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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
CO2 and temperature dual responsive "Smart" MXene phases.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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A robust strategy is explored to graft poly(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate) (PDMAEMA) brushes on two-dimensional vanadium carbide (V2C) materials through self-initiated photografting and photopolymerization (SIPGP). CO2 and temperature dual-responsive properties of PDMAEMA allow this hybrid to be used as a smart system for tuning the transmittance and conductivity of V2C.
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Redistribution, Hyperproliferation, Activation of Natural Killer Cells and CD8 T Cells, and Cytokine Production During First-in-Human Clinical Trial of Recombinant Human Interleukin-15 in Patients With Cancer.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2014
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Interleukin-15 (IL-15) has significant potential in cancer immunotherapy as an activator of antitumor CD8 T and natural killer (NK) cells. The primary objectives of this trial were to determine safety, adverse event profile, dose-limiting toxicity, and maximum-tolerated dose of recombinant human IL-15 (rhIL-15) administered as a daily intravenous bolus infusion for 12 consecutive days in patients with metastatic malignancy.
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Abnormal Epithelial Structure and Chronic Lung Inflammation after Repair of Chlorine-Induced Airway Injury.
Am. J. Physiol. Lung Cell Mol. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 11-16-2014
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Chlorine is a toxic gas used in a variety of industrial processes and is considered a chemical threat agent. High level chlorine exposure causes acute lung injury, but the long term effects of acute chlorine exposure are unclear. Here we characterized chronic pulmonary changes following acute chlorine exposure in mice. A/J mice were exposed to 240 ppm-hr chlorine or sham-exposed to air. Chlorine inhalation caused sloughing of bronchial epithelium 1 day after chlorine exposure, which was repaired with restoration of a pseudostratified epithelium by day 7. The repaired epithelium contained an abnormal distribution of epithelial cells containing clusters of club or ciliated cells rather than the uniformly interspersed pattern of these cells in unexposed mice. Although the damaged epithelium in A/J mice was repaired rapidly, and minimal airway fibrosis was observed, chlorine-exposed mice developed pneumonitis characterized by infiltration of alveoli with neutrophils and prominent, large, foamy macrophages. Levels of CXCL1/KC, CXCL5/LIX, G-CSF and VEGF in BAL fluid from chlorine-exposed mice showed steadily increasing trends over time. BAL protein levels were increased on day 4 and remained elevated out to day 28. The number of bacteria cultured from lungs of chlorine-exposed mice 4 weeks after exposure was not increased compared with sham-exposed mice, indicating that the observed pneumonitis was not driven by bacterial infection of the lung. The results indicate that acute chlorine exposure may cause chronic abnormalities in the lungs despite rapid repair of injured epithelium.
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LASP1 is a HIF-1? target gene critical for metastasis of pancreatic cancer.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 11-12-2014
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LASP1 is an actin-binding protein associated with actin assembly dynamics in cancer cells. Here we report that LASP1 is overexpressed in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) where it promotes invasion and metastasis. We found that LASP1 overexpression in PDAC cells was mediated by HIF-1? through direct binding to a hypoxia response element in the LASP1 promoter. HIF-1? stimulated LASP1 expression in PDAC cells in vitro and mouse tumor xenografts in vivo. Clinically, LASP1 overexpression in PDAC patient specimens was associated significantly with lymph node metastasis and overall survival. Overall, our results defined LASP1 as a direct target gene for HIF-1? upregulation that is critical for metastatic progression of PDAC.
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Cerebral paragonimiasis: a retrospective analysis of 27 cases.
J Neurosurg Pediatr
PUBLISHED: 11-08-2014
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OBJECT The authors retrospectively analyzed the clinical characteristics, existing problems, and treatment experiences in recently diagnosed cerebral paragonimiasis (CP) cases and sought to raise awareness of CP and to supply reference data for early diagnosis and treatment. METHODS Twenty-seven patients (22 male and 5 female; median age 20.3 years, range 4-47 years) with CP were diagnosed between September 2008 and September 2013. These diagnoses were confirmed by IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Follow-up was performed in 24 cases for a period of 6-56 months. RESULTS Cerebral paragonimiasis accounted for 21.6% of paragonimiasis cases (27 of 125). The average duration from onset to praziquantel treatment was 69 days. All patients resided in rural areas. Twenty patients had positive lung results, which included visible lung lesions in 14 cases. The lesions were surgically removed in 8 of these cases. Twenty-four patients had high eosinophil counts (? 0.08 × 10(9)/L), and eosinophilic meningitis was noted in 17 cases. The rate of misdiagnosis and missed diagnosis was 30.4%. Most symptoms were markedly improved after treatment, but mild movement disorders combined with impaired memory and personality changes remained in a small number of patients. CONCLUSIONS Clinicians should be alert to the possibility of CP in young patients (4-16 years) with the primary symptoms of epilepsy and hemorrhage. Early diagnosis and timely treatment can reduce the need for surgery and further impairments to brain function. Liquid-based cytological examination of CSF and peripheral blood eosinophil counts can aid in differentiating CP from similar lesions.
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The Superoxide Dismutase from Red Claw Crayfish, Cherax quadricarinatus: Molecular Cloning and Characterization Analysis.
Zool. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2014
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In the present study, an extracellular copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (ecCuZnSOD) gene and a mitochondrial manganese superoxide dismutase (mtMnSOD) gene were cloned from hemocytes of red claw crayfish, Cherax quadricarinatus. The open reading frame (ORF) of ecCuZnSOD is 498 bp and encodes a 166 amino acids (aa) protein, whereas the ORF of mtMnSOD is 654 bp and encodes a 218 aa protein. The amino acid sequences of C. quadricarinatus ecCuZnSOD and mtMnSOD showed high similarities with those of ecCuZnSODs and mtMnSODs of other crustaceans, respectively. Both ecCuZnSOD and mtMnSOD of C. quadricarinatus were highly expressed in hepatopancreas, hemocytes, intestine, and gill; low transcript levels were seen in other tissues (heart, muscle, and nerve). The immune responses of ecCuZnSOD and mtMnSOD were studied following inoculation with Spiroplasma eriocheiris and Aeromonas hydrophila. After S. eriocheiris or A. hydrophila challenge, mRNA transcription of ecCuZnSOD and mtMnSOD in hemocytes and gill was upregulated. mRNA transcription of ecCuZnSOD in the hepatopancreas was also upregulated after S. eriocheiris or A. hydrophila inoculation. mtMnSOD in hepatopancreas was upregulated after A. hydrophila inoculation, whereas this was down-regulated after S. eriocheiris challenge. After S. eriocheiris and A. hydrophila challenge, total SOD activity and CuZnSOD activity both increased compared to control group. The results showed that these SODs from C. quadricarinatus likely play an important role in protecting some tissues from reactive oxygen intermediates produced during challenge from S. eriocheiris and A. hydrophila.
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Conserved and divergent patterns of DNA methylation in higher vertebrates.
Genome Biol Evol
PUBLISHED: 10-31-2014
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DNA methylation in the genome plays a fundamental role in the regulation of gene expression and is widespread in the genome of eukaryotic species. For example, in higher vertebrates, there is a "global" methylation pattern involving complete methylation of CpG sites genome-wide, except in promoter regions that are typically enriched for CpG dinucleotides, or so called "CpG islands." Here, we comprehensively examined and compared the distribution of CpG sites within ten model eukaryotic species and linked the observed patterns to the role of DNA methylation in controlling gene transcription. The analysis revealed two distinct but conserved methylation patterns for gene promoters in human and mouse genomes, involving genes with distinct distributions of promoter CpGs and gene expression patterns. Comparative analysis with four other higher vertebrates revealed that the primary regulatory role of the DNA methylation system is highly conserved in higher vertebrates.
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[Study on the induced differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells into cochlear hair cell-like cells and spiral ganglion neuron-like cells in vitro].
Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-30-2014
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In this study, we investigated the potential of mouse induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) for use as a source of transplants for the restoration of auditory hair cells and spiral ganglion neurons.
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Diabetic cardiomyopathy and its prevention by nrf2: current status.
Diabetes Metab J
PUBLISHED: 10-29-2014
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Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM), as one of the major cardiac complications in diabetic patients, is known to related with oxidative stress that is due to a severe imbalance between reactive oxygen species (ROS) and/or reactive nitrogen species (RNS) generation and their clearance by antioxidant defense systems. Transcription factor nuclear factor NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) plays an important role in maintaining the oxidative homeostasis by regulating multiple downstream antioxidants. Diabetes may up-regulate several antioxidants in the heart as a compensative mechanism at early stage, but at late stage, diabetes not only generates extra ROS and/or RNS but also impairs antioxidant capacity in the heart, including Nrf2. In an early study, we have established that Nrf2 protect the cardiac cells and heart from high level of glucose in vitro and hyperglycemia in vivo, and in the following study demonstrated the significant down-regulation of cardiac Nrf2 expression in diabetic animals and patients. Using Nrf2-KO mice or Nrf2 inducers, blooming evidence has indicated the important protection by Nrf2 from cardiac pathogenesis in the diabetes. Therefore, this brief review summarizes the status of studies on Nrf2's role in preventing DCM and even other complications, the need for new and safe Nrf2 inducer screening and the precaution for the undesirable side of Nrf2 under certain conditions.
