration of secretions. Some patients present with severe complications, such as exercise-induced acute kidney injury (EIAKI) and nephrolithiasis.
Related JoVE Video
?-arrestin promotes c-Jun N-terminal kinase mediated apoptosis via a GABA(B)R·?-arrestin·JNK signaling module.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Evidence is growing that the GABAB receptor, which belongs to the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) superfamily, is involved in tumorigenesis. Recent studies have shown that ?-arrestin can serve as a scaffold to recruit signaling protein c-Jun N-terminal knase (JNK) to GPCR. Here we investigated whether ?-arrestin recruits JNK to the GABAB receptor and facilitates its activation to affect the growth of cancer cells. Our results showed that ?-arrestin expression is decreased in breast cancer cells in comparison with controls. ?-arrestin could enhance interactions of the GABABR·?-arrestin·JNK signaling module in MCF-7 and T-47D cells. Further studies revealed that increased expression of ?-arrestin enhances the phosphorylation of JNK and induces cancer cells apoptosis. Collectively, these results indicate that ?-arrestin promotes JNK mediated apoptosis via a GABABR·?-arrestin·JNK signaling module.
Related JoVE Video
A virus-like particle based bivalent vaccine confers dual protection against enterovirus 71 and coxsackievirus A16 infections in mice.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Enterovirus 71(EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CA16) are responsible for hand, foot and mouth disease which has been prevalent in Asia-Pacific regions, causing significant morbidity and mortality in young children. Co-circulation of and co-infection by both viruses underscores the importance and urgency of developing vaccines against both viruses simultaneously. Here we report the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of a bivalent combination vaccine comprised of EV71 and CA16 virus-like particles (VLPs). We show that monovalent EV71- or CA16-VLPs-elicited serum antibodies exhibited potent neutralization effect on the homotypic virus but little or no effect on the heterotypic one, whereas the antisera against the bivalent vaccine formulation were able to efficiently neutralize both EV71 and CA16, indicating there is no immunological interference between the two antigens with respect to their ability to induce virus-specific neutralizing antibodies. Passive immunization with monovalent VLP vaccines protected mice against a homotypic virus challenge but not heterotypic infection. Surprisingly, antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) of disease was observed in mice passively transferred with mono-specific anti-CA16 VLP sera and subsequently challenged with EV71. In contrast, the bivalent VLP vaccine conferred full protection against lethal challenge by either EV71 or CA16, thus eliminating the potential of ADE. Taken together, our results demonstrate for the first time that the bivalent VLP approach represents a safe and efficacious vaccine strategy for both EV71 and CA16.
Related JoVE Video
Comparison of scaled-average, population, and individual bioequivalence on 2 tablets of pitavastatin calcium: a 3-period, reference-replicated, crossover study in healthy Chinese volunteers.
Clin Ther
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Pitavastatin, a fully synthetic ?-hydroxy-?-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitor, is potent for the treatment of primary hyperlipidemia and mixed dyslipidemia. Recently, the original product and some generic products of pitavastatin calcium have become available in China. However, the intrasubject variability and interchangeability of this newly developed generic product and the branded innovator product have rarely been investigated in the Chinese population.
Related JoVE Video
Differential utilization and transformation of sulfur allotropes, ?-S and ?-S8, by moderate thermoacidophile Sulfobacillus thermosulfidooxidans.
Res. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The utilization of amorphous ?-S and orthorhombic ?-S8 by thermoacidophile Sulfobacillus thermosulfidooxidans was firstly investigated in terms of cell growth and sulfur oxidation behavior. The morphology and surface sulfur speciation transformation were evaluated by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Raman spectroscopy and sulfur K-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy. The results showed that the strain grown on ?-S entered slower (about 1 day later) into the exponential phase, while grew faster in exponential phase and attained higher maximal cell density and lower pH than on ?-S8. After bio-corrosion, both sulfur samples were evidently eroded, but only ?-S surface presented much porosity, while ?-S8 maintained glabrous. ?-S began to be gradually converted into ?-S8 from day 2 when the bacterial cells entered the exponential phase, with a final composition of 62.3% ?-S and 37.7% ?-S8 on day 4 at the stationary phase. ?-S8 was not found to transform into other species in the experiments with or without bacteria. These data indicated S. thermosulfidooxidans oxidized amorphous ?-S faster than orthorhombic ?-S8, but the chain-like ?-S was transformed into cyclic ?-S8 by S. thermosulfidooxidans.
Related JoVE Video
Sept6 is required for ciliogenesis in Kupffer's vesicle, the pronephros, and the neural tube during early embryonic development.
Mol. Cell. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Septins are conserved filament-forming GTP-binding proteins that act as cellular scaffolds or diffusion barriers in a number of cellular processes. However, the role of septins in vertebrate development remains relatively obscure. Here, we show that zebrafish septin 6 (sept6) is first expressed in the notochord and then in nearly all of the ciliary organs, including Kupffer's vesicle (KV), the pronephros, eye, olfactory bulb, and neural tube. Knockdown of sept6 in zebrafish embryos results in reduced numbers and length of cilia in KV. Consequently, cilium-related functions, such as the left-right patterning of internal organs and nodal/spaw signaling, are compromised. Knockdown of sept6 also results in aberrant cilium formation in the pronephros and neural tube, leading to cilium-related defects in pronephros development and Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling. We further demonstrate that SEPT6 associates with acetylated ?-tubulin in vivo and localizes along the axoneme in the cilia of zebrafish pronephric duct cells as well as cultured ZF4 cells. Our study reveals a novel role of sept6 in ciliogenesis during early embryonic development in zebrafish.
Related JoVE Video
Serum suPAR levels help differentiate steroid resistance from steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome in children.
Pediatr. Nephrol.
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) has been regarded as a permeability factor in proteinuria, though its role in primary nephrotic syndrome remains to be elucidated further.
Related JoVE Video
Generation and characterization of gsu?:EGFP transgenic zebrafish for evaluating endocrine-disrupting effects.
Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The glycoprotein subunit ? (gsu?) gene encodes the shared ? subunit of the three pituitary heterodimeric glycoprotein hormones: follicle-stimulating hormone ? (Fsh?), luteinizing hormone ? (Lh?) and thyroid stimulating hormone ? (Tsh?). In our current study, we identified and characterized the promoter region of zebrafish gsu? and generated a stable gsu?:EGFP transgenic line, which recapitulated the endogenous gsu? expression in the early developing pituitary gland. A relatively conserved regulatory element set is presented in the promoter regions of zebrafish and three other known mammalian gsu? promoters. Our results also demonstrated that the expression patterns of the gsu?:EGFP transgene were all identical to those expression patterns of the endogenous gsu? expression in the pituitary tissue when our transgenic fish were treated with various endocrine chemicals, including forskolin (FSK), SP600125, trichostatin A (TSA), KClO4, dexamethasone (Dex), ?-estradiol and progesterone. Thus, this gsu?:EGFP transgenic fish reporter line provides another valuable tool for investigating the lineage development of gsu?-expressing gonadotrophins and the coordinated regulation of various glycoprotein hormone subunit genes. These reporter fish can serve as a novel platform to perform screenings of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in vivo as well.
Related JoVE Video
Association of hepatitis B virus pre-S deletions with the development of hepatocellular carcinoma in Qidong, China.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To investigate the roles of mutations in pre-S and S regions of hepatitis B virus (HBV) on the progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in Qidong, China.
Related JoVE Video
Expression and potential roles of HLA-G in human spermatogenesis and early embryonic development.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
As one of the non-classical major histocompatibility complex(MHC)-1 antigens, Human Leukocyte Antigen G (HLA-G), has been suggested as a prognostic marker to identify the embryo developmental potential. In the present study, we investigated the potential roles of HLA-G in human spermatogenesis and early embryonic development. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that HLA-G's expression was increased with increased Johnsen score in testicular tissues. There was no significant difference in HLA-G mRNA expression between testicular tissues with Johnsen score of 8-9 and normal sperm from ejaculated semen. HLA-G mRNA expression was detected in human zygotes, embryos and blastocysts but not in unfertilized oocytes. In testicular tissues where sperm was obtained by testicular sperm extraction (Johnsen score was 8 to 9), there were no correlations between HLA-G mRNA expression and fertilization, cleavage and high-quality embryo rates. At 48-72 h post-fertilization, HLA-G expression was higher in fast growing embryos. HLA-G specific siRNA injection into zygotes not only slowed down embryonic cleavage rate at 48 h post-fertilization, but also down-regulated the expression of embryo metabolism related gene (SLC2A1) and cell cycle-regulated gene (CCND2). Taken together, our findings suggested that HLA-G plays significant roles in human spermatogenesis and early embryonic development.
Related JoVE Video
[Impacts of establishment of chest pain center on the door-to-balloon time and the short-term outcome after primary percutaneous coronary intervention of patients with ST segment elevated myocardial infarction].
Zhonghua Xin Xue Guan Bing Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-29-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To investigate the impact of the establishment of chest pain center (CPC) model based on the pre-hospital real-time tele-12-lead electrocardiogram on the door-to-balloon (D-to-B) time and short-term outcome after primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) of patients with ST-segment elevated myocardial infarction (STEMI).
Related JoVE Video
miR-145 Inhibits Proliferation and Invasion of Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma in Part by Targeting c-Myc.
Onkologie
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Background: Accumulating evidence has shown that microRNAs (miRNAs) are aberrantly expressed in human esophageal cancer and crucial to tumorigenesis. Herein, we identified the role of miR-145 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) development in vitro and in vivo. Material and Methods: miR-145 expression was investigated in 40 ESCC samples as well as 5 ESCC cell lines by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Crystal violet and transwell assays were conducted to explore the effects of miR-145 on the proliferation and invasion of human ESCC cell lines, respectively. The impact of overexpression of miR-145 on putative target c-Myc was subsequently confirmed via Western blot. Results: miR-145 expression was frequently downregulated in ESCC specimens and cell lines compared with adjacent normal tissues (p < 0.05). Overexpression of miR-145 suppressed (p < 0.05) ESCC cell proliferation and invasion, as well as the growth of xenograft tumors in mice. Overexpression of miR-145 significantly decreased (p < 0.05) the protein level of c-Myc which has previously been identified as a direct target of miR-145. Conclusion: Our results demonstrate that overexpression of miR-145 inhibits tumor growth in part by targeting c-Myc. Our findings revealed that miR-145 may act as a tumor suppressor in ESCC, and its dysregulation may be involved in the initiation and development of human ESCC. © 2013 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.
Related JoVE Video
[Study on rational daily administration frequency of Fufang Biejia Ruangan tablet based on integrated serum pharmacologic and pharmacokinetic model].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-09-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To observe in vitro the effect of rat drug serum on the proliferation of HSC-T6 hepatic stellate cells in the pharmacokinetic model for determining peoniflorin in Fufang Biejia Ruangan tablet, in order to discover the rational daily administration frequency of Fufang Biejia Ruangan tablet. Fufang Biejia Ruangan tablet was orally administered to rats with different daily administration frequency. Their blood was collected from veins behind eye sockets at different time points before the administration and after the first administration, in order to determine the concentration of peoniflorin in blood plasma and the effect of rat drug serums on the proliferation of HSC-T6. A comprehensive analysis was made on the relationship between pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics to determine the rational daily administration frequency of Fufang Biejia Ruangan tablet. The results showed a good correlation between the inhibitory effect of Fufang Biejia Ruangan tablet-contained serum on HSC-T6 and the concentration of peoniflorin in blood. The two-time administration group showed higher pharmacologic and pharmacokinetic AUCs than one-time administration and three-time administration groups. In conclusion, Fufang Biejia Ruangan table is recommended to be taken twice a day for treating liver fibrosis in chronic hepatitis.
Related JoVE Video
[Design, synthesis and activities of novel benzothiazole derivatives containing arylpiperazine].
