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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Mycoplasma pneumoniae Modulates STAT3-STAT6/EGFR-FOXA2 Signaling To Induce Overexpression of Airway Mucins.
Infect. Immun.
PUBLISHED: 10-06-2014
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Aberrant mucin secretion and accumulation in the airway lumen are clinical hallmarks associated with various lung diseases such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and cystic fibrosis. Mycoplasma pneumoniae, long appreciated as one of the triggers of acute exacerbations of chronic pulmonary diseases, has recently been reported to promote excessive mucus secretion. However, the mechanism of mucin overproduction induced by M. pneumoniae remains unclear. This study aimed to determine the mechanism by which M. pneumoniae induces mucus hypersecretion by using M. pneumoniae infection of mouse lungs, human primary bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells cultured at the air-liquid interface, and the conventionally cultured airway epithelial NCI-H292 cell line. We demonstrated that M. pneumoniae induced the expression of mucins MUC5AC and MUC5B by activating the STAT6-STAT3 and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signal pathways, which in turn downregulated FOXA2, a transcriptional repressor of mucin biosynthesis. The upstream stimuli of these pathways, including interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-6, and IL-13, increased dramatically upon exposure to M. pneumoniae. Inhibition of the STAT6, STAT3, and EGFR signaling pathways significantly restored the expression of FOXA2 and attenuated the expression of airway mucins MUC5AC and MUC5B. Collectively, these studies demonstrated that M. pneumoniae induces airway mucus hypersecretion by modulating the STAT/EGFR-FOXA2 signaling pathways.
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[Molecular identification of Manis pentadactyla using DNA barcoding].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2014
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The COI gene as DNA barcode was used to identify the Manis pentadactyla and its adulterants in order to provide a scientific basis for the molecular identification of M. pentadactyla. Genomic DNA was extracted from experimental samples using the DNA extraction kit. The COI genes were amplified using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequenced bi-directionally. Obtained sequences were assembled using the CodonCode Aligner. The neighbor-joining (NJ) tree was constructed by MEGA 6.0. The results indicated that COI sequences were successfully amplified and NJ trees results indicated that M. pentadactyla and its adulterants can be easily identification. Therefore, the COI gene is an efficient barcode for identification of M. pentadactyla and its adulterants,which will provide a new technique for the market supervision.
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[Identification of Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans and its adulterants using DNA barcode].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2014
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In this study, the COI barcode was used to identify the Scolopendra medicinal materials and its adulterants in order to provide a new method for the identification of Scolopendra. Genomic DNA was extracted from the experimental samples. The COI sequences were amplified and sequenced bi-directionally. Sequence alignment and NJ tree construction was carried out by MEGA6.0 software. The results showed that the COI sequences can be obtained from all experimental samples. The average inter-specific K2P distance of Scolopendra was 0.222 and the minimum inter-specific distance was 0.190. All the Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans medicinal samples clustered into a clade in the NJ tree and can be distinguished from its adulterants. In a conclusion, COI can be used to correctly identify Scolopendra medicinal materials, and it will be a potential DNA barcode for identifying other animal medicinal materials.
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[Identification of Placenta hominis and its adulterants using COI barcode].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2014
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In order to provide a new method for the identification of Placenta hominis, the COI barcode has been employed to identify the P. hominis medicinal materials and its adulterants. Genomic DNA was extracted from the experimental samples. The COI sequences were amplified and sequenced bi-directionally. Sequence assembly and consensus sequence generation were performed using the CodonCode Aligner. NJ tree was constructed by MEGA6.0 software. COI sequences can be successfully obtained from all experimental samples. The intra-specific variation and inter-specific divergence were calculated. The average intra-specific K2P distance of P. hominis was 0.001 and the maximum intra-specific distance was 0.008. The cluster dendrogram constructed can be seen that the same genus is together, and distinguished from its adulterants. It is concluded that P. hominis and its adulterants can be correctly identified by DNA barcoding method.
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Effects of endosulfan on the immune function of erythrocytes, and potential protection by testosterone propionate.
J Toxicol Sci
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2014
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While the immunotoxicity of endosulfan has been studied, little is known about its influence on immune function associated with erythrocytes (RBC). The aim of this study was to investigate the possible effects of endosulfan, and any possible mitigation by testosterone propionate (TP), on erythrocyte immune function in a mouse model. To this end, rosette formation [as erythrocyte C3b receptor(E-C3bR) and erythrocyte immune complexes (E-IC)], as well as measures of the erythrocyte C3b receptor rosette-forming enhancing rate (RFER; reflecting immunoenhancing factor activity) and C3b receptor rosette-forming inhibitory rate (RFIR; reflecting immunosuppressive factor activity) were performed. The effects of RBC on regulating NK cell function or T-cell adherence were also analyzed. Lastly, to begin to assess potential mechanisms by which endosulfan could impact on the measured endpoints, CD35, CD58, and CD59 expression on RBC was evaluated; expression/mRNA levels of complement receptor I-related gene/protein y (Crry) on cells/splenic tissues was also assessed. The data show that E-C3bR rosette ratios decreased, and those of E-IC increased, due to endosulfan treatment. In these hosts, RFER (i.e., immunoenhancing factor in plasma) was decreased, but RFIR (i.e., immunosuppressive factor) was unchanged.There were no clear effects from endosulfan on RBC regulatory function against NK or T-cells. Lastly, Crry mRNA levels in tissues/cells from these mice were significantly decreased; however, CD59 and CD58 expression levels were unaffected. The data also show that TP co-treatment reversed or mitigated effects of endosulfan on each endpoint, in part, by two possible mechanisms; the TP may be increasing the activity of the innate immune enhancing factor, or, an anti-oxidant effect of TP might help to protect membrane structures and increase Crry stability on the RBC.
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Ultrastructure and Composition of the Nannochloropsis gaditana Cell Wall.
Eukaryotic Cell
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2014
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Marine algae of the genus Nannochloropsis are promising producers of biofuel precursors and nutraceuticals and are also harvested commercially for aquaculture feed. We have used quick-freeze, deep-etch electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and carbohydrate analyses to characterize the architecture of the Nannochloropsis gaditana (strain CCMP 526) cell wall, whose recalcitrance presents a significant barrier to biocommodity extraction. The data indicate a bilayer structure consisting of a cellulosic inner wall (?75% of the mass balance) protected by an outer hydrophobic algaenan layer. Cellulase treatment of walls purified after cell lysis generates highly enriched algaenan preparations without using the harsh chemical treatments typically used in algaenan isolation and characterization. Nannochloropsis algaenan was determined to comprise long, straight-chain, saturated aliphatics with ether cross-links, which closely resembles the cutan of vascular plants. Chemical identification of >85% of the isolated cell wall mass is detailed, and genome analysis is used to identify candidate biosynthetic enzymes.
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Population-based cohort study on the risk of malignancy in East Asian children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2014
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To investigate the association and magnitude of risk between JIA, its associated treatment and cancer development in Taiwanese children.
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Transition-metal-free oxidative ?-C-H amination of ketones via a radical mechanism: mild synthesis of ?-amino ketones.
J. Org. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2014
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A transition-metal-free direct ?-C-H amination of ketones has been developed using commercially available ammonium iodide as the catalyst and sodium percarbonate as the co-oxidant. A wide range of ketone ((hetero)aromatic or nonaromatic ketones) and amine (primary/secondary amines, anilines, or amides) substrates undergo cross-coupling to generate synthetically useful ?-amino ketones. The mechanistic studies indicated that a radical pathway might be involved in the reaction process. The utility of the method is highlighted through a concise one-step synthesis of the pharmaceutical agent amfepramone.
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Characterisation of proanthocyanidins from Schisandra chinensis seed coats by UPLC-QTOF/MS.
Nat. Prod. Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2014
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In this article, an ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry method was developed to detect the chemical structures of proanthocyanidins (PAs) from seed coats of Schisandra chinensis. The cleavage pathways of the compounds were revealed. The structures of S. chinensis PAs, including two monomers, two B-type procyanidin dimers, three B-type procyanidin trimers, one mixed trimer and one B-type procyanidin tetramer, were confirmed. These nine compounds were detected in seed coats for the first time. The structures were identified by comparing their maximum absorption wavelengths, HPLC retention times and ESI-MS with those of authentic standards, or tentatively identified by MS/MS determination along with MetaboLynx(TM) software.
