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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Multicenter Study on Adult Growth Hormone Level in Postoperative Pituitary Tumor Patients.
Cell Biochem. Biophys.
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2014
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The objective of this study is to observe the adult growth hormone level in postoperative pituitary tumor patients of multi-centers, and explore the change of hypophyseal hormones in postoperative pituitary tumor patients. Sixty patients with pituitary tumor admitted during March, 2011-March, 2012 were selected. Postoperative hypophyseal hormone deficiency and the change of preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative growth hormone levels were recorded. Growth hormone hypofunction was the most common hormonal hypofunction, which took up to 85.0 %. Adrenocortical hormone hypofunction was next to it and accounted for 58.33 %. GH + ACTH + TSH + Gn deficiency was the most common in postoperative hormone deficiency, which took up to 40.00 %, and GH + ACTH + TSH + Gn + AVP and GH deficiencies were next to it and accounted for 23.33 and 16.67 %, respectively. The hormone levels in patients after total pituitary tumor resection were significantly lower than those after partial pituitary tumor resection, and the difference was statistically significant; growth hormone and serum prolactin levels after surgery in two groups were decreased, and the difference was statistically significant. The incidence rate of growth hormone deficiency in postoperative pituitary tumor patients is high, which is usually complicated with deficiency of various hypophyseal hormones. In clinical, we should pay attention to the levels of the hypopnyseal hormones, and take timely measures to avoid postoperative complications.
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Association of risk of gastric cancer and consumption of tobacco, alcohol and tea in the chinese population.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 11-07-2014
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This study aimed at summarizing epidemiological research findings on associations between tobacco, alcohol and tea consumption and risk of gastric cancer (GC) in the Chinese population. The review searched PubMed, Embase, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) and China Biology Medicine (CBM) databases and reference lists of review papers for all studies published in English or Chinese languages. Information extracted, via two independent researchers, from retrieved articles included first author, year of publication, study design, sample size, source of controls and adjusted odds ratio (OR) or relative risk (RR) with the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for each category. Statistical analyses used software STATA version 12.0. The systematic search found 89 articles containing 25,821 GC cases and 135,298 non-cases. The overall random effects in terms of pooled OR and 95%CI for tobacco, alcohol and tea consumption were 1.62 (95%CI: 1.50-1.74), 1.57 (95%CI: 1.41-1.76) and 0.67 (95%CI: 0.59-0.76) respectively; while the heterogeneity among included studies ranged from 80.1% to 87.5%. The majority of subgroup analyses revealed consistent results with the overall analyses. All three behavioral factors showed statistically significant dose-dependent effects on GC (P<0.05). The study revealed that tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking were associated with over 1/2 added risk of GC, while tea drinking conferred about 1/3 lower risk of GC in the Chinese population. However, these results should be interpreted with caution given the fact that most of the included studies were based on a retrospective design and heterogeneity among studies was relatively high.
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Air-Assisted Liquid Liquid-Microextraction for the Analysis of Fungicides from Environmental Water and Juice Samples.
J Chromatogr Sci
PUBLISHED: 10-31-2014
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In this work, a rapid method based on air-assisted liquid liquid microextraction (AALLME) was developed for the determination of three fungicides (azoxystrobin, diethofencarb and pyrimethanil) in water and juice samples. A narrow-neck glass tube was made to facilitate collection of the low-density extractant. The mixture of extractant and sample solution is rapidly sucked into a 5-mL glass syringe and then is injected into the narrow-neck glass tube and the procedure is repeated six times. A homogeneous solution was formed and then with the continuous injection of air by a 20-mL glass syringe, phase separation happened and the extractant was collected on the top of the sample solution. No centrifugation separation step was involved. It took only 90 s to complete the pretreatment process. The influence of main factors on the extraction efficiency is studied. Under optimal conditions, enrichment factors for the three fungicides varied from 145 to 178. The limits of detection for azoxystrobin, diethofencarb and pyrimethanil were 0.08, 0.16 and 0.25 µg L(-1), respectively. Reasonable relative recoveries were varied from 72.3 to 108.0%. And satisfactory intra-assay (5.3-6.2%, n = 6) and inter-assay (6.8-9.3%, n = 6) precision illustrated good performance of the analytical procedure.
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[Expression of Costimulatory Molecule CD86 in HL-60 Cells Induced by MG132 and Its Effect on Allogeneic Mixed Lymphocyte Reaction].
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2014
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This study was aimed to elucidate the expression of costimulatory molecule CD80 and CD86 in HL-60 cells induced by proteasome inhibitor MG132 and its effect on allogeneic mixed lymphocyte reaction. Acute myelocytic leukemia cell line HL-60 and chronic myelocytic leukemia cell line K562 were cultured. The viability of the cells was measured by flow cytometry. Proteasome inhibitor MG132 at the concentrations of 2 or 3 µmol/L was used to stimulate the HL-60 cell cultured for 24 h and 48 h respectively, and the Annexin V/7-AAD staining and flow cytomotry were used to detect the apoptosis of the HL-60 cells. HL-60 and K562 cells were treated with 1 µmol/L MG132 for 24 h and 48 h respectively, then CD80 and CD86 antibodies were added, finally the expression of CD80 and CD86 was analysed by flow cytomery. The mRNA expression of CD86 in the HL-60 cells treated with 1 µmol/L MG132 was detected by RT-PCR. HL-60 and K562 cells were treated by 1 µmol/L MG132 and then underwent irradiation of 75 Gy (60)Co to kill the cells with their antigenicity preserved. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNCs) of healthy volunteers, as reactive cells, were isolated and inoculated into the (60)Co irradiated HL-60 cells of different concentrations, as stimulating cells, CCK-8 was added and then the A value of absorbance was measured at the wave length of 450 nm in an enzyme labeling instrument. The results showed that the cell viability of the HL-60 cells treated with 1 µmol/L MG132 for 24 h an d 48 h was 92.95% and 85.87% respectively. The apoptotic rates of the HL-60 cells treated with MG132 increased in dose-and time-dependent manner. High-concentration of MG132 directly killed HL-60 cells. Before MG132 treatment K562 cells did not express CD86, but the CD86 expression of the HL-60 cells was up-regulated time-dependently after MG132 treatment (P < 0.01). The mRNA expression of CD86 in the HL-60 treated with MG132 was up-regulated time-dependently (P < 0.01). CCK-8 test showed that the proliferation level of PBMNC gradually increased along with the concentration of HL-60 cells treated with MG132 and reached its peak when the concentration of the HL-60 cells was 1×10(5) (P < 0.01). No remarkable proliferation of PBMNC was observed in the K562 groups no matter if the HL-60 cells had been treated with MG132. It is concluded that the high concentration of MG132 can directly kill HL-60 cells, low-concentration of MG132 can induce the expression of costimulatory molecule CD86 in HL-60 cells, also can improve the proliferation of PBMNC.
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Genetic association study between INSULIN pathway related genes and high myopia in a Han Chinese population.
Mol. Biol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2014
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To investigate the association between insulin (INS) pathway related genes, including INS, insulin receptor (INSR), insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1), insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2), IGF2 receptor (IGF2R) and IGF binding protein 1 (IGFBP1), and high myopia (HM) in a Han Chinese population, we have genotyped 24 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of these genes in this cohort by Sequenom MassARRAY method. The genotyping data was analyzed by ?(2) test and the linkage disequilibrium block structure was examined by Haploview software. SNPs in the INS-IGF2 region (rs2070762 and rs1003483), and the INSR gene (rs3745551 and rs2229429) showed significant association with HM (allelic P = 0.0085, 0.0494, 0.0171 and 0.0238, respectively). Under the model of risk genotype combination of INSR and IRS1, carrying the variant allele (A) of the IRS1 Gly972Arg SNP (rs1801278) further increased the risk among the rs2229429T allele carriers (odds ratio 6.865, 95 % confidence interval 1.533-30.745). None of the SNPs in the IGF2R and IGFBP1 genes were found to be significantly associated with HM. Genetic variants in the insulin signaling pathway genes may increase the susceptibility of high myopia in Han Chinese.
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[Analysis of clinical features and arylsulfatase B gene mutation in thirteen Chinese children with mucopolysaccharidosis type VI].
Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-06-2014
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Mucopolysaccharidosis type VI (MPS VI) or Maroteaux-Lamy syndrome is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disease caused by a deficiency of arylsulfatase B(ARSB), which is required in the degradation of dermatan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate. The deficiency of ARSB leads to an accumulation of dermatan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate in lysosomes and gross excretion in the urine.Few articles about clinical study and ARSB gene mutation analysis of Chinese MPS VI patients were published. This study aimed to explore the clinical features and characteristics of ARSB gene in Chinese children with MPS VI.
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Shell-Sheddable, pH-Sensitive Supramolecular Nanoparticles Based on Ortho Ester-Modified Cyclodextrin and Adamantyl PEG.
Biomacromolecules
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
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We report a new type of pH-sensitive supramolecular aggregates which possess a programmable character of sequential dePEGylation and degradation. As a platform of designing and building multifunctional supramolecular nanoparticles, a family of 6-OH ortho ester-modified ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD) derivatives have been synthesized via the facile reaction between ?-CD and cyclic ketene acetals with different alkyl lengths. These asymmetric acid-labile ?-CD derivatives formed amphiphilic supramolecules with adamantane-modified PEG through host-guest interaction in polar solvents such as ethanol. The supramolecules can self-assemble in water to form acid-labile supramolecular aggregates. The results of TEM and light scattering measurements demonstrate that the size and morphology of the aggregates are influenced by the alkyl or PEG length and the host-guest feed ratio. By carefully balancing the alkyl and PEG lengths and adjusting the host-guest ratio, well-dispersed vesicles (50-100 nm) or sphere-like nanoparticles (200-500 nm) were obtained. Zeta potential measurements reveal that these supramolecular aggregates are capable of being surface-functionalized via dynamic host-guest interaction. The supramolecular aggregates were stable at pH 8.4 for at least 12 h as proven by the (1)H NMR and LLS measurements. However, rapid dePEGylation occurred at pH 7.4 due to the hydrolysis of the ortho ester linkages locating at the interface, which resulted in aggregation of the dePEGylated hydrophobic inner cores. Upon further decreasing the pH to 6.4, the hydrophobic cores were further degraded due to the acid-accelerated hydrolysis of the ortho esters. The incubation stability of the acid-labile supramolecular aggregates in neutral buffer could be improved by incorporating hydrophobic poly(?-caprolactone) into the core of the aggregates.
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A rapid method for simultaneous multi-gene mutation screening in children with nonsyndromic hearing loss.
Genomics
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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Hearing loss (HL) is a common genetically heterogeneous sensory disorder, occurring in 1 to 3 per 1000 live births. In spite of the extraordinary genetic heterogeneity, variants in GJB2, MT-RNR1, and SLC26A4 genes have been considered as the main reasons of nonsyndromic hearing loss in Chinese population. We developed a rapid multiplex genetic screening system called the SNPscan assay technique which could detect the 115 mutations of the above three genes. This technique is a high-throughput and cost-saving SNP genotyping method. We found that the carrier rate of mutations in the GJB2 gene, MT-RNR1 gene, and SLC26A4 gene was 26.21%, 1.86%, and 25.46% of the patients with nonsyndromic hearing loss, respectively. Using this method, up to 50% of the patients in our study were identified to have hereditary HL caused by mutations in the three genes. It is applicable to not only genetic diagnosis of HL, but also molecular screening of other inherited diseases.
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Protease-Activated Receptor 4: A Critical Participator in Inflammatory Response.
Inflammation
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2014
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Protease-activated receptors (PARs) are G protein-coupled receptors of which four members PAR1, PAR2, PAR3, and PAR4 have been identified, characterized by a typical mechanism of activation involving various related proteases. The amino-terminal sequence of PARs is cleaved by a broad array of proteases, leading to specific proteolytic cleavage which forms endogenous tethered ligands to induce agonist-biased PAR activation. The biological effect of PARs activated by coagulation proteases to regulate hemostasis and thrombosis plays an enormous role in the cardiovascular system, while PAR4 can also be activated by trypsin, cathepsin G, the activated factor X of the coagulation cascade, and trypsin IV. Irrespective of its role in thrombin-induced platelet aggregation, PAR4 activation is believed to be involved in inflammatory lesions, as show by investigations that have unmasked the effects of PAR4 on neutrophil recruitment, the regulation of edema, and plasma extravasation. This review summarizes the roles of PAR4 in coagulation and other extracellular protease pathways, which activate PAR4 to participate in normal regulation and disease.
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Urinary interleukin-18 as an early indicator to predict contrast-induced nephropathy in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention.
Exp Ther Med
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2014
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Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is at present the third leading cause of hospital-acquired acute kidney injury (AKI). Traditionally, it is diagnosed by measuring an increase of the serum creatinine (SCr) concentration. However, SCr is an insensitive marker for detecting CIN. This study was designed to investigate whether human urinary interleukin-18 (IL-18) is early predictive marker for CIN following coronary interventional procedures. The general clinical data of 180 patients who underwent coronary interventional procedures at the Department of Cardiology, Affiliated Hospital of Xuzhou Medical College from March 1, 2012 to September 31, 2012 were collected. A nonionic, low osmolality contrast agent was used in the laboratory at this time. SCr values and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) were measured prior to and within 24 and 48 h after the administration of contrast agents. Urine samples were collected prior to and 2, 6, 12, 24 and 48 h after the coronary interventional procedure, and urinary IL-18 levels were measured using an ELISA kit. CIN was defined as an increase of ?0.5 mg/dl or ?25% in SCr concentration over baseline 24-48 h after the procedure. CIN occurred in 16 of 180 (8.9%) patients. The levels of urinary IL-18 measured 2 h after the procedure were increased in the CIN group, but the increase was not significant (P>0.05). There were significant differences (P<0.05) between the urinary IL-18 levels 6, 12, 24 and 48 h after the procedure and those before the procedure. No significant difference was identified between the SCr levels measured prior to and 24 h after the procedure. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of urinary IL-18 12 h after the procedure was 0.811 and the 95% confidence interval of the area under the curve was 0.735-0.888. If the critical point of the diagnosis of CIN was 815.61 pg/ml, the sensitivity was 87.5% and the specificity was 62.2%. Univariate analysis indicated that the urinary IL-18 level was positively correlated with the SCr concentration pre- and postprocedure. In conclusion, urinary IL-18 may be a promising indicator for the early prediction of CIN.
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A time course study about gene expression of post-thermal injury with DNA microarray.
Int. J. Dermatol.
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2014
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Burn injury is one of the most common and devastating forms of trauma in daily life. However, the exact sequence of events after burn injury remains unknown.
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TRB3, up-regulated in kidneys of rats with type1 diabetes, mediates extracellular matrix accumulation in vivo and in vitro.
Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract.
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2014
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Fibrosis is the final disorder of most chronic kidney disease including diabetic nephropathy (DN), but the mechanisms are not fully understood. The present study aims to determine whether TRB3 participates in fibrogenesis in DN.
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Emodin inhibits inducible nitric oxide synthase in a rat model of craniocerebral explosive injury.
Neurochem. Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2014
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To investigate the effects of emodin on blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI) in a rat model. Eighty rats were randomly divided into 2 groups (the control group and the emodin-treated group; N = 40 per group) and were used to establish the model of blast-induced traumatic brain injury. Ten minutes after the explosion, an isotonic saline solution (10 mg/kg) or emodin (10 mg/kg) were administered via an intraperitoneal injection to the control group and the emodin-treated group, respectively. At each time point (pre-explosion, 2, 6, 12, 24 h after explosion), 2 rats were used for the pathological assessment and 6 rats were used for the biochemical assessment. The concentration of nitric oxide (NO) and the expression and activity of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were measured at each time point by spectrophotometry and western blot analysis. Light and electron microscopy showed that the brain damage in the emodin-treated group was less serious than that observed in the control group. The concentration of NO in the emodin-treated group was lower compared with the control group (p < 0.05). Western blot analysis showed that protein expression in the emodin-treated group was lower than the control group (p < 0.05). Emodin can alleviate brain damage after bTBI by inhibiting iNOS. These findings suggest that emodin has a protective effect against bTBI. One possible mechanism may occur by inhibiting the expression and activity of iNOS and consequently decreasing the concentration of NO.
