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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
The rs738409 (I148M) variant of thePNPLA3 gene and cirrhosis: A meta-analysis.
J. Lipid Res.
PUBLISHED: 11-08-2014
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The human patatin-like phospholipase domain containing 3 (PNPLA3) rs738409C>G polymorphism is associated with several types of liver disease. The aim of this meta-analysis was to assess the risk of cirrhosis on the basis of rs738409 allele frequency and genotype. Medline, the Cochrane Library, EMBASE, and Google Scholar were searched for prospective and retrospective studiesassessing the effect of the rs738409 polymorphism on liver cirrhosis.Seven studies, involving 2023 patients with cirrhosis, were included. The G allele was associated with a significantly increased risk of cirrhosis vs the C allele (pooled OR = 1.86, 95% CI = 1.64 to 2.12, Z = 9.55, P<0.001). Both the GC and GG genotypes were associated with a significantly increased risk of cirrhosis vs. the CC genotype (GC vs CC: pooled OR = 1.73, 95% CI = 1.51 to 1.98, Z = 7.86; P < 0.001; GG vs. CC: pooled OR = 3.41, 95% CI = 2.77 to 4.18, Z = 11.65; P < 0.001); OR=3.37, 95% CI=2.73, 4.16,P<0.001).There was no evidence of publication bias. Our findings suggest that patients at risk for liver cirrhosis may benefit from PNPLA3 genotyping and thus more intensive monitoring if the rs738409 C>G polymorphism is identified.
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[Calculating method for crop water requirement based on air temperature].
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2014
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The importance of accurately estimating crop water requirement for irrigation forecast and agricultural water management has been widely recognized. Although it has been broadly adopted to determine crop evapotranspiration (ETc) via meteorological data and crop coefficient, most of the data in whether forecast are qualitative rather than quantitative except air temperature. Therefore, in this study, how to estimate ETc precisely only using air temperature data in forecast was explored, the accuracy of estimation based on different time scales was also investigated, which was believed to be beneficial to local irrigation forecast as well as optimal management of water and soil resources. Three parameters of Hargreaves equation and two parameters of McClound equation were corrected by using meteorological data of Xinxiang from 1970 to 2010, and Hargreaves equation was selected to calculate reference evapotranspiration (ET0) during the growth period of winter wheat. A model of calculating crop water requirement was developed to predict ETc at time scales of 1, 3, and 7 d intervals through combining Hargreaves equation and crop coefficient model based on air temperature. Results showed that the correlation coefficients between measured and predicted values of ETc reached 0.883 (1 d), 0.933 (3 d), and 0.959 (7 d), respectively. The consistency indexes were 0.94, 0.95 and 0.97, respectively, which showed that forecast error decreased with the increasing time scales. Forecasted accuracy with an error less than 1 mm x d(-1) was more than 80%, and that less than 2 mm x d(-1) was greater than 90%. This study provided sound basis for irrigation forecast and agricultural management in irrigated areas since the forecasted accuracy at each time scale was relatively high.
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[Osteogenic gene expression of human periodontal ligament stem cells during osteogenic induction].
Shanghai Kou Qiang Yi Xue
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2014
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To isolate and identify the human periodontal ligament stem cells, evaluate osteogenetic capacity, and investigate the changes of osteogenic bone related gene expression in mineralized medium at different times.
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Impact of MDM2 Single Nucleotide Polymorphism on Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Risk.
Cell Biochem. Biophys.
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2014
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Mouse Double Minute 2 (MDM2) has emerged as a pivotal cellular antagonist of p53 by destructing the suppressive function of p53 against tumorigenesis. The MDM2 309 T > G polymorphism has been studied for its association with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) susceptibility, but the evidence was confusing and inconclusive. Here, we performed a meta-analysis to estimate the effects of the 309 T > G polymorphism on the development of OSCC. The relevant studies were searched on both PubMed and Embase. We estimated the risk of OSCC using odds ratio (OR) and 95 % confidence interval (CI). In addition, between-study heterogeneity was measured by the ? (2)-based statistic test; sensitivity analysis, and the funnel plots and Egger's test were also performed in this meta-analysis. Based on five case-control studies with a total of 1,369 OSCC cases and 2,167 control subjects, the meta-analysis result showed neither increased nor decreased risk of OSCC associated with any genetic model of the 309 T > G polymorphism. Similar results were observed in the subgroup of Asians. No significant heterogeneity and publication bias were detected in the meta-analysis. The evidence provided in our study indicated that the 309 T > G polymorphism might have no significant contribution to susceptibility toward OSCC.