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[The selection of 30 ancestry informative markers and its application in ancestry inference].
Yi Chuan
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2014
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A panel of ancestry informative markers (AIMs) can be used to describe the genetic components of a population and infer the ancestral origin of a DNA sample. In this study, we selected 30 AIMs from 282 SNPs screened from 30 phenotype-related genes based on the genotyping data of 658 samples from nine populations in the HapMap database. Then,a multiplex assay was developed based on micro-sequencing general chip technologies, and a population allele frequency database was established. This system was utilized to ascertain the origin of subjects from East Asian, European, and African.First, 658 HapMap samples were analyzed using this panel of AIMs, and then 194 unrelated DNA samples from five populations were used for further validation of the system. Finally, population genetic components and individual genetic composition were generated using Structure software, and individual ancestry inferences were made. The 30-AIM assay was well balanced for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P > 0.01), and there was no linkage disequilibrium (l < 0.1). Ancestry component analyses for the 658 HapMap samples and 194 recruited samples were consistent with their known origins. The established panel filtered and developed by the 30 AIMs can be applied to analyze the genetic components of Asian, European,and African populations, as well as individual genetic composition.
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Protoplast fusion enhances lignocellulolytic enzyme activities in Trichoderma reesei.
Biotechnol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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Protoplast fusion was used to obtain a higher production of lignocellulolytic enzymes with protoplast fusion in Trichoderma reesei. The fusant strain T. reesei JL6 was obtained from protoplast fusion from T. reesei strains QM9414, MCG77, and Rut C-30. Filter paper activity of T. reesei JL6 increased by 18 % compared with that of Rut C-30. ?-Glucosidase, hemicellulase and pectinase activities of T. reesei JL6 were also higher. The former activity was 0.39 Uml(-1), while those of QM9414, MCG77, and Rut C-30 were 0.13, 0.11, and 0.16 Uml(-1), respectively. Pectinase and hemicellulase activities of JL6 were 5.4 and 15.6 Uml(-1), respectively, which were slightly higher than those of the parents. The effects of corn stover and wheat bran carbon sources on the cellulase production and growth curve of T. reesei JL6 were also investigated.
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Effect of low estrogen on neurons in the preoptic area of hypothalamus of ovariectomized rats.
Acta Histochem.
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2014
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the difference in neuronal activity in the preoptic area of the hypothalamus (POAH) under low estrogen condition induced by ovariectomy. One hundred and twenty sham-operated (SHAM) and ovariectomized (OVX) rats were placed in different temperatures for 2h. Twelve rats from each group were stimulated by 4°C, 10°C, 25°C, 33°C and 38°C, respectively. c-Fos expression in the POAH was detected by immunohistochemistry. Following exposure to warm and cold stimuli, there were markedly lower c-Fos-positive cell densities in the OVX group compared with the SHAM group in the median preoptic nucleus (MnPO) at 4°C, 10°C, 33°C and 38°C, in the medial preoptic area (MPA) at 25°C and 38°C, in the ventromedial preoptic nucleus (VMPO) at 4°C, 10°C and 38°C and in the ventrolateral preoptic nucleus (VLPO) at 4°C and 38°C. Both temperature and surgery had an impact on c-Fos expression by two-way ANOVA method except in the lateral preoptic area (LPO). c-Fos expression differed within different nuclei of the two groups in the same and different temperature stimuli. This indicated that the temperature-sensitive nuclei in the POAH exhibited lower and different activities during temperature stimuli following ovariectomy, which possibly resulted in abnormal thermoregulation and menopausal symptoms.
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KIT and BRAF heterogeneous mutations in gastrointestinal stromal tumors after secondary imatinib resistance.
Gastric Cancer
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2014
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Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are the most common mesenchymal tumor of the digestive tract and characterized by expression of KIT protein. Imatinib is the frontline therapy for metastatic and unresectable GIST patients showing clinical responses in 80 % of cases. Despite the often long-lasting clinical benefit seen in most patients treated with imatinib, many will eventually suffer disease progression. The most frequent mechanism of imatinib resistance in GIST is the acquisition of secondary mutations in either KIT or PDGFRA. There are also some imatinib-resistant GIST patients lacking an identifiable mechanism of treatment failure. Recently, activating BRAF mutation was detected in a small percentage of GISTs. In this study, we report a case of GIST with acquired resistance to imatinib during therapy.
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Copper-catalyzed aerobic decarboxylative sulfonylation of cinnamic acids with sodium sulfinates: stereospecific synthesis of (E)-alkenyl sulfones.
J. Org. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2014
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A copper-catalyzed aerobic decarboxylative sulfonylation of alkenyl carboxylic acids with sodium sulfinates is developed. This study offers a new and expedient strategy for stereoselective synthesis of (E)-alkenyl sulfones that are widely present in biologically active natural products and therapeutic agents. Moreover, the transformation is proposed to proceed via a radical process and exhibits a broad substrate scope and good functional group tolerance.
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Knockdown of Merm1/Wbscr22 attenuates sensitivity of H460 non?small cell lung cancer cells to SN?38 and 5?FU without alteration to p53 expression levels.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 07-21-2014
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Merm1/Wbscr22 is a novel metastasis promoter that has been shown to be involved in tumor metastasis, viability and apoptosis. To the best of our knowledge, there are currently no studies suggesting the possible correlation between the expression of Merm1/Wbscr22 in tumor cells and chemosensitivity to antitumor agents. In the present study, two human non?small cell lung cancer cell lines, H1299 and H460, were used to investigate whether Merm1/Wbscr22 affects chemosensitivity to antitumor agents, including cisplatin (CDDP), doxorubicin (ADM), paclitaxel (PTX), mitomycin (MMC), 7?Ethyl?10?hydroxycamptothecin (SN?38; the active metabolite of camptothecin) and 5?fluorouracil (5?FU). Merm1/Wbscr22 knockdown cell lines (H1299?shRNA and H460?shRNA) and negative control cell lines (H1299?NC and H460?NC) were established by stable transfection, and the efficiency of Merm1/Wbscr22 knockdown was confirmed by western blotting, immunofluorescence microscopy and quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The results demonstrated that shRNA?mediated knockdown of Merm1/Wbscr22 did not affect cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo. The H460 cells harboring wild type p53 were markedly more sensitive to all six antitumor agents as compared with the p53?null H1299 cells. Downregulation of Merm1/Wbscr22 did not affect H1299 sensitivity to any of the six antitumor agents, whereas attenuated H460 sensitivity to SN?38 and 5?FU, without significant alteration in p53 at both mRNA and protein levels, was identified. The reduced H460 sensitivity to SN?38 was further confirmed in vivo. SN?38 demonstrated significant tumor growth inhibitory activity in both H460 and H460?NC tumor xenograft models, but only marginally suppressed the H460?shRNA xenograft tumor growth. Furthermore, CDDP (4, 10, 15 µg/ml)?resistant human non?small lung cancer cells A549 (A549?CDDPr?4, 10, 15) expressed significant amounts of Merm1/Wbscr22 protein, as compared with the parental A549 cells. In conclusion, shRNA?mediated knockdown of Merm1/Wbscr22 attenuates H460 sensitivity to SN?38 and 5?FU, suggesting Merm1/Wbscr22 is involved in chemosensitivity to SN?38 and 5?FU in H460 cells. No direct correlation between the p53 expression level and altered chemosensitivity was identified.
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Factors associated with spontaneous clearance of hepatitis C virus in Chinese population.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2014
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Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections spontaneously clear in approximately 15-45% of infected individuals. Factors which influence spontaneous HCV clearance remain to be identified. The purpose of the present study was to identify variables associated with spontaneous HCV clearance in a referred population of Chinese patients. The prevalence of host, viral, and environmental factors known to influence the outcome of HCV infections was compared in 92 HCV spontaneous clearance subjects and 318 HCV persistent infection subjects. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify those factors associated with spontaneous HCV clearance. In univariate analysis, female gender, a history of icteric hepatitis, serologic evidence of concurrent HBV infection, and rs12979860 CC genotype were positively associated with spontaneous HCV clearance, while alcohol consumption was negatively associated with clearance. In multivariate analysis, female gender, a history of icteric hepatitis, concurrent HBV infection, and rs12979860 CC genotype remained independent variables associated with spontaneous HCV clearance. Spontaneous HCV clearance is more likely to occur in females, subjects with a history of icteric hepatitis, HBV coinfections, and those with the rs12979860 CC genotype.