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Association between pancreatitis and subsequent risk of pancreatic cancer: a systematic review of epidemiological studies.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2014
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This study aimed to summarize published epidemiological evidence for the relationship between pancreatitis and subsequent risk of pancreatic cancer (PC). We searched Medline and Embase for epidemiological studies published by February 5th, 2014 examining the risk of PC in pancreatitis patients using highly inclusive algorithms. Information about first author, year of publication, country of study, recruitment period, type of pancreatitis, study design, sample size, source of controls and attained age of subjects were extracted by two researchers and Stata 11.0 was used to perform the statistical analyses and examine publication bias. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated with the random effects model. A total of 17 articles documenting 3 cohort and 14 case-control studies containing 14,667 PC cases and 17,587 pancreatitis cases were included in this study. The pooled OR between pancreatitis and PC risk was 7.05 (95%CI: 6.42-7.75). However, the pooled ORs of case-control and cohort studies were 4.62 (95%CI: 4.08-5.22) and 16.3 (95%CI: 14.3-18.6) respectively. The risk of PC was the highest in patients with chronic pancreatitis (pooled OR=10.35; 95%CI: 9.13-11.75), followed by unspecified type of pancreatitis (pooled OR=6.41; 95%CI: 4.93-8.34), both acute and chronic pancreatitis (pooled OR=6.13; 95%CI: 5.00-7.52), and acute pancreatitis (pooled OR=2.12; 95%CI: 1.59-2.83). The pooled OR of PC in pancreatitis cases diagnosed within 1 year was the highest (pooled OR=23.3; 95%CI: 14.0-38.9); and the risk in subjects diagnosed with pancreatitis for no less than 2, 5 and 10 years were 3.03 (95%CI: 2.41-3.81), 2.82 (95%CI: 2.12-3.76) and 2.25 (95%CI: 1.59-3.19) respectively. Pancreatitis, especially chronic pancreatitis, was associated with a significantly increased risk of PC; and the risk decreased with increasing duration since diagnosis of pancreatitis.
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Systematic profiling of mRNA and miRNA expression in the pancreatic islets of spontaneously diabetic Goto?Kakizaki rats.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
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Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is a complex multifactorial metabolic disorder that affects >100 million individuals worldwide, yet the mechanisms involved in the development and progression of the disease have not yet been fully elucidated. The present study examined the mRNA and micro (mi)RNA expression profiles by microarray analysis in the pancreas islets of spontaneously diabetic Goto?Kakizaki rats with the aim to identify regulatory mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of T2DM. A total of 9 upregulated and 10 downregulated miRNAs were identified, including miR?150, miR?497, miR?344?3p and let?7f, which were independently validated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction assays. In addition, differential expression of 670 genes was detected by mRNA microarray analysis, including 370 upregulated and 247 downregulated genes. The differentially expressed genes were statistically associated with major cellular pathways, including the immune response pathway and the extracellular matrix (ECM)?receptor interaction pathway. Finally, a reverse regulatory association of differentially expressed miRNAs and their predicted target genes was constructed, supported by analysis of their mRNA and miRNA expression profiles. A number of key pairs of miRNA?mRNA was proposed to have significant roles in the pathogenesis of T2DM rats based on bioinformatics analysis, one example being the let?7f/collagen, type II, alpha 1 pair that may regulate ECM?receptor interactions.
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Genetic diversity and evolution of two capsid protein genes of citrus tristeza virus isolates from China.
Arch. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2014
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The genetic diversity and population structure of citrus tristeza virus (CTV) isolates from China were investigated based on partial sequences spanning the C-terminal end of p61 and the complete sequences of the CPm and CP genes. Phylogenetic analysis revealed five known groups (RB, T30, T36, HA and VT) and one new group (VI) consisting of only Chinese CTV isolates. Incongruent phylogenetic trees coupled with recombination analysis suggested several recombination events in the CPm gene. Positive selection was detected at codon 9 of CPm and codons 31, 41 and 68 of CP. The widespread CTV subpopulation AT-1 found in China has a unique amino acid insertion at the C-terminus of p61, which could increase CTV population complexity with implications for the evolutionary history of the virus. Our results suggest relevant roles for gene flow, purifying selection and recombination in shaping the CTV population in China.
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Total delay for treatment among cancer patients: a theory-guided survey in China.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2014
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This study aimed at exploring treatment delay (TD) among cancer patients in China with an attempt to develop a practical methodology facilitating frontline Chinese clinicians in promoting earlier cancer diagnosis and treatment.
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Association between gestational diabetes mellitus and subsequent risk of cancer: a systematic review of epidemiological studies.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2014
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This study aimed at summarizing epidemiological evidence of the association between gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and subsequent risk of cancer.
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Decreased LINE-1 methylation levels in aldosterone-producing adenoma.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2014
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Abnormal global DNA methylation levels are associated with many diseases. In this study, we examined long interspersed nuclear elements-1 (LINE-1) methylation as a biomarker for abnormal global DNA methylation and aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA).
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T cell receptor-dependent activation of mTOR signaling in T cells is mediated by Carma1 and MALT1, but not Bcl10.
Sci Signal
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2014
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Signaling to the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) regulates diverse cellular processes, including protein translation, cellular proliferation, metabolism, and autophagy. Most models place Akt upstream of the mTOR complex, mTORC1; however, in T cells, Akt may not be necessary for mTORC1 activation. We found that the adaptor protein Carma1 [caspase recruitment domain (CARD)-containing membrane-associated protein 1] and at least one of its associated proteins, the paracaspase MALT1 (mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma translocation protein 1), were required for optimal activation of mTOR in T cells in response to stimulation of the T cell receptor (TCR) and the co-receptor CD28. However, Bcl10, which binds to Carma1 and MALT1 to form a complex that mediates signals from the TCR to the transcription factor NF-?B (nuclear factor ?B), was not required. The catalytic activity of MALT1 was required for the proliferation of stimulated CD4+ T cells, but not for early TCR-dependent activation events. Consistent with an effect on mTOR, MALT1 activity was required for the increased metabolic flux in activated CD4+ T cells. Together, our data suggest that Carma1 and MALT1 play previously unappreciated roles in the activation of mTOR signaling in T cells after engagement of the TCR.
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Whole-brain 320-detector row dynamic volume CT perfusion detected crossed cerebellar diaschisis after spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage.
Neuroradiology
PUBLISHED: 06-09-2014
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The purpose of this study was to evaluate the value of 320-detector row CT used to detect crossed cerebellar diaschisis (CCD) in patients with unilateral supratentorial spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (SICH).
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Exome Sequencing Identifies a Novel Frameshift Mutation of MYO6 as the Cause of Autosomal Dominant Nonsyndromic Hearing Loss in a Chinese Family.
Ann. Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2014
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Autosomal dominant types of nonsyndromic hearing loss (ADNSHL) are typically postlingual in onset and progressive. High genetic heterogeneity, late onset age, and possible confounding due to nongenetic factors hinder the timely molecular diagnoses for most patients. In this study, exome sequencing was applied to investigate a large Chinese family segregating ADNSHL in which we initially failed to find strong evidence of linkage to any locus by whole-genome linkage analysis. Two affected family members were selected for sequencing. We identified two novel mutations disrupting known ADNSHL genes and shared by the sequenced samples: c.328C>A in COCH (DFNA9) resulting in a p.Q110K substitution and a deletion c. 2814_2815delAA in MYO6 (DFNA22) causing a frameshift alteration p.R939Tfs*2. The pathogenicity of novel coding variants in ADNSHL genes was carefully evaluated by analysis of co-segregation with phenotype in the pedigree and in light of established genotype-phenotype correlations. The frameshift deletion in MYO6 was confirmed as the causative variant for this pedigree, whereas the missense mutation in COCH had no clinical significance. The results allowed us to retrospectively identify the phenocopy in one patient that contributed to the negative finding in the linkage scan. Our clinical data also supported the emerging genotype-phenotype correlation for DFNA22.
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An efficient genotyping method for genome-modified animals and human cells generated with CRISPR/Cas9 system.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2014
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The rapid generation of various species and strains of laboratory animals using CRISPR/Cas9 technology has dramatically accelerated the interrogation of gene function in vivo. So far, the dominant approach for genotyping of genome-modified animals has been the T7E1 endonuclease cleavage assay. Here, we present a polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis-based (PAGE) method to genotype mice harboring different types of indel mutations. We developed 6 strains of genome-modified mice using CRISPR/Cas9 system, and utilized this approach to genotype mice from F0 to F2 generation, which included single and multiplexed genome-modified mice. We also determined the maximal detection sensitivity for detecting mosaic DNA using PAGE-based assay as 0.5%. We further applied PAGE-based genotyping approach to detect CRISPR/Cas9-mediated on- and off-target effect in human 293T and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Thus, PAGE-based genotyping approach meets the rapidly increasing demand for genotyping of the fast-growing number of genome-modified animals and human cell lines created using CRISPR/Cas9 system or other nuclease systems such as TALEN or ZFN.