Yao Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 11-06-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Twenty-four novel benzothiazole derivatives containing arylpiperazine were designed and synthesized by bioisosterism principle. Anti-proliferative effect of these synthesized compounds against four cancer cell and two normal cell lines were evaluated in vitro by the standard MTT assay. Pharmacological test showed that most of the compounds exhibited potent antitumor activity. Some of the compounds (II2, II3, II6, II7) showed strong anti-proliferation activities against HepG2 and HeLa229 cell lines with the IC 50 values of 1.6-4.5 micromol x L(-1) and 2.5-5.3 micromol x L(-1), respectively, and compounds having cyan in p-substituted benzene ring (I4, I8, I12, II4, II8 and II12) were found to have better antitumor activities against AsPC-1 cell lines with the IC50 values of 5.2-11.3 micromol x L(-1). The structure-activity relationship of benzothiazole derivatives containing arylpiperazine was also discussed preliminarily.
Related JoVE Video
[Studies on thermal denaturation of peanut allergen Ara h1 and its interaction with reducing sugars].
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
PUBLISHED: 10-29-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The thermal denaturation of peanut allergen Ara h1, its interaction with reducing sugars and the corresponding changes in allergenicity were investigated by circular dichroism (CD), fluorescence and ELISA method comprehensively. The experimental results indicate that the secondary structure of Ara h1 changes significantly along with decreasing alpha-helical structure and its allergenicity with the temperature higher than 85 degrees C, and that both xylose and fructose can stabilize Ara h1 protein structure through interacting with Ara h1 protein and decrease its allergenicity obviously. This study should be helpful to the further understanding of sensitization mechanism of food allergy and be useful for the guidance on reasonable manufacturing of peanut foods.
Related JoVE Video
Development of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)/alginate copolymer hydrogel-grafted fabrics embedding of berberine nanosuspension for the infected wound treatment.
J Biomater Appl
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In the present study, a novel hydrogel-grafted fabrics embedding of berberine nanosuspension was developed for the treatment of infected wound. Hydrogel-grafted fabric was prepared by graft copolymerization of N-isopropylacrylamide and alginate using ceric ammonium nitrate as initiator. Berberine nanosuspension was prepared and embedded in the hydrogel-grafted fabrics to achieve sustained drug release. The prepared hydrogel-grafted fabrics embedding of berberine nanosuspension was characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and swelling degree studies. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy revealed that berberine was embedded into the matrix of hydrogel-grafted fabrics, rather than on the surface. Scanning electron microscopy showed that a thin hydrogel layer was formed on the surface of nonwoven fibers. The swelling study showed that hydrogel-grafted fabric had water absorbing characteristic with reversible temperature sensitivity. The drug release study demonstrated that hydrogel-grafted fabrics can be used as a sustained drug delivery system of hydrophobic compounds. The berberine nanosuspension embedded hydrogel-grafted fabric was further investigated in an animal infected wound model and was found to be a very promising wound healing dressing for the treatment and healing of infected wounds.
Related JoVE Video
The regulatory role of the adrenergic agonists phenylephrine and isoproterenol on fetal hemoglobin expression and erythroid differentiation.
Endocrinology
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
It has been reported that various endocrine hormones exert prominent effects on erythropoiesis. We conducted experiments to identify the mechanisms involved in the regulatory functions of adrenergic signaling on erythroid differentiation and the expression of hemoglobin genes. The reactivation of fetal hemoglobin (HbF) expression is also an important therapeutic option in patients with hemoglobin disorders. We determined that the adrenergic agonists phenylephrine (PE) and isoproterenol (ISO) can induce the production of ?-hemoglobin embryonic 1 (hbbe1) mRNA and protein in adult zebrafish erythrocytes. Elevated levels of HbF mRNA and protein were also observed in human K562 cells after the adrenergic agonist treatments. In addition, elevated levels of histone acetylation were observed in both the PE- and the ISO-treated K562 cells. Additionally, our data further indicate that the induction effects of the adrenergic agonists on HbF synthesis and erythroid differentiation in K562 cells are mainly mediated by the p38 MAPK/cAMP response element binding pathway. In summary, the present study identifies the role of the adrenergic agonists PE and ISO on p38 MAPK and ERK signaling for the stimulation of HbF production and erythroid differentiation.
Related JoVE Video
[Preparation of baicalin nanocrystal pellets and preliminary study on its pharmacokinetics].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To prepare baicalin nanocrystal (BC-NC) and evaluate its pharmacokinetics in rats.
Related JoVE Video
New perspectives of vesicular monoamine transporter 2 chemical characteristics in mammals and its constant expression in type 1 diabetes rat models.
Transl Res
PUBLISHED: 08-10-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) has been exploited as a biomarker of ?-cell mass in human islets. However, a current report suggested no immunoreactivity of VMAT2 in the ? cells of rat islets. To investigate the cellular localization of VMAT2 in islets further, the pancreatic tissues from monkeys and humans were compared with those of rats and mice. The study was performed using among-species comparisons and a type 1 diabetes model (T1DM) for rats by Western blotting, double-label immunofluorescence, and confocal laser scanning microscopy. We found that VMAT2-immunoreactivity (IR) was distributed peripherally in the islets of rodents, but was widely scattered throughout the islets of primates. Consistent with rodent islets, VMAT2-IR did not exist in insulin (INS)-IR cells but was abundantly present in glucagon (GLU)-IR and pancreatic polypeptide (PP)-IR cells in monkey and human islets. VMAT2-IR had no colocalization with INS-IR in any part of the rat pancreas (head, body, and tail). INS-IR cells were reduced dramatically in T1DM rat islets, but no significant alteration in the proportion of VMAT2-IR cells and GLU-IR cells was observed. Furthermore, a strong colocalization of VMAT2-IR with GLU-IR was distributed in the peripheral regions of diabetic islets. For the first time, the current study demonstrates the presence of VMAT2 in ? cells and PP cells but not in ? cells in the islets of monkeys and humans. This study provides convinced morphologic evidence that VMAT2 is not present in ? cells. There needs to be studies for new markers for ? cell mass.
Related JoVE Video
CTLA-4 polymorphisms and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE): a meta-analysis.
