JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
In Vitro Immunological Effects of Blocking CCR5 on T Cells.
Inflammation
PUBLISHED: 11-09-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Blockade of CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) by maraviroc may induce immunological changes independent of its antiviral effects and may have immunoregulation properties. This study was designed to determine the effects of blocking CCR5 on human activated T cells in vitro and investigate the potential immunological mechanisms. Human CD3+ T cells were purified from peripheral blood mononuclear cells and then activated by cytokines. We tested the surface expressions and relative messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of CCR2, CCR5, CCR6, CCR7, and CXCR3, chemotaxis toward their cognate ligands, internalization of chemokine receptors, and production of cytokines. In conclusion, blocking CCR5 by maraviroc not only can block CCR5 and CCR2 internalization processes induced by CCL5 and CCL2, but also inhibit T cell chemotactic activities toward their cognate ligands, respectively. Moreover, blocking CCR5 with maraviroc at high doses tends to decrease the production of TNF-? and IFN-?. In addition, there might be a form of cross talk between CCR5 and CCR2, and this may offer a novel immunological effect for blockade of CCR5.
Related JoVE Video
3D prostate TRUS segmentation using globally optimized volume-preserving prior.
Med Image Comput Comput Assist Interv
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
An efficient and accurate segmentation of 3D transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) images plays an important role in the planning and treatment of the practical 3D TRUS guided prostate biopsy. However, a meaningful segmentation of 3D TRUS images tends to suffer from US speckles, shadowing and missing edges etc, which make it a challenging task to delineate the correct prostate boundaries. In this paper, we propose a novel convex optimization based approach to extracting the prostate surface from the given 3D TRUS image, while preserving a new global volume-size prior. We, especially, study the proposed combinatorial optimization problem by convex relaxation and introduce its dual continuous max-flow formulation with the new bounded flow conservation constraint, which results in an efficient numerical solver implemented on GPUs. Experimental results using 12 patient 3D TRUS images show that the proposed approach while preserving the volume-size prior yielded a mean DSC of 89.5% +/- 2.4%, a MAD of 1.4 +/- 0.6 mm, a MAXD of 5.2 +/- 3.2 mm, and a VD of 7.5% +/- 6.2% in - 1 minute, deomonstrating the advantages of both accuracy and efficiency. In addition, the low standard deviation of the segmentation accuracy shows a good reliability of the proposed approach.
Related JoVE Video
TSP50 Depends on Its Threonine Protease Activity and Its Interactions with TNF-?-Induced NF-?B for Its Role in Human Cervical Tumorigenesis.
Cell Biochem. Biophys.
PUBLISHED: 10-15-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Testes-specific protease 50 (TSP50) has threonine activity and has homology to serine proteases. TSP50 protein, which is encoded by a possible proto-oncogene, is overexpressed in cervical tumor tissues. Through overexpression experiments using both TSP50 and a TSP50 mutant (TSP50 T310A), it is clear that this protein may play an important role in carcinogenesis and progression of cervical tumor. However, the mechanism underlying how TSP50 modulates cancer cell growth is still unclear. To examine the difference in TSP50 expression in cervical carcinoma tissues and in paracarcinoma tissues, we detected TSP50 mRNA and protein in ten paired tissues from patients with cervical cancer. To determine whether TSP50's threonine protease activity is crucial for its effects on tumor formation, we generated a mutant version of TSP50 (T310A). Via overexpression and silencing experiments, we identified a role for TSP50 in cell proliferation and migration. Furthermore, we examined the signaling pathway of TNF-?-induced NF?B activation to explain the mechanism by which TSP50 participates in tumorigenesis. Similarly, we found that all these effects could be abolished by the TSP50 T310A mutation. Our results suggest that the threonine 310 residue within TSP50 helps modulate its role in cervical tumorigenesis and indicates that TSP50's role in tumorigenesis may be dependent on its interaction with TNF-?-induced NF-?B.
Related JoVE Video
Transmission of H7N9 influenza virus in mice by different infective routes.
Virol. J.
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
On 19 February 2013, the first patient infected with a novel influenza A H7N9 virus from an avian source showed symptoms of sickness. More than 349 laboratory-confirmed cases and 109 deaths have been reported in mainland China since then. Laboratory-confirmed, human-to-human H7N9 virus transmission has not been documented between individuals having close contact; however, this transmission route could not be excluded for three families. To control the spread of the avian influenza H7N9 virus, we must better understand its pathogenesis, transmissibility, and transmission routes in mammals. Studies have shown that this particular virus is transmitted by aerosols among ferrets.
Related JoVE Video
Combinations of Oseltamivir and Fibrates Prolong the Mean Survival Time of Mice Infected with the Lethal H7N9 Influenza Virus.
J. Gen. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The outbreak of human infections caused by the novel avian-origin H7N9 influenza viruses in China since March 2013 underscores the urgent need to find an effective treatment strategy against H7N9 infection in humans. In this study, we assessed the effectiveness of combinations of oseltamivir and two immunomodulators, simvastatin and fenofibrate, against H7N9 infection in a mouse model. Mice treated with oseltamivir plus fenofibrate exhibited the longest mean survival time, the largest reduction of viral titer in lung tissue, the highest levels of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes, and the greatest decrease in pulmonary inflammation. Thus, the combination of oseltamivir plus fenofibrate improved the outcomes of mice infected with H7N9 virus by simultaneously reducing viral replication and normalizing the aberrant immune response. This drug combination should be considered in randomized controlled trials of treatments for H7N9 patients.
Related JoVE Video
[Analysis of heavy metals distribution characteristics and pollution assessment in agricultural region soils of Huaihe basin].
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
PUBLISHED: 10-02-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
By means of field sampling and laboratory analysis, the content distribution characteristics of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn in agricultural region soils of Huaihe basin in Anhui province were analyzed. Assessment of heavy metal pollutions was conducted using enrichment factor, geoaccumulation index and potential ecological risk index. The results showed that the average mass fraction of Cd and Cu was 0.113 5 and 22.09 mg x kg(-1) respectively in the study area soil, which were above the background values 0.097 and 20.4 mg x kg(-1) in Anhui Province. The average mass fraction of other four heavy metals did not exceed the average values of Anhui Province. The results of the evaluations from geoaccumulation index and ecological risk assessment discovered that Cd is the strongest pollution metal among six heavy metals in the study area soil. For some samples of the study soil, Cd was slight risk for the ecosystem. The ecosystem risks caused by the other five heavy metals were not obviously for the sampling points. The entire study area soils were mid integrated potential ecological risk.
Related JoVE Video
Efficacy and safety of perioperative sodium bicarbonate therapy for cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury: a meta-analysis.
J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Urinary alkalinization with sodium bicarbonate infusion can theoretically protect against the mechanisms of acute kidney injury. Controversy exists regarding whether sodium bicarbonate infusion can reduce the incidence of acute kidney injury from cardiac surgery. A meta-analysis was conducted to show the efficacy and safety of perioperative sodium bicarbonate use for preventing AKI in patients undergoing cardiac surgery.
Related JoVE Video
A novel minimally invasive percutaneous nephrolithotomy technique: safety and efficacy report.
Scand J Urol
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Abstract Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcome and determine the complications of ultrasound-guided 16 F tract percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) by review of over 1000 cases in a Chinese hospital. Material and methods. A total of 1368 patients underwent 16 F tract PCNL in the hospital between March 2007 and July 2013. Surgery was performed under general anesthesia in all cases. Central venous puncture was chosen as a puncture device. Complications, residual stones, stone clearance and the need for auxiliary treatments were evaluated. Management experience was evaluated with respect to the complications. Results. Complications occurred in 275 out of 1368 patients (20.1%). There were 102 Clavien grade 1 (7.4%), 121 grade 2 (8.8%) and 48 grade 3 (3.5%) complications, but no grade 4 or 5 complications. Access to the kidney was established in 99.7% of cases and 82.0% of cases had complete stone clearance without undergoing further PCNL. Auxiliary treatments included shockwave lithotripsy in 135 patients, second-phase PCNL in 49 patients and ureteroscopy in 63 patients. Three cases of rare complications occurred, including a double-J stent translocated to the chest, and intraoperative acute pulmonary edema and heart failure. Severe intraoperative or postoperative complications should be managed immediately. Conclusion. An ultrasound-guided mini-tract PCNL is safe and convenient, even for patients with complicated stones.
Related JoVE Video
Dose-response relationship between polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolites and risk of diabetes in the general Chinese population.
Environ. Pollut.