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Mesenchymal stem cells ameliorate diabetic glomerular fibrosis in vivo and in vitro by inhibiting TGF-? signalling via secretion of bone morphogenetic protein 7.
Diab Vasc Dis Res
PUBLISHED: 05-19-2014
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To investigate whether mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) could inhibit transforming growth factor beta (TGF-?) signalling pathway by paracrine action.
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Using an instrumental variable to test for unmeasured confounding.
Stat Med
PUBLISHED: 05-05-2014
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An important concern in an observational study is whether or not there is unmeasured confounding, that is, unmeasured ways in which the treatment and control groups differ before treatment, which affect the outcome. We develop a test of whether there is unmeasured confounding when an instrumental variable (IV) is available. An IV is a variable that is independent of the unmeasured confounding and encourages a subject to take one treatment level versus another, while having no effect on the outcome beyond its encouragement of a certain treatment level. We show what types of unmeasured confounding can be tested for with an IV and develop a test for this type of unmeasured confounding that has correct type I error rate. We show that the widely used Durbin-Wu-Hausman test can have inflated type I error rates when there is treatment effect heterogeneity. Additionally, we show that our test provides more insight into the nature of the unmeasured confounding than the Durbin-Wu-Hausman test. We apply our test to an observational study of the effect of a premature infant being delivered in a high-level neonatal intensive care unit (one with mechanical assisted ventilation and high volume) versus a lower level unit, using the excess travel time a mother lives from the nearest high-level unit to the nearest lower-level unit as an IV.
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TRB3 mediates renal tubular cell apoptosis associated with proteinuria.
Clin. Exp. Med.
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2014
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Proteinuria may contribute to progressive renal damage by inducing tubulointerstitial inflammation, fibrosis and tubular cell apoptosis, but the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. TRB3 is a kinase-like molecule that can modify cellular survival and interfere with signal transduction pathways. We seek to determine the role of TRB3 in renal tubular cell apoptosis associated with proteinuria. Herein, we reported that in a rat tubular cell line, high concentration of albumin augmented TRB3 expression and induced apoptosis, while TRB3 silencing with special small interference RNA significantly attenuated apoptosis. In addition, we found that albumin-induced apoptosis was related to inhibition of Akt phosphorylation, which was, however, partially reversed by TRB3 silencing, indicating that TRB3 worked through Akt pathway in this apoptotic signaling cascade. In vivo, we observed increased TRB3 expression in kidneys of streptozotocin-induced diabetic nephropathy model and albumin-overload nephropathy model, both of which showed overt proteinuria. Notably, proteinuria induced apoptosis in renal tubules, which was less severe after genetically inhibition of TRB3. Taken together, these results suggest that TRB3 mediates renal tubular cell apoptosis induced by protein overload, broadening our understanding of the pathogenesis of progressive proteinuric kidney diseases.
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[Analysis and carrier screening for copy numbers of SMN and NAIP genes in children with spinal muscular atrophy].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2014
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To assess the association of copy number variations of SMN1, SMN2, NAIP, GTF2H2 and H4F5 genes with clinical classification of spinal muscular atrophy in children, and determine the copy number of the SMN gene among pregnant women. A carrier screening was also performed in Sichuan province.
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Electromagnetically induced self-imaging in four-level atomic system.
Appl Opt
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2014
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In this paper, a special gradient-index electromagnetically induced transparency medium is induced with a Gaussian control field, which can be realized in a four-level ??Rb cold atomic cloud. Special directional self-imaging and imaging transforming properties are studied in this work. Simulated results show that a complex object can be imaged in the cold atoms, as the control field substituted with the elliptical Gaussian beam, then the self-imaging is directional, which has potental application in encryption.
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Assessing fit at the implant-abutment junction with a radiographic device that does not require access to the implant body.
J Prosthet Dent
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2014
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Radiograph paralleling devices provide an excellent means of obtaining orthogonal radiographs for the evaluation of the fit of implant restorations. Unfortunately, the clinical applicability of such devices is a significant issue because access to the implant body must be obtained at each radiographic appointment.
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Psychosocial and Behavioral Interventions and Cancer Patient Survival Again: Hints of an Adjusted Meta-Analysis.
Integr Cancer Ther
PUBLISHED: 03-09-2014
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Hypotheses. Although there is evidence that psychosocial and behavioral interventions (PBIs) increase well-being, improve coping and adjustment, and reduce distress among cancer patients, findings regarding PBIs as a means for prolonging survival were not convincing. Conflicting findings resulted in tremendous controversies over the efficacy of PBIs. This study aims at estimating the pooled effects of PBIs on survival of cancer patients. Study Design and Methods. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) testing the effects of any kind of PBIs on the survival of cancer patients included in MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cancer Lit, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, and reference lists of relevant articles were retrieved and reviewed by 2 independent researchers. Data items derived from the articles included time and duration of study, intervention types and doses, and numbers of patients dying and surviving 1, 2, 4, and 6 years after intervention. Estimation of the collective effects of the interventions used meta-analysis via Review Manager (version 5). Results. A total of 15 RCTs met inclusion criteria, involving 2041 subjects (1118 in intervention and 923 in control groups). Inclusive total mean Mantel-Haenszel risk ratios (RRs) ranged from 0.83 to 0.99, and 3 of these effect sizes were statistically nonsignificant. Yet when the RCTs with less than 30 hours of PBIs were excluded, all the RRs decreased to some extent, with the RR for the first 2 years being decreased to 0.69 (95% CI, 0.55-0.87) and 0.82 (95% CI, 0.71-0.95), respectively. Conclusion. PBIs with adequate intervention doses prolong survival at least for some cancer patients in the first 2 years after intervention, although longer term effects need to be determined via more studies.
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Epileptiform Discharges and Frontal Paroxysmal EEG Abnormality Act as Predictive Marker for Subsequent Epilepsy in Children with Complex Febrile Seizures.
Clin EEG Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2014
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Using electroencephalography (EEG) for diagnosing subsequent epilepsy in children after febrile seizure (FS) is not common. The present study investigates the relationship between epileptiform discharges and subsequent epilepsy, and looks for the predictive marker for this disorder. A total of 378 children with complex FS and whose EEG showed epileptiform discharges or normal EEG were included. Development of FS was compared between those with epileptiform discharges and those with normal EEG. Risk factors were analyzed using multivariate logistic regression to clarify their effects on subsequent epilepsy. The association between generalized or focal EEG localization, and between frontal epileptiform discharges and subsequent epilepsy, were analyzed. Among 378 patients with complex FS, 51 showed epileptiform discharges. History of epilepsy, frontal seizure, number of FS, and prolonged seizure were the risk factors for epileptiform discharge. Subsequent epilepsy was significantly frequent in patients with more than 2 risk factors (odds ratio [OR] = 17; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 4.1-29.6). Prolonged seizure (OR = 4.98; 95% CI = 1.63-13.29), FS number (OR = 2.96; 95% CI = 1.23-10.51), and family history of epilepsy (OR = 2.67; 95% CI = 1.05-7.63) were significantly correlated with subsequent epilepsy. Of 9 patients with paroxysms in the frontal region, 8 (88.9%) developed epilepsy. There was concordance between frontal epileptiform discharges and subsequent epilepsy (? = .901). In conclusion, epileptiform discharges are risk factors for subsequent epilepsy. Frontal paroxysmal EEG is a marker for subsequent epilepsy.
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Eha, a transcriptional regulator of hemolytic activity of Edwardsiella tarda.
FEMS Microbiol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 03-02-2014
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Hemolysis causes major symptoms such as the reddening skin and systemic hemorrhagic septicemia of diseased fish infected by Edwardsiella tarda. Cytolysin A (ClyA) is a pore-forming cytotoxic protein encoded by the clyA gene in Escherichia coli K-12. In this study, we observed that the heterologous expression of the eha gene from E. tarda could confer hemolytic activity upon a hemolytic-silent E. coli strain. The transcription of clyA is positively controlled by the eha gene in E. tarda by RT-PCR. We cloned and purified Eha protein which had shown preferential binding ability to the clyA sequences in its promoter region, as evidenced by gel shift assay. The eha controls the transcriptional start predominantly at 72 bp upstream in the clyA promoter region, as determined by primer extension assays. We suggest that Eha protein is a new positive regulator found in E. tarda. In addition, we constructed the eha mutant and complementary strains of E. tarda. The hemolytic activity of the eha mutant was found to be attenuated compared with the wild-type strain. The complementary strains restored the hemolytic activity to levels between those of the wild type and the eha mutation. Our results indicate that the Eha protein is an important positive regulator in the hemolytic properties of E. tarda.