Mol. Biol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The aim of this study was to summarize results on the association of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) promoter exon-1 +49 and 1722T/C polymorphism with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) susceptibility by using the meta-analysis. We searched all the publications about the association between CTLA-4) promoter exon-1 +49 and 1722T/C polymorphism and SLE from PubMed, Elsevier Science Direct, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CBM), Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and Wanfang (Chinese). Previous CTLA-4 association studies with SLE, however, have produced inconsistent results. We have performed a meta-analysis to better assess the purported associations. A total of 17 independent studies (to June 2012) testing association between one or more CTLA-4 polymorphisms and SLE were used in this analysis. We have compared allele and genotype frequencies at two polymorphic sites found in exon-1 (at +49) and the promoter region (at -1722). The data demonstrate that the exon-1 +49 polymorphism is associated with SLE susceptibility in Asian population. The overall risk, measured by odds ratio (OR), stratification by ethnicity indicates the exon-1 +49 GG+GA genotype is associated with SLE, at least in Asians (OR = 0.85, 95 % CI = 0.73-0.99, P = 0.04 for GG+GA vs. AA; OR = 0.85, 95 % CI = 0.72-1.00, P = 0.05 for AG vs. AA). Similar trends are found in allele-specific risk estimates and disease association. Overall, there was significant association between the 1722T/C polymorphism and overall SLE risks (OR = 0.78, 95 % CI = 0.63-0.97, P = 0.04 for GG+GA vs. AA, OR = 0.87, 95 % CI = 0.76-0.99, P = 0.04 for G vs. A) in Asian population.In summary, this meta-analysis demonstrates that the CTLA-4 promoter +49A/G and promoter -1722C/T polymorphism may confer susceptibility to SLE, especially in Asian-derived population.
Related JoVE Video
Antihypertensive drugs decrease risk of Alzheimer disease: Ginkgo Evaluation of Memory Study.
Neurology
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The aim of this study was to determine whether use of diuretics, angiotensin-1 receptor blockers (ARB), angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-I), calcium channel blockers (CCB), or ?-blockers (BB) was associated with a reduced risk of Alzheimer disease (AD) dementia in participants with normal cognition or mild cognitive impairment (MCI).
Related JoVE Video
Pregnancy outcomes of day 5 embryo transfer in patients at high risk of developing ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome and analysis of factors affecting blastocyst formation.
J. Int. Med. Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To investigate the effects of day 5 embryo transfer (D5ET) compared with day 3 embryo transfer (D3ET) in patients at high risk of developing ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS); to analyse factors affecting blastocyst formation.
Related JoVE Video
Association between the CYP1A1 A2455G polymorphism and risk of cancer: evidence from 272 case-control studies.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A2455G is a common polymorphism in CYP1A1, showing differences in its biological functions. Case-control studies have been performed to elucidate the role of A2455G in cancer; however, the results are conflicting and heterogeneous. Hence, we performed a meta-analysis to investigate the association between cancer susceptibility and A2455G (64,593 cases and 91,056 controls from 272 studies) polymorphism in different inheritance models. We used odds ratios with 95 % confidence intervals to assess the strength of the association. Overall, significantly increased cancer risk was observed in any genetic model (dominant model, odds ration [OR]?=?1.19, 95 % confidence interval [CI]?=?1.13-1.25; recessive model: OR?=?1.41, 95 % CI?=?1.29-1.54; additive model: OR?=?1.49, 95 % CI?=?1.35-1.65) when all eligible studies were pooled into the meta-analysis. In further stratified and sensitivity analyses, the elevated risk remained for subgroups of breast cancer, colorectal cancer, esophageal cancer, hepatocellular cancer, head and neck cancer, leukemia, lung cancer, and prostate cancer, but these associations vary in different ethnic populations. In summary, this meta-analysis suggests the participation of A2455G in the susceptibility for some cancers, such as breast cancer, colorectal cancer, lung cancer, and so on. Moreover, ethnicity, histological type of cancer, and smokers seem to contribute to varying expressions of the A2455G on some cancers risk. In additon, our work also points out the importance of new studies for A2455G polymorphism in some cancer types, such as gallbladder cancer, Indians of breast cancer, and Caucasians of ovarians, because these cancer types had high heterogeneity in this meta-analysis (I (2)?>?75 %).
Related JoVE Video
Synchrotron radiation based STXM analysis and micro-XRF mapping of differential expression of extracellular thiol groups by Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans grown on Fe(2+) and S(0).
J. Microbiol. Methods
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The differential expression of extracellular thiol groups by Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans grown on substrates Fe(2+) and S(0) was investigated by using synchrotron radiation based scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) imaging and microbeam X-ray fluorescence (?-XRF) mapping. The extracellular thiol groups (SH) were first alkylated by iodoacetic acid forming Protein-SCH2COOH and then the P-SCH2COOH was marked by calcium ions forming P-SCH2COOCa. The STXM imaging and ?-XRF mapping of SH were based on analysis of SCH2COO-bonded Ca(2+). The results indicated that the thiol group content of A. ferrooxidans grown on S(0) is 3.88 times to that on Fe(2+). Combined with selective labeling of SH by Ca(2+), the STXM imaging and ?-XRF mapping provided an in situ and rapid analysis of differential expression of extracellular thiol groups.
Related JoVE Video
Development and characterization of an orodispersible film containing drug nanoparticles.