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The incidence of diabetes is increasing rapidly in Chinese population, and it has been postulated that environmental factors may play a role in the etiology of diabetes. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the association between PAHs exposure and risk of diabetes in a community-based population of 2824 participants with completed questionnaires, measurements of biochemical indices, and urinary PAHs metabolites. We found that elevated urinary PAHs metabolites were associated, in a dose-dependent manner, with increased risk of diabetes. Particularly, these associations were more evident in subjects who were female, less than 55 years old, nonsmokers, and normal weight. In addition, there was a modest improvement in diabetes discrimination of prediction models when incorporating certain PAHs metabolites into conventional risk factors (CRF). Overall, our data suggested that there may be a dose-dependent relationship between PAHs metabolites and risk of diabetes among general Chinese population.
Related JoVE Video
Combination Approaches to Attenuate Hemorrhagic Transformation After tPA Thrombolytic Therapy in Patients with Poststroke Hyperglycemia/Diabetes.
Adv. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To date, tissue type plasminogen activator (tPA)-based thrombolytic stroke therapy is the only FDA-approved treatment for achieving vascular reperfusion and clinical benefit, but this agent is given to only about 5% of stroke patients in the USA. This may be related, in part, to the elevated risk of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage, and consequently limited therapeutic time window. Clinical investigations demonstrate that poststroke hyperglycemia is one of the most important risk factors that cause intracerebral hemorrhage and worsen neurological outcomes. There is a knowledge gap in understanding the underlying molecular mechanisms, and lack of effective therapeutics targeting the severe complication. This short review summarizes clinical observations and experimental investigations in preclinical stroke models of the field. The data strongly suggest that interactions of multiple pathogenic factors including hyperglycemia-mediated vascular oxidative stress and inflammation, ischemic insult, and tPA neurovascular toxicity in concert contribute to the BBB damage-intracerebral hemorrhagic transformation process. Development of combination approaches targeting the multiple pathological cascades may help to attenuate the hemorrhagic complication.
Related JoVE Video
Magnetic resonance imaging for lung cancer screen.
J Thorac Dis
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer related death throughout the world. Lung cancer is an example of a disease for which a large percentage of the high-risk population can be easily identified via a smoking history. This has led to the investigation of lung cancer screening with low-dose helical/multi-detector CT. Evidences suggest that early detection of lung cancer allow more timely therapeutic intervention and thus a more favorable prognosis for the patient. The positive relationship of lesion size to likelihood of malignancy has been demonstrated previously, at least 99% of all nodules 4 mm or smaller are benign, while noncalcified nodules larger than 8 mm diameter bear a substantial risk of malignancy. In the recent years, the availability of high-performance gradient systems, in conjunction with phased-array receiver coils and optimized imaging sequences, has made MR imaging of the lung feasible. It can now be assumed a threshold size of 3-4 mm for detection of lung nodules with MRI under the optimal conditions of successful breath-holds with reliable gating or triggering. In these conditions, 90% of all 3-mm nodules can be correctly diagnosed and that nodules 5 mm and larger are detected with 100% sensitivity. Parallel imaging can significantly shorten the imaging acquisition time by utilizing the diversity of sensitivity profile of individual coil elements in multi-channel radiofrequency receive coil arrays or transmit/receive coil arrays to reduce the number of phase encoding steps required in imaging procedure. Compressed sensing technique accelerates imaging acquisition from dramatically undersampled data set by exploiting the sparsity of the images in an appropriate transform domain. With the combined imaging algorithm of parallel imaging and compressed sensing and advanced 32-channel or 64-channel RF hardware, overall imaging acceleration of 20 folds or higher can then be expected, ultimately achieve free-breathing and no ECG gating acquisitions in lung cancer MRI screening. Further development of protocols, more clinical trials and the use of advanced analysis tools will further evaluate the real significance of lung MRI.
Related JoVE Video
Amide proton transfer-weighted imaging of the head and neck at 3?T: a feasibility study on healthy human subjects and patients with head and neck cancer.
NMR Biomed
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The aim of this study was to explore the feasibility and repeatability of amide proton transfer-weighted (APTw) MRI for the head and neck on clinical MRI scanners. Six healthy volunteers and four patients with head and neck tumors underwent APTw MRI scanning at 3?T. The APTw signal was quantified by the asymmetric magnetization transfer ratio (MTRasym) at 3.5?ppm. Z spectra of normal tissues in the head and neck (masseter muscle, parotid glands, submandibular glands and thyroid glands) were analyzed in healthy volunteers. Inter-scan repeatability of APTw MRI was evaluated in six healthy volunteers. Z spectra of patients with head and neck tumors were produced and APTw signals in these tumors were analyzed. APTw MRI scanning was successful for all 10 subjects. The parotid glands showed the highest APTw signal (~7.6% average), whereas the APTw signals in other tissues were relatively moderate. The repeatability of APTw signals from the masseter muscle, parotid gland, submandibular gland and thyroid gland of healthy volunteers was established. Four head and neck tumors showed positive mean APTw ranging from 1.2% to 3.2%, distinguishable from surrounding normal tissues. APTw MRI was feasible for use in the head and neck regions at 3?T. The preliminary results on patients with head and neck tumors indicated the potential of APTw MRI for clinical applications.
Related JoVE Video
Evaluation of docetaxel- and oxaliplatin-based adjuvant chemotherapy in postgastrectomy gastric cancer patients reveals obvious survival benefits in docetaxel-treated mixed signet ring cell carcinoma patients.
Med. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The purpose of this study was to determine the disease-free and overall survival (DFS and OS, respectively) in 991 postgastrectomy gastric cancer patients untreated (n = 372) or treated with either oxaliplatin-based (n = 376) or docetaxel-based (n = 243) chemotherapy and to identify prognostic factors that could help establish subgroups of patients who would benefit from such treatment. The median follow-up duration was 55.3 months (range 31.2-90.8 months). Subgroup analyses revealed that gastric adenocarcinoma (DFS 56.9 vs 53.2 months, P = 0.180, ?(2) = 1.802; OS not reached vs 70.7 months, P = 0.521, ?(2) = 0.412), but not absolute signet ring cell (SRC) carcinoma (DFS 15.1/18.0 vs 10.1 months, P = 0.171/0.259, ?(2) = 1.874/1.275; OS 21.0/26.1 vs 20.5 months, P = 0.551/0.196, ?(2) = 0.355/1.674), patients undergoing either docetaxel- or oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy had a lower risk of recurrence and increased survival in comparison to those without chemotherapy. In the mixed SRC carcinoma patients, DFS and OS of patients treated with docetaxel-based regimen had a longer survival (DFS 50.1 vs 29.9 months, P = 0.046, ?(2) = 3.987; OS not reached vs 48.6 months, P = 0.016, ?(2) = 5.854) and lower risk of recurrence and death (DFS HR 0.540, 95 % CI 0.355-0.874, P = 0.012; OS HR 0.452, 95 % CI 0.259-0.790, P = 0.005) than oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy. Cumulatively, our results indicate that adjuvant chemotherapy is beneficial and that docetaxel-based regimen should be considered for patients with mixed SRC carcinoma.
Related JoVE Video
Experimental determination and characterization of the gap promoter of Bifidobacterium bifidum S17.
Bioengineered
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The DNA sequence upstream of the glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene (gap) of various strains of bifidobacteria is used in a number of vector systems for homologous and heterologous expression in this group of bacteria. To date none of the bifidobacterial gap promoters (Pgap) have been verified experimentally. Here, we probe a range of putative bifidobacterial promoters hypothesized to show high constitutive transcriptional activity using a ?-glucuronidase reporter system. In silico analysis revealed a predicted bacterial promoter upstream of the gap gene of Bifidobacterium bifidum S17. The corresponding DNA sequences was cloned into the promoter probe vector pMDY23 and yielded highest reporter activities among the promoter sequences tested confirming previous studies. Using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (5'-RACE), we identified the transcription start site (TSS) of Pgap of B. bifidum S17. The experimentally determined TSS and the associated -10 and -35 regions do not match with the promoter predicted in silico. Moreover, a potential ribosome-binding site (RBS) was identified upstream of the ATG start codon of the gap gene, which is complementary to the 3'-end of the 16S rRNA with only 1 mismatch suggesting efficient initiation of translation. Alignment of the Pgap sequences of a number of representative bifidobacteria showed a high level of conservation and the presence of -35 and -10 regions, which are similar but not identical to the consensus promoter sequences of house-keeping genes of Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis. Collectively, these results confirm the suitability of Pgap for high level, constitutive expression in bifidobacteria.