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Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? inhibits pulmonary hypertension targeting store-operated calcium entry.
J. Mol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 07-07-2014
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In this study, we investigated the role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) on store-operated calcium entry (SOCE) and expression of the main store-operated calcium channel (SOCCs) components, canonical transient receptor potential (TRPC) in chronic hypoxia (CH)-induced pulmonary hypertension (CHPH) rat models. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) knockdown and adenoviral overexpression strategies were constructed for loss-of-function and gain-of-function experiments. PPAR? agonist rosiglitazone attenuates the pathogenesis of CHPH and suppresses Hif-1?, TRPC1, TRPC6 expression in the distal pulmonary arteries (PA), and SOCE in freshly isolated rat distal pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs). By comprehensive use of knockdown and overexpression studies, and bioinformatical analysis of the TRPC gene promoter and luciferase reporter assay, we demonstrated that PPAR? exerts roles of anti-proliferation, anti-migration, and pro-apoptosis in PASMCs, likely by inhibiting the elevated SOCE and TRPC expression. These effects were inhibited under the conditions of hypoxia or Hif-1? accumulation. We also found that under hypoxia, accumulated Hif-1? protein acts as upstream of suppressed PPAR? level; however, targeted PPAR? rescue acts as negative feedback on suppressing Hif-1? level and Hif-1? mediated signaling pathway. PPAR? inhibits CHPH by targeting SOCE and TRPC via inhibiting Hif-1? expression and signaling transduction.
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[Particle evaluation of cardiovascular stents].
Zhongguo Yi Liao Qi Xie Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2014
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This paper has briefly introduced the definition, classification, harms, sources and control of particles, lists the particle evaluation method of coronary stents. And the development trend of particle evaluation method of coronary stents is also analyzed.
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Effects of feeding tyrosine and phenylalanine on the accumulation of phenylethanoid glycosides to Cistanche deserticola cell suspension culture.
Chin J Nat Med
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2014
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To investigate the effects of feeding phenylalanine (Phe) and tyrosine (Tyr) on the accumulation of total phenolic compounds and four phenylethanoid glycosides (PeGs) to a cell suspension culture of the parasitic plant Cistanche deserticola.
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Malignant intraventricular meningioma with craniospinal dissemination and concurrent pulmonary metastasis.
World J Surg Oncol
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2014
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Malignant intraventricular meningiomas are quite rare and may spread along the craniospinal axis or extraneurally. However, simultaneous cerebrospinal dissemination and distal extraneural metastasis has seldom been reported.
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Expressions of oncogenes c-fos and c-myc in skin lesion of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma.
Asian Pac J Trop Med
PUBLISHED: 05-10-2014
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To explore the expressions of c-fos and c-myc in skin lesion of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC).
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An adaptive Kalman filter approach for cardiorespiratory signal extraction and fusion of non-contacting sensors.
BMC Med Inform Decis Mak
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2014
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Extracting cardiorespiratory signals from non-invasive and non-contacting sensor arrangements, i.e. magnetic induction sensors, is a challenging task. The respiratory and cardiac signals are mixed on top of a large and time-varying offset and are likely to be disturbed by measurement noise. Basic filtering techniques fail to extract relevant information for monitoring purposes.
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Laparoscopic common bile duct exploration and primary closure of choledochotomy after failed endoscopic sphincterotomy.
Int J Surg
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2014
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The aim of this study is to evaluate the safety and feasibility of laparoscopic common bile duct exploration and primary closure of choledochotomy for the patients with common bile duct stones (CBDS) who failed in endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST).
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Choreography of Transcriptomes and Lipidomes of Nannochloropsis Reveals the Mechanisms of Oil Synthesis in Microalgae.
Plant Cell
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2014
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To reveal the molecular mechanisms of oleaginousness in microalgae, transcriptomic and lipidomic dynamics of the oleaginous microalga Nannochloropsis oceanica IMET1 under nitrogen-replete (N+) and N-depleted (N-) conditions were simultaneously tracked. At the transcript level, enhanced triacylglycerol (TAG) synthesis under N- conditions primarily involved upregulation of seven putative diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) genes and downregulation of six other DGAT genes, with a simultaneous elevation of the other Kennedy pathway genes. Under N- conditions, despite downregulation of most de novo fatty acid synthesis genes, the pathways that shunt carbon precursors from protein and carbohydrate metabolic pathways into glycerolipid synthesis were stimulated at the transcript level. In particular, the genes involved in supplying carbon precursors and energy for de novo fatty acid synthesis, including those encoding components of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHC), glycolysis, and PDHC bypass, and suites of specific transporters, were substantially upregulated under N- conditions, resulting in increased overall TAG production. Moreover, genes involved in the citric acid cycle and ?-oxidation in mitochondria were greatly enhanced to utilize the carbon skeletons derived from membrane lipids and proteins to produce additional TAG or its precursors. This temporal and spatial regulation model of oil accumulation in microalgae provides a basis for improving our understanding of TAG synthesis in microalgae and will also enable more rational genetic engineering of TAG production.
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Impacts of El Niño Southern Oscillation on the global yields of major crops.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2014
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The monitoring and prediction of climate-induced variations in crop yields, production and export prices in major food-producing regions have become important to enable national governments in import-dependent countries to ensure supplies of affordable food for consumers. Although the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) often affects seasonal temperature and precipitation, and thus crop yields in many regions, the overall impacts of ENSO on global yields are uncertain. Here we present a global map of the impacts of ENSO on the yields of major crops and quantify its impacts on their global-mean yield anomalies. Results show that El Niño likely improves the global-mean soybean yield by 2.1-5.4% but appears to change the yields of maize, rice and wheat by -4.3 to +0.8%. The global-mean yields of all four crops during La Niña years tend to be below normal (-4.5 to 0.0%). Our findings highlight the importance of ENSO to global crop production.
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PIFA-mediated esterification reaction of alkynes with alcohols via oxidative cleavage of carbon triple bonds.
J. Org. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2014
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A metal-free esterification of alkynes via C?C triple bond cleavage has been developed. In the presence of phenyliodine bis(trifluoroacetate), a diverse range of alkyne and alcohol substrates undergoes triple bond cleavage to produce carboxylic ester motifs in moderate to good yields. The transformation is proposed to proceed via hydroxyethanones and ethanediones as intermediates on the basis of mechanistic studies and exhibits a broad substrate scope and good functional group tolerance.
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Validation of 58 autosomal individual identification SNPs in three Chinese populations.
Croat. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2014
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To genotype and evaluate a panel of single-nucleotide polymorphisms for individual identification (IISNPs) in three Chinese populations: Chinese Han, Uyghur, and Tibetan.
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Sol-gel approach for fabrication of coated anodized titanium wire for solid-phase microextraction: highly efficient adsorbents for enrichment of trace polar analytes.
Anal Bioanal Chem
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2014
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Nanotubular titania film was prepared in situ on titanium wire and was used as the fiber substrate for solid-phase microextraction (SPME) because of its high surface-to-volume ratio, easy preparation, and mechanical stability. Three different functional coatings, ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD), ?-cyclodextrin-co-poly(ethylenepropylene glycol) (?-CD/PEG), and polyethylene glycol (PEG)-based sorbents were chemically bonded to the nanostructured wire surface via sol-gel technology to further enhance the absorbing capability and extraction selectivity. Coupled to gas chromatography-flame ionic detection (GC-FID), the prepared SPME fibers were investigated using diverse compounds. The results indicated that the fibers showed good mechanical strength, excellent thermal stability, and wonderful capacity and selectivity to polar compounds, including polar aromatic compounds, alcohols, and ketones. Combining the superior hydrophilic property of a bonded functional molecule and the highly porous structure of a fiber coating, the prepared PEG-coated SPME fiber showed much higher adsorption affinity to ephedrine and methylephedrine than ?-CD and ?-CD/PEG fibers. The as-established PEG-coated SPME-GC analytical method provided excellent sensitivity (LODs, 0.004 and 0.001 ng mL(-1) for ephedrine and methylephedrine, respectively) and better linear range (0.01-2 000 ?g L(-1)). In addition, it has surprising repeatability and reproducibility. Finally, the present approach was used to analyze ephedrine and methylephedrine from real urine samples, and reliable results were obtained.