Eur J Pharm Biopharm
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In this study, a novel orodispersible film (ODF) containing drug nanoparticles was developed with the goal of transforming drug nanosuspensions into a solid dosage form and enhancing oral bioavailability of drugs with poor water solubility. Nanosuspensions were prepared by high pressure homogenization and then transformed into ODF containing drug nanoparticles by mixing with hydroxypropyl methylcellulose solution containing microcrystalline cellulose, low substituted hydroxypropylcellulose and PEG-400 followed by film casting and drying. Herpetrione, a novel and potent antiviral agent with poor water solubility that extracted from Herpetospermum caudigerum, was chosen as a model drug and studied systematically. The uniformity of dosage units of the preparation was acceptable according to the criteria of Japanese Pharmacopoeia 15. The ODF was disintegrated in water within 30s with reconstituted nanosuspensions particle size of 280±11nm, which was similar to that of drug nanosuspensions, indicating a good redispersibility of the fast dissolving film. Result of X-ray diffraction showed that HPE in the ODF was in the amorphous state. In the in vitro dissolution test, the ODF containing HPE nanoparticles showed an increased dissolution velocity markedly. In the pharmacokinetics study in rats, compared to HPE coarse suspensions, the ODF containing HPE nanoparticles exhibited significant increase in AUC0-24h, Cmax and decrease in Tmax, MRT. The result revealed that the ODF containing drug nanoparticles may provide a potential opportunity in transforming drug nanosuspensions into a solid dosage form as well as enhancing the dissolution rate and oral bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs.
Related JoVE Video
Anti-androgen effects of the pyrethroid pesticide cypermethrin on interactions of androgen receptor with corepressors.
Toxicology
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To clarify whether the mechanism of androgen receptor (AR) antagonism of the pyrethroid pesticide cypermethrin associates with the interactions between the AR and corepressors silencing mediator for thyroid hormone receptors (SMRT) and nuclear receptor corepressor (NCoR), we have developed the mammalian two-hybrid assays. The AR N-terminal domain 1-660 amino acid residues were subcloned into the plasmid pVP16 to construct VP16-ARNTD. The C-terminal receptor interaction domains (RIDs) of SMRT and NCoR were used to construct pM-SMRT and pM-NCoR. The constructed vectors pVP16-ARNTD, pM-SMRT or pM-NCoR, the reporter pG5CAT and the control pCMV? were cotranfected into the CV-1 cells. The cells were treated with cypermethrin at the indicated concentrations. The AR N terminus interacted with RIDs of SMRT and NCoR. The interactions between the AR and corepressors SMRT and NCoR were enhanced by cypermethrin, and the significant enhancement was detected at the concentration of 10(-5)M. The mammalian two-hybrid assays demonstrate the utility to detect the interactions of the AR with SMRT and NCoR. Cypermethrin functions as an anti-androgen by enhancing the associations of the AR with SMRT and NCoR. We provide a novel mechanism in anti-androgen action of cypermethrin associated with the recruitment of SMRT and NCoR to AR.
Related JoVE Video
[Effect of TAK1 gene silencing on the apoptosis of Kasumi-1 cells induced by arsenic trioxide].
Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To study the effect of transforming growth factor-? activated kinase-1 (TAK1) gene silencing on the proliferation and apoptosis of Kasumi-1 cells induced by arsenic trioxide (As?O?).
Related JoVE Video
Abdominal visceral fat measurement using dual-energy X-ray: association with cardiometabolic risk factors.
Obesity (Silver Spring)
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To examine the association between cardiometabolic risk factors and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) measurements using a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) based approach.
Related JoVE Video
Effect of BPA on the germination, root development, seedling growth and leaf differentiation under different light conditions in Arabidopsis thaliana.
Chemosphere
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Bisphenol A (BPA) is a well-known environmental toxic substance, which exerts unfavorable effects through endocrine disruptor (ER)-dependent and ER-independent mechanisms to threaten ecological systems seriously. BPA may also interact with other environmental factors, such as light and heavy metals, to have a synergetic effect in plants. However, there is little data concerning the toxic effect of BPA on the primary producers-plants and its possible interaction with light-dependent response. Here, the effects of BPA on germination, fresh weight, tap root length, and leaf differentiation were studied in Arabidopsis thaliana under different parts of light spectrum (dark, red, yellow, green, blue, and white light). Our results showed that low-dose BPA (1.0, 5.0 µM) caused an increase in the fresh weight, the tap root length and the lateral root formation of A. thaliana seedlings, while high-dose BPA (10.0, 25.0 µM) show an inhibition effect in a dose-dependent manner. Unlike karrikins, the effects of BPA on germination fresh weight and tap roots length under various light conditions are similar, which imply that BPA has no notable role in priming light response in germination and early seedling growth in A. thaliana. Meanwhile, BPA exposure influences the differentiation of A. thaliana leaf blade significantly in a light-dependent manner with little to no effect in dark and clear effect under red illumination.
Related JoVE Video
Cross-linking of CD81 by HCV-E2 protein inhibits human intrahepatic plasmacytoid dendritic cells response to CpG-ODN.
Cell. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) are reported to be defective in HCV-infected patients, the mechanisms of which remain poorly understood. We isolated liver derived mononuclear cells (LMNCs) and pDCs from normal liver tissues of benign tumor dissections and liver transplant donors. Isolated pDCs and LMNCs were cultured with precoated HCV envelop protein E2 (HCV-E2) or anti-CD81 mAb in the presence of CpG-ODN. Our results show that cross-linking of CD81 by either HCV-E2 or anti-CD81 mAb inhibits IFN-? secretion in CpG-induced pDCs; down-regulates HLA-DR, CD80 and CD86 expression in pDCs; and suppresses CpG-ODN induced proliferation and survival of pDCs. The blockade of CD81 by soluble anti-CD81 antibody restores pDCs response to CpG-ODN. These results suggest that HCV E2 protein interacts with CD81 to inhibit pDC maturation, activation, and IFN-? production, and may thereby contribute to the impaired innate anti-viral immune response in HCV infection.
Related JoVE Video
Persistent asymptomatic isolated hematuria in children: clinical and histopathological features and prognosis.
World J Pediatr
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This study involving 351 children who had undergone kidney biopsy secondary to persistent asymptomatic isolated hematuria was undertaken to assess histological diagnosis of the disease and its natural history and prognosis.
Related JoVE Video
Significance of viral status on recurrence of hepatitis B-related hepatocellular carcinoma after curative therapy: A meta-analysis.
Hepatol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The impact of viral status on recurrence of hepatitis B-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after curative therapy remains controversial. This meta-analysis aimed to determine whether the presence of viral load, genotype, specific mutation and antiviral therapy influenced HCC recurrence after curative therapy.
