In these uncertain times of high health care costs, clinicians are looking for cost-effective devices to employ in their everyday practices. In an effort to promote cost-effective and proper wound repair, the hydrosurgical device allows accurate debridement of only unwanted tissue while precisely conserving viable structures for eventual repair. This prospective, randomised study compared procedures using the hydrosurgery system (VERSAJET™) with conventional debridement in order to assess clinical efficacy and cost-effectiveness when treating subjects with chronic wounds. A total of 40 subjects were recruited. There was no difference in time to achieve stable wound closure between the treatment groups (P = 0·77). There were no significant differences between the two groups in terms of cost of the first operative procedure (P = 0·28), cost of surgical procedures during the study (P = 0·51), cost of study treatment (P = 0·29) or cost to achieve stable wound closure (P = 0·85). There were no differences in quantitative bacterial counts after debridement with either methods (P = 0·376). However, the time taken for the first excision procedure was significantly faster using the hydrosurgery system (VERSAJET) when compared with conventional debridement (P < 0·001). The total excision time for all procedures was significantly less for the Hydrosurgery group than for the conventional group (P = 0·005). Also, the Hydrosurgery group demonstrated significantly less intraoperative blood loss than conventional group for all procedures (P = 0·003). In this study, although there were no differences in time to stable wound closure or bacterial reduction between the two groups, the hydrosurgery system (VERSAJET) did offer advantages in terms of operative times and intraoperative blood loss and was cost-neutral, despite the handpiece cost.
In this letter, we demonstrate a facile far-field approach to quantify the near-field local density of optical states (LDOS) of a nanorod using CdTe quantum dots (QDs) emitters tethered to the surface of nanorods as beacons for optical read-outs. Radiative decay rate was extracted to quantify the LDOS; our analysis indicates that the LDOS of the nanorod enhance both the radiative and nonradiative decay of QD, particularly radiative decay of QDs at the end of nanorod is enhanced by 1.17 times greater than that at the waist, while the nonradiative decay was uniformly enhanced over the nanorod. To the best of our knowledge, our effort constitutes the first to map the LDOS of a nanostructure via far-field method, to provide clarity on the interaction mechanism between emitters and the nanostructure, and to be potentially employed in the LDOS mapping of high-throughput nanostructures.
Many ribosome-interacting GTPases, with proposed functions in ribosome biogenesis, are also implicated in the cellular regulatory coupling between ribosome assembly process and various growth control pathways. EngA is an essential GTPase in bacteria, and intriguingly, it contains two consecutive GTPase domains (GD), being one-of-a-kind among all known GTPases. EngA is required for the 50S subunit maturation. However, its molecular role remains elusive. Here, we present the structure of EngA bound to the 50S subunit. Our data show that EngA binds to the peptidyl transferase center (PTC) and induces dramatic conformational changes on the 50S subunit, which virtually returns the 50S subunit to a state similar to that of the late-stage 50S assembly intermediates. Very interestingly, our data show that the two GDs exhibit a pseudo-two-fold symmetry in the 50S-bound conformation. Our results indicate that EngA recognizes certain forms of the 50S assembly intermediates, and likely facilitates the conformational maturation of the PTC of the 23S rRNA in a direct manner. Furthermore, in a broad context, our data also suggest that EngA might be a sensor of the cellular GTP/GDP ratio, endowed with multiple conformational states, in response to fluctuations in cellular nucleotide pool, to facilitate and regulate ribosome assembly.
The properties of the screened mutants for hyper-production of citric acid induced by carbon ((12)C(6+)) ion beams and X-ray irradiation were investigated in our current study. Among these mutants, mutant H4002 screened from (12)C(6+) ion irradiation had a higher yield of citric acid production than the parental strain in a 250-ml shaking flash. These expanded submerged experiments in a bioreactor were also carried out for mutant H4002. The results showed that (177.7-196.0) g/L citric acid was accumulated by H4002 through exploiting corn meal hydrolysate (containing initial 200.0-235.7 g/L sugar) with the productivity of (2.96-3.27) g/(L?h). This was especially true when the initial sugar concentration was 210 g/L, and the best economical citric acid production reached (187.5±0.7) g/L with a productivity of 3.13 g/(L?h). It was observed that mutant H4002 can utilize low-cost corn meal as a feedstock to efficiently produce citric acid. These results imply that the H4002 strain has the industrial production potentiality for citric acid and offers strong competition for the citric acid industry.
Objective Short-term mortality rates remain high among critically ill human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) patients though long-term mortality rates have dropped. Baseline risk factors for short-term mortality have not yet been determined in China. In this paper, we herein describe clinical characteristics, laboratory findings, causes of clinical deterioration, and risk factors associated with mortality among HIV-1 patients within six months after hospital admission. Methods We carried out a prospective study of hospitalized patients in advanced stages of HIV infection. These patients started antiretroviral therapy three or four weeks after admission. Follow-up was conducted for a period of six months. We used a multivariate logistic-regression analysis to identify risk factors associated with mortality. Results A total of 141 patients met our inclusion criteria. The mean age was 41 years. Fever and weight loss were the most common clinical manifestations of advanced HIV disease. Oral candidiasis, tuberculosis, cytomegaloviremia, and pneumocystis pneumonia were the most common opportunistic infections. Significantly decreased CD4+ T-cell counts, hypoalbuminemia, anemia, hyponatremia, as well as elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) and glutamic alanine transaminase levels were common laboratory test abnormalities. The mortality rate was 21.3%. The patients who died were more likely than the survivors to have low CD4+ T-cell counts as well as low creatinine, hemoglobin, albumin, and serum sodium levels while also having longer intervals of fever and higher CRP levels. A multivariate analysis demonstrated that the independent risk factors for mortality were active tuberculosis [odds ratio (OR): 2.681; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.006-7.142; p=0.049], hyponatremia (OR: 3.027; 95% CI, 1.238-7.401; p=0.015), and being at clinical stage 4 (as defined by the World Health Organization) (OR: 9.492; 95% CI, 1.200-75.065; p=0.033) within the first six months of admission. Conclusion Special consideration should be given to patients who have active tuberculosis, are at clinical stage 4, and present with hyponatremia upon admission as these were found to be important factors associated with mortality within six months of hospital admission in HIV-1 patients.
Adaptive predictor has long been used for lossless predictive coding of images. Most of existing lossless predictive coding techniques mainly focus on suitability of prediction model for training set with the underlying assumption of local consistency, which may not hold well on object boundaries and cause large predictive error. In this paper, we propose a novel approach based on the assumption that local consistency and patch redundancy exist simultaneously in natural images. We derive a family of linear models and design a new algorithm to automatically select one suitable model for prediction. From the Bayesian perspective, the model with maximum posterior probability is considered as the best. Two types of model evidence are included in our algorithm. One is traditional Training Evidence, which represents the models' suitability for current pixel under the assumption of local consistency. The other is Target Evidence, which is proposed to express the preference for different models from the perspective of patch redundancy. It is shown that the fusion of Training Evidence and Target Evidence jointly exploits the benefits of local consistency and patch redundancy. As a result, our proposed predictor is more suitable for natural images with textures and object boundaries. Comprehensive experiments demonstrate that the proposed predictor achieves higher efficiency compared with the state-of-the-art lossless predictors.