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An improved approach for accurate and efficient measurement of common carotid artery intima-media thickness in ultrasound images.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2014
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The intima-media thickness (IMT) of common carotid artery (CCA) can serve as an important indicator for the assessment of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). In this paper an improved approach for automatic IMT measurement with low complexity and high accuracy is presented. 100 ultrasound images from 100 patients were tested with the proposed approach. The ground truth (GT) of the IMT was manually measured for six times and averaged, while the automatic segmented (AS) IMT was computed by the algorithm proposed in this paper. The mean difference±standard deviation between AS and GT IMT is 0.0231±0.0348?mm, and the correlation coefficient between them is 0.9629. The computational time is 0.3223?s per image with MATLAB under Windows XP on an Intel Core 2 Duo CPU E7500 @2.93?GHz. The proposed algorithm has the potential to achieve real-time measurement under Visual Studio.
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Management of lymph node metastases from an unknown primary site to the head and neck (Review).
Mol Clin Oncol
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2014
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Cancer of unknown primary site (CUP) is an intriguing clinical phenomenon found in ~3-9% of all head and neck cancers. It has not yet been determined whether CUP forms a distinct biological entity with specific genetic and phenotypic characteristics, or whether it is the clinical presentation of metastasis in patients with an undetected primary tumor and no visible clinical signs. The treatment of patients with cervical lymph node metastases from CUP remains controversial, due to the lack of randomized clinical trials comparing different treatment options. Consequently, treatment is currently based on non-randomized data and institutional policy. In the present review, the range and limitations of diagnostic procedures are summarized and an optimal diagnostic work-up is recommended. The initial preferred diagnostic procedures include fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) and imaging. Although neck dissection followed by postoperative radiotherapy is the the most generally accepted approach, other curative options may be used in certain patients, such as neck dissection alone, nodal excision followed by postoperative radiotherapy, or radiotherapy alone. There remains controversy regarding target radiation volumes, ranging from ipsilateral neck irradiation to prophylactic irradiation of all the potential mucosal sites and both sides of the neck. When no primary lesion is identified with imaging and endoscopy in patients without history of smoking and alcohol abuse, molecular profiling of an FNAB sample for human papillomavirus and/or Epstein-Barr virus is required.
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Comparative analysis of the neuroprotective effects of ginsenosides Rg1 and Rb1 extracted from Panax notoginseng against cerebral ischemia.
Can. J. Physiol. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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Panax notoginseng, a traditional Chinese medicine, has been used for thousands of years to treat ischemic patients. More than 20 saponin components have been isolated from P. notoginseng root and identified chemically. However, these different chemical components have different roles. In this study we compared the neuroprotective mechanisms of ginsenosides Rg1, Rb1, Rg1/Rb1, and panax notoginsenoside (PNS) against injuries caused by cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I/R). Our results show that all of these treatments significantly reduced infarction volume and alleviated neurological deficits caused by cerebral I/R. The increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration was inhibited by these treatments in the hippocampus. The decreased expressions of thioredoxin-1 (Trx-1), copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD-1), protein kinase B (PKB/Akt), and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) caused by cerebral I/R were restored by these treatments. The expression of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) was enhanced in the middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) group, as well as in all of the treatment groups. These results suggest that Rg1 and Rb1 have similar roles in protecting the brain from ischemic damage; however, neither Rg1/Rb1 nor PNS have synergistic effects, thus either Rg1 or the Rb1 monomer should be considered as a pharmacological neuroprotective strategy for use in the case of ischemic stroke.
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Association of C722T polymorphism in XRCC3 gene with larynx cancer: a meta-analysis.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
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Several case-control studies indicated that XRCC3 genetic polymorphism (C722T) was associated with larynx cancer. The present study aimed to further evaluate the relation between the XRCC3 gene C722T polymorphism and larynx cancer. We selected five case-control studies related to XRCC3 gene C722T polymorphism and larynx cancer by searching PubMed, EMBase, Chinese CNKI, and Wanfang database. RevMan 5.0 software was used to perform the analysis. We directly utilized Q test and I (2) test to test the heterogeneity between each study. We utilized the fixed effects model to merge the odds ratio (OR) and 95 % confidence interval. There were 1,507 larynx cancer patients and 3,623 cancer-free control subjects included in the present study. By meta-analysis, we did not find any association of XRCC3 gene C722T polymorphism with larynx cancer [OR=1.54, 95 % CI (0.77-3.08); P=0.22]. The present study indicated that XRCC3 gene C722T polymorphism was not associated with larynx cancer.
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Multi-responses extraction optimization based on response surface methodology combined with polarity switching HPLC-MS/MS for the simultaneous quantitation of 11 compounds in Cortex Fraxini: application to four species of Cortex Fraxini and its 3 confusable species.
J Pharm Biomed Anal
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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A novel polarity switching high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS) approach combining optimization of extraction condition by response surface methodology (RSM) was developed for the simultaneous quantitative analysis of 11 compounds in Cortex Fraxini, a commonly used traditional Chinese medicine. The ultrasonic extraction conditions of the 11 analytes including sample quantity, methanol concentration and extraction time were simultaneously optimized with a Box-Behnken design (BBD) and Derringer's desirability function. Multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) scanning was employed for quantification with switching electrospray ion source polarity between positive and negative modes in a single run of 16min. Quantitative parameters of the proposed method with respect to limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), linearity, precision, accuracy and stability were evaluated under optimum conditions, and the results indicated that the method was sensitive, specific and reliable. The developed method was successfully applied to determine the investigated compounds in four species of Cortex Fraxini and three kinds of its confusable species, and significant differences were found between the official and confusable species.
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MicroRNAs in colorectal cancer as markers and targets: Recent advances.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2014
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MicroRNAs are evolutionarily conserved small non-coding RNA molecules encoded by eukaryotic genomic DNA, and function in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression via base-pairing with complementary sequences in target mRNAs, resulting in translational repression or degradation of target mRNAs. They represent one of the major types of epigenetic modification and play important roles in all aspects of cellular activities. Altered expression of microRNAs has been found in various human diseases including cancer. Many efforts have been made to discover the characteristic microRNA expression profiles, to understand the roles of aberrantly expressed microRNAs and underlying mechanisms in different cancers. With the application of DNA microarray, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and other molecular biology techniques, increasing evidence has been accumulated which reveal that aberrant microRNAs can be detected not only intracellularly within the cancer cells, but also extracellularly in plasma of patients, postulating the potential of aberrant microRNAs as promising diagnostic/prognostic markers and attracting therapeutic targets. This review is intended to provide the most recent advances in microRNA studies in one of the most common cancers, colorectal cancer, especially the identification of those specifically altered microRNAs in colorectal cancer, validation for their relevance to clinical pathological parameters of patients, functional analyses and potential applications of these microRNAs.
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Multicenter comparison of the efficacy on prevention of pressure ulcer in postoperative patients between two types of pressure-relieving mattresses in China.
Int J Clin Exp Med
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Present study is designed to evaluate the effects of preventing pressure ulcer in surgical patients with two types of pressure-relieving mattresses.
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Selectively adsorptive extraction of phenylarsonic acids in chicken tissue by carboxymethyl ?-cyclodextrin immobilized Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles followed ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled tandem mass spectrometry detection.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Carboxymethyl ?-cyclodextrin immobilized Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (CM-?-CD-Fe3O4) were synthesized for the selectively adsorptive extraction of five phenylarsonic acids including p-amino phenylarsonic acid, p-nitro phenylarsonic acid, p-hydroxy phenylarsonic acid, p-acylamino phenylarsonic acid and p-hydroxy-3-nitro phenylarsonic acid in chicken tissue. Using ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS), a highly sensitive analytical method was proposed for the determination of five phenylarsonic acids. It was shown that CM-?-CD-Fe3O4 could extract the five phenylarsonic acids in complex chicken tissue samples with high extraction efficiency. Under the optimal conditions, a high enrichment factor, ranging from 349 to 606 fold, was obtained. The limits of detection (LODs) (at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3) were in the range of 0.05-0.11 µg/kg for the five phenylarsonic acids. The proposed method was applied for the determination of five target phenylarsonic acids in chicken muscle and liver samples. Recoveries for the spiked samples with 0.2 µg/kg, 2.0 µg/kg and 20 µg/kg of each phenylarsonic acids were in the range of 77.2%-110.2%, with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of less than 12.5%.