Related JoVE Video
The effect of energy substrates on PHB accumulation of Acidiphilium cryptum DX1-1.
Curr. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The effect of glucose and elemental sulfur on the growth and PHB accumulation of Acidiphilium cryptum DX1-1 was investigated. Meanwhile, the differential expressions of 19 genes related with PHB accumulation, sulfur metabolism and carbon fixed in heterotrophy, phytotrophy and mixotrophy were studied by RT-qPCR. The results showed that strain DX1-1 could accumulate PHB with sulfur as the energy substance and atmospheric CO2 as carbon resource. Glucose could improve the growth of strain DX1-1 cultured in medium with sulfur as the energy substance, and almost all the key enzyme-encoding genes related with PHB, sulfur metabolism and carbon fixed were basically up-regulated. PHB polymerase (Arcy_3030), ribulose-bisphosphate carboxylase (Acry_0825), ribulose-phosphate-epimerase (Acry_0022), and cysteine synthase A (Acry_2560) played important role in PHB accumulation, the modified expression of which could influence the PHB yield. With CO2 as carbon resource, the main initial substance of PHB accumulation for strain DX1-1 was acetyl-CoA, instead of acetate with the glucose as the carbon resource. Because of accumulating PHB by fixed atmospheric CO2 while independent of light, A. cryptum DX1-1 may have specifically potential in production of PHB.
Related JoVE Video
Effects of human cumulus cells on in vitro fertilization outcomes and its significance in short-term insemination.
J Reprod Med
PUBLISHED: 03-02-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To observe the effects of cumulus cells on in vitro fertilization.
Related JoVE Video
Downregulation of PAK5 inhibits glioma cell migration and invasion potentially through the PAK5-Egr1-MMP2 signaling pathway.
Brain Tumor Pathol
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
PAK5 (p21 activated kinase 5) is upregulated in human colorectal carcinoma cells and is a known tumor promoter in carcinogenesis of the colon. Little is known regarding the mechanisms underlying the downstream targets of PAK5, and information concerning its biological significance in glioma is lacking. In this study, we investigated the effects of PAK5 on proliferation, migration, invasion, and apoptosis in human U87 and U251 glioma cells and examined the underlying molecular mechanism. We performed cell growth assays and cell cycle analysis to observe the cell proliferation. Flow cytometry analysis was performed to evaluate apoptosis, and in vitro scratch assays, cell migration assays, and gelatin zymography were performed to examine cell migration. Western blot analysis was performed to examine signal transduction in the cells. We demonstrated that suppression of PAK5 in glioma cells significantly inhibited cell migration and invasion. We also observed that suppression of PAK5 in human glioma cell lines inhibited cell growth because of G1 phase arrest. Additionally, flow cytometry and Western blot analysis indicated that PAK5 could inhibit cell apoptosis. These results suggest that the PAK5-Egr1-MMP2 signaling pathway is involved in tumor progression and may have a potential role in cancer prevention and treatment.
Related JoVE Video
Tenuigenin attenuates ?-synuclein-induced cytotoxicity by down-regulating polo-like kinase 3.
CNS Neurosci Ther
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Tenuigenin (Ten) is a Chinese herbal extract with antioxidative and antiinflammatory effects on toxin-induced cell models of Parkinsons disease (PD); however, its effects on ?-synuclein toxicity-based PD models remain unknown. ?-synuclein hyperphosphorylation is a key event in PD pathogenesis and potential target of therapeutic interventions. We tested whether Ten alleviates ?-synuclein-induced cytotoxicity via reducing kinases that phosphorylate ?-synuclein.
Related JoVE Video
Alterations in TH- and ChAT-immunoreactive neurons in the DMV and gastric dysmotility in an LPS-induced PD rat model.
Auton Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 02-09-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To study movement disorder in Parkinsons disease (PD), an animal model of PD can be created by injecting lipopolysaccharide (LPS) into the substantia nigra of rats. In addition to body movement disorders, patients with PD often experience gastrointestinal (GI) dysfunction, such as gastroparesis. However, the underlying mechanism of these disorders remains unclear. The dorsal motor nucleus of vagus (DMV) is a well-known visceral nucleus that regulates GI function. The present study investigated alterations in DMV neurons and gastric motility in rats with LPS-induced PD (LPS-PD rats). Gastric motility was recorded using a strain gauge force transducer in vivo. The distributions of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)- and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)-positive neurons in the DMV were determined using immunofluorescence and confocal laser microscopy. Our results indicated that in LPS-PD rats, the number of neurons in the substantia nigra, including neurons with TH immunoreactivity, was markedly reduced, although glial cell proliferation was clearly observed. However, enhanced TH immunoreactivity and decreased ChAT immunoreactivity were found in the DMV. Furthermore, weakened gastric motility was recorded in anesthetized LPS-PD rats. In conclusion, rats with LPS-induced PD exhibited gastric dysmotility with an alteration in DMV neurons. This PD model may be used to study autonomic nervous system disorders that are often observed in patients with early-stage PD.
Related JoVE Video
Effects of apolipoprotein E genotypes on metabolic profile and oxidative stress in south-west Chinese women with polycystic ovary syndrome.
Eur. J. Obstet. Gynecol. Reprod. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Apolipoprotein (APO) E genetic polymorphism plays an important role in lipid and lipoprotein metabolism, and has been shown to be associated with the risk of metabolic and cardio-cerebrovascular diseases and late-onset Alzheimers disease. It is not clear, however, whether there are any relationships between the APOE genotypes and PCOS in Chinese women. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between APOE genotypes and the risk of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and to evaluate the effects of the genotypes on metabolic profile and oxidative stress in south-west Chinese women.
Related JoVE Video
Effects of frozen timing on the spindle density, the angle between the polar body and spindle, and embryo development of intracytoplasmic sperm injection in mouse mature oocytes.
Cell Biol. Int.