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[Cloning of feruloyl esterase gene from Aspergillus niger h408 and high-efficient expression in Pichia pastoris].
Wei Sheng Wu Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2014
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To achieve the high-efficiency expression of feruloyl estrase gene (AnfaeA) from Aspergillus niger h408 in Pichia pastoris and characterize the recombinant feruloyl esterase (FAE).
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Developmental Origin of the Posterior Pigmented Epithelium of Iris.
Cell Biochem. Biophys.
PUBLISHED: 10-27-2014
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Iris epithelium is a double-layered pigmented cuboidal epithelium. According to the current model, the neural retina and the posterior iris pigment epithelium (IPE) are derived from the inner wall of the optic cup, while the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and the anterior IPE are derived from the outer wall of the optic cup during development. Our current study shows evidence, contradicting this model of fetal iris development. We demonstrate that human fetal iris expression patterns of Otx2 and Mitf transcription factors are similar, while the expressions of Otx2 and Sox2 are complementary. Furthermore, IPE and RPE exhibit identical morphologic development during the early embryonic period. Our results suggest that the outer layer of the optic cup forms two layers of the iris epithelium, and the posterior IPE is the inward-curling anterior rim of the outer layer of the optic cup. These findings provide a reasonable explanation of how IPE cells can be used as an appropriate substitute for RPE cells.
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Integrating GO and KEGG terms to characterize and predict acute myeloid leukemia-related genes.
Hematology
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2014
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Background/objective Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a progressive and malignant cancer of myelogenous blood cells, which disturbs the production of normal blood cells. Although several risk and genetic factors (AML-related genes) have been investigated, the concrete mechanism underlying the development of AML remains unclear. In view of this, it is crucial to develop an effective computational method for meaningfully characterizing AML genes and accurately predicting novel AML genes. Methods In this study, we integrated gene ontology (GO) and KEGG annotations as features to characterize AML genes. We also provided an optimal set of features for predicting AML-related genes by using the minimum redundancy maximum relevance (mRMR) algorithm and dagging metaclassifier. Results We obtained 26 optimal GO terms that characterized AML genes well. Finally, we predicted 464 novel genes to provide clinical researchers with additional candidates and useful insights for further analysis of AML. Discussion An in-depth feature analysis indicated that the results are quite consistent with previous knowledge. We developed a systematic method to identify the possible underlying mechanism of AML by analyzing the related genes. Our method has the ability to identify the types of features that are optimal to meaningfully interpret AML and accurately predict more AML genes for further clinical researches.
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[(99m)Tc]cFLFLF for Early Diagnosis and Therapeutic Evaluation in a Rat Model of Acute Osteomyelitis.
Mol Imaging Biol
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2014
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Early diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring of acute osteomyelitis (AO) is challenging. Here, we use a polyethylene glycol (PEG)ylated chemotactic peptide cinnamoyl-F-(D)L-F-(D)L-F (cFLFLF) conjugated with hydrazinonicotinamide (HYNIC) and labeled with Tc-99m ([(99m)Tc]cFLFLF) to image AO in a rat model and to validate its efficacy in early diagnosis and therapeutic evaluation of AO.
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[Scoring formula research and equivalence evaluation of mandarin quick speech-in-noise test materials in mainland China].
Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2014
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To discuss the scoring formula and evaluate the lists equivalence of Mandarin Quick Speech-in-Noise (M-Quick SIN) test materials in mainland China, and for standardizing our research.
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Characterization of the extracted complexes of trivalent lanthanides with purified cyanex 301 in comparison with trivalent actinide complexes.
Dalton Trans
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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The extracted complexes of trivalent lanthanides (Ln(III)) with purified Cyanex 301 (bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl)dithiophosphinic acid, denoted as HA) were investigated by extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS), UV-Vis and fluorescence spectroscopy. In the complexes prepared under the same conditions of solvent extraction, the light Ln(III) ions are mainly coordinated by the sulfur atoms of the ligands, and the middle Ln(III) ions are coordinated by mixed donors, the sulfur atoms of the ligands and the oxygen atoms of the extracted water, while the heavy Ln(III) ions are completely hydrated in the organic phase without any sulfur atoms of the ligands in the coordination shell. As the atomic number increases, the extracted water molecules gradually replace the sulfur atoms of the ligands in the first coordination shell of Ln(III), and simultaneously the ligand anions become counterions just for balancing the positive charge of the fully hydrated heavy Ln(III) ions. The effect of the change in the complex structures on the extraction of Ln(III) ions with HA was evaluated by the co-extraction of other thirteen individual Ln(III) together with Nd(III). In contrast to most ligands bonding more strongly to heavier Ln(III), HA preferentially extracts lighter Ln(III), suggesting that the unusual extraction capability of HA for Ln(III) might originate from the difference in the complex structures with Ln(III) ions.
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Heterogeneous interesterification of triacylglycerols catalyzed by using potassium-doped alumina as a solid catalyst.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 10-16-2014
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Heterogeneous interesterification of vegetable oils offers an environmentally more attractive option for the modification of edible oils to meet the specifications for certain food applications. In this work, potassium-doped alumina (KNO3/Al2O3) was prepared using an impregnation method, followed by calcinations at a temperature of 700 °C, and was then employed as heterogeneous catalysts for the interesterification of triacylglycerols. The solid catalyst was characterized by means of Hammett titration method, power X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and nitrogen adsorption-desorption techniques. It was determined that the catalyst with KNO3 loading of 35% on alumina support and calcined at 700 °C exhibited the best catalytic activities toward the interesterification between soybean oil and methyl stearate under solvent-free conditions. Also, the solid base catalyst was successfully applied to the interesterification of soybean oil and lard blends in a heterogeneous manner. The physicochemical properties of the interesterified products were investigated using gas chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography, and confocal laser scanning microscopy. It was found that the slip melting point and crystal morphology had a significant variation after the interesterification reaction as a result of the modification in the TAG profile. With the solid base catalyst, an environmentally friendly approach for the interesterification of triacylglycerols in a heterogeneous manner was developed.
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Targeting GPR30 with G-1: a new therapeutic target for castration-resistant prostate cancer.
Endocr. Relat. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 10-06-2014
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Castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) is an advanced-stage prostate cancer (PC) associated with high mortality. We reported that G-1, a selective agonist of G protein-coupled receptor 30 (GPR30), inhibited PC cell growth by inducing G2 cell cycle arrest and arrested PC-3 xenograft growth. However, the therapeutic actions of G-1 and their relationships with androgen in vivo are unclear. Using the LNCaP xenograft to model PC growth during the androgen-sensitive (AS) versus the castration-resistant (CR) phase, we found that G-1 inhibited growth of CR but not AS tumors with no observable toxicity to the host. Substantial necrosis (approximately 65%) accompanied by marked intratumoral infiltration of neutrophils was observed only in CR tumors. Global transcriptome profiling of human genes identified 99 differentially expressed genes with 'interplay between innate and adaptive immune responses' as the top pathway. Quantitative PCR confirmed upregulation of neutrophil-related chemokines and inflammation-mediated cytokines only in the G-1-treated CR tumors. Expression of murine neutrophil-related cytokines also was elevated in these tumors. GPR30 (GPER1) expression was significantly higher in CR tumors than in AS tumors. In cell-based experiments, androgen repressed GPR30 expression, a response reversible by anti-androgen or siRNA-induced androgen receptor silencing. Finally, in clinical specimens, 80% of CRPC metastases (n=123) expressed a high level of GPR30, whereas only 54% of the primary PCs (n=232) showed high GPR30 expression. Together, these results provide the first evidence, to our knowledge, that GPR30 is an androgen-repressed target and G-1 mediates the anti-tumor effect via neutrophil-infiltration-associated necrosis in CRPC. Additional studies are warranted to firmly establish GPR30 as a therapeutic target in CRPC.