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Correlation of PCSK9 gene polymorphism with cerebral ischemic stroke in Xinjiang Han and Uygur populations.
Med. Sci. Monit.
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2014
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Cerebral ischemic stroke (CIS) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Its main pathological basis is atherosclerosis (AS); in turn, the main risk factor in AS is dyslipidemia. Human proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin9 (PCSK9) plays a key role in regulating plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels. We sought to assess the association between PCSK9 and CIS in Chinese Han and Uygur populations.
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Potentially optimal body size to adjust tube current for individualized radiation dose control in retrospective ECG-triggered 256-slice CT coronary angiography.
Hellenic J Cardiol
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2014
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We aimed to determine a potentially optimal body size index for adjusting the tube current in retrospective ECG-triggered helical 256-slice CT coronary angiography (CTCA) for individualized radiation dose control.
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[Temporal and spatial variation of water requirement of winter wheat and its influencing factors in Henan Province, China].
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2014
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Based on mean meteorological data of ten days in 17 observation stations from 1961 to 2012, the reference crop evapotranspiration was computed using Penman-Monteith formula recommended by FAO. The water requirement of winter wheat in Henan Province was calculated by adopting crop coefficients and the growth stage of winter wheat from the "National Irrigation Experiment Database", and the temporal and spatial distribution, variation and affecting factors in recent 51 years were analyzed by means of time-series analysis and gray relational grade analysis. The results showed that the average water requirement of winter wheat was 345-492 mm in Henan Province from 1961 to 2011, and it was lowest at Lushi station and highest at Mengjin station. The average water requirement of winter wheat was lowest from 1980 to 1989 and highest from 1961 to 1969 at most stations. The water requirement of winter wheat showed a tendency to increase with years at the 7 stations (Xinxiang, Luanchuan, Kaifeng, Xixia, Nanyang, Xinyang and Gushi) , while it indicated a tendency to decline in the other 10 stations. The water requirement of winter wheat in North Henan was higher than in South Henan, and had a high span variation in West Henan. During the growing period of winter wheat, the average daily maximum and minimum temperatures showed a tendency to increase with years, while the average daily wind speed and relative humidity, and the sunshine hours had a tendency to decline. In Henan Province, the water requirement of winter wheat was mainly affected by the average daily maximum temperature and the sunshine hours, and least influenced by the average daily relative humidity.
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Influence of intramuscular heat stimulation on modulation of nociception: complex role of central opioid receptors in descending facilitation and inhibition.
J. Physiol. (Lond.)
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2014
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It has been reported that the threshold to activate 'silent' or inactive descending facilitation of nociception is lower than that of descending inhibition. Thus, the development of pain therapy to effectively drive descending inhibition alone, without the confounding influences of facilitation is a challenge. To address this issue we investigated the effects of intramuscular stimulation with a heating-needle on spinal nociception, assessed by measuring nociceptive paw withdrawal reflex in rats. Additionally, involvement of the thalamic 'nociceptive discriminators' (thalamic mediodorsal (MD) and ventromedial (VM) nuclei), and opioid-mediated mechanisms were further explored. Descending facilitation and inhibition were elicited by 46°C noxious heating-needle stimulation, and were regulated by thalamic MD and VM nuclei, respectively. In contrast, innocuous heating-needle stimulation at a temperature of 43°C elicited descending inhibition modulated by the thalamic VM nucleus alone. Microinjection of ?/?/?-opioid receptor antagonists ?-funaltrexamine hydrochloride/naltrindole/nor-binaltorphimine, into the VM nucleus attenuated the 46°C intramuscular heating-needle stimulation-evoked descending inhibition, whereas treatment of the MD nucleus with ?-funaltrexamine hydrochloride significantly decreased the descending facilitation. By contrast, descending inhibition evoked by 43°C heating-needle stimulation was only depressed by naltrindole, as opposed to ?- and ?-opioid receptor antagonists, which failed to influence descending inhibition. The present study reveals distinct roles of ?-opioid receptors in the function of thalamic MD and VM nuclei,which exert facilitatory and inhibitory actions on nociception. Furthermore, innocuous, but not noxious, intramuscular heating-needle stimulation targeting ?-opioid receptors is suggested to be a promising avenue for the effective inhibition of pain.
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Rhinovirus Infection Induces IL-13 Production from CD11b-positive, Exudative M2-polarized Exudative Macrophages.
Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2014
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Rhinovirus (RV) causes many asthma exacerbations. Previously, we showed that adherent bronchoalveolar cells from allergen-treated mice produce IL-13 when stimulated with RV ex vivo, implicating cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage in viral-induced airway inflammation. In this study, we hypothesized that RV infection of allergen-treated mice results in IL-13 production by CD11b+ exudative macrophages in vivo. We sensitized and challenged BALB/c mice with ovalbumin (OVA), after which mice were inoculated with either RV or sham HeLa cell lysate. After one day, lungs were harvested and cell suspensions analyzed by flow cytometry. We repeated this process in IL-13 reporter mice, CD11b-DTR mice in which diphtheria toxin selectively depletes CD11b-positive cells, and CCR2 null mice. We found that lungs of mice infected with RV alone showed increases in CD45+, CD68+, F4/80+, Ly6C+, CD11bhigh cells, indicating an influx of inflammatory monocytes and exudative macrophages. The combination of OVA and RV had synergistic effects on exudative macrophage number. However, unlike mice treated with RV alone, CD11b+ cells from OVA-treated, RV-infected mice showed M2 polarization including expression of CD206 and CD301 and production of IL-13. Similar results were obtained in IL-13 reporter mice. Diphtheria toxin depleted CD11b+, IL-13-producing cells in OVA-treated, RV-infected CD11b-DTR mice, decreasing airway inflammation and responsiveness. CD11b+, Ly6C+ cells were reduced in CCR2 KO mice. We conclude that, in contrast to naïve mice, RV infection of mice with allergic airways disease induces an influx of IL-13-producing CD11b+ exudative macrophages bearing M2 macrophage markers. This finding further implicates alternatively-activated macrophages in RV-induced asthma exacerbations.
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Electrochemically induced Fenton reaction of few-layer MoS2 nanosheets: preparation of luminescent quantum dots via a transition of nanoporous morphology.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2014
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Electrochemically induced Fenton (electro-Fenton) reaction was used for efficient and controllable preparation of hydroxyl radicals, leading to the generation of luminescent quantum dots through etching of as-exfoliated MoS2 nanosheets. Morphologic changes of MoS2 nanosheets during the electro-Fenton reaction were monitored using transmission electron microscopy, showing that etching of MoS2 nanosheets induced by hydroxyl radicals resulted in rapid homogeneous fracturing of the sheets into small dots via a transition of nanoporous morphology. The as-generated dots with vertical dimensional thickness of ca. 0.7 nm and plane size of ca. 5 nm were demonstrated to be MoS2 quantum dots (MoS2-QDs), and their photoluminescence properties were explored based on quantum confinement, edge effect, and intrinsic characteristics. Moreover, the degree of etching and the concomitant porosity of MoS2 nanosheets could be conveniently tuned via the electro-Fenton reaction time, resulting in a new morphology of nanoporous MoS2 nanosheets, with potential new applications in various significant areas.
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Reduced platelet-derived growth factor receptor expression is a primary feature of human bronchopulmonary dysplasia.
Am. J. Physiol. Lung Cell Mol. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2014
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Animal studies have shown that platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) signaling is required for normal alveolarization. Changes in PDGF receptor (PDGFR) expression in infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), a disease of hypoalveolarization, have not been examined. We hypothesized that PDGFR expression is reduced in neonatal lung mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) from infants who develop BPD. MSCs from tracheal aspirates of premature infants requiring mechanical ventilation in the first week of life were studied. MSC migration was assessed in a Boyden chamber. Human lung tissue was obtained from the University of Rochester Neonatal Lung Biorepository. Neonatal mice were exposed to air or 75% oxygen for 14 days. PDGFR expression was quantified by qPCR, immunoblotting, and stereology. MSCs were isolated from 25 neonates (mean gestational age 27.7 wk); 13 developed BPD and 12 did not. MSCs from infants who develop BPD showed lower PDGFR-? and PDGFR-? mRNA and protein expression and decreased migration to PDGF isoforms. Lungs from infants dying with BPD show thickened alveolar walls and paucity of PDGFR-?-positive cells in the dysmorphic alveolar septa. Similarly, lungs from hyperoxia-exposed neonatal mice showed lower expression of PDGFR-? and PDGFR-?, with significant reductions in the volume of PDGFR-?-positive alveolar tips. In conclusion, MSCs from infants who develop BPD hold stable alterations in PDGFR gene expression that favor hypoalveolarization. These data demonstrate that defective PDGFR signaling is a primary feature of human BPD.
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Incorporating MRI structural information into bioluminescence tomography: system, heterogeneous reconstruction and in vivo quantification.