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Better pregnancy outcomes can be obtained by human mature oocyte vitrification, but many problems remain to be resolved in human mature oocyte vitrification. Since mature oocyte development possesses its own maturity cycle, there should be the optimal timing for mature oocyte vitrification. The purpose of this study was to observe the effects of frozen timing on the spindle density, the angle between the polar body and spindle, and embryo development of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) in vitrified mouse mature oocytes and explore its possible mechanism. Mouse oocytes were randomly divided into three groups according to different frozen timing including Groups A, B, and C in which oocytes were vitrified within 2?h after ovum pick-up, and 3-4 and 5-6?h after ovum pick-up, respectively. Spindle-related parameters were measured, ICSI was performed. The spindle occurrence rate of vitrified-thawed oocytes was 98.4% in Group A, 82.3% in Group B, and 75.8% in Group C, without statistical differences between pre-vitrification and post-thawing and among the three groups (P?>?0.05). The angles between the polar body and spindle were larger after thawing than before vitrification (P??0.05). The damage on the spindle is the slightest and embryo quality is the highest in the mouse oocytes vitrified within 2?h after ovum pick-up. The spindle retardance value is more valuable than the spindle occurrence rate in the evaluation of vitrified-thawed oocyte quality, and is positively correlated with embryo quality.
Related JoVE Video
Thermophilic archaeal community succession and function change associated with the leaching rate in bioleaching of chalcopyrite.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The community succession and function change of thermophilic archaea Acidianus brierleyi, Metallosphaera sedula, Acidianus manzaensis and Sulfolobus metallicus were studied by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis of amplifying 16S rRNA genes fragments and real-time qPCR analysis of amplifying sulfur-oxidizing soxB gene associated with chalcopyrite bioleaching rate at different temperatures and initial pH values. The analysis results of the community succession indicated that temperature and initial pH value had a significant effect on the consortium, and S. metallicus was most sensitive to the environmental change, A. brierleyi showed the best adaptability and sulfur oxidation ability and predominated in various leaching systems. Meanwhile, the leaching rate of chalcopyrite closely related to the consortium function embodied by soxB gene, which could prove a desirable way for revealing microbial sulfur oxidation difference and tracking the function change of the consortium, and for optimizing the leaching parameters and improving the recovery of valuable metals.
Related JoVE Video
Hearing loss and cognitive decline in older adults.
JAMA Intern Med
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
BACKGROUND Whether hearing loss is independently associated with accelerated cognitive decline in older adults is unknown. METHODS We studied 1984 older adults (mean age, 77.4 years) enrolled in the Health ABC Study, a prospective observational study begun in 1997-1998. Our baseline cohort consisted of participants without prevalent cognitive impairment (Modified Mini-Mental State Examination [3MS] score, ?80) who underwent audiometric testing in year 5. Participants were followed up for 6 years. Hearing was defined at baseline using a pure-tone average of thresholds at 0.5 to 4 kHz in the better-hearing ear. Cognitive testing was performed in years 5, 8, 10, and 11 and consisted of the 3MS (measuring global function) and the Digit Symbol Substitution test (measuring executive function). Incident cognitive impairment was defined as a 3MS score of less than 80 or a decline in 3MS score of more than 5 points from baseline. Mixed-effects regression and Cox proportional hazards regression models were adjusted for demographic and cardiovascular risk factors. RESULTS In total, 1162 individuals with baseline hearing loss (pure-tone average >25 dB) had annual rates of decline in 3MS and Digit Symbol Substitution test scores that were 41% and 32% greater, respectively, than those among individuals with normal hearing. On the 3MS, the annual score changes were -0.65 (95% CI, -0.73 to -0.56) vs -0.46 (95% CI, -0.55 to -0.36) points per year (P = .004). On the Digit Symbol Substitution test, the annual score changes were -0.83 (95% CI, -0.94 to -0.73) vs -0.63 (95% CI, -0.75 to -0.51) points per year (P = .02). Compared to those with normal hearing, individuals with hearing loss at baseline had a 24% (hazard ratio, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.05-1.48) increased risk for incident cognitive impairment. Rates of cognitive decline and the risk for incident cognitive impairment were linearly associated with the severity of an individuals baseline hearing loss. CONCLUSIONS Hearing loss is independently associated with accelerated cognitive decline and incident cognitive impairment in community-dwelling older adults. Further studies are needed to investigate what the mechanistic basis of this association is and whether hearing rehabilitative interventions could affect cognitive decline.
Related JoVE Video
PAK5-Egr1-MMP2 signaling controls the migration and invasion in breast cancer cell.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
p21-activated kinases (PAKs) are activated by various extracellular stimuli and, in turn, activate other kinases by phosphorylating them at specific serine/threonine residues or through protein-protein interaction. As a recently identified member of the group B PAK family, the role of PAK5 in cancer is poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the effect of PAK5 on the malignant phenotype, such as proliferation, cell cycle, apoptosis, migration, and invasion. Cell growth assay and cell cycle analysis consistently showed that knockdown of PAK5 could significantly inhibit the proliferation of breast cancer cells. Wound healing assay. migration assay, and invasion assay showed that PAK5 promoted cell migration. Furthermore, in order to elucidate the underlying mechanism of PAK5 on cellular growth and migration, we examined the protein expressions of cyclin D1, p21, early growth response protein 1 (Egr1), and matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2). Our work further reveals the PAK5-Egr1-MMP2 signaling pathway to be a critical regulator of cell migration and invasion. These results suggest that PAK5 may be a potential therapeutic target for breast cancer.
Related JoVE Video
Familial steroid-sensitive idiopathic nephrotic syndrome: seven cases from three families in China.
Clinics (Sao Paulo)
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Familial steroid-sensitive idiopathic nephrotic syndrome is rare, and only approximately 3% of patients have affected siblings.
Related JoVE Video
Distribution of dopamine receptors D1- and D2-immunoreactive neurons in the dorsal motor nucleus of vagus in rats.