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[Analysis of variation of coumarin and volatile compounds in Angelica Dahuricae radix in different drying methods and conditions].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2014
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To explore the effect of different processing methods and conditions of coumarin and volatile compounds in Angelica Dahuricae Radix and their change regularity, in order to optimize and establish appropriate drying methods and conditions. After being cleaned, fresh Angelica Dahuricae Radix herbs were baked, sun-dried, shade-dried, sun-dried after sulfur-fumigation, dried by quick-lime embedding, freeze-dried, microwave-dried. Finally, 24 groups of samples were obtained after being mashed and passing through the 60-mesh screen. The HPLC-PDA method was adopted to simultaneously determine the content of coumarin compounds. The GC-MS method was used to determine the content of volatile compounds. The principal component analysis (PCA) was made on the standardized analysis results for the 24 groups of samples processed with different drying methods. According to the PCA results, the comprehensive scores of coumarin and volatile compounds in Angelica Dahuricae Radix herbs processed with different methods in the order from high to low were that unpeeled and dried by quicklime embedding > unpeeled and dried with hot-air at 100 degrees C > unpeeled and dried with hot-air at 40 degrees C > peeled and infrared-dried > peeled and dried with hot-air at 60 degrees C > peeled and dried with hot-air at 40 degrees C > peeled and sun-dried > peeled and dried with hot-air at 60 degrees C > peeled and dried with hot-air at 100 degrees C > peeled and microwave-dried > peeled and dried with hot-air at 80 degrees C > unpeeled and sun-dried > unpeeled and dried with sulfur-fumigation > peeled and dried with sulfur-fumigation > unpeeled and dried with hot-air at 120 degrees C > unpeeled and freeze-dried > unpeeled and infrared-dried > peeled and dried with hot-air at 120 degrees C > peeled and freeze-dried > peeled and dried by quicklime embedding > unpeeled and dried with hot-air at 80 degrees C > peeled and shade-dried > unpeeled and shade-dried > unpeeled and microwave-dried. According to the findings, different drying processing methods have certain impacts on the content coumarin and volatile compounds in Angelica Dahuricae Radix herbs. The traditional method of drying by quicklime embedding is recommended as the optimum origin processing method of Angelica Dahuricae Radix, which is followed by the method for being peeled and dried with hot-air at 100 degrees C.
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Spinster homolog 2 (spns2) deficiency causes early onset progressive hearing loss.
PLoS Genet.
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2014
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Spinster homolog 2 (Spns2) acts as a Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) transporter in zebrafish and mice, regulating heart development and lymphocyte trafficking respectively. S1P is a biologically active lysophospholipid with multiple roles in signalling. The mechanism of action of Spns2 is still elusive in mammals. Here, we report that Spns2-deficient mice rapidly lost auditory sensitivity and endocochlear potential (EP) from 2 to 3 weeks old. We found progressive degeneration of sensory hair cells in the organ of Corti, but the earliest defect was a decline in the EP, suggesting that dysfunction of the lateral wall was the primary lesion. In the lateral wall of adult mutants, we observed structural changes of marginal cell boundaries and of strial capillaries, and reduced expression of several key proteins involved in the generation of the EP (Kcnj10, Kcnq1, Gjb2 and Gjb6), but these changes were likely to be secondary. Permeability of the boundaries of the stria vascularis and of the strial capillaries appeared normal. We also found focal retinal degeneration and anomalies of retinal capillaries together with anterior eye defects in Spns2 mutant mice. Targeted inactivation of Spns2 in red blood cells, platelets, or lymphatic or vascular endothelial cells did not affect hearing, but targeted ablation of Spns2 in the cochlea using a Sox10-Cre allele produced a similar auditory phenotype to the original mutation, suggesting that local Spns2 expression is critical for hearing in mammals. These findings indicate that Spns2 is required for normal maintenance of the EP and hence for normal auditory function, and support a role for S1P signalling in hearing.
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Identification of Serine 348 on the Apelin Receptor as a Novel Regulatory Phosphorylation Site in Apelin-13-induced G Protein-independent Biased Signaling.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2014
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Phosphorylation plays vital roles in the regulation of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) functions. The apelin and apelin receptor (APJ) system is involved in the regulation of cardiovascular function and central control of body homeostasis. Here, using tandem mass spectrometry, we first identified phosphorylated serine residues in the C terminus of APJ. To determine the role of phosphorylation sites in APJ-mediated G protein-dependent and -independent signaling and function, we induced a mutation in the C-terminal serine residues and examined their effects on the interaction between APJ with G protein or GRK/?-arrestin and their downstream signaling. Mutation of serine 348 led to an elimination of both GRK and ?-arrestin recruitment to APJ induced by apelin-13. Moreover, APJ internalization and G protein-independent ERK signaling were also abolished by point mutation at serine 348. In contrast, this mutant at serine residues had no demonstrable impact on apelin-13-induced G protein activation and its intracellular signaling. These findings suggest that mutation of serine 348 resulted in inactive GRK/?-arrestin. However, there was no change in the active G protein thus, APJ conformation was biased. These results provide important information on the molecular interplay and impact of the APJ function, which may be extrapolated to design novel drugs for cardiac hypertrophy based on this biased signal pathway.
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Hemorrhagic stroke and cerebral paragonimiasis.
Stroke
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2014
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We retrospectively analyzed the clinical and imaging characteristics, diagnosis, and treatment outcomes of 10 patients with hemorrhagic cerebral paragonimiasis (CP), and we evaluated the influence of Paragonimus infection on cerebrovascular damage.
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Anti-inflammatory, Antinociceptive Activity of an Essential Oil Recipe Consisting of the Supercritical Fluid CO2 Extract of White Pepper, Long Pepper, Cinnamon, Saffron and Myrrh in vivo.
J Oleo Sci
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2014
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This study was designed to investigate the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of essential oil recipe (OR) in rodents. The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by inflammatory models of dimethylbenzene (DMB)-induced ear vasodilatation and acetic acid-induced capillary permeability enhancement in mice whereas the antinociceptive activity was evaluated using acetic acid-induced writhes and hot plate test methods in mice. Additionally, the chemical composition of OR has been also analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC/MS). 37 compounds, representing 74.42% of the total oil content, were identified. ?-Selinene (7.38%), aromadendrene (5.30%), ?-elemene (5.22%), cis-piperitol (5.21%), cis-?-guaiene (4.67%), ylangene (3.70%), 3-heptadecene (3.55%), ?-cadinene (3%) and ?-cadinene (2.87%) were found to be the major constituents of the oil. Oral pretreatment with OR (62.5-1000 mg/kg) not only decreased the DMB-induced ear vasodilatation but also attenuated capillary permeability under acetic acid challenge in mice. OR significantly reduced the writhing number evoked by acetic acid injection. All test samples showed no significant analgesic activity on the hot plate pain threshold in mice. These data demonstrated that the OR inhibits inflammatory and peripheral inflammatory pain. These results may support the fact that the essential oil of traditional Hui prescription played a role in the inflammation of stroke.
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Candidate Pathway-Based GWAS Identifies Novel Associations of Genomic Variants in the Complement System Associated with Coronary Artery Disease.
Circ Cardiovasc Genet
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2014
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-Genomic variants identified by genome-wide association studies (GWAS) explain <20% of heritability of coronary artery disease (CAD), thus many risk variants remain missing for CAD. Identification of new variants may unravel new biological pathways and genetic mechanisms for CAD. To identify new variants associated with CAD, we developed a candidate pathway-based GWAS by integrating expression quantitative loci (eQTL) analysis and mining of GWAS data with variants in a candidate pathway.
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[Idenfication of microRNAs profiles in nasopharyngeal carcinoma].
Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2014
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To filtrate and prove the different microRNAs (miRs) profiles in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
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Gastrointestinal intervention ameliorates high blood pressure through antagonizing overdrive of the sympathetic nerve in hypertensive patients and rats.
J Am Heart Assoc
PUBLISHED: 09-21-2014
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We investigated the hypothesis that the favorable effects of gastrointestinal (GI) intervention on hypertension (HTN) and cardiovascular (CV) disturbances are mediated by antagonizing overdrive of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS).
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[Prognostic significance of serum procalcitonin in patients with burn sepsis].
Zhonghua Shao Shang Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
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To evaluate the clinical implication of serum procalcitonin (PCT) in patients with burn sepsis by analyzing its change.
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Janus polymer/carbon nanotube hybrid membranes for oil/water separation.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
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A robust and simple method is provided to fabricate Janus polymer/carbon nanotube (CNT) hybrid membranes for oil/water separation. Starting from CNT membranes formed by dispensing, hydrophobic poly(styrene) (PS) and hydrophilic poly(N,N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate) (PDMAEMA) were grated from different sides of the photoactive CNT membranes via self-initiated photografting and photopolymerization (SIPGP) to achieve Janus polymer/CNTs hybrid membranes. The obtained membranes have excellent oil/water selectivity in the removal of oil from water. Moreover, they can effectively separate both surfactant-stabilized oil-in-water and water-in-oil emulsions because of the anisotropic wettability of the membranes.
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Dynamics of apelin receptor/G protein coupling in living cells.
Exp. Cell Res.