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The construction of an interfacial valve-based microfluidic chip for thermotaxis evaluation of human sperm.
Biomicrofluidics
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2014
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Thermotaxis has been demonstrated to be an important criterion for sperm evaluation, yet clinical assessment of thermotaxis capacity is currently lacking. In this article, the on-chip thermotaxis evaluation of human sperm is presented for the first time using an interfacial valve-facilitated microfluidic device. The temperature gradient was established and accurately controlled by an external temperature gradient control system. The temperature gradient responsive sperm population was enriched into one of the branch channels with higher temperature setting and the non-responsive ones were evenly distributed into the two branch channels. We employed air-liquid interfacial valves to ensure stable isolation of the two branches, facilitating convenient manipulation of the entrapped sperm. With this device, thermotactic responses were observed in 5.7%-10.6% of the motile sperm moving through four temperature ranges (34.0-35.3?°C, 35.0-36.3?°C, 36.0-37.3?°C, and 37.0-38.3?°C, respectively). In conclusion, we have developed a new method for high throughput clinical evaluation of sperm thermotaxis and this method may allow other researchers to derive better IVF procedure.
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Diagnostic value of rectal bleeding in predicting colorectal cancer: a systematic review.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2014
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This study aimed at summarizing published study findings on the diagnostic value of rectal bleeding (RB) and informing clinical practice, preventive interventions and future research areas. We searched Medline and Embase for studies published by September 13, 2013 examining the risk of colorectal cancer in patients with RB using highly inclusive algorithms. Data for sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio, negative likelihood ratio and positive predictive value (PPV) of RB were extracted by two researchers and analyzed applying Meta-Disc (version 1.4) and Stata (version 11.0). Methodological quality of studies was assessed according to QUADAS. A total of 38 studies containing 5,626 colorectal cancer patients and 73,174 participants with RB were included. The pooled sensitivity and specificity were 0.47 (95% CI: 0.45-0.48) and 0.96 (95% CI: 0.96-0.96) respectively. The overall PPVs ranged from 0.01 to 0.21 with a pooled value of 0.06 (95% CI: 0.05-0.08). Being over the age of 60 years, change in bowel habit, weight loss, anaemia, colorectal cancer among first-degree relatives and feeling of incomplete evacuation of rectum appeared to increase the predictive value of RB. Although RB greatly increases the probability of diagnosing colorectal cancer, it alone may not be sufficient for proposing further sophisticated investigations. However, given the high specificity, subjects without RB may be ruled out of further investigations. Future studies should focus on strategies using RB as an "alarm" symptom and finding additional indications to justify whether there is a need for further investigations.
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A new mutation in the CSB gene in a Chinese patient with mild Cockayne syndrome.
Clin Case Rep
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2014
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Cockayne syndrome (CS) is a rare autosomal recessive genetic disease characterized by growth failure and progressive neurological degeneration. Here we report a mild form of CS patient who was homozygous for the C526T transition resulting in a new nonsense mutation, which converts Arg176 to a stop codon.
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Instrumental variable methods for causal inference.
Stat Med
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2014
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A goal of many health studies is to determine the causal effect of a treatment or intervention on health outcomes. Often, it is not ethically or practically possible to conduct a perfectly randomized experiment, and instead, an observational study must be used. A major challenge to the validity of observational studies is the possibility of unmeasured confounding (i.e., unmeasured ways in which the treatment and control groups differ before treatment administration, which also affect the outcome). Instrumental variables analysis is a method for controlling for unmeasured confounding. This type of analysis requires the measurement of a valid instrumental variable, which is a variable that (i) is independent of the unmeasured confounding; (ii) affects the treatment; and (iii) affects the outcome only indirectly through its effect on the treatment. This tutorial discusses the types of causal effects that can be estimated by instrumental variables analysis; the assumptions needed for instrumental variables analysis to provide valid estimates of causal effects and sensitivity analysis for those assumptions; methods of estimation of causal effects using instrumental variables; and sources of instrumental variables in health studies.
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An in situ immobilized pipette tip solid phase microextraction method based on molecularly imprinted polymer monolith for the selective determination of difenoconazole in tap water and grape juice.
J. Chromatogr. B Analyt. Technol. Biomed. Life Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2014
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A pipette tip-based molecularly imprinted polymer monolith microextraction (PT-MIPMME) method was developed for the selective extraction of difenoconazole in tap water and grape juice. In this method, molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) monolith used as the sorbent was synthesized at the tip of a micropipette. This in situ polymerization reaction used difenoconazole as the template and methacrylic acid (MAA) as the functional monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as the cross-linker and the mixture of toluene-dodecanol as the porogenic solvent. The pipette tip containing MIP monolith was matched to a syringe for performing the polymer monolith microextraction (PMME). Several parameters affecting the proposed PT-MIPMME method were investigated, including the flow rate, sample volume, pH and salt concentration of sample, the type and volume of eluent. Under the optimal conditions, the PT-MIPMME method showed a low limit of detection of 0.5?gL(-1). The recoveries were in the range of 87.6-95.4% with relative standard deviations less than 4.9%. The results showed that difenoconazole was selectively enriched from tap water and grape juice samples.
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A novel formulation of thiamine dilaurylsulphate and its preservative effect on apple juice and sterilised milk.
Food Chem
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2014
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Thiamine dilaurylsulphate (TLS), synthesised by a new method, was developed for a formulation with a wide antimicrobial spectrum and evaluated in apple juice and milk. The result of a disc diffusion method showed that TLS, which was synthesised from sodium lauryl sulphate and thiamine hydrochloride, had strong growth-inhibitory effects on Gram-positive bacteria, yeasts, and moulds, but had weak inhibitory effects on Gram-negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli. Moreover, the TLS antibacterial spectrum could be broadened to all microbes by formulation with organic acids, such as gluconic acid or acetic acid, since organic acids have synergistic effects on TLS bacteriostasis. Compared to TLS, the formulation had a better preservation in milk (pH 6.64) by viable microbial counting, although the antibacterial effect of the formulation with TLS showed no significant difference in apple juice (pH 3.98). Therefore, the TLS formulation has wide application and better potential, as a preservative, to enhance food safety.
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Renal lymph circulation blockage alters the epithelial cell phenotype and tubular integrity: role of distinct regulation of BMP7 and TGF-?/Smads signaling pathway.
Int Urol Nephrol
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2014
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To investigate the effect of lymph circulation blockage on the alteration of renal epithelial cell phenotype and the tubular integrity, as well as the underlying mechanisms.
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Switchable pH actuators and 3D integrated salt bridges as new strategies for reconfigurable microfluidic free-flow electrophoretic separation.
Lab Chip
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2014
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We present novel strategies for reconfigurable, high-throughput microfluidic free-flow electrophoretic separation using electrically switchable pH actuators and 3D integrated salt bridges to allow rapid formation of stable pH gradients and efficient electrophoresis. The pH actuator is achieved by microfluidic integration of bipolar membranes which change electrolyte pH by injecting excess H(+) or OH(-) ions produced by a field-enhanced water dissociation phenomenon at the membrane junction upon voltage bias. The technique does not require conventional multiple buffer inflows and leaves no gas production as experienced in electrolysis, thus providing stable pH gradients for isoelectric focusing (IEF) separation. With the pH actuator inactivated, the platform can perform zone electrophoretic (ZE) separation in a medium of constant pH. We also describe the use of 3D integrated ion conductive polymers that serve as salt bridges for improving the voltage efficiency of electrophoresis and to allow high throughput. The proof of concept was successfully demonstrated for free-flow IEF and ZE separation of protein mixtures showing the potential and the simplicity of the platform for high-throughput and high-precision sample separation.
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Phosphorylation of Carma1, but not Bcl10, by Akt regulates TCR/CD28-mediated NF-?B induction and cytokine production.