Related JoVE Video
Parity and the risk of diabetes mellitus among Chinese women: a cross-sectional evidence from the Tongji-Dongfeng cohort study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Little is known about the long-term health impact of pregnancy on women. The objective of this study was to examine the association between parity and the risk of diabetes among a population of Chinese women.
Related JoVE Video
Discovery of biomarkers predictive of GSI response in triple-negative breast cancer and adenoid cystic carcinoma.
Cancer Discov
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Next-generation sequencing was used to identify Notch mutations in a large collection of diverse solid tumors. NOTCH1 and NOTCH2 rearrangements leading to constitutive receptor activation were confined to triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC; 6 of 66 tumors). TNBC cell lines with NOTCH1 rearrangements associated with high levels of activated NOTCH1 (N1-ICD) were sensitive to the gamma-secretase inhibitor (GSI) MRK-003, both alone and in combination with paclitaxel, in vitro and in vivo, whereas cell lines with NOTCH2 rearrangements were resistant to GSI. Immunohistochemical staining of N1-ICD in TNBC xenografts correlated with responsiveness, and expression levels of the direct Notch target gene HES4 correlated with outcome in patients with TNBC. Activating NOTCH1 point mutations were also identified in other solid tumors, including adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC). Notably, ACC primary tumor xenografts with activating NOTCH1 mutations and high N1-ICD levels were sensitive to GSI, whereas N1-ICD-low tumors without NOTCH1 mutations were resistant.
Related JoVE Video
The Wuhan-Zhuhai (WHZH) cohort study of environmental air particulate matter and the pathogenesis of cardiopulmonary diseases: study design, methods and baseline characteristics of the cohort.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Particulate air pollution has been recognized to be associated with a wide range of adverse health effects, including increased mortality, morbidity, exacerbation of respiratory conditions. However, earlier physiological or pathological changes or long-term bodies' reaction to air pollutants have not been studied in depth in China. The Wuhan-Zhuhai (WHZH) cohort study is designed to investigate the association between air pollutants exposure and physiological or pathological reactions on respiratory and cardiovascular system.
Related JoVE Video
Age related reduction of T1rho and T2 magnetic resonance relaxation times of lumbar intervertebral disc.
Quant Imaging Med Surg
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This report aims to study the age related T1rho and T2 relaxation time changes in lumbar intervertebral disc. Lumbar sagittal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed with a 3 Tesla scanner in 52 subjects. With a spin-lock frequency of 500 Hz, T1rho was measured using a rotary echo spin-lock pulse embedded in a 3D balanced fast field echo sequence. A multi-echo turbo spin echo sequence was used for T2 mapping. Regions-of-interest were drawn over the T1rho and T2 maps, including nucleus pulposus and annulus fibrosus. For L1/2-L4/5 discs, results showed the age associated reduction of T1rho of nucleus pulposus had a of slope of -1.06, the reduction of T2 of nucleus pulposus had a slope of -1.47, the reduction of T1rho of annulus fibrosus had a slope of -0.25, and the reduction of T2 of annulus fibrosus had a slope of -0.18, with all the slopes significantly non-zero. In nucleus pulposus the slope of T2 was slightly steeper than that of T1rho (P=0.085), while in annulus fibrosus the slope of T1rho was slightly steeper than that of T2 (P=0.31). We conclude that significant age related reduction of T1rho and T2 magnetic resonance relaxation times of lumbar intervertebral disc was observed, however, the relative performances of T1rho vs. T2 were broadly similar.
Related JoVE Video
Low awareness of stroke guidelines and preference for Chinese herbs in community physicians: a national survey in China.
Ann Transl Med
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Physicians' adherence to stroke guidelines is becoming a critical part of public stroke care system. The objective of this national survey was to examine Chinese physicians' awareness of the guidelines in secondary stroke prevention.
Related JoVE Video
Fast and automatic imaging of immunoenzyme-stained neuronal circuits in the whole brain of Drosophila.
J Biomed Opt
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Knowledge of neuronal wiring and morphogenesis in Drosophila is essential to understand brain function and dysfunction. The immunoenzyme method based on horseradish peroxidase/diaminobenzidine (HRP/DAB) provides high-contrast images to resolve details underlying neuronal architecture. However, the poor staining penetration and a lack of corresponding three-dimensional imaging methodology limit its application. Herein, we modified the HRP/DAB method to stain neuronal circuits in the whole brain of Drosophila. Furthermore, we found that imaging with the micro-optical sectioning tomography system provided a fast and automatic method that could dissect cell-specific neuroanatomical architecture at a submicron voxel resolution.
Related JoVE Video
The load and release characteristics on a strong cationic ion-exchange fiber: kinetics, thermodynamics, and influences.
Drug Des Devel Ther
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Ion-exchange fibers were different from conventional ion-exchange resins in their non-cross-linked structure. The exchange was located on the surface of the framework, and the transport resistance reduced significantly, which might mean that the exchange is controlled by an ionic reaction instead of diffusion. Therefore, this work aimed to investigate the load and release characteristics of five model drugs with the strong cationic ion-exchange fiber ZB-1. Drugs were loaded using a batch process and released in United States Pharmacopoeia (USP) dissolution apparatus 2. Opposing exchange kinetics, suitable for the special structure of the fiber, were developed for describing the exchange process with the help of thermodynamics, which illustrated that the load was controlled by an ionic reaction. The molecular weight was the most important factor to influence the drug load and release rate. Strong alkalinity and rings in the molecular structures made the affinity between the drug and fiber strong, while logP did not cause any profound differences. The drug-fiber complexes exhibited sustained release. Different kinds and concentrations of counter ions or different amounts of drug-fiber complexes in the release medium affected the release behavior, while the pH value was independent of it. The groundwork for in-depth exploration and further application of ion-exchange fibers has been laid.
Related JoVE Video
The effects of midday nap duration on the risk of hypertension in a middle-aged and older Chinese population: a preliminary evidence from the Tongji-Dongfeng Cohort Study, China.
J. Hypertens.
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Evidence from epidemiological studies suggested that shorter and longer duration of nocturnal sleeping may increase the risk of hypertension for older adults. Little is known about the duration of midday nap on the variability of blood pressure among older adults. In this study, we examined whether duration of habitual midday nap is associated with level of blood pressure or the risk of hypertension in a middle-aged and older Chinese population.
Related JoVE Video
Efficient editing of malaria parasite genome using the CRISPR/Cas9 system.
MBio
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Malaria parasites are unicellular organisms residing inside the red blood cells, and current methods for editing the parasite genes have been inefficient. The CRISPR/Cas9 (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats and Cas9 endonuclease-mediated genome editing) system is a new powerful technique for genome editing and has been widely employed to study gene function in various organisms. However, whether this technique can be applied to modify the genomes of malaria parasites has not been determined. In this paper, we demonstrated that Cas9 is able to introduce site-specific DNA double-strand breaks in the Plasmodium yoelii genome that can be repaired through homologous recombination. By supplying engineered homologous repair templates, we generated targeted deletion, reporter knock-in, and nucleotide replacement in multiple parasite genes, achieving up to 100% efficiency in gene deletion and 22 to 45% efficiencies in knock-in and allelic replacement. Our results establish methodologies for introducing desired modifications in the P. yoelii genome with high efficiency and accuracy, which will greatly improve our ability to study gene function of malaria parasites. Importance: Malaria, caused by infection of Plasmodium parasites, remains a world-wide public health burden. Although the genomes of many malaria parasites have been sequenced, we still do not know the functions of approximately half of the genes in the genomes. Studying gene function has become the focus of many studies; however, editing genes in malaria parasite genomes is still inefficient. Here we designed several efficient approaches, based on the CRISPR/Cas9 system, to introduce site-specific DNA double-strand breaks in the Plasmodium yoelii genome that can be repaired through homologous recombination. Using this system, we achieved high efficiencies in gene deletion, reporter tagging, and allelic replacement in multiple parasite genes. This technique for editing the malaria parasite genome will greatly facilitate our ability to elucidate gene function.
Related JoVE Video
Ordered carbon nanotubes-n-dodecyl tetraethylene monoether liquid crystal composites through phase separation induced by poly(ethylene glycol).