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2014
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During our research on apelin receptor (APJ) signalling in living cells with BRET and FRET, we demonstrated that apelin-13 stimulation can lead to the activation of G?i2 or G?i3 through undergoing a molecular rearrangement rather than dissociation in HEK293 cells expressing APJ. Furthermore, G?o and G?q also showed involvement in APJ activation through a classical dissociation model. However, both FRET signal and BRET ratio between fluorescent G?i1 subunit and G?? subunits demonstrated little change after apelin-13 stimulation. These results demonstrated that stimulation of APJ with apelin-13 causes activation of G?i2, G?i3, G?o, G?q; among which G?i2, G?i3 were activated through a novel rearrangement process. These results provide helpful data for understanding APJ mediated G-protein signalling.
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The dominant {001} facet-dependent enhanced visible-light photoactivity of ultrathin BiOBr nanosheets.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2014
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The ability to suppress the recombination of the photoinduced charges is the key prerequisite for an excellent photocatalyst, which has attracted extensive and continuous interest in the field of photocatalysis. Herein, we presented a convenient strategy for the one-step selective synthesis of ultrathin BiOBr nanosheets with atomic thickness through a simple solvothermal method. These ultrathin BiOBr nanosheets not only show high exposure percentage of active (001) facets but also have an optimized band structure, which synergistically facilitates the electron-hole pair separation to realize significantly promoted visible-light photocatalytic activity. Our results provide a new avenue and direction for the design of photocatalysts with high visible-light photocatalytic performance.
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Heterodimerization of apelin receptor and neurotensin receptor 1 induces phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and cell proliferation via G?q-mediated mechanism.
J. Cell. Mol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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Dimerization of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) is crucial for receptor function including agonist affinity, efficacy, trafficking and specificity of signal transduction, including G protein coupling. Emerging data suggest that the cardiovascular system is the main target of apelin, which exerts an overall neuroprotective role, and is a positive regulator of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) in heart failure. Moreover, ACE2 cleaves off C-terminal residues of vasoactive peptides including apelin-13, and neurotensin that activate the apelin receptor (APJ) and neurotensin receptor 1 (NTSR1) respectively, that belong to the A class of GPCRs. Therefore, based on the similar mode of modification by ACE2 at peptide level, the homology at amino acid level and the capability of forming dimers with other GPCRs, we have been suggested that APJ and NTSR1 can form a functional heterodimer. Using co-immunoprecipitation, BRET and FRET, we provided conclusive evidence of heterodimerization between APJ and NTSR1 in a constitutive and induced form. Upon agonist stimulation, hetrodimerization enhanced ERK1/2 activation and increased proliferation via activation of Gq ?-subunits. These novel data provide evidence for a physiological role of APJ/NTSR1 heterodimers in terms of ERK1/2 activation and increased intracellular calcium and induced cell proliferation and provide potential new pharmaceutical targets for cardiovascular disease.
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Prognostic value of epidermal growth factor receptor mutations in resected non-small cell lung cancer: a systematic review with meta-analysis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
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The prognostic value of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations in resected non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remains controversial. We performed a systematic review with meta-analysis to assess its role.
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[Refractory cytopenia of children and acquired aplastic anemia: a clinical and pathological study of 130 cases].
Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2014
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To explore the clinical characteristics and histopathological morphology features of bone marrow biopsies between refractory cytopenia of children (RCC) and acquired aplastic anemia (AAA) to facilitate the diagnosis, differential diagnosis and treatment of RCC and AAA.
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Arctigenin enhances swimming endurance of sedentary rats partially by regulation of antioxidant pathways.
Acta Pharmacol. Sin.
PUBLISHED: 08-25-2014
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Arctigenin, a phenylpropanoid dibenzylbutyrolactone lignan found in traditional Chinese herbs, has been determined to exhibit a variety of pharmacological activities, including anti-tumor, anti-inflammation, neuroprotection, and endurance enhancement. In the present study, we investigated the antioxidation and anti-fatigue effects of arctigenin in rats.
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Association of initial twice-weekly hemodialysis treatment with preservation of residual kidney function in ESRD patients.
Am. J. Nephrol.
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2014
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Residual kidney function (RKF) has consistently been a predictor of greater survival in maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients. The relationship between hemodialysis (HD) treatment frequency and RKF preservation has not been well examined. We hypothesized that initial twice-weekly HD helps in maintaining a longer RKF.
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[Long-term follow-ups of comprehensive therapies for stage 4 neuroblastoma].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2014
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To evaluate the long-term outcomes of childhood stage 4 neuroblastoma (NB) and its correlative prognostic factors.
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Functional characterization of a new non-Kunitz serine protease inhibitor from the scorpion Lychas mucronatus.
Int. J. Biol. Macromol.
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
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Serine protease inhibitors have been widely discovered from different animal venoms, but most of them belong to Kunitz-type toxin subfamily. Here, by screening scorpion venom gland cDNA libraries, we identified four new non-Kunitz serine protease inhibitors with a conserved Ascaris-type structural fold: Ascaris-type toxins Lychas mucronatus Ascaris-type protease inhibitor (LmAPI), Pandinus cavimanus Ascaris-type protease inhibitor (PcAPI), Pandinus cavimanus Ascaris-type protease inhibitor 2 (PcAPI-2), and Hottentotta judaicus Ascaris-type protease inhibitor (HjAPI). The detailed characterization of one Ascaris-type toxin LmAPI was further carried out, which contains 60 residues and possesses a classical Ascaris-type cysteine framework reticulated by five disulfide bridges. Enzyme and inhibitor reaction kinetics experiments showed that recombinant LmAPI inhibits the activity of chymotrypsin potently with a Ki value of 15.5nM, but has little effect on trypsin and elastase. Bioinformatics analyses suggested that LmAPI contains unique functional residues "TQD" and might be a useful template to produce specific protease inhibitors. Our results indicated that animal venoms are a natural source of new type of protease inhibitors, which will accelerate the development of diagnostic and therapeutic agents for human diseases that target diverse proteases.
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Anti-Ice Coating Inspired by Ice Skating.
Small
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
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Accumulation of ice to surfaces brings dangerous and costly problems to our daily life. In this paper, an anti-ice coating inspired by ice skating is reported. Hyaluronic acid is used in the anti-ice coating to form aqueous lubricating layer benefitting from its high water absorbing property. Dopamine, the main component of the mussel adhesive protein, is introduced to anchor the hyaluronic acid to the solid surfaces to render the coating applicable to all types of solid surfaces. At the same time it serves as the crosslinking agent for hyaluronic acid, thus the thickness of the water collecting film could be easily varied. Ice adhesion strength on surfaces coated with such kind of coating could be more than one order of magnitude lower than that of uncoated ones. The results indicate that this anti-ice coating with the aqueous lubricating layer has great potential for fighting against icing problems.
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Increased oligodendrogenesis by humanin promotes axonal remyelination and neurological recovery in hypoxic/ischemic brains.
Hippocampus
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2014
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Oligodendrocytes are the predominant cell type in white matter and are highly vulnerable to ischemic injury. The role of oligodendrocyte dysfunction in ischemic brain injury is unknown. In this study, we used a 24-amino acid peptide S14G-Humanin (HNG) to examine oligodendrogenesis and neurological functional recovery in a hypoxic/ischemic (H/I) neonatal model. Intraperitoneal HNG pre-treatment decreased infarct volume following H/I injury. Delayed HNG treatment 24 h after H/I injury did not reduce infarct volume but did decrease neurological deficits and brain atrophy. Delayed HNG treatment did not attenuate axonal demyelination at 48 h after H/I injury. However, at 14 d after H/I injury, delayed HNG treatment increased axonal remyelination, the thickness of corpus callosum at the midline, the number of Olig2(+) /BrdU(+) cells, and levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Our results suggest that targeting oligodendrogenesis via delayed HNG treatment may represent a promising approach for the treatment of stroke. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Amphiregulin promotes the immunosuppressive activity of intrahepatic CD4(+) regulatory T cells to impair CD8(+) T cell immunity against hepatitis B virus infection.
Immunology
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2014
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Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection causes liver diseases and hepatocellular carcinoma. Immunotolerance in HBV-infected patients is one of the factors that incur failure of HBV clearance and persistent HBV amplification. However, the mechanisms underlying immunotolerance after HBV infection are yet to be thoroughly understood. Here using a novel HBV mouse model, we found for the first time that epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is up-regulated on intrahepatic regulatory T cells (Treg cells) in HBV-infected mouse livers. The EGFR-positive Treg cells are more immunosuppressive than EGFR-negative Treg cells, demonstrated by higher expression of immunosuppressive cytokines and robust inhibition of CD8(+) T cell proliferation in vitro. Furthermore, EGFR-positive Treg cells potently restrain CD8(+) T cell-mediated anti-viral activity, leading to higher HBV burden in hepatocytes. Amphiregulin, a cytokine of EGF family, is significantly up-regulated in HBV-infected livers, while the cellular sources of Amphiregulin are still elusive. Amphiregulin promotes the immunosuppressive activity of EGFR-positive Treg cells in vitro, so as to profoundly inhibit production of anti-viral components in CD8(+) T cells. Taken together, our discovery elucidated a novel mechanism contributing to immunotolerance and viral amplification after HBV infection. Our study may provide new clues for developing therapeutic strategies against HBV infection. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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Design of guanidinium ionic liquid based microwave-assisted extraction for the efficient extraction of Praeruptorin A from Radix peucedani.