Mol. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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Previous studies from our group and others have shown that the Akt kinase can contribute to induction of NF-?B by antigen receptor signaling. However, the direct targets of Akt in this pathway are not known. Here we show that Akt-mediated NF-?B activation is mediated at least in part through direct phosphorylation of the adaptor protein Carma1, which we previously demonstrated could interact with Akt in a TCR ligation-dependent manner. The putative Akt phosphorylation sites in Carma1 are distinct from known PKC consensus sites. Mutation of S551, S637 and S645 in Carma1 to non-phosphorylatable residues decreased phosphorylation of GST-Carma1-linker construct by Akt in vitro. In addition, Carma1 S637A/S645A mutants were significantly impaired in their ability to restore TCR-mediated NF-?B activation and IL-2 expression in Carma1-deficient T cells. Thus, our data reveal Carma1 as a novel target for Akt phosphorylation and suggest that Akt-mediated phosphorylation of Carma1 is an additional regulatory mechanism tuning the NF-?B response downstream of antigen receptor and co-stimulatory signaling.
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Resolving the genetic heterogeneity of prelingual hearing loss within one family: Performance comparison and application of two targeted next generation sequencing approaches.
J. Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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Here, we report an unconventional Chinese pedigree consisting of three branches all segregating prelingual hearing loss (HL) with unclear inheritance pattern. After identifying the cause of one branch as maternally inherited aminoglycoside-induced HL, targeted next generation sequencing (NGS) was applied to identify the genetic causes for the other two branches. One affected subject from each branch was subject to targeted NGS whose genomic DNA was enriched either by whole-exome capture (Agilent SureSelect All Exon 50?Mb) or by candidate genes capture (Agilent SureSelect custom kit). By NGS analysis, we identified that patients from Branch A were compound heterozygous for p.E1006K and p.D1663V in the CDH23 (DFNB12) gene; and patients from Branch B were homozygous for IVS7-2A>G in the SLC26A4 (DFNB4) gene. Both CDH23 mutations altered conserved calcium binding sites of the extracellular cadherin domains. The co-occurrence of three different genetic causes in this family was exceedingly rare but fully compatible with the mutation spectrum of HL. Our study has also raised several technical and analytical issues when applying the NGS technique to genetic testing.Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 18 September 2014; doi:10.1038/jhg.2014.78.
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Mesenchymal stem cells transplantation ameliorates glomerular injury in streptozotocin-induced diabetic nephropathy in rats via inhibiting oxidative stress.
Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been demonstrated to be protective in diabetic nephropathy (DN) by reducing albuminuria and attenuating glomerular injury. However, the mechanisms remain unclear. The aim of this study was to explore the effects of MSCs on oxidative stress in DN.
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A smart web aid for preventing diabetes in rural China: preliminary findings and lessons.
J. Med. Internet Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2014
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Increasing cases of diabetes, a general lack of routinely operational prevention, and a long history of separating disease prevention and treatment call for immediate engagement of frontier clinicians. This applies especially to village doctors who work in rural China where the majority of the nation's vast population lives.
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KCNJ10 May Not Be a Contributor to Nonsyndromic Enlargement of Vestibular Aqueduct (NSEVA) in Chinese Subjects.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Nonsyndromic enlargement of vestibular aqueduct (NSEVA) is an autosomal recessive hearing loss disorder that is associated with mutations in SLC26A4. However, not all patients with NSEVA carry biallelic mutations in SLC26A4. A recent study proposed that single mutations in both SLC26A4 and KCNJ10 lead to digenic NSEVA. We examined whether KCNJ10 excert a role in the pathogenesis of NSEVA in Chinese patients.
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Selective inhibition of PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway regulates autophagy of macrophage and vulnerability of atherosclerotic plaque.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Macrophage infiltration contributes to the instability of atherosclerotic plaques. In the present study, we investigated whether selective inhibition of PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway can enhance the stability of atherosclerotic plaques by activation of macrophage autophagy. In vitro study, selective inhibitors or siRNA of PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathways were used to treat the rabbit's peritoneal primary macrophage cells. Inflammation related cytokines secreted by macrophages were measured. Ultrastructure changes of macrophages were examined by transmission electron microscope. mRNA or protein expression levels of autophagy related gene Beclin 1, protein 1 light chain 3 II dots (LC3-II) or Atg5-Atg12 conjugation were assayed by quantitative RT-PCR or Western blot. In vivo study, vulnerable plaque models were established in 40 New Zealand White rabbits and then drugs or siRNA were given for 8 weeks to inhibit the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway. Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) was performed to observe the plaque imaging. The ultrastructure of the abdominal aortic atherosclerosis lesions were analyzed with histopathology. RT-PCR or Western blot methods were used to measure the expression levels of corresponding autophagy related molecules. We found that macrophage autophagy was induced in the presence of Akt inhibitor, mTOR inhibitor and mTOR-siRNA in vitro study, while PI3K inhibitor had the opposite role. In vivo study, we found that macrophage autophagy increased significantly and the rabbits had lower plaque rupture incidence, lower plaque burden and decreased vulnerability index in the inhibitors or siRNA treated groups. We made a conclusion that selective inhibition of the Akt/mTOR signal pathway can reduce macrophages and stabilize the vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques by promoting macrophage autophagy.
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Facile assembly of n-SnO2 nanobelts-p-NiO heterojunctions with enhanced ultraviolet photoresponse.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 12-17-2013
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We present a highly transparent heterojunction photodiode by precisely aligning n-type SnO2 nanobelts on top of a p-type NiO thin film. This p-n junction diode demonstrates stable rectifying characteristics as well as greatly enhanced ultraviolet photoresponse, which exhibits an ultrahigh photosensitivity of up to 10(5) with accelerated response speed under reverse bias.
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Reflective ghost diffraction for objects with rough surfaces.
J Opt Soc Am A Opt Image Sci Vis
PUBLISHED: 12-11-2013
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Reflective ghost diffraction (GD) for objects with rough surfaces is investigated theoretically and numerically. Using a speckle model to describe the reflectivity of the object with variable rough surfaces, the incident and reflective angle-dependent diffraction condition is obtained, and the analytical expression of the reflective GD is derived. Numerical simulations are given to show how the height variance and correlation length of the object and the reflective angle in the experimental scheme can affect the quality of the reflective GD. Specifically, we find that the changes of diffraction patterns of both the simple objects and the complicated objects are sensitive to parameters such as the reflective angle and the surface fluctuation. Additionally, comparative studies on both reflective GD and ghost imaging (GI) have also been performed. We find that reflective GI is more robust against system parameters than reflective GD. These results may be useful for future experimental works.
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Ghost imaging with shaped incoherent sources.
Opt Lett
PUBLISHED: 12-11-2013
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We show that the image quality of ghost imaging (GI) can be controlled by the use of shaped incoherent sources. The formula for the point-spread function in the GI system has been derived and is determined by the Fourier transform of the source intensity distribution. Compared with the widely used Gaussian Schell-model source, we find that using a cosine-Gaussian Schell-model source can lead to the degradation of GI quality, while the quality of GI can be increased with a cosh-Gaussian Schell-model source. Even under atmospheric turbulence, the image resolution of GI still can be improved by means of the cosh-Gaussian Schell-model source.
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[Effect on invasion ability of cervical cancer cells after silence heparanase gene expression in Hela cells].
Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-29-2013
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Design and synthesize short hairpin RNA (shRNA) expression vector of RNA for specific silencing of heparanase (HPA) gene, screened plasmid which silence effects is the best. Observe the function of cell invasion after inhibiting the expression of HPA in cervical carcinoma cell lines (HeLa).
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Relationship between water quality parameters and the survival of indicator microorganisms - Escherichia coli - in a stormwater wetland.
Water Sci. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 10-19-2013
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Indicator microorganisms - Escherichia coli - in a stormwater wetland controlling non-point source pollution in the Keum River basin was studied and the relationship between water quality parameters and the survival of E. coli was investigated by Pearson correlation analysis based on 16 sets of data collected on dry days. A significant seasonal variation of the density of E. coli was observed in the influent and effluent. A dominant decay of E. coli was found in almost all the wetland components. In the settling pond, the density was observed to vary negatively with pH and the removal of total suspended solids, and the decay was promoted by solar radiation. In the aeration pond, the survival of E. coli was encouraged negatively by the dilution effect, unfavorable increase of dissolved oxygen (DO) and sedimentation with coarse particles. In the marsh wetland, the reduction of E. coli was positively influenced by UV radiation, obvious increase of pH, DO and sedimentation with algae and particles. In the polishing pond, the introduction of E. coli with avian feces and growth of the bacteria were more prevalent than decay. Although this introduction or growth was almost negligible, further study will be conducted in the future.