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were incorporated into a lyotropic liquid crystal (LLC) matrix at room temperature through spontaneous phase separation. The phase separation process occurred in n-dodecyl tetraethylene monoether (C12E4) solutions induced by the hydrophilic polymer, poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG). It was found that the molecular weight of PEG has a significant effect on the CNTs-C12E4 system, which not only influences the phase behavior of the system but also changes the properties of the CNTs-LLC composites. Polarized optical microscopy (POM) images, combined with small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) results, indicate that CNTs incorporate within the layers of the lamellar LLCs without destroying the structure of LLCs. Moreover, UV-vis absorption, Raman spectra and rheological measurements were performed to investigate the characteristic properties of the CNTs-LLC composites. This study not only gives a more comprehensive understanding of polymer-induced phase separation, but also expands the potential uses of CNTs-LLC composites in nanotechnology.
Related JoVE Video
Optimization of sample cooling temperature for redox cryo-imaging.
J Biomed Opt
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Cryo-imaging techniques have been widely used to measure the metabolic state of tissues by capturing reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) autofluorescence. However, NADH and FAD fluorescence is sensitive to changes in temperature, which may result in unreliable redox ratio calculations. Here, the relationship between the measured redox ratio and sample surface temperature was analyzed using a standard phantom solution and biological tissues. The results indicated that a temperature < - 100°C was a suitable cryo-imaging temperature window in which redox ratio measuring was immune to temperature fluctuations. These results may serve as a reference for designing and optimizing redox cryo-imaging experiments for quantitatively mapping the metabolic state of biological samples.
Related JoVE Video
IL-17A promotes ventricular remodeling after myocardial infarction.
J. Mol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Inflammatory responses play an important role in the pathogenesis of adverse ventricular remodeling after myocardial infarction (MI). We previously demonstrated that interleukin (IL)-17A plays a pathogenic role in myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury and viral myocarditis. However, the role of IL-17A in post-MI remodeling and the related mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. Acute MI was induced by permanent ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery in C57BL/6 mice. Repletion of IL-17A significantly aggravated both early- and late-phase ventricular remodeling, as demonstrated by increased infarct size, deteriorated cardiac function, increased myocardial fibrosis, and cardiomyocyte apoptosis. By contrast, genetic IL-17A deficiency had the opposite effect. Additional studies in vitro indicated that IL-17A induces neonatal cardiomyocyte (from C57BL/6 mice) apoptosis through the activation of p38, p53 phosphorylation, and Bax redistribution. These data demonstrate that IL-17A induces cardiomyocyte apoptosis through the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-p53-Bax signaling pathway and promotes both early- and late-phase post-MI ventricular remodeling. IL-17A might be an important target in preventing heart failure after MI.
Related JoVE Video
Dual drug load and release behavior on ion-exchange fiber: influencing factors and prediction method for precise control of the loading amount.
Pharm Dev Technol
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Abstract Ion-exchange fiber undergoes a stoichiometric exchange reaction and has large exchange capability, which makes it a promising candidate as a multiple drug carrier. Because combinatorial effects can act synergistically, additively or antagonistically depending on the ratio of the agents being combined, the objective of this study was to learn the dual drug loading of ion-exchange fiber and develop a mathematical method for precisely control of the loading amount. Atenolol and Gatifloxacin, with different loading behaviors into strong cationic ion-exchange fiber ZB-1, were used to build a representative of dual loading. Not suitable pH value of drug solutions could make simultaneous loading fail, while the change of drug solution volume hardly affected the equilibrium. Ion-exchange groups occupied by the drug which owned lower affinity to fiber could be grabbed by the higher affinity drug, indicating the existence of competition between drugs. Thermodynamic model was introduced to guide the loading prediction and a favorable relevance had been shown between determined and predicted data. The release behaviors of each drug from dual drug-fiber complex were similar to those from single drug-fiber complexes.
Related JoVE Video
EphB2 contributes to human naive B-cell activation and is regulated by miR-185.
FASEB J.
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
EphB2 is an important member of the receptor tyrosine kinases. Recently, EphB2 was shown to facilitate T-cell migration and monocyte activation. However, the effects of EphB2 on B cells remain unknown. In this study, the expression of EphB2 on B cells was tested by Western blot, and the roles of EphB2 in B-cell proliferation, cytokine secretion, and immunoglobulin (Ig) production were evaluated using EphB2 siRNA interference in human B cells from healthy volunteers. Our study revealed that EphB2 was distributed on naive B cells and was up-regulated on activated B cells. Moreover, B-cell proliferation (decreased by 22%, P<0.05), TNF-? secretion (decreased by 40%, P<0.01) and IgG production (decreased by 26%, P < 0.05) were depressed concordantly with the down-regulated EphB2 expression. Subsequently, we screened microRNAs that could regulate EphB2 expression in B cells, and discovered that miR-185 directly targeted to EphB2 mRNA and suppressed its expression. Furthermore, miR-185 overexpression inhibited B-cell activation, and the inhibitor of miR-185 enhanced B-cell activation. Moreover, abatement of EphB2 through miR-185 mimics or EphB2 siRNA attenuated the activation of Src-p65 and Notch1 signaling pathways in human B cells. Our study first suggested that EphB2 was involved in human naive B cell activation through Src-p65 and Notch1 signaling pathways and could be regulated by miR-185.
Related JoVE Video
Urinary Metals and Heart Rate Variability: A Cross-Sectional Study of Urban Adults in Wuhan, China.
Environ. Health Perspect.
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Epidemiological studies have suggested an association between external estimates of exposure to metals in air particles and altered heart rate variability (HRV). However, studies on the association between internal assessments of metals exposure and HRV are limited.
Related JoVE Video
Tanshinone II-A is protective against human umbilical vein endothelial cell injury after exposure to serum from preeclampsia patients.
Gynecol. Obstet. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Preeclampsia (PE) is one of the most common and dangerous complications during pregnancy and is characterized by high blood pressure and significant amounts of protein in the urine. Vascular endothelial cell dysfunction is the major pathology in PE. This study was designed to assay the effects of tanshinone II-A (TII-A) on human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) injury after incubation with serum from PE patients and to determine the underlying mechanism.
Related JoVE Video
Intestinal microbiota pathogenesis and fecal microbiota transplantation for inflammatory bowel disease.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The intestinal microbiota plays an important role in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The pathogenesis of IBD involves inappropriate ongoing activation of the mucosal immune system driven by abnormal intestinal microbiota in genetically predisposed individuals. However, there are still no definitive microbial pathogens linked to the onset of IBD. The composition and function of the intestinal microbiota and their metabolites are indeed disturbed in IBD patients. The special alterations of gut microbiota associated with IBD remain to be evaluated. The microbial interactions and host-microbe immune interactions are still not clarified. Limitations of present probiotic products in IBD are mainly due to modest clinical efficacy, few available strains and no standardized administration. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) may restore intestinal microbial homeostasis, and preliminary data have shown the clinical efficacy of FMT on refractory IBD or IBD combined with Clostridium difficile infection. Additionally, synthetic microbiota transplantation with the defined composition of fecal microbiota is also a promising therapeutic approach for IBD. However, FMT-related barriers, including the mechanism of restoring gut microbiota, standardized donor screening, fecal material preparation and administration, and long-term safety should be resolved. The role of intestinal microbiota and FMT in IBD should be further investigated by metagenomic and metatranscriptomic analyses combined with germ-free/human flora-associated animals and chemostat gut models.
Related JoVE Video
Activating transcription factor 3 promotes colon cancer metastasis.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Colorectal cancer is one of the commonest of solid malignancy in the world. Activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3), a homolog of the mouse TI-241 and rat LFR-1, is a stress responsive gene that has been widely indicated in different malignancies. However, the role of ATF3 in colon cancer is paradoxical with both a suggested pro- and anti-tumorigenic role. The objective of the current study was to investigate the role of ATF3 in colon cancer metastasis using HT29 and CaCO2 colon cancer cell lines. Expression of ATF3 was initially evaluated in five pairs of colon cancer and matched noncancerous colon tissues. The role of ATF3 in promoting in vitro migration and invasion were evaluated by siRNA-mediated knockdown and adenovirus-mediated overexpression of ATF3. In addition, the role of ATF3 in promoting in vivo tumor growth and hepatic metastasis was investigated by shRNA-mediated knockdown of ATF3. Expression of ATF3 was more in the colon cancer tissues as compared with the pooled noncancerous control colon tissue. Our results showed that in both HT29 and CaCO2 cells, ATF3 promoted in vitro motility and invasion. Furthermore, knockdown of ATF3 attenuated subcutaneous tumor growth and CD31(+) neovasculature in xenograft assays with HT29 and CaCO2 cells and inhibited hepatic metastasis. Cumulatively, our results unequivocally show that ATF3 promotes colon cancer metastasis.
