Invasive fungal infection in patients receiving chemotherapy for hematological malignancy: a multicenter, prospective, observational study in China.
This stud y examined the epidemiology, risk factors, management, and outcome of invasive fungal infection (IFI) in patients receiving chemotherapy for hematological malignancy in China. IFI risk factors were analyzed using univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression. In total, 4,192 patients receiving 4,889 chemotherapy courses were enrolled [mean age 40.7 years, 58.4 % male, 16.9 % children (<18 years)]. The most common hematological diseases were acute myeloid leukemia (AML, 28.5 %), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL, 26.3 %), and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL, 20.2 %). Severe neutropenia (absolute neutrophil count [ANC] <500/mm(3)) occurred after one third (1,633/4,889, 33.4 %) of chemotherapy courses. Incidence of proven/probable IFI was 2.1 % per chemotherapy course and higher in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS, 4.94 %), acute hyperleukocytic leukemia (AHL, 4.76 %), AML (3.83 %), or induction chemotherapy. Risk factors included ANC <500/mm(3) [odds ratio (OR) 3.60], AML or MDS (OR 1.97), induction chemotherapy (OR 2.58), previous IFI (OR 3.08), and being male (OR 1.74). Antifungal agents, prescribed in one quarter (1,211/4,889, 24.8 %) of chemotherapy courses, included primary/secondary prophylaxis (n?=?827, 16.9 %) and/or treatment (n?=?655, 13.4 %; 86.9 % triazoles), which was empirical (84.3 %), pre-emptive (8.6 %), or targeted (7.1 %). Overall mortality following each chemotherapy course (1.5 %) increased in proven/probable (11.7 %) and possible IFI (8.2 %). In summary, IFI was more common in MDS, AHL, AML, or induction chemotherapy, and substantially increased mortality. Neutropenic patients receiving induction chemotherapy for AML or MDS and those with previous IFI were at particular risk. Antifungal prophylaxis showed an independent protective effect but was not commonly used, even in high-risk patients. By contrast, empiric antifungals were widely used.