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Directly Suspended Droplet Microextraction for the Analysis of Fungicides.
J Chromatogr Sci
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2013
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In the proposed method, a free microdroplet of extraction solvent was placed on the top center of the aqueous sample while the solution was agitated with a stirring bar on the bottom of the sample vial. After extraction, the sample vial was cooled in an ice bath for 2 min. The solidi?ed droplet was transferred into a conical vial and melted quickly at room temperature. Based on preliminary studies, 1-dodecanol was selected as the extraction solvent. Effective parameters such as the type and volume of organic solvent, stirring speed, extraction time, sample temperature and salt effect were optimized. Under the optimized conditions, the enrichment factors of fungicides varied between 103 and 175. Based on a signal-to-noise ratio of 3, the limits of detection in this method ranged between 1.01 and 1.49 µg L(-1). Linearity was obtained in the concentration range of 5-2000 ?g L(-1) yielding correlation coefficients (r) >0.9985. Good reproducibility and recovery were also obtained.
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A Rapid Automatic Processing Platform for Bead Label-Assisted Microarray Analysis: Application for Genetic Hearing-Loss Mutation Detection.
J Lab Autom
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2013
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Molecular diagnostics using microarrays are increasingly being used in clinical diagnosis because of their high throughput, sensitivity, and accuracy. However, standard microarray processing takes several hours and involves manual steps during hybridization, slide clean up, and imaging. Here we describe the development of an integrated platform that automates these individual steps as well as significantly shortens the processing time and improves reproducibility. The platform integrates such key elements as a microfluidic chip, flow control system, temperature control system, imaging system, and automated analysis of clinical results. Bead labeling of microarray signals required a simple imaging system and allowed continuous monitoring of the microarray processing. To demonstrate utility, the automated platform was used to genotype hereditary hearing-loss gene mutations. Compared with conventional microarray processing procedures, the platform increases the efficiency and reproducibility of hybridization, speeding microarray processing through to result analysis. The platform also continuously monitors the microarray signals, which can be used to facilitate optimization of microarray processing conditions. In addition, the modular design of the platform lends itself to development of simultaneous processing of multiple microfluidic chips. We believe the novel features of the platform will benefit its use in clinical settings in which fast, low-complexity molecular genetic testing is required.
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[Gene mutations and clinical manifestations in children with glycogen storage disease type Ib].
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2013
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Glycogen storage disease type Ib (GSDIb) is caused by a deficiency of glucose-6-phosphate translocase (G6PT) activity due to SLC37A4 gene mutations. Most GSDIb patients have recurrent infections and inflammatory bowel disease, with poor prognosis. Detection of SLC37A4 gene mutations is of great significance for the diagnosis, subtyping and outcome prediction of GSD patients. This study aims to analyze SLC37A4 gene mutations in Chinese GSDIb patients and to investigate the relationship between its genotypes and clinical manifestations.
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Growth inhibitory effect of KYKZL-1 on Hep G2 cells via inhibition of AA metabolites and caspase-3 pathway and cell cycle arrest.
Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2013
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KYKZL-1, a newly synthesized compound with COX/5-LOX dual inhibition, was subjected to the inhibitory activity test on Hep G2 growth. We found that KYKZL-1 inhibited the growth of Hep G2 cells via inducing apoptosis. Further studies showed that KYKZL-1 activated caspase-3 through cytochrome c release from mitochondria and down regulation of Bcl-2/Bax ratio and reduced the high level of COX-2 and 5-LOX. As shown in its anti-inflammatory effect, KYKZL-1 also exhibited inhibitory effect on the PGE2 and LTB4 production in Hep G2 cells. Accordingly, exogenous addition of PGE2 or LTB4 reversed the decreases in cell viability. In addition, KYKZL-1 caused cell cycle arrest at the S-G2 checkpoint via the activation of p21(CIP1) protein and down-regulation of cyclin A expression. These data indicate that the growth inhibitory effect of KYKZL-1 is associated with inhibition of AA metabolites and caspase-3 pathway and cell cycle arrest. Combined with our previous findings, KYKZL-1 exhibiting COX/5-LOX inhibition may be a promising potential agent not only for inflammation control but also for cancer prevention/therapy with an enhanced gastric safety profile.
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[Impact of quercetin on the expression of heparanase in cervical cancer cells].
Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2013
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To detect the expression of heparanase (HPA) in cervical cancer cells and investigate the impact of quercetin on the expression of HPA, and the molecular mechanism that quercetin inhibits the growth of cervical cancer cells.
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[Efficacy and safety of GnRH-a combine with laparoscope conservative surgery in the treatment of the moderate or severe endometriosis].
Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2013
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To study the efficacy and safety of Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists (GnRH-a) combined with laparoscope conservative surgery in treatment of moderate or severe endometriosis.
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Influence of drug physicochemical properties on absorption of water insoluble drug nanosuspensions.
Int J Pharm
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2013
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In order to investigate the influence of drug physicochemical properties on bioavailability of water insoluble drug nanosuspensions, five drug nanosuspensions were prepared using high pressure homogenization. These nanosuspensions were similar in particle size and same in stabilizer. Differential scanning calorimetry and powder X-ray diffraction analysis showed the crystalline state of the freeze dried nanocrystals did not change. In vitro dissolution test in fasted state simulated intestinal fluid (FaSSIF) and in vivo bioavailability study in rats demonstrated that the nanosuspensions had higher dissolution rate and higher AUC0-t and the ratios of dissolvednano/dissolvedmicro in 120min were well correlated with the ratios of AUC0-t nano/AUC0-t micro. Correlation analysis between drug physicochemical properties and AUC0-t nano was performed and four-grid interpolation method was employed for interpolation and smooth surface fitting to give a visible trend. The results revealed that drug with smaller melting point, logP value around 5 and polar surface area value in the range of 50-60 would gain higher AUC0-t nano and accordingly better absorption of its nanosuspension. Melting point, logP and polar surface area were factors that influence the absorption of drug nanosuspensions in this study.
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Honoring deceased donors with a unique family-designed statement followed by a moment of silence: effect on donation outcomes.
Prog Transplant
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2013
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CONTEXT-Studies indicate that donor families and hospital staff, particularly operating room staff, fear that organ donors will not be treated with dignity, honor, and respect. OBJECTIVE-The ritual of a unique, family-designed statement of honor followed by a 15-second moment of silence in the operating room before organ recovery was implemented to honor organ donors and their families. The purpose of this study was to describe the development of the ritual and to investigate its impact on donation rates in the California Transplant Donor Networks service area. DESIGN-Cross-sectional observational study. SETTING-The California Transplant Donor Network, an organ procurement organization. PARTICIPANTS-58 organ donors and families in 39 donor hospitals. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES-Variables of interest included hospital rate of referral and of timely referral to their organ procurement organization, collaborative conversion rates, and donor families response to implementation of the new ritual. RESULTS-The ritual was implemented in 2011 in several randomly selected hospitals locally. Seventy-one unique rituals were performed in 22 local hospitals in the trial period. No families or health care providers declined to participate. Families reported that the ritual honored their loved ones. Although the collaborative conversion rates were similar in hospitals before implementation (2010), implementation of the ritual affected donation rates in 2011. CONCLUSIONS-The 15-second moment of silence honors deceased donors and their families and improves donation rates in donor hospitals.
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Effects of psycho-behavioral interventions on immune functioning in cancer patients: a systematic review.
J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2013
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This study aimed at summarizing evidence about effects of psycho-behavioral interventions (PBIs) on immune responses among cancer patients and analyzing quality of published studies so as to inform future researches.
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Current evidence on the relationship between SNP309 polymorphism in the MDM2 gene and colorectal cancer risk.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2013
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It has been demonstrated that MDM2 is a well-established negative regulator of the p53 protein and might be associated with a significantly earlier age of onset of several tumors, including colorectal cancer (CRC). In recent years, a T to G substitution (SNP309) in the promoter of MDM2 has been extensively studied as a potential CRC risk factor; however, the results are inconsistent. To derive a more precise estimation of association between MDM2 SNP309 polymorphism and CRC risk, we conducted a meta-analysis of 11 studies with 4,050 CRC cases and 3,688 controls. For MDM2 SNP309 polymorphism, no obvious associations were found for all genetic models when all studies were pooled into the meta-analysis. In the subgroup analyses by ethnicity, source of controls, and Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) in controls, a significantly increased risk was observed among Asians (heterozygous model: odds ratio (OR)?=?1.21, 95 % confidence interval (CI)?=?1.06-1.39, P?=?0.005), population-based studies (heterozygous model: OR?=?1.17, 95 % CI?=?1.02-1.34, P?=?0.027), and among studies without the HWE (recessive model: OR?=?1.42, 95 % CI?=?1.03-1.94, P?=?0.030). When excluding three studies deviated from HWE, the significant results were also observed for heterozygous model in overall population (OR?=?1.16, 95 % CI?=?1.02-1.31, P?=?0.020). No publication bias was found in the present study. In conclusion, this meta-analysis suggests that MDM2 SNP309 polymorphism was associated with CRC susceptibility, especially among Asians. Further research is needed to assess possible gene-gene or gene-environment-lifestyle interactions on CRC.