Related JoVE Video
Oral sustained-release suspension based on a novel taste-masked and mucoadhesive carrier-ion-exchange fiber.
Int J Pharm
PUBLISHED: 04-13-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of ion-exchange fiber ZB-1 as a novel carrier in oral taste-masked mucoadhesive sustained-release suspensions. Propranolol (PPN) hydrochloride was selected as a model drug with good water solubility, short half life and bitter taste. The PPN-fiber complexes (PF) were prepared by a batch process and coated with Eudragit(®) RS100. Gamma scintigraphy was performed on fasted volunteers revealed about 30% ZB-1 and more than 50% coated ZB-1 were still remaining in the stomach at 6h. In vitro results showed the releases of PF and coated PPN-fiber complexes (C-PF) were sustained. The release, drug content and particle size of C-PF were influenced by coat to core ratio, concentration of coating material and rotation rate. The suspension was stable after standing for 30 days in 0.5% Carbopol(®) with no release rate and taste changed. The administration of C-PF suspension to rats resulted a significant different (P<0.05) improvement of the plasma drug level and prolongation of the release. However, because of the burst effect, the Cmax values of PF suspension didn't differ from drug solution (P>0.05). Furthermore, a linear relationship between in vitro dissolution and in vivo absorption was observed.
Related JoVE Video
Optimal linear combination of ARFI, transient elastography and APRI for the assessment of fibrosis in chronic hepatitis B.
Liver Int.
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Accurate assessment of liver fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) is necessary not only to predict the long-term clinical course but also to determine an appropriate antiviral therapy scheme. Several noninvasive approaches - serum markers and elastography - have been proposed as alternatives for the histopathological analysis of liver biopsies. The aim of this study was to evaluate two ultrasound elastography methods (ARFI and TE) and one biochemical test (APRI), as well as their optimal linear combination, in the assessment of liver fibrosis in CHB.
Related JoVE Video
A propensity score analysis on the effect of on-pump versus off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting for patients with coronary artery disease.
J Thorac Dis
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The aim of this retrospective observational study was to investigate the effect of on-pump versus off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) for patients with coronary artery diseases (CAD).
Related JoVE Video
Global gene expression profiling of human bronchial epithelial cells exposed to airborne fine particulate matter collected from Wuhan, China.
Toxicol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Many studies have linked ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) air pollution to different cardiopulmonary diseases in the general population. However the complex mechanisms underlying PM2.5-induced adverse health effects are not yet to be fully elucidated.
Related JoVE Video
Genetic variants in SMARC genes are associated with DNA damage levels in Chinese population.
Toxicol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The switching defective/sucrose nonfermenting (SWI/SNF) related, matrix associated, actin dependent regulators of chromatin (SMARC) are components of human SWI/SNF like chromatin remodeling protein complexes, which are essential in the process of DNA damage repair. In this study, we hypothesized that genetic variants in SMARC genes may modify the capacity of DNA repair to damage. To test this hypothesis, we genotyped a total of 20 polymorphisms in five key SMARC genes (SMARCA5, SMARCC2, SMARCD1, SMARCD2, SMARCD3) to evaluate their associations with DNA damage levels in 307 subjects. The DNA damage levels were measured with comet assay. The multiple linear regression was used to assess the relationship between each polymorphism and DNA damage levels in additive model. We found that the genotypes of rs6857360 (?=0.23, 95% CI=0.06-0.40, P=0.008) in SMARCA5, rs6919 (?=0.20, 95% CI=0.05-0.34, P=0.008) and rs2727280 (?=0.18, 95% CI=0.04-0.33, P=0.013) in SMARCD2, and rs17173769 (?=-0.27, 95% CI=-0.52 to -0.01, P=0.045) in SMARCD3 were significantly associated with DNA damage levels. After combining these four polymorphisms, we found that the more unfavorable alleles the subjects carried, the heavier DNA damage they suffered, suggesting a locus-dosage effect between combined genotypes and DNA damage levels (P for trend=0.006). These findings suggest that genetic variants in SMARC genes may contribute the individual variations of DNA damage levels in Chinese population. Further larger and functional studies are warranted to confirm our findings.
Related JoVE Video
Urine interleukin-18 in prediction of acute kidney injury: a systemic review and meta-analysis.
J. Nephrol.
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Interleukin-18 (IL-18) mediates ischemic acute tubular necrosis; it has been proved as a rapid, reliable, and affordable test marker for the early detection of acute kidney injury (AKI), but its predictive accuracy varies greatly.
Related JoVE Video
Proteomic analysis of the interaction of Bifidobacterium longum NCC2705 with the intestine cells Caco-2 and identification of plasminogen receptors.
J Proteomics
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To identify proteins with a potential role in the interaction of Bifidobacterium longum with intestinal epithelial cells, we profiled the protein response of B. longum NCC2705 following interaction with Caco-2 cells. Thirty-one protein spots, belonging to a total of 23 proteins, which exhibited a change in abundance of at least 3-fold were identified in B. longum NCC2705 following co-culture with Caco-2 cells, and were subsequently identified. Changes in expression were confirmed at the transcriptional level for a selection of these proteins. Enolase (Eno) and elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu) were amongst the proteins that showed the most prominent increase in abundance. Interaction of these proteins with plasminogen (Plg) was analyzed by Plg overlay assays, glutathione S-transferase (GST)-pull down, and western blot analysis. The results suggested that EF-Tu and Eno serve as surface receptors for B. longum NCC2705 binding to human plasminogen. Purified GST-EF-Tu and GST-Eno inhibited adhesion of B. longum NCC2705 to Caco-2 cells. Collectively, our data suggest that Eno and EF-Tu moonlight as adhesions, and are possibly involved in the protective role played by B. longum NCC2705 in defense against enteric pathogens. Biological significance The interaction of bifidobacteria with the human host plasminogen/plasmin system confirms the existence of a new component in the molecular cross-talk between bacteria and the host. Our study analyzed proteins EF-Tu and Eno with Plg binding activity, and they can inhibit adhesion of B. longum NCC2705 to Caco-2 cells, suggesting their role in the bacterial adherent to the enterocyte surface.
Related JoVE Video
Evaluation of prostate segmentation algorithms for MRI: the PROMISE12 challenge.
Med Image Anal
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Prostate MRI image segmentation has been an area of intense research due to the increased use of MRI as a modality for the clinical workup of prostate cancer. Segmentation is useful for various tasks, e.g. to accurately localize prostate boundaries for radiotherapy or to initialize multi-modal registration algorithms. In the past, it has been difficult for research groups to evaluate prostate segmentation algorithms on multi-center, multi-vendor and multi-protocol data. Especially because we are dealing with MR images, image appearance, resolution and the presence of artifacts are affected by differences in scanners and/or protocols, which in turn can have a large influence on algorithm accuracy. The Prostate MR Image Segmentation (PROMISE12) challenge was setup to allow a fair and meaningful comparison of segmentation methods on the basis of performance and robustness. In this work we will discuss the initial results of the online PROMISE12 challenge, and the results obtained in the live challenge workshop hosted by the MICCAI2012 conference. In the challenge, 100 prostate MR cases from 4 different centers were included, with differences in scanner manufacturer, field strength and protocol. A total of 11 teams from academic research groups and industry participated. Algorithms showed a wide variety in methods and implementation, including active appearance models, atlas registration and level sets. Evaluation was performed using boundary and volume based metrics which were combined into a single score relating the metrics to human expert performance. The winners of the challenge where the algorithms by teams Imorphics and ScrAutoProstate, with scores of 85.72 and 84.29 overall. Both algorithms where significantly better than all other algorithms in the challenge (p<0.05) and had an efficient implementation with a run time of 8min and 3s per case respectively. Overall, active appearance model based approaches seemed to outperform other approaches like multi-atlas registration, both on accuracy and computation time. Although average algorithm performance was good to excellent and the Imorphics algorithm outperformed the second observer on average, we showed that algorithm combination might lead to further improvement, indicating that optimal performance for prostate segmentation is not yet obtained. All results are available online at http://promise12.grand-challenge.org/.