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Distribution of serum total protein in elderly Chinese.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The serum total protein levels of the elderly possibly decrease gradually with aging. However, serum total protein levels are not suitable as a uniform reference standard for the elderly at different ages and genders. Thus, we investigated the total serum protein distribution in different gender and age groups of 11,453 elderly individuals aged ?60 years and without liver or renal disease from Lianyungang, Jiangsu, China. The total protein levels (TPL) of these individuals exhibited normal distribution (Z?=?1.206, P?=?0.109), whereas the reference range (95% CI) was 54.1 g/L to 82.3 g/L. TPL was higher in females than in males for those aged between 60 and 75 years, whereas no significant difference was observed for those aged between 80 and 95 years. TPL was negatively correlated with age in males (r?=?-0.1342, P<0.05), females (r?=?-0.304, P<0.05), and the total group (r?=?-0.2136, P<0.05). TPL also decreased with aging and showed a faster rate in women than in men. These results indicated that an appropriate range of serum total protein based on age and gender differences should be used for clinical applications.
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The incidence, risk factors and characteristics of pressure ulcers in hospitalized patients in China.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Pressure ulcers are very common in hospital patients. Though many studies have been reported in many countries, the large-scale benchmarking prevalence of pressure ulcers in China is not available. The aim of this study is to quantify the prevalence of pressure ulcers and the incidence of hospital-acquired pressure ulcers and analyze risk factors in hospitalized patients in China. A multi-central cross-sectional survey was conducted in one university hospital and 11 general hospitals in China. The Minimum Data Set (MDS) recommended by European Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel (EUPAP) was used to collect information of inpatients. All patients stayed in hospital more than 24 hours and older than 18 years signed consent form and were included. Data from 39952 out of 40415 (98.85%) inpatients were analyzed. Of the 39952 patients, 631 patients (including 1024 locations) had pressure ulcers. The prevalence rate of pressure ulcers in 12 hospitals was 1.58% (0.94-2.97%). The incidence of hospital-acquired pressure ulcers (HAPU) was 0.63% (0.20-1.20%). The most common locations developed pressure ulcers were sacrum, heels, and iliac crests. The common stages of pressure ulcers were stage I and II. Patients in Intensive Care Unit, Geriatric and Neurological Department were easier to develop pressure ulcers. The prevalence and incidence of pressure ulcers in China was lower than that reported in European and other countries. The stages of pressure ulcers in China were different than that reported in European countries. Our study provides with a baseline value for intensive research on pressure ulcer in China.
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Regulation of the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway and its integration with fatty acid biosynthesis in the oleaginous microalga Nannochloropsis oceanica.
Biotechnol Biofuels
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Sterols are vital structural and regulatory components in eukaryotic cells; however, their biosynthetic pathways and functional roles in microalgae remain poorly understood.
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Development of a multiplex autoantibody test for detection of lung cancer.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths for both men and women. Early diagnosis of lung cancer has a 5-year survival rate of 48.8%, however, nearly 35% of stage I patients relapses after surgical resection, thus portending a poor prognosis. Therefore, detecting lung cancer in early stage and further identifying the high-risk patients would allow the opportunity to provide adjuvant therapy and possibly increase survival. There is considerable evidence that the immune system produces an autoantibody response to neoplastic cells. The detection of such autoantibodies has been shown to have diagnostic and prognostic value. Here we took advantage of the high-throughput Luminex technique to multiplex a total of 14 tumor-associated autoantigens to detect the autoantibody from the patients sera. The 14 antigens were expressed by in vitro transcription/translation system with HaloTag at N-terminus. The fusion proteins were then covalently immobilized onto the Luminex microspheres conjugated by the halo-link ligand, thus eliminating the protein purification procedure. Sera samples from cancer patients and healthy controls were interacted with the microsphere-antigen complex to measure the autoantibodies. We have developed a quick multiplex detection system for measuring autoantibody signature from patient sera with minimal cross-reaction. A panel of seven autoantibody biomarkers has generated an AUC>80% in distinguishing the lung cancers from healthy controls. This study is the first report by combining Luminex platform and HaloTag technology to detect humoral immune response in cancer patients. Due to the flexibility of the Luminex technology, this approach can be applied to others conditions such as infectious, neurological, and metabolic diseases. One can envision that this multiplex Luminex system as well as the panel of seven biomarkers could be used to screen the high-risk population with subsequent CT test based on the blood test result.
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Quantitative dynamics of triacylglycerol accumulation in microalgae populations at single-cell resolution revealed by Raman microspectroscopy.
Biotechnol Biofuels
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Rapid, real-time and label-free measurement of the cellular contents of biofuel molecules such as triacylglycerol (TAG) in populations at single-cell resolution are important for bioprocess control and understanding of the population heterogeneity. Raman microspectroscopy can directly detect the changes of metabolite profile in a cell and thus can potentially serve these purposes.
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Inhibition of baicalin on metabolism of phenacetin, a probe of CYP1A2, in human liver microsomes and in rats.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Baicalin has been used as mainly bioactive constituent of about 100 kinds of traditional Chinese medicines in Chinese pharmacopoeia. The effect of baicalin on cytochrome P450 should be paid more attention because baicalin was used widely. The aim of this study was to investigate whether baicalin could inhibit CYP1A2 in pooled human liver microsomes (HLMs) and in rats in vivo and the gene polymorphisms could affect inter-individual variation in IC50 in 28 human livers. Phenacetin was used as probe of CYP1A2. Kinetic parameter of CYP1A2 and IC50 of baicalin on CYP1A2 to each sample were measured and the common CYP1A2 polymorphisms (-3860G>A and -163C>A) were genotyped. The results showed that baicalin exhibited a mixed-type inhibition in pooled HLMs, with a Ki value of 25.4 µM. There was substantial variation in Km, Vmax, CLint of CYP1A2 and IC50 of baicalin on CYP1A2 (3?10-fold). The range was from 26.6 to 114.8 µM for Km, from 333 to 1330 pmol·min(-1)·mg(-1)protein for Vmax and from 3.8 to 45.3 µL·min(-1)·mg(-1) protein for CLint in HLMs (n?=?28). The Mean (range) value of IC50 in 28 HLMs was 36.3 (18.9 to 56.1) µM. The genotypes of -3860G>A and -163C>A had no significant effect on the inhibition of baicalin on CYP1A2. The animal experiment results showed that baicalin (450 mg/kg, i.v.) significantly decreased the Cmax and CL of phenacetin, and increased C(60 min), t1/2, Vd and AUC (P<0.05). There were significant correlations between percentage of control in C(60 min), t1/2, CL, AUC of phenacetin and Cmax of baicalin in 11 rats (P<0.05). Protein binding experiments in vitro showed that baicalin (0-2000 mg/L) increased the unbound phenacetin from 14.5% to 28.3%. In conclusion, baicalin can inhibit the activity of CYP1A2 in HLMs and exhibit large inter-individual variation that has no relationship with gene polymorphism. Baicalin can change the pharmacokinetics of phenacetin in rats.
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Contribution of baicalin on the plasma protein binding displacement and CYP3A activity inhibition to the pharmacokinetic changes of nifedipine in rats in vivo and in vitro.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Baicalin purified from the root of Radix scutellariae is widely used in clinical practices. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of baicalin on the pharmacokinetics of nifedipine, a CYP3A probe substrate, in rats in vivo and in vitro. In a randomised, three-period crossover study, significant changes in the pharmacokinetics of nifedipine (2 mg/kg) were observed after treatment with a low (0.225 g/kg) or high (0.45 g/kg) dose of baicalin in rats. In the low- and high-dose groups of baicalin-treated rats, C max of total nifedipine decreased by 40%±14% (P<0.01) and 65%±14% (P<0.01), AUC0-? decreased by 41%±8% (P<0.01) and 63%±7% (P<0.01), Vd increased by 85%±43% (P<0.01) and 224%±231% (P<0.01), and CL increased by 97%±78% (P<0.01) and 242%±135% (P<0.01), respectively. Plasma protein binding experiments in vivo showed that C max of unbound nifedipine significantly increased by 25%±19% (P<0.01) and 44%±29% (P<0.01), respectively, and there was a good correlation between the unbound nifedipine (%) and baicalin concentrations (P<0.01). Furthermore, in vitro results revealed that baicalin was a competitive displacer of nifedipine from plasma proteins. In vitro incubation experiments demonstrated that baicalin could also competitively inhibit CYP3A activity in rat liver microsomes in a concentration-dependent manner. In conclusion, the pharmacokinetic changes of nifedipine may be modulated by the inhibitory effects of baicalin on plasma protein binding and CYP3A-mediated metabolism.