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Sensitive and high resolution subcutaneous fluorescence in vivo imaging using upconversion nanoparticles and microarrays.
Analyst
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2013
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A sensitive and high resolution small animal in vivo imaging system using upconversion nanoparticles (UNPs) and microarrays was developed. The fluorescence tomography using UNPs could achieve higher precision than that using ordinary fluorophores, which was theoretically explained by the finite element method (FEM). Given the autofluorescence-insensitive property of UNPs, a high subcutaneous detection sensitivity of 0.93 × 10(-4) wt% could be achieved with a UNP volume of ?10 ?L in tissue phantoms. Furthermore, UNP fluorophore microarrays (25, 50 and 100 ?m arrays) embedded under mouse skin were prepared for subcutaneous in vivo detection. An optical clearing method was applied to enhance the skin transparency and improve the spatial resolution. The results demonstrated that the optimized system could achieve a spatial resolution of 50 ?m for in vivo detection of subcutaneous UNP microarrays. Taken together, we conclude that the proposed system and UNP microarrays could achieve sensitive, high resolution subcutaneous in vivo detection, and have great potential for high throughput detection of tumors and other diseases.
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Suppression of low-dose hyper-radiosensitivity in human lung cancer cell line A549 by radiation-induced autophagy.
J. Huazhong Univ. Sci. Technol. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2013
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This study explored the role of radiation-induced autophagy in low-dose hyperradiosensitivity (HRS) in the human lung cancer cell line A549. A549 cells, either treated with an autophagic inhibitor 3-methyladenine (3-MA), or with a vehicle control, were irradiated at different low doses (?0.5 Gy). The generation of autophagy was examined by laser scanning confocal microscopy. Western blotting was used to detect the expression of microtubule-associated protein l light chain 3B II (LC3B-II). Flow cytometry (FCM) and clonogenic assays were used to measure the fraction of surviving cells at the low irradiation doses. Our results showed that there was a greater inhibition of autophagic activity, but a higher degree of low-dose HRS in A549 cells treated with 3-MA than in control group. Our data demonstrated that radiation-induced autophagy is correlated with HRS in A549 cells, and is probably one of the mechanisms underlying HRS.
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Oral health education for pediatric nurse practitioner students.
J Dent Educ
PUBLISHED: 05-10-2013
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The aim of this study was to evaluate whether an interdisciplinary, multifaceted oral health education program delivered to pediatric nurse practitioner students at the University of California, San Francisco, would improve their knowledge, confidence, attitudes, and behaviors regarding the provision of oral health assessments, consultations, referrals, and services to young children during well-child visits. Thirty pediatric nurse practitioner students were included in the study. Participants completed a written survey before and after receiving an interdisciplinary educational intervention that included didactic education, simulation exercises, and clinical observation by a pediatric dental resident. Between pre-intervention and post-intervention, a significant improvement was seen in the pediatric nurse practitioners knowledge of oral health topics (p<0.001), confidence when providing oral health counseling (p<0.001), and attitudes about including oral health counseling in their examinations (p=0.006). In the post-intervention survey, 83 percent of the subjects reported having incorporated oral examinations into their well-child visits. Our study suggests that providing an interdisciplinary oral health educational program for pediatric nurse practitioner students can improve their knowledge, confidence, attitudes, and behaviors regarding the incorporation of oral health care services during routine well-child visits.
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Development of a simple combining apparatus to perform a magnetic stirring-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and its application for the analysis of carbamate and organophosphorus pesticides in tea drinks.
Anal. Chim. Acta
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2013
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This study introduced a simple combining apparatus for performing a magnetic stirring-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (MSA-DLLME) for the detection of trace carbamate and organophosphorus pesticides in tea drinks coupled with high performance liquid chromatography. The simple combining apparatus was made up of a sample vial and a cut plastic dropper. The bulb end of the cut plastic dropper was inserted into the neck of the sample vial and the open tip end of the plastic dropper was then cut to an appropriate length. The combining apparatus made was then used to perform the MSA-DLLME. In this experiment, 1-octanol was injected into the tea drink sample solution and the extraction process accelerated by magnetic agitation. The sample solution turned clear and separated into two layers after leaving it alone for several minutes. The cut plastic dropper was gently put down into the sample vial, and then the liquid level of the sample solution elevated up to the tip of the plastic dropper for the collection of low-density extractant. Finally, the collected extractant was drawn out by a microsyringe and injected into the high performance liquid chromatography-diode-array detector for analysis. A series of extraction parameters were investigated and optimized. Under the most favorable conditions, high enrichment factors were obtained for carbofuran, carbaryl and isocarbophos (between 130 and 185). The limits of detection (S/N=3) were in the range of 0.13-0.61 ?g L(-1), and the relative standard deviation varied below 7.8% (n=5). Additionally, good recoveries were obtained between 79.4% and 114.4% in the three tea drinks. The simple combining apparatus utilized in this MSA-DLLME method was shown to be economical, fast, and convenient for the collection of low density extractant.
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Evaluation of over 100 scanner-years of computed tomography daily quality control data.
Med Phys
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2013
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The results of a long-term, comprehensive CT quality control (QC) program were analyzed to investigate differences in failure rates based on QC test, scanner utilization pattern, and number of channels, as well as explore issues regarding testing frequency.
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Anticonvulsant and sedative effects of paederosidic acid isolated from Paederia scandens (Lour.) Merrill. in mice and rats.
Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav.
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2013
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This study was designed to evaluate the anticonvulsant and sedative effects of paederosidic acid isolated from Paederia scandens (Lour.) Merrill. in mice and rats. In the present study, anticonvulsant activities of paederosidic acid were evaluated by maximal electroshock and pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures in male mice. Then, pentobarbital sodium-induced sleeping time and locomotor activity tests in mice were used to evaluate the sedative effects of paederosidic acid. Finally, the mechanism of paederosidic acid was explored by evaluating the contents of Glu and GABA in the brain, and Western blot was used to measure GAD65 expression in the mouse brain. Paederosidic acid (5, 10, 20, and 40 mg/kg, ip) had significant anticonvulsant and sedative effects. Moreover, paederosidic acid increased brain gamma-aminobutyric acid and decreased glutamic acid in the brain, and it up-regulated expressions of GAD 65. In conclusion, our results suggest that paederosidic acid may be a promising future therapeutic agent for treatment of epilepsy.
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Toward integrated and sustainable prevention against diabetes in rural China: study rationale and protocol of eCROPS.
BMC Endocr Disord
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2013
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Being an intermediate stage in the development of diabetes, pre-diabetics were estimated as high as 14% to 63% in China and one to three quarters of them will develop into diabetes within 10 years. It is well established that the risk of diabetes progression can be modified substantially and a whole range of proven guidelines, protocols and methodologies are available. Unfortunately, most proven interventions are seldom used in daily practice and this is especially true in resource poor rural China. This project aims at demonstrating that an evolutionary intervention package featuring low cost, integration with routine services, cultural sensitization and self-optimization, is effective and sustainable in preventing diabetes.
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Duodenal microbiota composition and mucosal homeostasis in pediatric celiac disease.
BMC Gastroenterol
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2013
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Celiac disease (CD) is an autoimmune disorder of the small intestine which is triggered by dietary gluten in genetically predisposed (HLA-DQ2/DQ8 positive) individuals. Only a fraction of HLA-DQ2/DQ8 positive individuals develop CD indicating that other factors have a role in the disorder. Several studies have addressed intestinal microbiota aberrancies in pediatric CD, but the results are inconsistent. Previously, we demonstrated that pediatric CD patients have lower duodenal expression of TLR2 and higher expression of TLR9 as compared to healthy controls (HC) indicating that microbiota may have a role in CD.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.