We report on the fabrication of Ag nanoparticle (Ag NP) decorated germanium (Ge) nanocap (Ag-NPs@Ge-nanocap) arrays protruding from highly ordered porous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template as highly sensitive and uniform surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates. The hybrid SERS substrates are fabricated via a combinatorial process of AAO template-assisted growth of Ge nanotubes with each tube having a hemispherical nanocap on the AAO pore bottom, wet chemical etching of the remaining aluminum and the AAO barrier layer to expose the Ge nanocaps, and sputtering Ag NPs on the Ge nanocap arrays. Because sufficient SERS "hot spots" are created from the electromagnetic coupling among the Ag NPs on the Ge nanocap and the highly ordered Ge nanocap arrays also have semiconducting chemical supporting enhancement, the hybrid SERS substrates have high SERS sensitivity and good signal reproducibility. Using the hybrid SERS substrates, Rhodamine 6G with a concentration down to 10(-11) M is identified, and one congener of highly toxic polychlorinated biphenyls with a concentration as low as 10(-6) M is also recognized, showing great potential for SERS-based rapid detection of organic pollutants in the environment.
Two novel Gram-staining-positive, rod-shaped, endospore-forming, and moderately thermophilic bacteria, designated strain DX-3T and GIESS002, respectively were isolated from sludge composts from Guangdong Province, China. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the isolates were closely related to each other with extremely high similarity (99.6%), and were members of the family Bacillaceae. However, these two isolates formed a novel phylogenetic branch within this family. Their closest relatives were the members of the genera Ornithinibacillus, Oceanobacillus and Virgibacillus. Cells of both strains were facultatively anaerobic and catalase- and oxidase-positive. The cell-wall peptidoglycan type was A1? (meso-DAP direct). The predominant isoprenoid quinone was MK-7. The main polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylethanolamine. The major cellular fatty acid was iso-C15:0. The DNA G+C content was 43.2-43.7 mol%. The polyphasic taxonomic results indicated that strains DX-3T and GIESS002 represent a novel species in a new genus in the family Bacillaceae, order Bacillales for which the name Compostibacillus humi gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is DX-3T (=KCTC 33104T =CGMCC 1.12360T).
Energy transfer in H2 (1,1) +CO2 collisions was investigated using high resolution transient laser spectroscopy. Rotational state selective excitation of v = 1 for rotational level J = 1 was achieved by stimulated Raman pumping. Energy gain into CO2 resulting from collisions with H2 (1,1) was probed using transient absorption techniques, Distributions of nascent CO2 rotational populations in both the ground (00 degrees 0) state and the vibrationally excited (00 degrees 1) state were determined from overtone absorption measurements. Translational energy distributions of the recoiling CO2 in individual rovibrational states were determined through measurement of Doppler-broadened transient line shapes. A kinetic model was developed to describe rates for appearance of CO2 states resulting from collisions with H2(1,1). From scanned CARS (coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering) the spectral peaks population ratio n0/n1 was obtained, where n0 and n1 represent the number densities of H2 at the levels (0,1) and (1,1), respectively. Using rotational Boltzmann distribution of H2 (v = 0) at 300 K, n1 was yielded. Values for rate coefficients were obtained using data for CO2 (00 degrees 0) J = 48 to 76 and CO2 (00 degrees 1) J = 5 to 33. The rate coefficients derived from appearance of the (00 degrees 0) state have values of K(tr) = (3.9 ± 0.8) x 10(-11) cm3 x molecule(-1) x s(-1) for J = 48 and k(tr) = (1.4 ± 0.3) x 10(-10) cm3 x molecule(-1) x s(-1) for J = 76, with a monotonic increase for the higher J states. For the (00 degrees 1) state, values of k(tr) remain fairly constant at k(tr) = (4.3 ± 0.9) x 10(-12) cm3 x molecule(-1) x s(-1). Rotational populations for the nascent CO2 states were measured at 0. 5 ?s following excitation of H2. The transient population for each state was fit using a Boltzmann rotational distribution. The CO2 (00 degrees 0) J = 48-76 rotational states were populated substantially relative to the initial 300 K CO2 distributions, and the distribution is described by Trot. The excited (00 degrees 1) state has T(rot), 310 K. The center-of-mass translational temperatures for the (00 degrees 0) state are all much greater than 300 K, with T(rel) = 1 532 K for J = 76. In contrast, transient line profiles for the J = 5 - 33 levels of excited (00 degrees 1) state do not show any broadening above the initial 300 K distributions, indicating that excitation to the (00 degrees 1) state is not accompanied by translational energy change.
Transplantation of cryopreserved ovarian tissue is a novel technique to restore endocrine function and fertility especially for cancer patients. However, the main obstacle of the technique is massive follicle loss as a result of ischemia in the process of transplantation. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been acknowledged to play an important role in supporting angiogenesis and stabilizing long-lasting blood vessels network through release of angiogenic factors and differentiation into pericytes and endothelial cells. This study is aimed to investigate whether MSCs could be applied to overcome the above obstacle to support the ovarian tissue survival in the transplantation. Here we show that human MSCs could enhance the expression level of VEGF, FGF2 and especially the level of angiogenin, significantly stimulate neovascularization and increase blood perfusion of the grafts in the cryopreserved ovarian tissue transplantation. Further studies reveal that MSCs could notably reduce the apoptotic rates of primordial follicles and decrease follicle loss in the grafted ovarian tissues. In summary, our findings demonstrate a previously unrecognized function of MSCs in improving human ovarian tissue transplantation and provide a useful strategy to optimize fertility preservation and restoration.
Generally?the diagnosis of neonatal pulmonary atelectasis (NPA) is based on history, clinical and chest x-ray (CXR) findings while ultrasound could not be used in lung disease diagnostics. Recently, ultrasound has been used for the diagnosis of many kinds lung conditions, but few studies have investigated ultrasound for the diagnosis of NPA. In this study, we evaluated the usefulness of lung ultrasound for the diagnosis of NPA.