Biomed Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2014
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Combining two or more imaging modalities to provide complementary information has become commonplace in clinical practice and in preclinical and basic biomedical research. By incorporating the structural information provided by computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the ill poseness nature of bioluminescence tomography (BLT) can be reduced significantly, thus improve the accuracies of reconstruction and in vivo quantification. In this paper, we present a small animal imaging system combining multi-view and multi-spectral BLT with MRI. The independent MRI-compatible optical device is placed at the end of the clinical MRI scanner. The small animal is transferred between the light tight chamber of the optical device and the animal coil of MRI via a guide rail during the experiment. After the optical imaging and MRI scanning procedures are finished, the optical images are mapped onto the MRI surface by interactive registration between boundary of optical images and silhouette of MRI. Then, incorporating the MRI structural information, a heterogeneous reconstruction algorithm based on finite element method (FEM) with L 1 normalization is used to reconstruct the position, power and region of the light source. In order to validate the feasibility of the system, we conducted experiments of nude mice model implanted with artificial light source and quantitative analysis of tumor inoculation model with MDA-231-GFP-luc. Preliminary results suggest the feasibility and effectiveness of the prototype system.
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Periostin is required for maximal airways inflammation and hyperresponsiveness in mice.
J. Allergy Clin. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2014
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Periostin, a secreted extracellular matrix protein, has been localized to deposits of subepithelial fibrosis in asthmatic patients, and periostin levels have been linked to increases in IL-13.
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Synaptic, transcriptional and chromatin genes disrupted in autism.
Silvia De Rubeis, Xin He, Arthur P Goldberg, Christopher S Poultney, Kaitlin Samocha, A Ercument Cicek, Yan Kou, Li Liu, Menachem Fromer, Susan Walker, Tarjinder Singh, Lambertus Klei, Jack Kosmicki, Shih-Chen Fu, Branko Aleksic, Monica Biscaldi, Patrick F Bolton, Jessica M Brownfeld, Jinlu Cai, Nicholas G Campbell, Angel Carracedo, Maria H Chahrour, Andreas G Chiocchetti, Hilary Coon, Emily L Crawford, Lucy Crooks, Sarah R Curran, Geraldine Dawson, Eftichia Duketis, Bridget A Fernandez, Louise Gallagher, Evan Geller, Stephen J Guter, R Sean Hill, Iuliana Ionita-Laza, Patricia Jimenez Gonzalez, Helena Kilpinen, Sabine M Klauck, Alexander Kolevzon, Irene Lee, Jing Lei, Terho Lehtimäki, Chiao-Feng Lin, Avi Ma'ayan, Christian R Marshall, Alison L McInnes, Benjamin Neale, Michael J Owen, Norio Ozaki, Mara Parellada, Jeremy R Parr, Shaun Purcell, Kaija Puura, Deepthi Rajagopalan, Karola Rehnström, Abraham Reichenberg, Aniko Sabo, Michael Sachse, Stephan J Sanders, Chad Schafer, Martin Schulte-Rüther, David Skuse, Christine Stevens, Peter Szatmari, Kristiina Tammimies, Otto Valladares, Annette Voran, Li-San Wang, Lauren A Weiss, A Jeremy Willsey, Timothy W Yu, Ryan K C Yuen, , Edwin H Cook, Christine M Freitag, Michael Gill, Christina M Hultman, Thomas Lehner, Aarno Palotie, Gerard D Schellenberg, Pamela Sklar, Matthew W State, James S Sutcliffe, Christopher A Walsh, Stephen W Scherer, Michael E Zwick, Jeffrey C Barrett, David J Cutler, Kathryn Roeder, Bernie Devlin, Mark J Daly, Joseph D Buxbaum.
Nature
PUBLISHED: 05-18-2014
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The genetic architecture of autism spectrum disorder involves the interplay of common and rare variants and their impact on hundreds of genes. Using exome sequencing, here we show that analysis of rare coding variation in 3,871 autism cases and 9,937 ancestry-matched or parental controls implicates 22 autosomal genes at a false discovery rate (FDR) < 0.05, plus a set of 107 autosomal genes strongly enriched for those likely to affect risk (FDR < 0.30). These 107 genes, which show unusual evolutionary constraint against mutations, incur de novo loss-of-function mutations in over 5% of autistic subjects. Many of the genes implicated encode proteins for synaptic formation, transcriptional regulation and chromatin-remodelling pathways. These include voltage-gated ion channels regulating the propagation of action potentials, pacemaking and excitability-transcription coupling, as well as histone-modifying enzymes and chromatin remodellers-most prominently those that mediate post-translational lysine methylation/demethylation modifications of histones.
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[Eco-physiological response of Quercus variabilis seedlings to increased atmospheric CO2 and N supply].