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Nannochloropsis genomes reveal evolution of microalgal oleaginous traits.
PLoS Genet.
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Oleaginous microalgae are promising feedstock for biofuels, yet the genetic diversity, origin and evolution of oleaginous traits remain largely unknown. Here we present a detailed phylogenomic analysis of five oleaginous Nannochloropsis species (a total of six strains) and one time-series transcriptome dataset for triacylglycerol (TAG) synthesis on one representative strain. Despite small genome sizes, high coding potential and relative paucity of mobile elements, the genomes feature small cores of ca. 2,700 protein-coding genes and a large pan-genome of >38,000 genes. The six genomes share key oleaginous traits, such as the enrichment of selected lipid biosynthesis genes and certain glycoside hydrolase genes that potentially shift carbon flux from chrysolaminaran to TAG synthesis. The eleven type II diacylglycerol acyltransferase genes (DGAT-2) in every strain, each expressed during TAG synthesis, likely originated from three ancient genomes, including the secondary endosymbiosis host and the engulfed green and red algae. Horizontal gene transfers were inferred in most lipid synthesis nodes with expanded gene doses and many glycoside hydrolase genes. Thus multiple genome pooling and horizontal genetic exchange, together with selective inheritance of lipid synthesis genes and species-specific gene loss, have led to the enormous genetic apparatus for oleaginousness and the wide genomic divergence among present-day Nannochloropsis. These findings have important implications in the screening and genetic engineering of microalgae for biofuels.
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Effect of Chronic Exposure to Cigarette Smoke on Canonical Transient Receptor Potential Expression in Rat Pulmonary Arterial Smooth Muscle.
Am. J. Physiol., Cell Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 12-11-2013
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To clarify the possible mechanism of cigarette smoking-induced pulmonary hypertension, furthermore providing effective targets for prevention and treatment, the effects of chronic cigarette smoking on rat pulmonary arterial smooth muscle in vivo, and nicotine treatment on rat pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) in vitro were investigated. In this study, we demonstrated that chronic cigarette smoke (CS) exposure leads to rat weight loss, right ventricular hypertrophy, and pulmonary artery remodeling. A fluorescence microscope was used to measure intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) in rat distal PASMCs. Results showed that basal [Ca(2+)]i and store-operated calcium entry (SOCE) level in PASMCs from 3 and 6 months CS exposed rats were higher than those in the unexposed control group, among which the increase in 6 months CS group was more significant than that in 3 months group. Furthermore, chronic exposure to CS also increased TRPC1 and TRPC6 expression in both mRNA and protein levels. Simultaneously, in vitro study showed that nicotine treatment (10 nM) significantly increased basal [Ca(2+)]i and SOCE in cultured rat distal PASMCs, accompanied with upregulated TRPC1 and TRPC6 expression. Knochdown of TRPCs with specific siRNA indicated nicotine increased basal [Ca(2+)]i and SOCE in PASMC is TRPCs dependent. These results suggested that chronic cigarette smoking induced vascular tone changes in pulmonary arteries and the development of pulmonary hypertension might largely relate to the enhanced Ca(2+) entry and upregulation of TRPC1 and TRPC6 in PASMCs, in which nicotine played an indispensable role.
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[Cervical tracheal resection with primary anastomosis for benign tracheal stricture in adult].
Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-10-2013
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To introduce the outcomes of tracheal resection with primary end to end anastomosis for benign cervical tracheal stenosis, and to discuss the strategy for prevention of surgical complications.
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[Hemodynamic variations during tracheal intubation with intubating laryngeal mask airway versus direct laryngoscope in hypertensive patients].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-05-2013
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To compare the variations of cardiovascular responses and vascular angiotensin II (AngII) in hypertensive patients during tracheal intubation with intubating laryngeal mask airway (ILMA) versus direct laryngoscope (DLS).
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Effects of Tyroserleutide on phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT pathway in human hepatocellular carcinoma cell.
J Drug Target
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2013
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Abstract Tyroserleutide (YSL) is an active, low-molecular-weight polypeptide with in vitro and in vivo anticancer effects on human hepatocellular carcinoma BEL-7402 cells. In this study, we studied the effects of YSL on PI3K/AKT in the BEL-7402 cells to explore its anti-tumor mechanism. Results showed that YSL could up-regulate the mRNA and protein expression of tumor suppressor PTEN and increase their activities, meanwhile inhibited the mRNA and protein expression of oncogene AKT and decreased the kinase activities of AKT and PDK1. The resuming balance effect of YSL between PTEN and AKT could prevent the transmission of tumor cell proliferation signals in the PI3K/AKT pathway. Inhibition of AKT would change the status of downstream effectors in the PI3K/AKT pathway: (1) inhibition of AKT up-regulated expression of cell cycle regulatory factors of downstream - P21 and P27 which repressed cell cycle and inhibited proliferation of tumor cells. (2) Inhibition of AKT decreased the phosphorylation level of MDM2, and then increased the protein level of P53 which would accelerate death proceeding of tumor cells. (3) Inactivation of AKT removed its inhibition effect on phosphorylation of Bad, which might decrease protein level of apoptosis inhibitor Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL, damaging mitochondria of tumor cells and inducing apoptosis.
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pH pre-corrected liquid hot water pretreatment on corn stover with high hemicellulose recovery and low inhibitors formation.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2013
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A challenge for lignocellulosic pretreatment is how to retain hemicellulose as much as possible. To reduce the degradation of hemicellulose and increase the recovery of sugars, an effective pH pre-corrected liquid hot water pretreatment (LHWP) was developed by employing a small amount of NaOH (?5/100g substrate) to accelerate the hemicellulose deacetylation and simultaneously pre-correct the acid hydrolyzate in situ. The results showed that the pH pre-correction can control the hydrolyzate pH. Under the pretreatment severity (PS) of 4.0, the pH pre-corrected LHWP reduced the hemicellulose degradation by 35.3-92.3%, decreased furfural formation by 90.5-99.8%. The highest hemicellulose recovery of 96.38% was obtained with pH pre-corrected by 2g NaOH/100g substrate. Enzymatic hydrolysis (EH) and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) on the whole slurry from the pH pre-corrected LHWP showed that the hemicellulose retained in the solid residue did not bring significant resistance to cellulose EH (p=0.837).
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Room-temperature synthesis of flower-like BiOX (X?Cl, Br, I) hierarchical structures and their visible-light photocatalytic activity.
Inorg Chem
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2013
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A simple method for facile synthesis of three-dimensional (3D) bismuth oxyhalide (BiOX, X?Cl, Br, I) hierarchical structures at room temperature has been developed. Under the influence of L-lysine surfactant, the bismuth and halogen (Cl, Br, I) sources hydrolyze and self-assemble into flower-like hierarchical architectures within 10 min. The resulted materials were characterized by XRD, FESEM, TEM, UV-vis DRS, and N2 adsorption-desorption techniques. We found that l-lysine is indispensable for their formation and the amount of HX has great effect on the final morphology. The BiOX (X?Cl, Br, I) hierarchical architectures are composed of single-crystalline nanoplates. We propose an amino-and-carboxyl structure-directing mechanism for the formation of the hierarchical structures. To evaluate the photocatalytic activity of the as-prepared materials, rhodamine-B was employed as a probe dye for degradation under visible light. All of the BiOX (X?Cl, Br, I) with 3D architectures show higher photocatalytic activities than their sheet-like counterparts. The superior activity is ascribed to the better light-harvesting capacity of the 3D hierarchical structures. The adopted method can be applied for large-scale generation of novel structures of similar kinds in a facile manner.