The Research Development Core (RDC) is housed within the Michigan Institute for Clinical & Health Research (MICHR) at the University of Michigan (U-M). Established in 2006, RDC provides no-cost, in-person consultations to help U-M investigators strengthen their grant proposals. RDC offers investigators feedback and critique on all aspects of their study design, plus partnerships, funding mechanisms, and future directions. This article describes RDC's model and provides data describing the success of its services.RDC is composed of a multidisciplinary team of professionals in grant development. It comprises two senior faculty codirectors from the U-M Medical School, two senior biostatisticians, outside faculty content experts, and RDC administrative staff. Investigators contact RDC to request a consultation and submit advance grant materials for review by the RDC team. During the consultation, investigators explain their project and identify challenges. The RDC team and additional experts offer feedback that is captured in meeting notes and provided to investigators. RDC commitments beyond the meetings are implemented and carefully tracked. Investigators may also request grant editing, budgeting, or proposal submission assistance. Investigators using RDC have been awarded $44.5 million since 2011.The demand for RDC consultations doubled from 2010 to 2011 and reached a high of 131 consultations in 2012. Investigator feedback has been positive: 80% reported that RDC had a strong impact on their proposal, and over 90% indicated that they would recommend RDC to colleagues. MICHR is committed to providing investigators with RDC services to better ensure strong grant applications and successful research careers.
Burst-forming unit-erythroid (BFU-E) and colony-forming unit-erythroid (CFU-E) cells are erythroid progenitors traditionally defined by colony assays. We developed a flow cytometry-based strategy for isolating human BFU-E and CFU-E cells based on the changes in expression of cell surface markers during in vitro erythroid cell culture. BFU-E and CFU-E are characterized by CD45(+)GPA(-)IL-3R(-)CD34(+)CD36(-)CD71(low) and CD45(+)GPA(-)IL-3R(-)CD34(-)CD36(+)CD71(high) phenotypes, respectively. Colony assays validated phenotypic assignment giving rise to BFU-E and CFU-E colonies, both at a purity ~90%. The BFU-E colony forming ability of CD45(+)GPA(-)IL-3R(-)CD34(+)CD36(-)CD71(low) cells required SCF and erythropoietin, while the CFU-E colony forming ability of CD45(+)GPA(-)IL-3R(-)CD34(-)CD36(+)CD71(high) cells required only erythropoietin. Bioinformatic analysis of the RNA-seq data revealed unique transcriptomes at each differentiation stage. The sorting strategy was validated in uncultured primary cells isolated from bone marrow, cord blood and peripheral blood, indicating that marker expression is not an artifact of in vitro cell culture, but represents an in vivo characteristic of erythroid progenitor populations. The ability to isolate highly pure human BFU-E and CFU-E progenitors will enable detailed cellular and molecular characterization of these distinct progenitor populations and define their contribution to disordered erythropoiesis in inherited and acquired hematological disease. Our data provide important resource for future studies of human erythropoiesis.
In this work, we report a simple and novel electrochemical multiplexed immunosensor on a flexible polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) slice deposited with 8 × 8 nano-Au film electrodes for simultaneous detection of prostate specific antigen (PSA), prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA), and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Primary antibodies linked with magnetic beads (Ab1-MBs) were modified on the nano-Au film electrodes via magnetic force. In the presence of corresponding antigen, horse radish peroxidase-secondary antibody-conjugated gold nanorods (HRP-Ab2-gold NRs) were brought into the surface of electrodes, generating obvious electrochemical signals of H2O2 reduction reactions. Based on this, the designed immunosensor provide good performance in sensitivity and specificity during the detection of above three biomarkers for prostate cancer. The electrochemical multiplexed immunosensor was verified for selective and accurate detection of complex samples in human serum. Data suggested that the reported multiplexed immunosensing strategy holds great promise for applications in clinical assay and diseases diagnosis.
Hepatitis-related liver diseases are a leading cause of mortality and morbidity among people with HIV/AIDS taking combination antiretroviral therapy. We assessed the effect of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) co-infection on HIV outcomes in patients in China.
Inconclusive information for the role of dairy food intake in relation to ovarian cancer risk may associate with adverse effects of lactose, which has been hypothesized to increase gonadotropin levels in animal models and ecological studies. Up to now, several studies have indicated the association between dairy food intake and risk of ovarian cancer, but no identified founding was reported. We performed this meta-analysis to derive a more precise estimation of the association between dairy food intake and ovarian cancer risk. Using the data from 19 available publications, we examined dairy food including low-fat/skim milk, whole milk, yogurt and lactose in relation to risk of ovarian cancer by meta-analysis. Pooled odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) were used to assess the association. We observed a slightly increased risk of ovarian cancer with high intake of whole milk, but has no statistical significance (OR = 1.228, 95% CI = 1.031-1.464, P = 0.022). The results of other milk models did not provide evidence of positive association with ovarian cancer risk. This meta-analysis suggests that low-fat/skim milk, whole milk, yogurt and lactose intake has no associated with increased risk of ovarian cancer. Further studies with larger participants worldwide are needed to validate the association between dairy food intake and ovarian cancer.
Ketoconazole is a widely used imidazole antifungal agent. True contact allergy to topical ketoconazole is rare, and few cases of patients with contact allergy to ketoconazole have been reported. We present the case of a patient with a history of undiagnosed recurrent dermatitis who developed acute facial swelling and pruritus after using ketoconazole cream and shampoo for the treatment of seborrheic dermatitis. Patch testing revealed true contact allergy to ketoconazole without cross-reactivity to 4 other imidazole antifungals. Review of the patient's medical record suggested that prior incidences of dermatitis might have been due to ketoconazole exposure. When the patient avoided this imidazole agent, the dermatitis resolved.
Cell-based therapies are major focus of current research for treatment of liver diseases. In this study, mesenchymal stem cells were isolated from human umbilical cord Wharton's jelly (WJ-MSCs). Results confirmed that WJ-MSCs isolated in this study could express the typical MSC-specific markers and be induced to differentiate into adipocytes, osteoblasts, and chondrocytes. They could also be induced to differentiate into hepatocyte-like cells. Poly (3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate) (PHBVHHx) is a new member of polyhydroxyalkanoate family and biodegradable polyester produced by bacteria. PHBVHHx scaffolds showed much higher cell attachment and viability than the other polymers tested. PHBVHHx scaffolds loaded with WJ-MSCs were transplanted into liver-injured mice. Liver morphology improved after 30 days of transplantation and looked similar to normal liver. Concentrations of serum alanine aminotransferase and total bilirubin were significantly lower, and albumin was significantly higher on days 14 and 30 in the WJ-MSCs+scaffold group than in the carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) group. Hematoxylin-eosin staining showed that liver had similar structure of normal liver lobules and similar size and shape of normal hepatic cells, and Masson staining demonstrated that liver had less blue staining for collagen after 30 days of transplantation. Real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) showed that the expression of the bile duct epithelial cell gene CK-19 in mouse liver is significantly lower on days 14 and 30 in the WJ-MSCs+scaffold group than in the CCl4 group. Real-time RT-PCR, immunocytochemistry, and periodic acid-Schiff staining showed that WJ-MSCs in scaffolds differentiated into hepatocyte-like cells on days 14 and 30 in the WJ-MSCs+scaffold group. Real-time RT-PCR also demonstrated that WJ-MSCs in scaffolds expressed endothelial cell genes Flk-1, vWF, and VE-cadherin on days 14 and 30 in the WJ-MSCs+scaffold group, indicating that WJ-MSCs also differentiated into endothelial-like cells. These results demonstrated that PHBVHHx scaffolds loaded with WJ-MSCs significantly promoted the recovery of injured liver and could be further studied for liver tissue engineering.