J Sep Sci
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2014
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A series of novel tetramethylguanidinium ionic liquids and hexaalkylguanidinium ionic liquids have been synthesized based on 1,1,3,3-tetramethylguanidine. The structures of the ionic liquids were confirmed by (1) H NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. A green guanidinium ionic liquid based microwave-assisted extraction method has been developed with these guanidinium ionic liquids for the effective extraction of Praeruptorin A from Radix peucedani. After extraction, reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection was employed for the analysis of Praeruptorin A. Several significant operating parameters were systematically optimized by single-factor and L9 (3(4) ) orthogonal array experiments. The amount of Praeruptorin A extracted by [1,1,3,3-tetramethylguanidine]CH2 CH(OH)COOH is the highest, reaching 11.05 ± 0.13 mg/g. Guanidinium ionic liquid based microwave-assisted extraction presents unique advantages in Praeruptorin A extraction compared with guanidinium ionic liquid based maceration extraction, guanidinium ionic liquid based heat reflux extraction and guanidinium ionic liquid based ultrasound-assisted extraction. The precision, stability, and repeatability of the process were investigated. The mechanisms of guanidinium ionic liquid based microwave-assisted extraction were researched by scanning electron microscopy and IR spectroscopy. All the results show that guanidinium ionic liquid based microwave-assisted extraction has a huge potential in the extraction of bioactive compounds from complex samples.
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Sunitinib combined with transarterial chemoembolization versus transarterial chemoembolization alone for advanced-stage hepatocellular carcinoma: a propensity score matching study.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2014
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Sunitinib is a multitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor with antitumor and antiangiogenic activity. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of sunitinib combined with transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) versus TACE alone for treating patients with advanced-stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Of 103 patients with advanced-stage HCC, 38 (36.9 %) received TACE combined with sunitinib therapy (combined group) and the remaining 65 patients (63.1 %) received TACE alone (monotherapy group). The primary endpoint was overall survival (OS) and the secondary endpoints were time to progression (TTP) and treatment-related adverse events. Propensity score-based methods were used to minimize bias. The response rate was 15.8 % (6 of 38 patients) in the combined group and 10.8 % (7 of 65 patients) in the monotherapy group (P?=?0.031). The median OS and TTP in the combined group were longer than those in the monotherapy group (OS, 8.8 vs 6.3 months; P?=?0.029 and TTP, 3.9 vs 2.5 months; P?=?0.002). In the propensity score-matched cohort (38 pairs), the median OS in the combined group was significantly longer than that in the monotherapy group (8.8 vs 6.5 months, respectively; P?=?0.044), and the median TTP was also longer in the combined group (3.9 vs 2.6 months, respectively; P?=?0.003). Significant prognostic factors for OS by multivariate analysis included the use of sunitinib, Child-Pugh scores, vascular invasion, distant organ metastasis, and serum AFP level. This study suggests that sunitinib plus TACE are superior to TACE alone with respect to OS and TTP in patients with advanced-stage HCC.
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Blocking and reversing hepatic fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B treated by traditional Chinese medicine (tablets of biejia ruangan or RGT): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.
Trials
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2014
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Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) can progress to cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and ultimately liver-related death. Although oral antiviral therapy for patients with CHB reduces the risk of such complications, once cirrhosis is established, the benefits of antiviral therapy are not robustly demonstrated. According to traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), some Chinese herbal medicines promote blood circulation and soften hard masses, and therefore they may block and reverse hepatic fibrosis. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of TCM tablets of the compound biejia ruangan (RGT) administered for fibrosis, and entecavir (ETV), on the development of HCC in patients with CHB or hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related compensated cirrhosis.
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CEBPE polymorphism confers an increased risk of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a meta-analysis of 11 case-control studies with 5,639 cases and 10,036 controls.
Ann. Hematol.
PUBLISHED: 07-28-2014
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The association between CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-? (CEBPE) rs2239633 polymorphism and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) risk has been reported, but results of previous studies remain controversial and ambiguous. To assess the association between CEBPE rs2239633 polymorphism and childhood ALL risk, a meta-analysis was performed. Based on comprehensive searches of the PubMed, Embase, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CBM), we identified outcome data from all articles estimating the association between CEBPE rs2239633 polymorphism and childhood ALL risk. The pooled odds ratio (OR) with 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. A significant association between CEBPE rs2239633 polymorphism with childhood ALL was found (OR?=?1.19, 95 % CI 1.11-1.28, P?
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Invasive fungal infection in patients receiving chemotherapy for hematological malignancy: a multicenter, prospective, observational study in China.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2014
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This stud y examined the epidemiology, risk factors, management, and outcome of invasive fungal infection (IFI) in patients receiving chemotherapy for hematological malignancy in China. IFI risk factors were analyzed using univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression. In total, 4,192 patients receiving 4,889 chemotherapy courses were enrolled [mean age 40.7 years, 58.4 % male, 16.9 % children (<18 years)]. The most common hematological diseases were acute myeloid leukemia (AML, 28.5 %), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL, 26.3 %), and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL, 20.2 %). Severe neutropenia (absolute neutrophil count [ANC] <500/mm(3)) occurred after one third (1,633/4,889, 33.4 %) of chemotherapy courses. Incidence of proven/probable IFI was 2.1 % per chemotherapy course and higher in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS, 4.94 %), acute hyperleukocytic leukemia (AHL, 4.76 %), AML (3.83 %), or induction chemotherapy. Risk factors included ANC <500/mm(3) [odds ratio (OR) 3.60], AML or MDS (OR 1.97), induction chemotherapy (OR 2.58), previous IFI (OR 3.08), and being male (OR 1.74). Antifungal agents, prescribed in one quarter (1,211/4,889, 24.8 %) of chemotherapy courses, included primary/secondary prophylaxis (n?=?827, 16.9 %) and/or treatment (n?=?655, 13.4 %; 86.9 % triazoles), which was empirical (84.3 %), pre-emptive (8.6 %), or targeted (7.1 %). Overall mortality following each chemotherapy course (1.5 %) increased in proven/probable (11.7 %) and possible IFI (8.2 %). In summary, IFI was more common in MDS, AHL, AML, or induction chemotherapy, and substantially increased mortality. Neutropenic patients receiving induction chemotherapy for AML or MDS and those with previous IFI were at particular risk. Antifungal prophylaxis showed an independent protective effect but was not commonly used, even in high-risk patients. By contrast, empiric antifungals were widely used.
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Histone demethylase KDM2A promotes tumor cell growth and migration in gastric cancer.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2014
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Histone demethylase KDM2A has been reported to be dysregulated in lung cancer. However, its function in gastric cancer remains poorly understood. Here, it was found that the expression level of KDM2A was increased in gastric cancer tissues. Moreover, forced expression of KDM2A in gastric cancer cells promoted cell growth and migration, while the knockdown expression of KDM2A inhibited the tumorigenicity of gastric cancer cells. Mechanistically, KDM2A regulated the growth and motility of gastric cancer cells through downregulating the expression of programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4), a known tumor suppressor in the progression of gastric cancer. Taken together, our study suggested that upregulation of KDM2A was very important in the progression of gastric cancer, and KDM2A might be a promising therapeutic target.
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Persistence of Anti-Desmoglein 3 IgG(+) B-Cell Clones in Pemphigus Patients over Years.
J. Invest. Dermatol.
PUBLISHED: 07-14-2014
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Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is a prototypic tissue-specific autoantibody-mediated disease, in which anti-desmoglein 3 (Dsg3) IgG autoantibodies cause life-threatening blistering. We characterized the autoimmune B-cell response over 14 patient years in two patients with active and relapsing disease, then in one of these patients after long-term remission induced by multiple courses of rituximab (anti-CD20 antibody). Characterization of the anti-Dsg3 IgG(+) repertoire by antibody phage display (APD) and PCR indicated that six clonal lines persisted in patient 1 (PV3) over 5.5 years, with only one new clone detected. Six clonal lines persisted in patient 2 (PV1) for 4 years, of which five persisted for another 4.5 years without any new clones detected. However, after long-term clinical and serologic remission, ?11 years after initial characterization, we could no longer detect any anti-Dsg3 clones in PV1 by APD. Similarly, in another PV patient, ?4.5 years after a course of rituximab that induced long-term remission, anti-Dsg3 B-cell clones were undetectable. These data suggest that in PV a given set of non-tolerant B-cell lineages causes autoimmune diseases and that new sets do not frequently or continually escape tolerance. Therapy such as rituximab, aimed at eliminating these aberrant sets of lineages, may be effective for disease because new ones are unlikely to develop.Journal of Investigative Dermatology advance online publication, 21 August 2014; doi:10.1038/jid.2014.291.