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[Dynamic accumulation of three main triterpenic acids in submerged cultivation mycelium of Poria cocos].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2013
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To study the dymamic accumulation of triterpenic acids production in submerged cultivation mycelium of Poria cocos.
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Establishment of a green fluorescent protein tracing murine model focused on the functions of host components in necrosis repair and the niche of subcutaneously implanted glioma.
Oncol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2013
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Due to progress in the research of glioma stem cells and the glioma niche, development of an animal model that facilitates the elucidation of the roles of the host tissue and cells is necessary. The aim of the present study was to develop a subcutaneous xenograft green fluorescent protein nude mouse model and use this model to analyze the roles of host cells in tumor necrosis repair. Tumors derived from the human glioma stem/progenitor cell line SU3 were subcutaneously implanted in green fluorescent protein nude mice. The implanted tumors were then passed from animal to animal for 10 generations. Finally, subcutaneous xenografts were assayed with traditional pathology, immunopathological techniques and fluorescence photography. For each generation, the tumorigenicity rate was 100%. Subcutaneous xenografts were rich in blood vessels, and necrotic and hemorrhagic foci, which highly expressed hypoxia-inducible factor-1?, tumor necrosis factor, Ki-67, CD68 and CD11b. In the interstitial tissue, particularly in old hemorrhagic foci, there were numerous cells expressing green fluorescent protein, CD68 and CD11b. Green fluorescent protein nude mouse subcutaneous xenografts not only consistently maintained the high invasiveness and tumorigenicity of glioma stem/progenitor cells, but also consisted of a high concentration of tumor blood vessels and necrotic and hemorrhagic foci. Subcutaneous xenografts also expressed high levels of tumor microenvironment-related proteins and host-derived tumor interstitial molecules. The model has significant potential for further research on tumor tissue remodeling and the tumor microenvironment.
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The role of thioredoxin-1 in suppression of endoplasmic reticulum stress in Parkinson disease.
Free Radic. Biol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2013
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Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been implicated in Parkinson disease. We previously reported that thioredoxin 1 (Trx-1) suppressed the ER stress caused by 1-methy-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine; however, its molecular mechanism remains largely unknown. In the present study, we showed that 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion (MPP(+)) induced ER stress by activating glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), inositol-requiring enzyme 1? (IRE1?), tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 2 (TRAF2), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), caspase-12, and C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) in PC12 cells. The downregulation of Trx-1 aggravated the ER stress and further increased the expression of the above molecules induced by MPP(+). In contrast, overexpression of Trx-1 attenuated the ER stress and repressed the expression of the above molecules induced by MPP(+). More importantly, the overexpression of Trx-1 in transgenic mice suppressed ER stress by inhibiting the activation of these molecules. We present, for the first time, the molecular mechanism of Trx-1 suppression of endoplasmic reticulum stress in Parkinson disease in vitro and in vivo. Based on our findings, we conclude that Trx-1 plays a neuroprotective role in Parkinson disease by suppressing ER stress by regulating the activation of GRP78, IRE1?, TRAF2, JNK, caspase-12, and CHOP.
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[?? T cell expression and significance in chronic rhinosinusitis].
Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-27-2013
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To explore the expression of ?? T cells in chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) and its potential significance in pathogenesis.
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Pharmacokinetic changes of unbound theophylline are due to plasma protein binding displacement and CYP1A2 activity inhibition by baicalin in rats.
J Ethnopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2013
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Baicalin is one of the major bioactive constituents of Scutellariae Radix, the root of Scutellariae baicalensis Georgi and possesses a wide variety of pharmacological properties.
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A validation study of a multiplex INDEL assay for forensic use in four Chinese populations.
Forensic Sci Int Genet
PUBLISHED: 07-19-2013
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Insertion/deletion (INDELs) marker sets can serve as a useful supplementary tool for human identification. A commercial kit, the Qiagen DIPplex(®) Investigator kit, multiplexes 30 biallelic autosomal INDELs and Amelogenin for forensic use. We performed a validation study based on the DIPplex(®) kit in four Chinese populations: Han, Tibetan, Uyghur, and Kazakh. There were no significant departures from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium or significant linkage disequilibrium (pair-wised r(2)<0.2) between the 30 INDELs. The random match probabilities were in the range of 3.84×10(-11) to 1.20×10(-12), and the power of exclusion was >0.99. The multiplex PCR was optimized for a 5-?L volume, full profiles were obtained with 0.062ng/?L of template DNA, and excellent performance was obtained with degraded casework samples. This study demonstrates that the multiplex INDEL assay can be used as a supplementary method for degraded DNA detection in the studied Chinese populations.
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Supported nanohydroxyapatite on anodized titanium wire for solid-phase microextraction.
Anal Bioanal Chem
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2013
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In this paper, a simple and versatile route was introduced to prepare solid-phase microextraction coatings on the chemically inert titanium wire. Titania nanotube array film can be created on metallic substrates by electrochemical anodization in fluoride-containing electrolytes and subsequently support various secondary reactions to prepare functional surfaces. In the present work, titania nanotube array-coated titanium wire was successfully modified by nanostructured hydroxyapatite by a simple solution-based in situ chemical deposition method. This coating has a high surface-to-volume ratio with a thickness of about 10 ?m. Extraction performance of the fiber was assessed on several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water solutions. The nanohydroxyapatite-coated fiber showed good precision (<7.4 %), low detection limits (1.79-4.89 ng/L), and wide linearity (0.1-200 ?g/L) under the selected conditions. The repeatability of fiber to fiber was 1.9-18.2 %. The new solid-phase microextraction fiber has a lifetime of over 150 extractions due to the hydroxyapatite nanoslices uniformly and strongly deposited on the wire surface. The environmental water sample was used to test the reliability of the solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography method; some analytes were detected and quantified.
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Effects of lovastatin, clomazone and methyl jasmonate treatment on the accumulation of purpurin and mollugin in cell suspension cultures of Rubia cordifolia.
Chin J Nat Med
PUBLISHED: 07-13-2013
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To determine the IPP origin of the naphthoquinones (NQs) in Rubia cordifolia, and to evaluate the effects of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) treatment, MEP, and MVA pathway inhibitor treatment on the accumulation of anthraquinones (AQs) and NQs in cell suspension cultures of R. cordifolia.
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A novel compact double pulse forming lines.
Rev Sci Instrum
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2013
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Novel double pulse forming lines (PFLs) are fabricated with two separate coaxial single PFLs with the same dimensions with each inner cylinder of the PFL negatively charged to improve the breakdown voltage of PFL and the energy storage density of de-ionized water. A spiral line is adopted for the single PFL to raise the impedance of the PFL and prolongs the pulse duration. Ethylene glycol is mixed with de-ionized water to raise the leakage resistance and the impedance of the single PFL. A double structure is adopted to reduce the breakdown voltage requirement of the transformer and the switch. At the same time, the double structure is an advantage to raise the impedance of the PFL.
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Molecular cloning and expression analysis of PDR1-like gene in ginseng subjected to salt and cold stresses or hormonal treatment.
Plant Physiol. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2013
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The plant pleiotropic drug resistance (PDR) family of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters is potentially involved in diverse biological processes. Currently, little is known about their actual physiological functions. A Panax ginseng PDR transporter gene (PgPDR1) was cloned and the cDNA has an open reading frame of 4344 bp. The deduced amino acid sequence contained the characteristic domains of PDR transporters: Walker A, Walker B, and ABC signature. Genomic DNA hybridization analysis indicated that one copy of PgPDR1 gene was present in P. ginseng. Subcellular localization showed that PgPDR1-GFP fusion protein was specifically localized in the cell membrane. Promoter region analysis revealed the presence of cis-acting elements, some of which are putatively involved in response to hormone, light and stress. To understand the functional roles of PgPDR1, we investigated the expression patterns of PgPDR1 in different tissues and under various conditions. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and Western blotting analysis showed that PgPDR1 was expressed at a high level in the roots and leaves compared to seeds and stems. The expression of PgPDR1 was up-regulated by salicylic acid (SA) or chilling, down-regulated by ABA, and regulated differently at transcript and protein levels by MeJA. These results suggest that PgPDR1 might be involved in responding to environmental stresses and hormones.
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[Radiobiological characteristics and MRN complex expression of human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell lines].
Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2013
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To study the radiobiological characteristic of human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell lines CNE1 and CNE2 and the changes in expression MRN (Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1) complex in the cell lines exposed to irradiation.
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ROCK mediates the inflammatory response in thrombin induced microglia.
Neurosci. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2013
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To investigate whether the ROCK pathway is involved in thrombin-induced microglial inflammatory response, thrombin-induced microglia were pretreated with the thrombin inhibitor argatroban or a ROCK inhibitor Y-27632. Microglial inflammatory response was evaluated by phagocytosis of fluorescein labeled latex beads analyses and inflammatory mediators expression such as nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?). Compared to non-induced microglia, thrombin-induced microglia show significantly enhanced phagocytotic capacity and increased ROCK, NO and TNF-? expression. Pretreatment of thrombin-induced microglia with argatroban or Y-27632 significantly decreased phagocytotic capacity and reduced ROCK, NO and TNF-? expression. Therefore, the ROCK pathway may play a vital role in the mechanisms by which thrombin induces microglia in the inflammatory response.
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Nanoporous array anodic titanium-supported co-polymeric ionic liquids as high performance solid-phase microextraction sorbents for hydrogen bonding compounds.
J Chromatogr A
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2013
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A nanoporous array anodic titanium-supported co-polymeric ionic liquids (NAAT/PILs) solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber was prepared in situ on the titanium wire. NAAT was selected as the substrate, in view of its high surface-to-volume ratio, easy preparation, mechanical stability, and rich titanol groups on its surface which can anchor silica coupling agent containing vinyl and then introduce ionic liquid copolymers as sorbents. In this work, 1-vinyl-3-nonanol imidazolium bromide ([C9OHVIm]Br) and 1,4-di(3-vinylimidazolium) butane dibromide ([(VIM)2C4]2[Br]) were synthesized and used as monomer and crosslinker, respectively. Extraction properties of the NAAT/PILs fiber for polar alcohols and volatile fatty acids (VFAs) in aqueous matrix were examined using gaseous sampling-SPME (GS-SPME) and headspace SPME (HS-SPME) mode, respectively. Combining the superior properties of NAAT substrate and the strong hydrogen bond interaction of PILs to polar compounds, the NAAT/PILs SPME fiber showed much higher adsorption affinity to aliphatic alcohols than bare NAAT and pure PILs fibers. The detection limits (LOD) of established GS-SPME-GC-FID method are in the range of 0.35-17.30ngL(-1) with a linear range from 0.01 to 500ngmL(-1). Also, it showed high extraction performance toward volatile fatty acids (VFAs) compounds from aqueous matrix. Under the optimized SPME conditions, wide linear ranges were obtained with correlation coefficients (R(2)) greater than 0.99 and limits of detection were in the range of 0.85-8.74ngL(-1). Moreover, real-world samples were analyzed and good results were obtained.
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Establishment of a pancreatic ? cell proliferation model in vitro and a platform for diabetes drug screening.
Cytotechnology
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2013
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Diabetes, a disease resulting from loss of functional ? cells, is globally an increasingly important condition. Based on the islet-differentiation ability of ductal epithelial cells and stimulating ? cell proliferation ability of the Reg I? gene, we aimed to establish an in vitro pancreatic ? cell proliferation model for screening therapeutic drugs of diabetes in the future. Pancreatic ductal epithelial cells were isolated from male Wistar rats, and induced to differentiate into pancreatic ? cells. Immunofluorescence staining assay, western blot, RT-PCR analysis, and dithizone staining were used to characterize the cells. Rat Reg I? protein was transiently expressed in vitro by transfection of HEK 293 cells with the PCMV6-entry-REG Ia plasmid, and expression was verified by RT-PCR analysis, proliferation assay, and apoptosis assay. The pancreatic ? cell proliferation model was further validated by a proliferation assay using differentiated pancreatic ? cells treated with transfection supernatant. Finally, we have successfully established an in vitro pancreatic ? cells proliferation model using transiently expressed rat Reg I? protein and differentiated pancreatic ? cells from pancreatic ductal epithelial cells. This model could be used as a platform to screen new drugs for islet neogenesis to cure diabetes, especially Chinese herbal drugs in the future.
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A let-7 binding site polymorphism rs712 in the KRAS 3 UTR is associated with an increased risk of gastric cancer.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2013
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Recently, single nucleotide polymorphisms in let-7 miRNA binding site in 3 untranslated region (UTR) of KRAS mRNA have been found to be associated with the cancer risk. In this study, we genotyped the frequency of KRAS rs712 to test its effect on gastric cancer (GC) risk in a hospital-based case-control study in a Chinese population, with 181 histologically confirmed GC patients and 674 cancer-free controls, using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) assay. The TT genotype of rs712 was associated with an increased risk of GC when taking GG genotype as a reference (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 3.05, 95 % confidence interval (CI), 1.53-6.08). Similarly, the T allele of rs712 was associated with a statistically significant increase in susceptibility compared with G allele (adjusted OR = 1.44, 95 % CI, 1.10-1.90). Our data demonstrated that the T allele of the let-7 binding site polymorphism rs712 in KRAS 3 UTR was associated with a significantly increased risk of GC, suggesting that the KRAS rs712 polymorphism may be a genetic marker for the development of GC.
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Developing a novel panel of genome-wide ancestry informative markers for bio-geographical ancestry estimates.
Forensic Sci Int Genet
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2013
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Inferring the ancestral origin of DNA samples can be helpful in correcting population stratification in disease association studies or guiding crime investigations. Populations throughout the world vary in appearance features and biological characteristics. Based on this idea, we performed a genome-wide scan for SNPs within genes that are related to physical and biological traits. Using the HapMap database, we screened 52 genes and their flanking regions. Thirty-five SNPs that displayed highly contrasting allele frequencies (Fst>0.3, linkage disequilibrium r(2)<0.2, and Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium P>0.001) among Africans, Europeans, and East Asians were selected and validated. A multiplexed assay was developed to genotype these 35 SNPs in 357 individuals from 10 populations worldwide. This panel provided accurate estimates of individual ancestry proportions with balanced discriminatory power among the three continental ancestries: Africans, Europeans, and East Asians. It also proved very effective in evaluating admixed populations living in joint regions of continents (e.g., Uyghurs and Indians) and discriminating some subpopulations within each of the three continents. Structure analysis was performed to establish and evaluate the panel of ancestry-informative markers, and the components of each population were also described to indicate the structural composition. The 21 population structures in our study are consistent with geographic patterns, and individuals were properly assigned to their original ancestral populations with proportion analyses and random match probability calculations. Thus, the panel and its population information will be useful resources to minimize the effects of population stratification in association analyses and to assign the most likely origin of an unknown DNA contributor in forensic investigations.
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One-step synthesis of peptide-programmed QDs as ready-to-use nanoprobes.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2013
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We developed a facile one-step method to produce ready-to-use quantum dots based on a peptide sequence containing a hexahistidine(his6-tag), poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), and a functional group, which lead to stable and customized peptide-QDs conjugates that could serve as fluorescent nanoprobes for biological imaging and detection.
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Pharmacokinetics and Tolerability of Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate 300 mg Once Daily: An Open-Label, Single- and Multiple-Dose Study in Healthy Chinese Subjects.
Clin Ther
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2013
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Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) has been approved worldwide for the treatment of adults with chronic hepatitis B and, in combination with other antiretroviral agents, HIV-1 infection. Although its use for the treatment of HIV has been approved by the Chinese State Food and Drug Administration, there are no data on the pharmacokinetic profile of TDF in Chinese individuals.
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Liraglutide prevents high glucose level induced insulinoma cells apoptosis by targeting autophagy.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 03-16-2013
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The pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes is progressive pancreatic beta cell failure with consequential reduced insulin secretion. Glucotoxicity results in the reduction of beta cell mass in type 2 diabetes by inducing apoptosis. Autophagy is essential for the maintenance of normal islet architecture and plays a crucial role in maintaining the intracellular insulin content by accelerating the insulin degradation rate in beta cells. Recently more attention has been paid to the effect of autophagy in type 2 diabetes. The regulatory pathway of autophagy in controlling pancreatic beta cells is still not clear. The aim of our study was to evaluate whether liraglutide can inhibit apoptosis and modulate autophagy in vitro in insulinoma cells (INS-1 cells).
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.