The vibrational levels of KH(X1 sigma+ v" = 0-3) were generated in the reaction of K(5P) with H2. The vibrationally excited KH(v" = 17) was populated by an overtone pump-probe configuration Different characteristics of collisional energy transfer in highly and lowly excited vibrational levels of KH and CO2 were investigated through measuring the time-resolved distribution of vibrational energy in KH(v" = 17.3) + CO2 collisions. For KH(v" = 17), there existed three principal regions of vibration temperature (T(v)) in this equilibration process. The initial phase consists of very rapid fall in T(v) within - 5 micros, and the vibrational energy of KH(v" = 17) is mainly transferred to the vibrational levels of CO2 (00 degrees 1) or high rotational levels of CO2 (00 degrees 0). The second phase (5-20 micros) has a slight decline in T(v), and the process of energy transfer to vibrational levels or high rotational levels of CO2 has already finished. The vibration temperature of the third phase has a slightly more rapid decline compared with the last phase. This phase shows that the process of transfer to lowly rotational levels and translation energy of CO2 is accelerated. The equilibration of vibrationally excited KH (v" = 3) in CO2 was also investigated. There are similarities to the behavior of KH (v" = 17) in CO2 plot, but also are significant differences. Once the initial resonant V-R exchange has equalized vibrational temperatures, there is a very slow linear decline in T(v) with equilibrium attained within -80 micros. This same point is reached within 15 micros for KH (v" = 17). The data demonstrate that single rate coefficient measurements are unlikely to capture the complex nature of processes that generally are multistaged with different relaxation rates characterizing each different stage. Examination of the quantum state distributions reveals that these distinct stages reflect the dominance of specific energy transfer mechanisms, some of which are inherently fast and others are much slower. The energy gain into CO2 resulting from collisions with excited KH was probed using transient absorption techniques. Distributions of nascent CO2 rotational populations in both ground (00 degrees 0) state and the vibrationally excited (00 degrees 1) state were determined. A kinetic model was developed to describe rate coefficients for appearance of CO2 states resulting from collisions with excited KH. These experiments show that collisions resulting in CO2 (00 degrees 0) are accompanied by substantial excitation in rotation while the vibrationally excited CO2 (00 degrees 1) state has rotational energy distributions near the initial distributions.
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection could cause hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. HBV-mediated pathogenesis is only partially understood, but X protein (HBx) reportedly possesses oncogenic potential. Exosomes are small membrane vesicles with diverse functions released by various cells including hepatocytes, and HBV harnesses cellular exosome biogenesis and export machineries for virion morphogenesis and secretion. Therefore, HBV infection might cause changes in exosome contents with functional implications for both virus and host. In this work, exosome protein content changes induced by HBV and HBx were quantitatively analyzed by SILAC/LC-MS/MS. Exosomes prepared from SILAC-labeled hepatoma cell line Huh-7 transfected with HBx, wildtype, or HBx-null HBV replicon plasmids were analyzed by LC-MS/MS. Systematic analyses of MS data and confirmatory immunoblotting showed that HBx overexpression and HBV, with or without HBx, replication in Huh-7 cells indeed caused marked and specific changes in exosome protein contents. Furthermore, specific changes in protein contents were also detected in exosomes purified from HBV-infected patients' sera compared with control sera negative for HBV markers. These results illustrate a new aspect of interactions between HBV and the host and provide the foundation for future research into roles played by exosomes in HBV infection and pathogenesis.
We have examined the high-pressure behaviors of six-membered heterocyclic compounds of pyrimidine and s-triazine up to 26 and 26.5 GPa, respectively. Pyrimidine crystallizes in Pna2? symmetry (phase I) with the freezing pressure of 0.3 GPa, and transforms to another phase (phase II) at 1.1 GPa. Raman spectra of several compression-decompression cycles demonstrate there is a critical pressure of 15.5 GPa for pyrimidine. Pyrimidine returns back to its original liquid state as long as the highest pressure is below 15.1 GPa. Rupture of the aromatic ring is observed once pressure exceeds 15.5 GPa during a compression-decompression cycle, evidenced by the amorphous characteristics of the recovered sample. As for s-triazine, the phase transition from R-3c to C2/c is well reproduced at 0.6 GPa, in comparison with previous Raman data. Detailed Raman scattering experiments corroborate the critical pressure for s-triazine may locate at 14.5 GPa. That is, the compression is reversible below 14.3 GPa, whereas chemical reaction with ring opening is detected when the final pressure is above 14.5 GPa. During compression, the complete amorphization pressure for pyrimidine and s-triazine is identified as 22.4 and 15.2 GPa, respectively, based on disappearance of Raman lattice modes. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction patterns and Fourier transform infrared spectra of recovered samples indicate the products in two cases comprise of extended nitrogen-rich amorphous hydrogenated carbon (a-C:H:N).
Sialylated glycoproteins, which play important roles in tumor progression, have been extensively analyzed for the discovery of potential biomarkers for cancer diagnosis and prognosis. The site-specific N-sialoglycan occupancy rates of glycoproteins reflect the activities of glycosyltransferases and glycosidases in vivo and could be novel disease biomarkers. However, a high-throughput method to determine the N-sialoglycan occupancy rates is not available. On the basis of the fact that dihydroxy of sialic acid of glycan chains in glycoproteins can be specifically oxidized to aldehyde in mild periodate concentration while all types of glycan chains can be oxidized in high periodate concentration, we developed a modified protein-level hydrazide chemistry method for the determination of the N-sialoglycan occupancy rates. This method was first applied to determine the N-sialoglycan occupancy rates of two glycosites on human transferrin. These two sites were found to be fully sialylated and the N-sialoglycan occupancy rates were found to under significant decrease after the neuraminidase treatment. This method was then applied to analyze N-sialoglycan occupancy rates in proteome samples. We determined 496 and 632 site-specific N-sialoglycan occupancy rates on 334 and 394 proteins from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and normal human liver tissues, respectively. By comparing the N-sialoglycan occupancy rates between the above two samples, we determined 76 N-sialoglycosites with more than a 2-fold change. This method was demonstrated to be an effective and high-throughput method for the analysis of the N-sialoglycan occupancy rates.