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Neuroprotective effects of apelin-13 on experimental ischemic stroke through suppression of inflammation.
Peptides
PUBLISHED: 07-13-2014
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Acute inflammation plays an important role in the pathogenic progression of post-ischemic neuronal damage. Apelin-13 has been investigated as a neuropeptide for various neurological disorders. The present study was performed to evaluate the effects of apelin-13 on the inflammation of cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Transient focal I/R model in male Wistar rats were induced by 2h middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) followed by 24h reperfusion. Rats then received treatment with apelin-13 or vehicle after ischemia at the onset of reperfusion. The neurological deficit was evaluated and the infarct volume was measured by TTC staining. The activity of myeloperoxidase (MPO) was measured. The expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), interleukin-1? (IL-1?), and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) were measured using real-time PCR. And the expression of apelin receptor (APJ), ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule-1 (Iba1), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) were measured by immunohistochemistry and western blot. Our results demonstrated that treatment with apelin-13 in I/R rats markedly reduced neurological deficits and the infarct volume. The increase of MPO activity induced by I/R was inhibited by apelin-13 treatment. The real-time PCR showed that apelin-13 decreased the expression of inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1?, TNF-? and ICAM-1 in I/R rats. The expression of APJ in I/R rats was increased. And the expression of Iba1, GFAP and HMGB1 in I/R rats was decreased by apelin-13 treatment indicating the inhibition of microglia, astrocytes and other inflammatory cells. In conclusion, apelin-13 is neuroprotective for neurons against I/R through inhibiting the neuroinflammation.
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Sulforaphane prevents the development of cardiomyopathy in type 2 diabetic mice probably by reversing oxidative stress-induced inhibition of LKB1/AMPK pathway.
J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2014
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Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM)-induced cardiomyopathy is associated with cardiac oxidative stress, inflammation, and remodeling. Sulforaphane (SFN), an isothiocyanate naturally presenting in widely consumed vegetables, particularly broccoli, plays an important role in cardiac protection from diabetes. We investigated the effect of SFN on T2DM-induced cardiac lipid accumulation and subsequent cardiomyopathy. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a high-fat diet for 3months to induce insulin resistance, followed by a treatment with 100mg/kg body-weight streptozotocin to induce hyperglycemia; we referred to it as the T2DM mouse model. Other age-matched mice were fed a normal diet as control. T2DM and control mice were treated with or without 4-month SFN at 0.5mg/kg daily five days a week. At the study's end, cardiac function was assessed. SFN treatment significantly attenuated cardiac remodeling and dysfunction induced by T2DM. SFN treatment also significantly inhibited cardiac lipid accumulation, measured by Oil Red O staining, and improved cardiac inflammation oxidative stress and fibrosis, shown by down-regulating diabetes-induced PAI-1, TNF-?, CTGF, TGF-?, 3-NT, and 4-HNE expression. Elevated 4-HNE resulted in the increase of 4-HNE-LKB1 adducts that should inhibit LKB1 and subsequent AMPK activity. SFN upregulated the expression of Nrf2 and its downstream genes, NQO1 and HO-1, decreased 4-HNE-LKB1 adducts and then reversed diabetes-induced inhibition of LKB1/AMPK and its downstream targets, including sirtuin 1, PGC-1?, phosphorylated acetyl-CoA carboxylase, carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1, ULK1, and light chain-3 II. These results suggest that SFN treatment to T2DM mice may attenuate the cardiac oxidative stress-induced inhibition of LKB1/AMPK signaling pathway, thereby preventing T2DM-induced lipotoxicity and cardiomyopathy.
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Continuous Femoral Nerve Block versus Intravenous Patient Controlled Analgesia for Knee Mobility and Long-Term Pain in Patients Receiving Total Knee Replacement: A Randomized Controlled Trial.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 07-04-2014
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Objectives. To evaluate the comparative analgesia effectiveness and safety of postoperative continuous femoral nerve block (CFNB) with patient controlled intravenous analgesia (PCIA) and their impact on knee function and chronic postoperative pain. Methods. Participants were randomly allocated to receive postoperative continuous femoral nerve block (group CFNB) or intravenous patient controlled analgesia (group PCIA). Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) scores for knee and incidence of chronic postoperative pain at 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively were compared. postoperative pain and salvage medication at rest or during mobilization 24 hours, 48 hours, and 7 days postoperatively were also recorded. Results. After discharge from the hospital and rehabilitation of joint function, patients in group CFNB reported significantly improved knee flexion and less incidence of chronic postoperative pain at 3 months and 6 months postoperatively (P < 0.05). Analgesic rescue medications were significantly reduced in patients receiving CFNB (P < 0.001 and P = 0.031, resp.). Conclusion. With standardized rehabilitation therapy, continuous femoral nerve block analgesia reduced the incidence of chronic postoperative pain, improved motility of replaced joints, and reduced the dosages of rescue analgesic medications, suggesting a recovery-enhancing effect of peripheral nerve block analgesia.
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A novel sensitive electrochemical sensor based on in-situ polymerized molecularly imprinted membranes at graphene modified electrode for artemisinin determination.
Biosens Bioelectron
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2014
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To develop a rapid and simple method for sensitive determination of artemisinin (ART) in complicated matrices, a novel electrochemical sensor was constructed by in-situ polymerization of ART-imprinted membranes (ART-MIMs) on the surface of graphene (G) modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) using acrylamide (AM) as functional monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as cross-linking agent after the experimental parameters for the preparation of ART-MIMs such as functional monomer, molar ratio of template, monomer and cross-linking agent together with extraction condition were optimized. Under the optimal conditions, the sensor named as ART-MIM/G/GCE exhibited a good selectivity, high sensitivity and considerably better resistance against some analogs of artemisinin such as dihydroartemisinin (DHA), artemether (ARM) and artesunate (ARTS). The calibration graph for the determination of artemisinin by the sensor was linear in the range of 1.0×10(-8)molL(-1) to 4.0×10(-5)molL(-1) with the detection limit of 2.0×10(-9)molL(-1). Meanwhile, this sensor possessed of good regeneration, stability and practicability. It could retain more than 94% of its original response after used at least 80 times or stored in water at room temperature for 60 days. The obtained sensor was successfully applied to determine the contents of artemisinin in the extract of Artemisia annua L. with the relative standard deviation (RSD) of less than 3.5% (n=5).
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Association of the paired box 2 gene polymorphism with the susceptibility and pathogenesis of Henoch?Schönlein purpura in children.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
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The present study aimed to investigate the distribution of paired box 2 (PAX2) gene polymorphisms in healthy populations and in patients with Henoch?Schönlein purpura (HSP), focusing on the association between PAX2 gene polymorphisms and the susceptibility and clinical characteristics of HSP. Genomic DNA was extracted from the peripheral venous blood of 100 healthy children (mean age: 5±1.9 years) and 118 children with HSP (mean age: 10.2±2.3 years). Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to amplify exons 1?12 of the PAX2 gene. Denaturing high performance liquid chromatography and DNA sequencing analysis were conducted for screening of mutations in the PAX2 gene in the PCR products. No genetic polymorphism of the PAX2 gene was identified in exons 1?7, 9, 10 or 12. Two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), which presented as complete linkage haplotype 798C>T/909A>C, were identified in exon 8. An SNP (1164T>A) was also identified in exon 11. No significant difference in the allele and genotype frequency distribution of exon 8 (798C>T) or 11 (1164T>A) of the PAX2 gene was identified between the HSP and control groups (P>0.05). However, the frequency of the PAX2 heterozygous genotype 798C>T in the HSP with nephritis (HSPN) group was significantly higher than those in the controls and in the HSP without nephritis group (P<0.05). Furthermore, no significant correlation was identified between the PAX2 gene exon 8 polymorphism (798 C>T) and the renal pathology of children with HSPN. An SNP (1164T>A) was identified in exon 11. The PAX2 heterozygous genotype 798C>T did not increase susceptibility to HSP, however, it may be used clinically as a screening indicator for HSP in children with a high risk of renal involvement.
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BRAF V600E mutation and KRAS codon 13 mutations predict poor survival in Chinese colorectal cancer patients.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2014
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Mutations in KRAS, BRAF and PIK3CA are the most common somatic alterations found in the colorectal cancer (CRC) patients from Western countries; but their prevalence and prognostic value have not been adequately assessed in Asian patients. The aim of this study was to determine the mutation frequencies of these genes in Chinese CRC patients and to investigate their impact on prognosis.
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Complex community of nitrite-dependent anaerobic methane oxidation bacteria in coastal sediments of the Mai Po wetland by PCR amplification of both 16S rRNA and pmoA genes.
Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2014
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In the present work, both 16S rRNA and pmoA gene-based PCR primers were employed successfully to study the diversity and distribution of n-damo bacteria in the surface and lower layer sediments at the coastal Mai Po wetland. The occurrence of n-damo bacteria in both the surface and subsurface sediments with high diversity was confirmed in this study. Unlike the two other known n-damo communities from coastal areas, the pmoA gene-amplified sequences in the present work clustered not only with some freshwater subclusters but also within three newly erected marine subclusters mostly, indicating the unique niche specificity of n-damo bacteria in this wetland. Results suggested vegetation affected the distribution and community structures of n-damo bacteria in the sediments and n-damo could coexist with sulfate-reducing methanotrophs in the coastal ecosystem. Community structures of the Mai Po n-damo bacteria based on 16S rRNA gene were different from those of either the freshwater or the marine. In contrast, structures of the Mai Po n-damo communities based on pmoA gene grouped with the marine ones and were clearly distinguished from the freshwater ones. The abundance of n-damo bacteria at this wetland was quantified using 16S rRNA gene PCR primers to be 2.65-6.71?×?10(5) copies/g dry sediment. Ammonium and nitrite strongly affected the community structures and distribution of n-damo bacteria in the coastal Mai Po wetland sediments.
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Long non-coding RNAs in non-small cell lung cancer as biomarkers and therapeutic targets.
J. Cell. Mol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2014
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Lung cancer-associated mortality is the most common cause of cancer death worldwide. Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), with no protein-coding ability, have multiple biological roles. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are a recently characterized class of ncRNAs that are over 200 nucleotides in length. Many lncRNAs have the ability of facilitating or inhibiting the development and progression of tumours, including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Because of their fundamental roles in regulating gene expression, along with their involvement in the biological mechanisms underlying tumourigenesis, they are a promising class of tissue- and/or blood-based cancer biomarkers. In this review, we highlight the emerging roles of lncRNAs in NSCLC, and discuss their potential clinical applications as diagnostic and prognostic markers and as therapeutic targets.
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Exome Sequencing Identifies a Novel Frameshift Mutation of MYO6 as the Cause of Autosomal Dominant Nonsyndromic Hearing Loss in a Chinese Family.
Ann. Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2014
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Autosomal dominant types of nonsyndromic hearing loss (ADNSHL) are typically postlingual in onset and progressive. High genetic heterogeneity, late onset age, and possible confounding due to nongenetic factors hinder the timely molecular diagnoses for most patients. In this study, exome sequencing was applied to investigate a large Chinese family segregating ADNSHL in which we initially failed to find strong evidence of linkage to any locus by whole-genome linkage analysis. Two affected family members were selected for sequencing. We identified two novel mutations disrupting known ADNSHL genes and shared by the sequenced samples: c.328C>A in COCH (DFNA9) resulting in a p.Q110K substitution and a deletion c. 2814_2815delAA in MYO6 (DFNA22) causing a frameshift alteration p.R939Tfs*2. The pathogenicity of novel coding variants in ADNSHL genes was carefully evaluated by analysis of co-segregation with phenotype in the pedigree and in light of established genotype-phenotype correlations. The frameshift deletion in MYO6 was confirmed as the causative variant for this pedigree, whereas the missense mutation in COCH had no clinical significance. The results allowed us to retrospectively identify the phenocopy in one patient that contributed to the negative finding in the linkage scan. Our clinical data also supported the emerging genotype-phenotype correlation for DFNA22.
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Stereoscopic visualization and quantification of auricular cartilage regeneration in rabbits using multiphoton microscopy.
Scanning
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2014
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Multiphoton microscopy (MPM) was applied for imaging and quantifying the elastic cartilage regeneration tissue in a rabbit ear model without using labeling agents. Morphology of cells and collagen matrix were analysis, showing significant difference between regenerated and intact cartilage in cellular size and collagen distribution. The results demonstrate that high resolution images provide by MPM are consistent with the histological results, and show additional biological behavior which is not visible in standard histology. Advantages in instrumentation may lead to the application of MPM for intravital detection and treatment. SCANNING 36:540-546, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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MicroRNA-451 induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition in docetaxel-resistant lung adenocarcinoma cells by targeting proto-oncogene c-Myc.
Eur. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2014
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Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been reported to play a significant role in tumour metastasis as well as chemoresistance. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in chemotherapy-induced EMT are still unclear. MicroRNA (miRNA) expression and functions have been reported to contribute to phenotypic features of tumour cells. To investigate the roles of miRNAs in chemotherapy-induced EMT, we established two docetaxel-resistant lung adenocarcinoma (LAD) cell models (SPC-A1/DTX and H1299/DTX), which display EMT-like properties and gain increased invasion or migration activity. MiR-451 was found to be significantly downregulated in docetaxel-resistant LAD cells, and re-expression of miR-451 could reverse EMT to mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET) and inhibit invasion and metastasis of docetaxel-resistant LAD cells both in vitro and in vivo. The proto-oncogene c-Myc was identified as a direct and functional target of miR-451, and further researches confirmed that overexpression of c-Myc which induced extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-dependent glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta (GSK-3?) inactivation and subsequent snail activation is essential for acquisition of EMT phenotype induced by loss of miR-451. Furthermore, c-Myc was significantly upregulated in docetaxel-non-responding LAD tissues in comparison with docetaxel-responding tissues, and its expression was inversely correlated with miR-451 expression. This study first reported the involvement of miR-451/c-Myc/ERK/GSK-3? signalling axis in the acquisition of EMT phenotype in docetaxel-resistant LAD cells, suggesting that re-expression of miR-451 or targeting c-Myc will be a potential strategy for the treatment of chemoresistant LAD patients.
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Multiphoton microscopy as a diagnostic imaging modality for pancreatic neoplasms without hematoxylin and eosin stains.
J Biomed Opt
PUBLISHED: 04-20-2014
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Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining of tissue samples is the standard approach in histopathology for imaging and diagnosing cancer. Recent reports have shown that multiphoton microscopy (MPM) provides better sample interface with single-cell resolution, which enhances traditional H&E staining and offers a powerful diagnostic tool with potential applications in oncology. The purpose of this study was to further expand the versatility of MPM by establishing the optical parameters required for imaging unstained histological sections of pancreatic neoplasms, thereby providing an efficient and environmentally sustainable alternative to H&E staining while improving the accuracy of pancreatic cancer diagnoses. We found that the high-resolution MPM images clearly distinguish between the structure of normal pancreatic tissues compared with pancreatic neoplasms in unstained histological sections, and discernable differences in tissue architecture and cell morphology between normal versus tumorigenic cells led to enhanced optical diagnosis of cancerous tissue. Moreover, quantitative assessment of the cytomorphological features visualized from MPM images showed significant differences in the nuclear–cytoplasmic ratios of pancreatic neoplasms compared with normal pancreas, as well as further distinguished pancreatic malignant tumors from benign tumors. These results indicate that the MPM could potentially serve as an optical tool for the diagnosis of pancreatic neoplasms in unstained histological sections.
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Spatial-temporal model for silencing of the mitotic spindle assembly checkpoint.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 03-30-2014
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The spindle assembly checkpoint arrests mitotic progression until each kinetochore secures a stable attachment to the spindle. Despite fluctuating noise, this checkpoint remains robust and remarkably sensitive to even a single unattached kinetochore among many attached kinetochores; moreover, the checkpoint is silenced only after the final kinetochore-spindle attachment. Experimental observations have shown that checkpoint components stream from attached kinetochores along microtubules towards spindle poles. Here we incorporate this streaming behaviour into a theoretical model that accounts for the robustness of checkpoint silencing. Poleward streams are integrated at spindle poles, but are diverted by any unattached kinetochore; consequently, accumulation of checkpoint components at spindle poles increases markedly only when every kinetochore is properly attached. This step change robustly triggers checkpoint silencing after, and only after, the final kinetochore-spindle attachment. Our model offers a conceptual framework that highlights the role of spatiotemporal regulation in mitotic spindle checkpoint signalling and fidelity of chromosome segregation.
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The differential expression of microRNA-143,145 in endometriosis.
Iran J Reprod Med
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2014
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Background: Recent studies showed that inappropriate expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) is strongly associated with tumor-related processes in humans (2-9,11-17). Objective: To understand the changes of miRNAs in endometriosis. Materials and Methods: With real-time RT-PCR, we investigated the miR-143 and miR-145 expression in eutopic (EU, n=2) and ectopic endometrium (EC, n=11) (from women with endometriosis) (as well as EU+EC, n=11), along with the normal endometrium (EN, n=22) (from women without endometriosis, but with leiomyoma). Results: We did not find that the expression of miR-143 and/or miR-145 in EN or EC changed with menstrual cycle. But our results showed the miR-143 was up-regulated in EC (p=0.000) compared to EN. The miR-143 was also up-regulated in EU, but the difference did not reach statistically significance (p=0.053). Compared to EU, the expression of miR-143 in EC was up-regulated (p=0.016). MiR-145 had the similar characteristic to miR-143. The miR-145 was up-regulated in both EU (p=0.004) and EC (p=0.000) in compared to EN group. When compared with EU, the miR-145 in EC was up-regulated (p=0.008). Conclusion: In conclusion, the miR-143 and miR-145 may play a certain role in the development and progression of endometriosis.