Related JoVE Video
Hepatitis C virus represses the cellular antiviral response by upregulating the expression of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 through sponging microRNA?122.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
microRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non?coding RNAs that inhibit the expression of target protein coding genes at the post?transcriptional level. miR?122 is a liver specific miRNA. Notably, miR?122 is used by the hepatitis C virus (HCV) for triggering viral replication by interacting with the 5' untranslated region of the HCV RNA. The present study demonstrated that miR?122 inhibited the expression of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), an antivirus response repressor. The HCV RNA acted as an 'miRNA sponge', which upregulated the expression of STAT3 by sealing miR?122. Subsequently, it was confirmed that this miR?122 sponge function of HCV RNA repressed the expression of polyinosinic?polycytidylic acid?stimulated type I interferons. The present study provided a deeper understanding of the complex role of miR?122 in the progression of HCV infection and supported the miR?122 inhibition strategy in anti?HCV infection treatment.
Related JoVE Video
KCTD10 Is Involved in the Cardiovascular System and Notch Signaling during Early Embryonic Development.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
As a member of the polymerase delta-interacting protein 1 (PDIP1) gene family, potassium channel tetramerisation domain-containing 10 (KCTD10) interacts with proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and polymerase ?, participates in DNA repair, DNA replication and cell-cycle control. In order to further investigate the physiological functions of KCTD10, we generated the KCTD10 knockout mice. The heterozygous KCTD10+/- mice were viable and fertile, while the homozygous KCTD10-/- mice showed delayed growth from E9.0, and died at approximately E10.5, which displayed severe defects in angiogenesis and heart development. Further study showed that VEGF induced the expression of KCTD10 in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Quantitative real-time PCR and western blotting results revealed that several key members in Notch signaling were up-regulated either in KCTD10-deficient embryos or in KCTD10-silenced HUVECs. Meanwhile, the endogenous immunoprecipitation (IP) analysis showed that KCTD10 interacted with Cullin3 and Notch1 simultaneously, by which mediating Notch1 proteolytic degradation. Our studies suggest that KCTD10 plays crucial roles in embryonic angiogenesis and heart development in mammalians by negatively regulating the Notch signaling pathway.
Related JoVE Video
Inhibition of notch signaling in combination with Paclitaxel reduces platinum-resistant ovarian tumor growth.
Front Oncol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Ovarian cancer (OvCa) is the most lethal gynecologic malignancy in the United States because of chemoresistant recurrent disease. Our objective was to investigate the efficacy of inhibiting the Notch pathway with a ?-secretase inhibitor (GSI) in an OvCa patient-derived xenograft model as a single agent therapy and in combination with standard chemotherapy.
Related JoVE Video
Structure-based rational design to enhance the solubility and thermostability of a bacterial laccase Lac15.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Bacterial laccases are ideal alternatives of fungal laccases for specific industrial applications due to specific characteristics such as alkalescence dependence and high chloride tolerance. However, some bacterial laccases presented as inclusion bodies when expressing in Escherichia coli and showed thermal instability. In this study, rational design was employed to enhance the solubility and the thermostablity of the bacterial laccase Lac15-His6 based on the crystal structure obtained previously. After deletion of His-tag and residues323-332, the obtained Lac15D was completely expressed in soluble form even at a higher temperature of 28°C, compared to only 50% of Lac15-His6 expressed solubly at 16°C. It showed a two-time higher activity at temperatures lower than 35°C and a half-life increasing from 72 min to 150 min at 45°C. When used in chromogenic reactions, Lac15D showed constant activity toward dye precursors and their combinations under alkaline conditions, demonstrating its application potential in hair coloring biotechnology.
Related JoVE Video
Features of gastric glomus tumor: a clinicopathologic, immunohistochemical and molecular retrospective study.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Glomus tumor (GT) of the stomach is a rare mesenchymal tumor. There have been few detailed studies on these tumors. A total of 1894 cases of resected gastric mesenchymal tumors were collected and eleven confirmed gastric GTs were studied. The clinical, pathological, immunohistochemical, ultrastructural and molecular characteristics of the tumors were analyzed through a retrospective study. Histologically, most tumors had gastric smooth muscle immediately adjacent and surrounding the tumor. Tumor cells around blood vessels were small, uniform, and round. Foci of hyaline and myxoid changes were observed. Prominent clear cell features were observed in two tumors. Positive expression of ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA), laminin, collagen type IV, and vimentin was detected by immunohistochemical analysis in all patients. However, in clear cell areas the expression of ?-SMA, laminin, and type IV collagen were mild, while Syn was positive. Moreover, myofibrils and neuroendocrine granules were also present in the cytoplasm of these cells. No C-kit or PDGFR-? genetic mutations were detected in all patients. To conclude, Our results show that GTs in the stomach are histologically and immunophenotypically fully comparable with the glomus tumors of peripheral soft tissues. Neuroendocrine granules and neuroendocrine differentiation were identified in some of the gastric GT cells. Thus, a novel subtype of gastric glomus tumor expressing neuroendocrine cell markers may exist.
Related JoVE Video
Phylogenetic analysis of bacterial community in the gut of American cockroach (Periplaneta americana).
Wei Sheng Wu Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 12-31-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The present study was to fully evaluate the intestinal bacterial community of Periplaneta americana, an important model to study insects.
Related JoVE Video
High-Quality Draft Genome Sequence of Bifidobacterium longum E18, Isolated from a Healthy Adult.
Genome Announc
PUBLISHED: 12-21-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Bifidobacteria are important gastrointestinal commensals of a number of animals, including humans, and various beneficial effects on host health have been attributed to them. Here, we announce the noncontiguous finished genome sequence of Bifidobacterium longum E18, isolated from a healthy adult, which reveals traits involved in its interaction with the host.
Related JoVE Video
[Optimization for MSW logistics of new Xicheng and new Dongcheng districts in Beijing based on the maximum capacity of transfer stations].
Huan Jing Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 12-03-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
It is necessary to achieve the optimization for MSW logistics based on the new Xicheng (combining the former Xicheng and the former Xuanwu districts) and the new Dongcheng (combining the former Dongcheng and the former Chongwen districts) districts of Beijing. Based on the analysis of current MSW logistics system, transfer stations processing capacity and the terminal treatment facilities conditions of the four former districts and other districts, a MSW logistics system was built by GIS methods considering transregional treatment. This article analyzes the MSW material balance of current and new logistics systems. Results show that the optimization scheme could reduce the MSW collection distance of the new Xicheng and the new Dongcheng by 9.3 x 10(5) km x a(-1), reduced by 10% compared with current logistics. Under the new logistics solution, considering transregional treatment, can reduce landfill treatment of untreated MSW about 28.3%. If the construction of three incineration plants finished based on the new logistics, the systems optimal ratio of incineration: biochemical treatment: landfill can reach 3.8 : 4.5 : 1.7 compared with 1 : 4.8 : 4.2, which is the ratio of current MSW logistics. The ratio of the amount of incineration: biochemical treatment: landfill approximately reach 4 : 3 : 3 which is the target for 2015. The research results are benefit in increasing MSW utilization and reduction rate of the new Dongcheng and Xicheng districts and nearby districts.
Related JoVE Video
Intranasal Immunization of Mice with Inactivated Virus and Mast Cell Activator C48/80 Elicits Protective Immunity against Influenza H1 but not H5.
Immunol. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 12-02-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Vaccination represents the most economic and effective strategy of preventing influenza pandemics. We previously demonstrated that intranasal immunization of mice with recombinant hemagglutinin and the mast cell activator C48/80 elicited protective immunity against challenge with the 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza in mice, demonstrating that the novel C48/80 mucosal adjuvant was safe and effective. The present study demonstrated that intranasal immunization with inactivated H1N1 virus and C48/80 elicited protective immunity against lethal challenge with homologous virus, however, when the immunogen was replaced with inactivated H5N1 virus protection was lost. These observations suggested that the adjuvant effects conferred by C48/80 were virus subtype specific and that its use as a broad-spectrum adjuvant for use in immunizations against all influenza viruses needs to be further analyzed.
Related JoVE Video
[MR Appearance of multifocal clear cell renal cell carcinoma].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-29-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To document the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging features of multifocal clear cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC).
Related JoVE Video
[The gene mutation screening of a family with congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles associated with corpus callosum agenesis].
Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-22-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To identify TUBB3 gene mutations in a Chinese family with congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscle associated with corpus callosum agenesis.
Related JoVE Video
Synthesis and biological evaluation of nitromethylene neonicotinoids based on the enhanced conjugation.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-12-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The neonicotinoids with a nitroconjugated system had excellent bioactivity, which could rival imidacloprid, and has been previously reported. However, the photodegradation and hydrolysis of this series of neonicotinoids was very quick according to our further investigation, which cannot be developed as a pesticide further. The approach to further enhance the conjugation was tried not only to increase the bioactivities but also to improve the stability in water and in the sun. A substituted phenyl group was introduced into the furan ring of compound 3. A total of 13 novel neonicotinoid analogues with a higher conjugation system were designed and synthesized. The target molecular structures have been confirmed on the basis of satisfactory analytical and spectral data. All compounds presented significant insecticidal activities on cowpea aphid ( Aphis craccivora ), cotton aphid ( Aphis gossypii ), and brown planthopper ( Nilaparvata lugens ). The stability test exhibited that the stability of novel analogues in water and under the mercury lamp has been improved significantly in comparison to compound 3.