The aim of the present study was to research the role of nitric oxide (NO) as a mediator of alpha (?)-asarone effect at the pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced epileptiform discharge in rat. ?-Asarone that was injected intraperitoneally twenty minutes before PTZ injection suppressed the clonic discharge effectively and the significant actions lasted for 30 min with no change of clonic amplitude. Administration of ?-asarone did not influence interictal discharge. Four kinds of NO regulators were administered, including non-selective NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), selective neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) inhibitor, 7-nitroindazole (7-NI), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) inhibitor, aminoguanidine (AG) and NO substrate, L-arginine (ARG) and their influence on the actions of ?-asarone were studied, and all of the regulators were administered fifteen minutes before ?-asarone injection. L-NAME and 7-NI reversed the anticlonic activity of ?-asarone, and a significant increase of clonic activity was induced by L-NAME later in L-NAME +.?-asarone + PTZ group. There were no significant differences between AG + ?-asarone + PTZ and ?-asarone + PTZ group. L-ARG played a dual role in this study. It aggravated clonic discharge in the early stage but relieved interictal discharge in the late stage compared with PTZ group alone, and the beneficial effect of ?-asarone was also reversed. All the above results suggest that nNOS/NO pathway mediates the anticonvulsant effect of ?-asarone, and NO played a biphasic role in PTZ modeling process, while iNOS was unrelated to the inhibition effect of ?-asarone on PTZ induced epileptiform activity.
To find out and analyze differentially expressed miRNAs in the plasma of benzene exposed workers, and explore the potential roles of plasma miRNAs in the development of hematologic toxicity induced by benzene exposure.
Protein 4.1B/DAL-1 is a membrane skeletal protein that belongs to the protein 4.1 family. Protein 4.1B/DAL-1 is localized to sites of cell-cell contact and functions as an adapter protein, linking the plasma membrane to the cytoskeleton or associated cytoplasmic signaling effectors and facilitating their activities in various pathways. Protein 4.1B/DAL-1 is involved in various cytoskeleton-associated processes, such as cell motility and adhesion. Moreover, protein 4.1B/DAL-1 also plays a regulatory role in cell growth, differentiation, and the establishment of epithelial-like cell structures. Protein 4.1B/DAL-1 is normally expressed in multiple human tissues, but loss of its expression or prominent down-regulation of its expression is frequently observed in corresponding tumor tissues and tumor cell lines, suggesting that protein 4.1B/DAL-1 is involved in the molecular pathogenesis of these tumors and acts as a potential tumor suppressor. This review will focus on the structure of protein 4.1B/DAL-1, 4.1B/DAL-1-interacting molecules, 4.1B/DAL-1 inactivation and tumor progression, and anti-tumor activity of the 4.1B/DAL-1.
Pectin is a non-fiber carbohydrate (NFC) that exists in forages, but it is not clear how pectin exerts its effect on populations of either known microbial species or uncultured ruminal bacteria. PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) and real-time PCR analysis were used in the present study to investigate the effects of pectin on microbial communities in an in vitro rumen fermentation system. The fermentations were conducted using forage (corn stover or alfalfa), an NFC source (pectin or corn starch), or their combination as the substrates. Addition of pectin increased acetate (P < 0.05), whereas inclusion of starch increased butyrate production (P < 0.05). The pectate lyase activity was higher with alfalfa than with corn straw, or with pectin than with corn starch (P < 0.05), while the amylase activity was higher in corn starch-included treatments than the others (P < 0.05). The cluster analysis of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene showed that the DGGE banding patterns differed significantly between the treatments and led to the identification of three groups that were highly associated with the NFC sources. The specific bands associated with pectin-rich treatments were identified to be dominated by members of the Treponema genus. The growth of the Treponema genus was remarkably supported by the inclusion of pectin, highlighting their specific ability to degrade pectin. The results from the present study expand our knowledge of the microbial populations associated with pectin digestion, which may not only facilitate future research on utilization of pectin in feeds, but also improve our understanding of pectin digestion with respect to the rumen micro-ecosystem.
Critically ill patients in the intensive care unit are at increased risk of exposure keratopathy. There is limited evidence available to make the best choice of eye care modality. This meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the effect of moisture chamber compared with lubrication for corneal protection in critically ill patients.
Ultrasensitive, accurate detection and separation of heavy metal ions is very important in environmental monitoring and biological detection. In this paper, a highly sensitive and specific detection method for Cu(2+) based on the fluorescence quenching of a europium(III) hybrid magnetic nanoprobe is presented. This nanoprobe can detect Cu(2+) over a wide pH range (5.0-10.0) with a detection limit as low as 0.1 nM and it can be used for detecting Cu(2+) in living cells. After the magnetic separation, the Cu(2+) concentration decreased to 1.18 ppm, which is less than the US EPA drinking water standard (1.3 ppm), and more than 70% Cu(2+) could be removed when the amount of nanocomposite 1 reached 1 mg.
One of the major setbacks of struvite recovery processes is the difficulty in harvesting struvite crystals. This study evaluates the use of different coagulants to improve precipitation of struvite (MgNH4PO4.6H20) crystals. Chitosan and poly(diallyldimethyl ammonium chloride) (Poly-DADMAC) as a coagulant-flocculent and alginate and bentonite as a coagulant aid have been examined in jar tests. Also, a continuous three-phase process, i.e., struvite crystallization, coagulation/flocculation and precipitation process, was set up for real wastewater. Addition of chitosan as the coagulant and bentonite as the coagulant aid was significantly more efficient in forming struvite flocs in comparison to Poly-DADMAC alone or with coagulant aid, which did not show any positive effect. The calculated average settling velocity of struvite with chitosan-bentonite addition in synthetic and in real wastewater increased by approximately 5.3 and 2.8 folds, respectively, compared with that of no coagulant/flocculent addition. Phosphorus recovery of over 70% was achieved by the continuous process. Findings in this study clearly confirmed the possibility of using chitosan and bentonite as an efficient coagulant-flocculent to enhance the recovery of struvite crystals.
Recently, distance metric learning (DML) has attracted much attention in image retrieval, but most previous methods only work for image classification and clustering tasks. In this brief, we focus on designing ordinal DML algorithms for image ranking tasks, by which the rank levels among the images can be well measured. We first present a linear ordinal Mahalanobis DML model that tries to preserve both the local geometry information and the ordinal relationship of the data. Then, we develop a nonlinear DML method by kernelizing the above model, considering of real-world image data with nonlinear structures. To further improve the ranking performance, we finally derive a multiple kernel DML approach inspired by the idea of multiple-kernel learning that performs different kernel operators on different kinds of image features. Extensive experiments on four benchmarks demonstrate the power of the proposed algorithms against some related state-of-the-art methods.