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NR4A1 is associated with chronic low-grade inflammation in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Exp Ther Med
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2014
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Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a common disorder characterized by chronic low-grade inflammation. In the present study, the expression levels of nuclear receptor subfamily 4 group A member 1 (NR4A1) and the correlation with inflammatory cytokine production and free fatty acids (FFAs) in patients with T2D and healthy participants were investigated. NR4A1 expression levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from patients with T2D (n=30) and healthy controls (n=34) were analyzed. In addition, the levels of fasting blood glucose (FBG), fasting plasma insulin (FIN), FFAs, total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) were analyzed, and the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) was used to estimate the insulin resistance (IR). Additionally, PBMCs from healthy subjects were cultured with or without 250 ?M palmitic acid (PA). Levels of NR4A1, tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in the PBMCs were also analyzed. The basal expression levels of NR4A1, TNF-? and IL-6 were higher in the T2D patients when compared with the controls. In addition, the levels of FFAs, TG and LDL-C, as well as the HOMA-IR, were higher in T2D patients. Furthermore, NR4A1 expression was demonstrated to positively correlate with the HOMA-IR and the levels of FFAs, TNF-?, IL-6, FIN and FBG. Furthermore, 250 ?M PA stimulation was shown to increase NR4A1 expression and the secretion of inflammatory cytokines in the cultured PBMCs. Therefore, increased NR4A1 expression levels are correlated with a chronic low-grade inflammatory state and the disorder of lipid metabolism in patients with T2D.
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Early filiform needle acupuncture for poststroke depression: a meta-analysis of 17 randomized controlled clinical trials.
Neural Regen Res
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2014
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To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of filiform needle acupuncture for poststroke depression, and to compare acupuncture with the therapeutic efficacy of antidepressant drugs.
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Association between the transcriptional levels of Htr-1a and tryptophan hydroxylase-1 in the hippocampus and the antifatigue effects of leucine on rats with postoperative fatigue.
Exp Ther Med
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2014
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Leucine (Leu), a branched-chain amino acid (BCAA), is widely used in clinical practice following severe burns, gastrointestinal surgery, trauma and sepsis. In the present study, the antifatigue effects of BCAAs on a postoperative fatigue (POF) rat model, induced by 70% intestinal resection, were investigated. Leu (16.5 g/l) was administered intraperitoneally at a dose of 18 ml/kg/day. The fatigue level and antifatigue effects of Leu were evaluated by open-field testing on day 1, 3, 5 and 7 after surgery. In addition, mRNA specimens were extracted and measured using a quantitative polymerase chain reaction method. The open-field test results indicated that Leu exhibited a significant antifatigue effect. The total distance travelled and the number of times the rats passed from the outermost grids of an open-top case were greatly improved in the Leu treatment group when compared with the POF model group. With the exception of the normal group, the mRNA expression levels of Htr-1a exhibited a similar trend in all other groups, reaching a climax on day 3 and 5, while being restored to a normal level on day 7. With regard to the Leu intervention group, the mRNA expression level of Htr-1a decreased significantly on day 3 and 5 following surgery. The mRNA expression levels of tryptophan hydroxylase-1 were unchanged in this short time period; however, the levels were increased gradually in the Leu treatment group. Therefore, Leu exhibited an apparent antifatigue effect on various 5-hydroxytryptamine-associated genes.
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Dynamin 2 interacts with connexin 26 to regulate its degradation and function in gap junction formation.
Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol.
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2014
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Connexin 26 (Cx26), a protein involved in gap junctional intercellular communication, has an essential function during organ and tissue development. Its deregulation, in part due to inherent mutations, is associated with pathological conditions including congenital deafness. Regulation of Cx26 protein level is critical for its function but the molecular mechanisms involved are partially understood. This study identifies dynamin 2 (Dyn2) as a Cx26 interactor in yeast and mammalian cells. Deletion studies revealed that Cx26-Dyn2 interaction involves the C-terminus of Cx26 and the GTPase effector domain of Dyn2, which is of particular importance for the regulation of the endocytic pathway. Dyn2 inhibition using siRNA or dynasore resulted in reduced Cx26 degradation at the plasma membrane and this was associated with change in gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC). Furthermore, we demonstrate that Dyn2 regulates Cx26 endocytosis and ubiquitination. These results establish Dyn2 as a Cx26 partner in the regulation of GJIC.
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Optical diagnosis of gallbladder cancers via two-photon excited fluorescence imaging of unstained histological sections.
Lasers Med Sci
PUBLISHED: 02-09-2014
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Two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) microscopy, based on signal from cells, can provide detailed information on tissue architecture and cellular morphology in unstained histological sections to generate subcellular-resolution images from tissue directly. In this paper, we used TPEF microscopy to image microstructure of human normal gallbladder and three types of differentiated carcinomas in order to investigate the morphological changes of tissue structure, cell, cytoplasm, and nucleus without hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining. It displayed that TPEF microscopy can well image the stratified normal gallbladder tissue, including the mucosa, the muscularis, and the serosa. The typical cancer cell, characterized by cellular and nuclear pleomorphism, enlarged nuclei, and augmented nucleolus, can be identified in histological sections without H-E staining as well. The quantitative results showed that the areas of the nucleus and the nucleolus in three types of cancerous cells were all significantly greater than those in normal gallbladder columnar epithelial cells derived from TPEF microscopic images. The studies demonstrated that TPEF microscopy has the ability to characterize tissue structures and cell morphology of gallbladder cancers differentiated from a normal gallbladder in a manner similar to traditional histological analysis. As a novel tool, it has the potential for future retrospective studies of tumor staging and migration by utilizing histological section specimens without H-E staining.
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New Sesquiterpene and Polymethoxy-Flavonoids from Artemisia annua L.
Pharmacogn Mag
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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Our previous study revealed that the polymethoxy-flavonoids, as main components of Artemisia annua, could improve the antimalarial activity of Artemisinin. Here, we described the isolation, elucidation, constituent analysis, flavonoids enrichment of the extracts of A. annua. A total of 20 compounds were isolated including a new sesquiterpene (compound 12) and five (1, 5, 6, 7, 15) afforded for the first time from A. annua. The elucidation of eight flavonoids may be a useful phytochemical data and chemical foundation for further mechanism studies on improving the anti-malarial action of artemisinin. Furthermore, the antitumor activities of the compounds were assayed using four different kinds of human cancer cell lines.
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Low Serum Cartonectin/CTRP3 Concentrations in Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: In Vivo Regulation of Cartonectin by Glucose.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Cartonectin is a novel adipokine of the C1q complement/TNF-related protein (CTRP) superfamily, with glucose lowering effects, anti-inflammatory and cardio-protective properties. We sought to investigate circulating cartonectin concentrations in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) as well as age and BMI matched control subjects. We also examined the effects of a 2 hour 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) on serum cartonectin concentrations in T2DM subjects.
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Prognostic value of p53 alterations in human osteosarcoma: a meta analysis.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Tumor suppressor gene p53 functions as the guardian of the human genome and mutations in p53 contribute to cancer development. However, studies that investigated the potential of p53 as a prognostic marker in osteosarcoma patients have yielded inconclusive results. Based on recommendation of the Cochrane Collaboration, this meta-analysis was conducted using data from the 17 published studies to evaluate the association of p53 alterations with clinical outcome of osteosarcoma patients. Different databases, including MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Scopus, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) were searched. Prognostic value of p53 alterations was determined by risk ratio (RR). The data showed that p53-positive immunostaining tended to associate with decreased 2-year survival rates (RR, 1.94; 95% CI, 1.43 to 2.64; p < 0.0001, I(2) = 10%). However, the prediction value of RR was smaller with p53 expression than with p53 mutations. Moreover, patients who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy and surgery tended to have a stronger association between p53-positive staining and 2-year mortality compared to the patients treated with surgery only. However, p53-positive staining was not associated with 3-year (RR, 1.64; 95% CI, 0.84 to 3.20; P = 0.15; I(2) = 56%) and 5-year survival (RR, 1.25; 95% CI, 0.78 to 2.01; P = 0.36; I(2) = 70%). The data from the current study suggest that p53-positive osteosarcoma only predicted a decreased short-term survival rate, but not 3- or 5-year survival.
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A Comparison between the EQ-5D and the SF-6D in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD).
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The appropriate use of generic preference-based measures determines the accuracy of disease assessment and further decision on healthcare policy using quality adjusted life years. The discriminative capacity of different instruments would differ across disease groups. Our study was to examine the difference in utility scores for COPD patients measured by EQ-5D and SF-6D and to assist the choice of a proper instrument in this disease group.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.