Auton Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The dorsal motor nucleus of vagus (DMV) plays an important role in the regulation of gastrointestinal function. Dopamine (DA) exerts potent neuromodulatory effects on the motoneurons in the DMV via dopamine receptors (DRs). However, the distribution of DRs and their neurochemical phenotypes in the DMV are unclear. In the present study, the distribution of DRs D1- and D2-immunoreactive (IR) neurons and their neurochemical phenotypes in the DMV of rats were investigated using a double-labeling immunofluorescence technique combined with confocal microscopy. The results indicated that a considerable quantity of D1 and D2 was expressed throughout the DMV. A large amount of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)-IR and a few tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-IR neurons were observed in the DMV. Nearly all of the neurons were also D1-IR and D2-IR. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates the wide distribution of D1 and D2 in the cholinergic and catecholaminergic neurons in the DMV of rats. The DRs might play an important role in the regulation of DA on the activity of cholinergic and catecholaminergic neurons in the DMV.
Related JoVE Video
Systemic immune system alterations in early stages of Alzheimers disease.
J. Neuroimmunol.
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Immune activation and inflammation play significant roles in the pathogenesis of Alzheimers disease (AD). To test whether AD patients showed systemic manifestations of inflammation, blood from 41 patients with early stages of AD and 31 aged-match elderly controls were evaluated. Cellular markers for monocyte/macrophage (MO) activation and CD8 T lymphocyte were increased in early AD patients. Expression of monocyte CCR2, the receptor for monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), was decreased; however, plasma MCP-1 levels were significantly increased and were related to the degree of MO activation in AD. These findings suggest that AD pathogenesis may be influenced by systemic immunologic dysfunction and provides potential immunologic targets for therapeutic intervention.
Related JoVE Video
9G4+ Antibodies Isolated from HIV-Infected Patients Neutralize HIV-1 and Have Distinct Autoreactivity Profiles.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Potent HIV-1 specific broadly neutralizing antibodies (BNA) are uncommon in HIV infected individuals, and have proven hard to elicit by vaccination. Several, isolated monoclonal BNA are polyreactive and also recognize self-antigens, suggesting a breach of immune tolerance in persons living with HIV (PLWH). Persons with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) often have elevated levels of autoreactive antibodies encoded by the VH4-34 heavy chain immunoglobulin gene whose protein product can be detected by the 9G4 rat monoclonal antibody. We have recently found that levels of these "9G4+" antibodies are also elevated in PLWH. However, the putative autoreactive nature of these antibodies and the relationship of such reactivities with HIV neutralization have not been investigated. We therefore examined the autoreactivity and HIV neutralization potential of 9G4+ antibodies from PLWH. Results show that 9G4+ antibodies from PLWH bound to recombinant HIV-1 envelope (Env) and neutralized viral infectivity in vitro, whereas 9G4+ antibodies from persons with SLE did not bind to Env and failed to neutralize viral infectivity. In addition, while 9G4+ antibodies from PLWH retained the canonical anti-i reactivity that mediates B cell binding, they did not display other autoreactivities common to SLE 9G4+ antibodies, such as binding to cardiolipin and DNA and had much lower reactivity with apoptotic cells. Taken together, these data indicate that the autoreactivity of 9G4+ antibodies from PLWH is distinct from that of SLE patients, and therefore, their expansion is not due to a general breakdown of B cell tolerance but is instead determined in a more disease-specific manner by self-antigens that become immunogenic in the context of, and possibly due to HIV infection. Further studies of 9G4+ B cells may shed light on the regulation of B cell tolerance and interface between the generation of specific autoreactivities and the induction of antiviral immunity in persons living with HIV.
Related JoVE Video
Lifestyle activities and memory: variety may be the spice of life. The womens health and aging study II.
J Int Neuropsychol Soc
PUBLISHED: 12-15-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This study examined whether participation in a variety of lifestyle activities was comparable to frequent participation in cognitively challenging activities in mitigating impairments in cognitive abilities susceptible to aging in healthy, community-dwelling older women. Frequencies of participation in various lifestyle activities on the Lifestyle Activities Questionnaire (LAQ) were divided according to high (e.g., reading), moderate (e.g., discussing politics), and low (e.g., watching television) cognitive demand. We also considered the utility of participation in a variety of lifestyle activities regardless of cognitive challenge. Immediate and delayed verbal recall, psychomotor speed, and executive function were each measured at baseline and at five successive exams, spanning a 9.5-year interval. Greater variety of participation in activities, regardless of cognitive challenge, was associated with an 8 to 11% reduction in the risk of impairment in verbal memory and global cognitive outcomes. Participation in a variety of lifestyle activities was more predictive than frequency or level of cognitive challenge for significant reductions in risk of incident impairment on measures sensitive to cognitive aging and risk for dementia. Our findings offer new perspectives in promoting a diverse repertoire of activities to mitigate age-related cognitive declines.
Related JoVE Video
Anti-androgen effects of cypermethrin on the amino- and carboxyl-terminal interaction of the androgen receptor.
Toxicology
PUBLISHED: 11-11-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The pyrethroid insecticide, cypermethrin has been demonstrated to be an environmental anti-androgen in the androgen receptor (AR) reporter gene assay. The amino- and carboxyl-terminal (N/C) interaction is required for transcription potential of the AR. In order to characterize the anti-androgen effects of cypermethrin involved in the N/C interaction of AR, the mammalian two-hybrid assay has been developed in the study. The fusion vectors pVP16-ARNTD, pM-ARLBD and the pG5CAT Reporter Vector were cotransfected into the CV-1 cells. The assay displayed appropriate response to the potent, classical AR agonist 5?-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and known AR antagonist nilutamide. The N/C interaction was induced by DHT from 10(-11)M to 10(-5)M in a dose-dependent manner. Nilutamide did not activate N/C interaction, while inhibited DHT-induced AR N/C interaction at the concentrations from 10(-7)M to 10(-5)M. Treatment of CV-1 cells with cypermethrin alone did not activate the reporter CAT. Cypermethrin significantly decreased the DHT-induced reporter CAT expression at the higher concentration of 10(-5)M. The mammalian two-hybrid assay provides a promising tool both for defining mechanism involved in AR N/C interaction of EDCs and for screening of chemicals with androgen agonistic and antagonistic activities. Cypermethrin exhibits inhibitory effects on the DHT-induced AR N/C interaction, while the potency is weaker than that of nilutamide.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.