The Biochemical Methane Potential (BMP) test is increasingly recognised as a tool for selecting and pricing biomass material for production of biogas. However, the results for the same substrate often differ between laboratories and much work to standardise such tests is still needed. In the current study, the effects from four environmental factors (i.e. ambient temperature and pressure, water vapour content and initial gas composition of the reactor headspace) on the degradation kinetics and the determined methane potential were evaluated with a 2(4) full factorial design. Four substrates, with different biodegradation profiles, were investigated and the ambient temperature was found to be the most significant contributor to errors in the methane potential. Concerning the kinetics of the process, the environmental factors' impact on the calculated rate constants was negligible. The impact of the environmental factors on the kinetic parameters and methane potential from performing a BMP test at different geographical locations around the world was simulated by adjusting the data according to the ambient temperature and pressure of some chosen model sites. The largest effect on the methane potential was registered from tests performed at high altitudes due to a low ambient pressure. The results from this study illustrate the importance of considering the environmental factors' influence on volumetric gas measurement in BMP tests. This is essential to achieve trustworthy and standardised results that can be used by researchers and end users from all over the world.
Reversible deformation of a machine holds enormous promise across many scientific areas ranging from mechanical engineering to applied physics. So far, such capabilities are still hard to achieve through conventional rigid materials or depending mainly on elastomeric materials, which however own rather limited performances and require complicated manipulations. Here, we show a basic strategy which is fundamentally different from the existing ones to realize large scale reversible deformation through controlling the working materials via the synthetically chemical-electrical mechanism (SCHEME). Such activity incorporates an object of liquid metal gallium whose surface area could spread up to five times of its original size and vice versa under low energy consumption. Particularly, the alterable surface tension based on combination of chemical dissolution and electrochemical oxidation is ascribed to the reversible shape transformation, which works much more flexible than many former deformation principles through converting electrical energy into mechanical movement. A series of very unusual phenomena regarding the reversible configurational shifts are disclosed with dominant factors clarified. This study opens a generalized way to combine the liquid metal serving as shape-variable element with the SCHEME to compose functional soft machines, which implies huge potential for developing future smart robots to fulfill various complicated tasks.
Osteoporosis is negatively correlated with body mass, whereas both osteoporosis and weight loss occur at higher incidence during the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD) than the age-matched non-dementia individuals. Given that there is no evidence that being overweight is associated with AD-type cognitive dysfunction, we hypothesized that moderate weight gain might have a protective effect on the bone loss in AD without exacerbating cognitive dysfunction. In this study, feeding a high-fat diet (HFD, 45% calorie from fat) to female APP/PS1 transgenic mice, an AD animal model, induced weight gain. The bone mineral density, microarchitecture, and biomechanical properties of the femurs were then evaluated. The results showed that the middle-aged female APP/PS1 transgenic mice were susceptible to osteoporosis of the femoral bones and that weight gain significantly enhanced bone mass and mechanical properties. Notably, HFD was not detrimental to brain insulin signaling and A?PP processing, as well as to exploration ability and working, learning, and memory performance of the transgenic mice measured by T maze and Morris water maze, compared with the mice fed a normal-fat diet (10% calorie from fat). In addition, the circulating levels of leptin but not estradiol were remarkably elevated in HFD-treated mice. These results suggest that a body weight gain induced by the HFD feeding regimen significantly improved bone mass in female APP/PS1 mice with no detriments to exploration ability and spatial memory, most likely via the action of elevated circulating leptin.
Acrylic bone cement has been an essential non-metallic implant used as fixing agent in the cemented total joint arthroplasty (THA). However, the currently available materials based mainly on polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) still encounter certain limitations, such as time-consuming polymerization, thermal and chemical necrosis and troublesome revision procedure. Here from an alternative way, we proposed for the first time to adopt the injectable alloy cement to address such tough issues through introducing its unique liquid-solid phase transition mechanism. A typical cement along this way is thus made of an alloy Bi/In/Sn/Zn with a specifically designed low melting point 57.5 °C, which enables its rapid molding into various desired shapes with high plasticity and ultimate metallic behaviors. The fundamental characteristics including the mechanical strength, biocompatibility and phase transition-induced thermal effects have been clarified to demonstrate the importance of such alloy as unconventional cement with favorable merits. In addition, we also disclosed its advantage as an excellent contrast agent for radiation imaging on the bone interior structure which is highly beneficial for guiding the surgery and monitoring the therapeutic effects. Particularly, the proposed alloy cement with reversible phase transition feature significantly simplifies the revision of the cement and prosthesis. This study opens the way for employing the injectable alloy materials as reversible bone cement to fulfill diverse clinical needs in the coming time.
Alzheimer's disease is closely associated with disorders of neurogenesis in the brain, and growing evidence supports the involvement of immunological mechanisms in the development of the disease. However, at present, the role of T cells in neuronal regeneration in the brain is unknown. We injected amyloid-beta 1-42 peptide into the hippocampus of six BALB/c wild-type mice and six BALB/c-nude mice with T-cell immunodeficiency to establish an animal model of Alzheimer's disease. A further six mice of each genotype were injected with same volume of normal saline. Immunohistochemistry revealed that the number of regenerated neural progenitor cells in the hippocampus of BALB/c wild-type mice was significantly higher than that in BALB/c-nude mice. Quantitative fluorescence PCR assay showed that the expression levels of peripheral T cell-associated cytokines (interleukin-2, interferon-?) and hippocampal microglia-related cytokines (interleukin-1?, tumor necrosis factor-?) correlated with the number of regenerated neural progenitor cells in the hippocampus. These results indicate that T cells promote hippocampal neurogenesis in Alzheimer's disease and T-cell immunodeficiency restricts neuronal regeneration in the hippocampus. The mechanism underlying the promotion of neuronal regeneration by T cells is mediated by an increased expression of peripheral T cells and central microglial cytokines in Alzheimer's disease mice. Our findings provide an experimental basis for understanding the role of T cells in Alzheimer's disease.
Is synchronization altered in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and normal cognitive functions subjects in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM)? Resting eye-closed EEG data were recorded in 8 aMCI subjects and 11 age-matched controls in T2DM. Three multivariate synchronization algorithms (S-estimator (S), synchronization index (SI), and global synchronization index (GSI)) were used to measure the synchronization in five ROIs of sLORETA sources for seven bands. Results showed that aMCI group had lower synchronization values than control groups in parietal delta and beta2 bands, temporal delta and beta2 bands, and occipital theta and beta2 bands significantly. Temporal (r = 0.629; P = 0.004) and occipital (r = 0.648; P = 0.003) theta S values were significantly positive correlated with Boston Name Testing. In sum, each of methods reflected that the cortical source synchronization was significantly different between aMCI and control group, and these difference correlated with cognitive functions.