Related JoVE Video
An Animal Model of MERS Produced by Infection of Rhesus Macaques With MERS Coronavirus.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 11-11-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In 2012, a novel coronavirus (CoV) associated with severe respiratory disease, Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS-CoV; previously known as human coronavirus-Erasmus Medical Center or hCoV-EMC), emerged in the Arabian Peninsula. To date, 114 human cases of MERS-CoV have been reported, with 54 fatalities. Animal models for MERS-CoV infection of humans are needed to elucidate MERS pathogenesis and to develop vaccines and antivirals. In this study, we developed rhesus macaques as a model for MERS-CoV using intratracheal inoculation. The infected monkeys showed clinical signs of disease, virus replication, histological lesions, and neutralizing antibody production, indicating that this monkey model is suitable for studies of MERS-CoV infection.
Related JoVE Video
Ridge expansion alone or in combination with guided bone regeneration to facilitate implant placement in narrow alveolar ridges: a retrospective study.
Clin Oral Implants Res
PUBLISHED: 11-09-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To evaluate the long-term outcomes of ridge expansion technique in dealing with horizontal bony insufficiency of alveolar ridges for implant placement.
Related JoVE Video
Cardiac Fibroblasts Recruit Th17 Cells Infiltration Into Myocardium by Secreting CCL20 in CVB3-Induced acute Viral Myocarditis.
Cell. Physiol. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Aims: Th17 cells contributed to myocardial inflammatory injury in acute viral myocarditis (AVMC), and the migration of these cells were mainly mediated by CCL20-secreting inflammatory cells. However, whether and how the resident cells such as cardiomyocytes and cardiac fibroblasts could mediate Th17 cell migration into the heart remains unclear in AVMC. Methods: The effect of CCL20 on the dynamic alterations of intracardiac Th17 cells and disease severity were investigated through the neutralization of CCL20 in AVMC mice. The key cells releasing CCL20 in the heart and the effects of CCL20-secreting cells on Th17 cell arrest, migration and differentiation were detected in vitro. Results : Neutralization of CCL20 efficiently repressed the myocardial inflammation along with the reduction of Th17 cell infiltrations in the course of AVMC. In vitro, after stimulations of TNF-?, IL-1? and IL-17, cardiac fibroblasts rather than cardiomyocytes could be dominantly induced for CCL20 production. CCL20-secreting cardiac fibroblasts boosted Th17 cell arrest on endothelium, and induce Th17 cell migration. However, CCL20 produced by cardiac fibroblasts had no effect on Th17 cell differentiation and IL-17 production. Conclusions: It firstly suggested that cardiac fibroblasts could recruit Th17 cells infiltration into myocardium by secreting CCL20 in AVMC. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Related JoVE Video
[Effects of distance between residence and hemodialysis unit on cardiovascular complications and treatments of maintenance hemodialysis patients].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-16-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To explore the effects of etiological classification and the distance between residence and hemodialysis unit on cardiovascular complications and treatments in maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients.
Related JoVE Video
Accuracy and uncertainty of asymmetric magnetization transfer ratio quantification for amide proton transfer (APT) imaging at 3T: A Monte Carlo study.
Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Amide proton transfer (APT) imaging offers a novel and powerful MRI contrast mechanism for quantitative molecular imaging based on the principle of chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST). Asymmetric magnetization transfer ratio (MTRasym) quantification is crucial for Z-spectrum analysis of APT imaging, but is still challenging, particularly at clinical field strength. This paper studies the accuracy and uncertainty in the quantification of MTRasym for APT imaging at 3T, by using high-order polynomial fitting of Z-spectrum through Monte Carlo simulation. Results show that polynomial fitting is a biased estimator that consistently underestimates MTRasym. For a fixed polynomial order, the accuracy of MTRasym is almost constant with regard to signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) while the uncertainty decreases exponentially with SNR. The higher order polynomial fitting increases both the accuracy and the uncertainty of MTRasym. For different APT signal intensity levels, the relative accuracy and the absolute uncertainty keep constant for a fixed polynomial order. These results indicate the limitations and pitfalls of polynomial fitting for MTRasym quantification so better quantification technique for MTRasym estimation is warranted.
Related JoVE Video
On the least-square estimation of parameters for statistical diffusion weighted imaging model.
Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Statistical model for diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) has been proposed for better tissue characterization by introducing a distribution function for apparent diffusion coefficients (ADC) to account for the restrictions and hindrances to water diffusion in biological tissues. This paper studies the precision and uncertainty in the estimation of parameters for statistical DWI model with Gaussian distribution, i.e. the position of distribution maxima (Dm) and the distribution width (?), by using non-linear least-square (NLLS) fitting. Numerical simulation shows that precise parameter estimation, particularly for ?, imposes critical requirements on the extremely high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of DWI signal when NLLS fitting is used. Unfortunately, such extremely high SNR may be difficult to achieve for the normal setting of clinical DWI scan. For Dm and ? parameter mapping of in vivo human brain, multiple local minima are found and result in large uncertainties in the estimation of distribution width ?. The estimation error by using NLLS fitting originates primarily from the insensitivity of DWI signal intensity to distribution width ?, as given in the function form of the Gaussian-type statistical DWI model.
Related JoVE Video
Bone marrow perfusion of proximal femur varied with BMD-A longitudinal study by DCE-MRI.
Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This study investigated bone marrow perfusion at proximal femur varying with bone mineral density (BMD) and aging over 4 years. Dynamic contrast enhanced MRI data was extracted pixel-by-pixel and classified into 3 patterns to indicate the perfusion function. Eighty-seven elderly females were involved. A notable reduced perfusion as a whole was observed in osteoporotic subjects. Moreover, perfusion distribution varies as BMD decreases, especially at the area crossing the femoral neck to the shaft. Consistent for all subjects, the perfusion decreases significantly from the lesser trochanter to the greater trochanter. Further, the subjects with good bone marrow perfusion would keep stable BMD after 4 years, while for those with bad perfusion, their BMD consistently decreased over 4 years. The results indicated that the bone marrow perfusion function interacts with bone modeling and could have a long term effect on BMD. A good perfusion function would help to keep the bone health.
Related JoVE Video
Cramér-Rao bound for Intravoxel Incoherent Motion Diffusion Weighted Imaging fitting.
Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The precision of parameter estimation for Intravoxel Incoherent Motion Diffusion Weighted Imaging (IVIM-DWI) was investigated by examining their Cramér-Rao bounds (CRBs) under the presence of Rician noise. Monte Carlo (MC) simulation was also conducted to validate the CRB results. The estimation uncertainties of true diffusion coefficient (D) and perfusion fraction (f0) could reach 3.89% and 11.65% respectively with typical parameter values at a moderate signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of 40. However, to estimate pseudo diffusion coefficient (D*) within 10% uncertainty requires SNR>122. The results also showed that the estimation precision of each parameter is not only dependent on SNR but also their true values, while this mutual dependency is complicated. Under some particular cases, estimation uncertainty for certain parameters might be smaller than 5% at a moderate SNR of 40. However, the simultaneous precise estimation for all three parameters is theoretically difficult and highly SNR demanding.
Related JoVE Video
Interactive Hierarchical Max-Flow Segmentation of Scar Tissue from Late-Enhancement Cardiac MR Images.