Sponges are simple animals with few cell types, but their genomes paradoxically contain a wide variety of developmental transcription factors, including homeobox genes belonging to the Antennapedia (ANTP) class, which in bilaterians encompass Hox, ParaHox and NK genes. In the genome of the demosponge Amphimedon queenslandica, no Hox or ParaHox genes are present, but NK genes are linked in a tight cluster similar to the NK clusters of bilaterians. It has been proposed that Hox and ParaHox genes originated from NK cluster genes after divergence of sponges from the lineage leading to cnidarians and bilaterians. On the other hand, synteny analysis lends support to the notion that the absence of Hox and ParaHox genes in Amphimedon is a result of secondary loss (the ghost locus hypothesis). Here we analysed complete suites of ANTP-class homeoboxes in two calcareous sponges, Sycon ciliatum and Leucosolenia complicata. Our phylogenetic analyses demonstrate that these calcisponges possess orthologues of bilaterian NK genes (Hex, Hmx and Msx), a varying number of additional NK genes and one ParaHox gene, Cdx. Despite the generation of scaffolds spanning multiple genes, we find no evidence of clustering of Sycon NK genes. All Sycon ANTP-class genes are developmentally expressed, with patterns suggesting their involvement in cell type specification in embryos and adults, metamorphosis and body plan patterning. These results demonstrate that ParaHox genes predate the origin of sponges, thus confirming the ghost locus hypothesis, and highlight the need to analyse the genomes of multiple sponge lineages to obtain a complete picture of the ancestral composition of the first animal genome.
A rare case of the left accessory inferior phrenic artery (IPA) supplying the lesser curvature of the stomach and the right accessory IPA supplying the duodenum was observed during interventional radiography. To our knowledge, variation arteries supplying the stomach and duodenum have never been reported in English literature; herein, we report the first case of variant arterial supply to the lesser curvature of the stomach and duodenum from double IPAs.
The reactivity of nanoscale zero valent iron (nZVI) toward targeted contaminants is affected by the initial nZVI composition and the iron oxides formed during the aging process in aquatic systems. In this paper, the aging effects of nZVI, prepared using a borohydride reduction method in static water over a period of 90days (d), are investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Raman spectroscopy are used to characterize the corrosion products of nZVI. Results show that both the structures and the compositions of the corrosion products change with the process of aging. The products of nZVI aged for 5d in static water media are mainly magnetite (Fe3O4) and maghemite (?-Fe2O3), accompanied by lepidocrocite (?-FeOOH). For products aged 10d, XRD data show the formation of ferrihydrite and lepidocrocite. When aged up to 90d, the products are mainly ?-FeOOH mixed with small amounts of Fe3O4 and ?-Fe2O3. Transmission electronic microscopy (TEM) images show that the core-shell structure forms into a hollow spherical shape after 30d of aging in aquatic media. The results indicate first that iron ions in the Fe(0) core diffuse outwardly toward the shell, and hollowed-out iron oxide shells emerge. Then, the iron oxide shell collapses and becomes a flaky, acicular-shaped structure. The type and the crystal phase of second iron oxide minerals are vastly different at various aging times. This study helps to explain the patterns of occurrence of specific iron oxides in different natural conditions.
A new member of the CYP116B subfamily-P450LaMO -was discovered in Labrenzia aggregata by genomic data mining. It was successfully overexpressed in Escherichia coli, purified, and subsequently characterized spectroscopically, and its catalytic properties were assessed. Substrate profiling of the P450LaMO revealed that it was a versatile catalyst, exhibiting hydroxylation and epoxidation activities as well as O-dealkylation and asymmetric sulfoxidation activities. Diverse compounds, including alkylbenzenes, aromatic bicyclic molecules, and terpenoids, were shown to be hydroxylated by P450LaMO . Such diverse catalytic activities are uncommon for the bacterial P450s, and the P450LaMO -mediated stereoselective hydroxylation of inactivated C?H bonds-ubiquitous and relatively unreactive in organic molecules-is particularly unusual. The self-sufficient nature of P450LaMO , coupled with its broad substrate range, highlights it as an ideal template for directed evolution towards various applications.
The mammalian kidney has an intrinsic ability to repair after significant injury. However, this process is inefficient: patients are at high risk for the loss of kidney function in later life. No therapy exists to treat established acute kidney injury (AKI) per se: strategies to promote endogenous repair processes and retard associated fibrosis are a high priority. Whole-organ gene expression profiling has been used to identify repair responses initiated with AKI, and factors that may promote the transition from AKI to chronic kidney disease. Transcriptional profiling has shown molecular markers and potential regulatory pathways of renal repair. Activation of a few key developmental pathways has been reported during repair. Whether these are comparable networks with similar target genes with those in earlier nephrogenesis remains unclear. Altered microRNA profiles, persistent tubular injury responses, and distinct late inflammatory responses highlight continuing kidney pathology. Additional insights into injury and repair processes will be gained by study of the repair transcriptome and cell-specific translatome using high-resolution technologies such as RNA sequencing and translational profiling tailored to specific cellular compartments within the kidney. An enhanced understanding holds promise for both the identification of novel therapeutic targets and biomarker-based evaluation of the damage-repair process.
Constitutive activation of Akt is believed to be an oncogenic signal in multiple myeloma and is associated with poor patient prognosis and resistance to available treatment. The stability of Akt proteins is regulated by phosphorylating the highly conserved turn motif (TM) of these proteins and the chaperone protein HSP90. In this study we investigate the antitumor effects of inhibiting mTORC2 plus HSP90 in myeloma cell lines. We show that chronic exposure of cells to rapamycin can inhibit mTORC2 pathway, and AKT will be destabilized by administration of the HSP90 inhibitor 17-allylamino-geldanamycin (17-AAG). Finally, we show that the rapamycin synergizes with 17-AAG and inhibits myeloma cells growth and promotes cell death to a greater extent than either drug alone. Our studies provide a clinical rationale of use mTOR inhibitors and chaperone protein inhibitors in combination regimens for the treatment of human blood cancers.
Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) and protein phosphatase type 2A (PP2A) are negative modulators of PI3K/AKT/survivin signaling. To evaluate immunoexpression of PTEN, PP2A and survivin in adenomyosis, ectopic lesions from 28 patients with adenomyosis and endometria from 30 controls without adenomyosis were employed in the study. The expression of PTEN, PP2A and survivin was examined with the use of immunohistochemistry. We found a decreased expression of PP2A and PTEN in adenomyosis. The expression of PTEN showed great individual differences in adenomyosis, although expression of both PP2A and PTEN was lower in adenomyosis than in normal endometria. In contrast, the expression of survivin was higher in adenomyosis. Our results suggest the important role of the PI3K cascade in the pathogenesis and development of adenomyosis.
The aim of this study was to quantitatively evaluate the wettability of dentin after Yb:KYW thin-disk femtosecond-pulsed laser ablation by measuring the contact angle. Different laser parameters were used including different fluences (F), scanning speeds, and scanning line spacings. Crowns of 15 extracted human teeth were cut longitudinally into slices approximately 1.5-mm thick with a cutting instrument. The samples were randomly divided into ten groups (n?=?3/group). Samples in groups 1-8 were irradiated with a femtosecond-pulsed laser. The dentin samples were fixed on a stage at the focal plane, and the laser beam irradiated the samples through a galvanometric scanning system so rectangular movement could be achieved. Samples in groups 9 and 10 were prepared with grinding instruments. Following ablation and preparation, the samples were examined for contact angle with an optical contact angle measuring instrument. The results showed that scanning speed and scanning line spacing had little influence on the wettability of dentin following femtosecond-pulsed laser ablation, except when F?=?6 J/cm(2). For six out of the eight laser ablation groups, when a lower fluence was used, the dentin contact angle was higher and vice versa. Most of the dentin which had been ablated using the femtosecond-pulsed laser had improved wettability compared to samples prepared with the grinding instruments. This study showed that various laser fluences, scanning speeds, and scanning line spacings can alter dentin wettability. Therefore, adequate parameters should be chosen to achieve proper therapeutic benefits.
We have explored the role of Chondromodulin-I (ChM-I) in chondrogenesis of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) in 3-dimensional (3D) scaffold for cartilage tissue engineering. BMSCs of Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were cultured on poly-(L-lactic acid) [PLLA] scaffolds with different pore sizes (80-200??m, 200-450??m) with or without surface modification by chitosan. Cell viability, proliferation and morphology were measured using confocal microscope and the CCK-8 method. Untransfected BMSCs, BMSCs expressing pcDNA3.1(+), BMSCs expressing plasmid pcDNA3.1 (+) / ChM-I were cultured on 3D scaffolds in standard growth medium or transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1) supplemented chondrogenic induction medium in vitro for 3 weeks and the expression of collagen type II was determined. Cell-scaffolds constructs were implanted subcutaneously for 3 months in vivo. BMSCs had a higher viability and proliferation in PLLA scaffolds of pore size 200-450??m than that of 80-200??m and surface modification with chitosan did not enhance cell attachment. The ChM-I gene enhanced chondrogenesis and increased collagen type II synthesis. Immunohistochemistry from in vivo study showed enhanced cartilage regeneration in BMSCs expressing pcDNA3.1 (+)/ChM-I on 3D PLLA scaffolds. It also demonstrated that TGF-?1 might promote chondrogenesis of rat BMSCs by synergizing with the ChM-I gene. ChM-I could be beneficial to future applications in cartilage repair.
Seed oil content is an important agricultural characteristic in rapeseed breeding. Genetic analysis shows that the mother plant and the embryo play critical roles in regulating seed oil accumulation. However, the overwhelming majority of previous studies have focused on oil synthesis in the developing seed of rapeseed. In this study, to elucidate the roles of reproductive organs on oil accumulation, silique, ovule, and embryo from three rapeseed lines with high oil content (zy036, 6F313, and 61616) were cultured in vitro. The results suggest that zy036 silique wall, 6F313 seed coat, and 61616 embryo have positive impacts on the seed oil accumulation. In zy036, our previous studies show that high photosynthetic activity of the silique wall contributes to seed oil accumulation (Hua et al., 2012). Herein, by transcriptome sequencing and sucrose detection, we found that sugar transport in 6F313 seed coat might regulate the efficiency of oil synthesis by controlling sugar concentration in ovules. In 61616 embryos, high oil accumulation efficiency was partly induced by the elevated expression of fatty-acid biosynthesis-related genes. Our investigations show three organ-specific mechanisms regulating oil synthesis in rapeseed. This study provides new insights into the factors affecting seed oil accumulation in rapeseed and other oil crops.
Metformin is the only first-line oral hypoglycaemic drug for type 2 diabetes recommended by international guidelines with proven efficacy, safety, and cost-effectiveness. However, little information exists about its use in Asian populations. We aimed to ascertain the effectiveness of the ?-glucosidase inhibitor acarbose, extensively adopted in China, compared with metformin as the alternative initial therapy for newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes.
Various types of social relationships, such as friends and foes, can be represented as signed social networks (SNs) that contain both positive and negative links. Although many community detection (CD) algorithms have been proposed, most of them were designed primarily for networks containing only positive links. Thus, it is important to design CD algorithms which can handle large-scale SNs. To this purpose, we first extend the original similarity to the signed similarity based on the social balance theory. Then, based on the signed similarity and the natural contradiction between positive and negative links, two objective functions are designed to model the problem of detecting communities in SNs as a multiobjective problem. Afterward, we propose a multiobjective evolutionary algorithm, called MEAs-SN. In MEAs-SN, to overcome the defects of direct and indirect representations for communities, a direct and indirect combined representation is designed. Attributing to this representation, MEAs-SN can switch between different representations during the evolutionary process. As a result, MEAs-SN can benefit from both representations. Moreover, owing to this representation, MEAs-SN can also detect overlapping communities directly. In the experiments, both benchmark problems and large-scale synthetic networks generated by various parameter settings are used to validate the performance of MEAs-SN. The experimental results show the effectiveness and efficacy of MEAs-SN on networks with 1000, 5000, and 10,000 nodes and also in various noisy situations. A thorough comparison is also made between MEAs-SN and three existing algorithms, and the results show that MEAs-SN outperforms other algorithms.
Recent epidemiologic studies, especially cohort and case-control studies, have yielded inconsistent findings regarding the association between tea consumption and risk for lung cancer. The aim of this study was to assess a potential relationship between tea consumption and the incidence of lung cancer worldwide.
FaDu human squamous cell carcinoma (FaDu-hSCC) demonstrated accelerated tumor repopulation during fractionated irradiation with pathological validation in a xenograft model system. Previous studies showed that the selective cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 inhibitor celecoxib can enhance the tumor response to radiotherapy. So we aimed to explore the effect of celecoxib in inducing apoptosis and inhibiting repopulation of FaDu tumors in nude mice during fractionated radiotherapy.
Understanding the effect of postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) pain on brain activity is important for clinical strategies. This is the first study, to our knowledge, to relate PHN pain to small-world properties of brain functional networks. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to construct functional brain networks of the subjects during the resting state. Sixteen patients with PHN pain and 16 (8 males, 8 females for both groups) age-matched controls were studied. The PHN patients exhibited decreased local efficiency along with non-significant changes of global efficiency in comparison with the healthy controls. Moreover, regional nodal efficiency was found to be significantly affected by PHN pain in the areas related to sense (postcentral gyrus, inferior parietal gyrus and thalamus), memory/affective processes (parahippocampal gyrus) and emotional activities (putamen). Significant correlation (p<0.05) was also found between the nodal efficiency of putamen and pain intensity in PHN patients. Our results suggest that PHN modulates the local efficiency, and the small-world properties of brain networks may have potentials to objectively evaluate pain information in clinic.
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