IEEE Trans Med Imaging
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We propose a novel multi-region image segmentation approach to extract myocardial scar tissue from 3D whole-heart cardiac late-enhancement MR images (LE-MRI) in an interactive manner. For this purpose, we developed a graphical user interface to initialize a fast max-flow-based segmentation algorithm and segment scar accurately with progressive interaction. We propose a partially-ordered Potts (POP) model to multi-region segmentation to properly encode the known spatial consistency of cardiac regions. Its generalization introduces a custom label/region order constraint to Potts model to multi-region segmentation. The combinatorial optimization problem associated with the proposed POP model is solved by means of convex relaxation, for which a novel multi-level continuous max-flow formulation, i.e. the hierarchical continuous max-flow (HMF) model, is proposed and studied. We demonstrate that the proposed HMF model is dual or equivalent to the convex relaxed POP model and introduces a new and efficient hierarchical continuous max-flow based algorithm by modern convex optimization theory. In practice, the introduced hierarchical continuous max-flow based algorithm can be implemented on the parallel graphics processing unit (GPU) to achieve significant acceleration in numerics. Experiments are performed in 50 whole heart 3D LE datasets, 35 with leftventricular and 15 with right-ventricular scar. The experimental results are compared to Full-width-at-half-maximum (FWHM) and Signal-threshold-to-reference-mean (STRM) methods using manual expert myocardial segmentations and operator variabilities and the effect of user interaction are assessed. The results indicate a substantial reduction in image processing time with robust accuracy for detection of myocardial scar. This is achieved without the need for additional region constraints and using a single optimization procedure, substantially reducing the potential for error.
Related JoVE Video
Molecular Predictors of Sensitivity to the Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 Receptor Inhibitor Figitumumab (CP-751,871).
Mol. Cancer Ther.
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Figitumumab (CP-751,871), a potent and fully human monoclonal anti-insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R) antibody, has been investigated in clinical trials of several solid tumors. To identify biomarkers of sensitivity and resistance to figitumumab, its in vitro antiproliferative activity was analyzed in a panel of 93 cancer cell lines by combining in vitro screens with extensive molecular profiling of genomic aberrations. Overall response was bimodal and the majority of cell lines were resistant to figitumumab. Nine of 15 sensitive cell lines were derived from colon cancers. Correlations between genomic characteristics of cancer cell lines with figitumumab antiproliferative activity revealed that components of the IGF pathway, including IRS2 (insulin receptor substrate 2) and IGFBP5 (IGF-binding protein 5), played a pivotal role in determining the sensitivity of tumors to single-agent figitumumab. Tissue-specific differences among the top predictive genes highlight the need for tumor-specific patient selection strategies. For the first time, we report that alteration or expression of the MYB oncogene is associated with sensitivity to IGF1R inhibitors. MYB is dysregulated in hematologic and epithelial tumors, and IGF1R inhibition may represent a novel therapeutic opportunity. Although growth inhibitory activity with single-agent figitumumab was relatively rare, nine combinations comprising figitumumab plus chemotherapeutic agents or other targeted agents exhibited properties of synergy. Inhibitors of the ERBB family were frequently synergistic and potential biomarkers of drug synergy were identified. Several biomarkers of antiproliferative activity of figitumumab both alone and in combination with other therapies may inform the design of clinical trials evaluating IGF1R inhibitors. Mol Cancer Ther; 12(12); 2929-39. ©2013 AACR.
Related JoVE Video
Antigenicity and transmissibility of a novel clade 2.3.2.1 avian influenza H5N1 virus.
J. Gen. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 09-28-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A genetic variant of the H5N1 influenza virus, termed subclade 2.3.2.1, was first identified in Bulgaria in 2010 and has subsequently been found in Vietnam and Laos. Several cases of human infections with this virus have been identified. Thus, it is important to understand the antigenic properties and transmissibility of this variant. Our results showed that, although it is phylogenetically closely related to other previously characterized clade 2.3 viruses, this novel 2.3.2.1 variant exhibited distinct antigenic properties and showed little cross-reactivity to sera raised against other H5N1 viruses. Like other H5N1 viruses, this variant bound preferentially to avian-type receptors, but contained substitutions at positions 190 and 158 of the haemagglutinin (HA) protein that have been postulated to facilitate HA binding to human-type receptors and to enhance viral transmissibility among mammals, respectively. However, this virus did not appear to have acquired the capacity for airborne transmission between ferrets. These findings highlight the challenges in selecting vaccine candidates for H5N1 influenza because these viruses continue to evolve rapidly in the field. It is important to note that some variants have obtained mutations that may gain transmissibility between model animals, and close surveillance of H5N1 viruses in poultry is warranted.
Related JoVE Video
Genome-wide association study on serum alkaline phosphatase levels in a Chinese population.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) is a complex phenotype influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. Recent Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS) have identified several loci affecting ALP levels; however, such studies in Chinese populations are limited. We performed a GWAS analyzing the association between 658,288 autosomal SNPs and serum ALP in 1,461 subjects, and replicated the top SNPs in an additional 8,830 healthy Chinese Han individuals. The interactions between significant locus and environmental factors on serum ALP levels were further investigated.
Related JoVE Video
[Efficacy of Peg-interferon alpha-2a combinated with entecavir on HBeAg positive chronic hepatitis B patients with high serum hepatitis B viral loads].
Zhonghua Shi Yan He Lin Chuang Bing Du Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This study aimed at evaluating the efficacy and safety of a combination treatment of entecavir and Peginterferon alpha-2a for HBeAg positive chronic hepatitis B patients with high serum hepatitis B viral loads.
Related JoVE Video
Chemical genomics for studying parasite gene function and interaction.
Trends Parasitol.
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
With the development of new technologies in genome sequencing, gene expression profiling, genotyping, and high-throughput screening of chemical compound libraries, small molecules are playing increasingly important roles in studying gene expression regulation, gene-gene interaction, and gene function. Here we briefly review and discuss some recent advancements in drug target identification and phenotype characterization using combinations of high-throughput screening of small-molecule libraries and various genome-wide methods such as whole-genome sequencing, genome-wide association studies (GWAS), and genome-wide expression analysis. These approaches can be used to search for new drugs against parasite infections, to identify drug targets or drug resistance genes, and to infer gene function.
Related JoVE Video
Abnormal fecal microbiota community and functions in patients with hepatitis B liver cirrhosis as revealed by a metagenomic approach.
BMC Gastroenterol
PUBLISHED: 09-06-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Assessment and characterization of human colon microbiota is now a major research area in human diseases, including in patients with hepatitis B liver cirrhosis (HBLC).
Related JoVE Video
Novel Avian-Origin Human Influenza A(H7N9) Can Be Transmitted Between Ferrets via Respiratory Droplets.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The outbreak of human infections caused by novel avian-origin influenza A(H7N9) in China since March 2013 underscores the need to better understand the pathogenicity and transmissibility of these viruses in mammals. In a ferret model, the pathogenicity of influenza A(H7N9) was found to be less than that of an influenza A(H5N1) strain but comparable to that of 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1), based on the clinical signs, mortality, virus dissemination, and results of histopathologic analyses. Influenza A(H7N9) could replicate in the upper and lower respiratory tract, the heart, the liver, and the olfactory bulb. It is worth noting that influenza A(H7N9) exhibited a low level of transmission between ferrets via respiratory droplets. There were 4 mutations in the virus isolated from the contact ferret: D678Y in the gene encoding PB2, R157K in the gene encoding hemagglutinin (H3 numbering), I109T in the gene encoding nucleoprotein, and T10I in the gene encoding neuraminidase. These data emphasized that avian-origin influenza A(H7N9) can be transmitted between mammals, highlighting its potential for human-to-human transmissibility.
Related JoVE Video
Therapeutic role of EF24 targeting glucose transporter 1-mediated metabolism and metastasis in ovarian cancer cells.
Cancer Sci.
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Cancer cells require glucose to support their rapid growth through a process known as aerobic glycolysis, or the Warburg effect. As in ovarian cancer cells, increased metabolic activity and glucose concentration has been linked to aggressiveness of cancer. However, it is unclear as to whether targeting the glycolytic pathway may kill the malignant cells and likely have broad therapeutic implications against ovarian cancer metastasis. In the present research, we found that EF24, a HIF-1? inhibitor, could significantly block glucose uptake, the rate of glycolysis, and lactate production compared with vehicle treatment in SKOV-3, A2780 and OVCAR-3 cells. These results might possibly contribute to the further observation that EF24 could inhibit ovarian cancer cell migration and invasion from wound healing and Transwell assays. Furthermore, as an important mediator of glucose metabolism, glucose transporter 1 (Glut1) was found to contribute to the function of EF24 in both energy metabolism and metastasis. To examine the effect of EF24 and the mediated role of Glut1 in vivo in a xenograph subcutaneous tumor model, intraperitoneal metastasis and lung metastasis model were introduced. Our results indicated that EF24 treatment could inhibit tumor growth, intraperitoneal metastasis and lung metastasis of SKOV-3 cells, and Glut1 is a possible mediator for the role of EF24. In conclusion, our results highlight that an anti-cancer reagent with an inhibiting effect on energy metabolism could inhibit metastasis, and EF24 is a possible candidate for anti-metastasis therapeutic applications for ovarian cancer.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.