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2014
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The effect of CO2 enhancement, nitrogen deposition and their interaction on the northern boundary (Zhuanghe in Liaoning Province) of Quercus variabilis seedlings was studied by controlling the CO2 concentration (700 micromol x mol(-1); 400 micromol x mol(-1)) and nitrogen level (non nitrogen fertilizer: CK; nitrogen fertilizer: 120 kg N x hm(-2)). The results showed that under elevated CO2 the Q. variabilis seedlings' leaf morphology, photosynthetic pigments and leaf nitrogen content tended to decrease, and the dark respiration rate decreased 63. 3% and soluble sugar increased 2.6%. Nitrogen deposition significantly promoted the Q. variabilis seedlings' leaf morphology and photosynthetic pigments, leading to increased leaf nitrogen content, decreased potassium content, and 26.7% of increase in nitrogen to potassium ratio. CO2 and N interaction played a significant role on promoting the Q. variabilis seedlings' leaf morphology and photosynthetic. The maximum net photosynthetic and light saturation point were 1.4 and 2.6 times of the control, while dark respiration and light compensation point decreased 65.9% and 50.0%, respectively. Elevated CO2 and nitrogen deposition had a positive effect on Q. variabilis seedlings to some degree, which might result in the movement of distribution boundary of Q. variabilis to north.
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TMEPAI inhibits TGF-? signaling by promoting lysosome degradation of TGF-? receptor and contributes to lung cancer development.
Cell. Signal.
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2014
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Transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) signaling plays important roles in embryogenesis and tumorigenesis by controlling cell growth, differentiation and migration. The transmembrane prostate androgen-induced protein (TMEPAI) is elevated in several cancers. TMEPAI expression is induced by TGF-? signaling, and in turn, expression of TMEPAI negatively regulates TGF-? signaling, but the molecular mechanisms of TMEPAI induced TGF-? signaling inhibition are not well understood. Here we report that TMEPAI is localized to the lysosome and late endosome, and that association of TMEPAI with the E3 ubiquitin ligase Nedd4 is required for its transport to the lysosome. TMEPAI associates with the TGF-? type I receptor (T?RI) and promotes its degradation in the lysosome. Depletion of TMEPAI in A549 lung cancer cells inhibits cell proliferation, migration and invasion, while TMEPAI expression in nude mice promotes tumorigenesis. These results reveal a novel function for TMEPAI in regulating TGF-? signaling through the modulation of T?RI levels, which has important implications for cancer development in vivo.
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Neonatal rhinovirus induces mucous metaplasia and airways hyperresponsiveness through IL-25 and type 2 innate lymphoid cells.
J. Allergy Clin. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2014
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Early-life human rhinovirus infection has been linked to asthma development in high-risk infants and children. Nevertheless, the role of rhinovirus infection in the initiation of asthma remains unclear.
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Highly selective and sensitive electrochemical biosensor for ATP based on the dual strategy integrating the cofactor-dependent enzymatic ligation reaction with self-cleaving DNAzyme-amplified electrochemical detection.
Biosens Bioelectron
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2014
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A dual strategy that combines the adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-dependent enzymatic ligation reaction with self-cleaving DNAzyme-amplified electrochemical detection is employed to construct the biosensor. In this design, the methylene blue-labeled hairpin-structured DNA was self-assembled onto a gold electrode surface to prepare the modified electrode through the interaction of Au-S bond. In the procedure of ATP-dependent ligation reaction, when the specific cofactor ATP was added, the two split oligonucleotide fragments of 8-17 DNAzyme were linked by T4 DNA ligase and then released to hybridize with the labeled hairpin-structured DNA substrate. The linked 8-17 DNAzyme catalyzes the cleavage of the hairpin-structured substrate by the addition of Zn(2+), causing the methylene blue which contains high electrochemical activity to leave the surface of the gold electrode, therefore generating a dramatic decrease of electrochemical signal. The decrease of peak current was readily measured by square wave voltammetry and a relatively low detection limit (0.05 nM) was obtained with a linear response range from 0.1 to 1000 nM. By taking advantage of the highly specific cofactor dependence of the DNA ligation reaction, the proposed ligation-induced DNAzyme cascades demonstrate ultrahigh selectivity toward the target cofactor ATP. A catalytic and molecular beacons strategy is further adopted to amplify the electrochemical signal detection achieved by cycling and regenerating the 8-17 DNAzyme to realize enzymatic multiple turnover, thus one DNAzyme can catalyze the cleavage of several hairpin-structured substrates, which improves the sensitivity of the newly designed electrochemical sensing system.
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Knockdown of toll-like receptor 4 inhibits human NSCLC cancer cell growth and inflammatory cytokine secretion in vitro and in vivo.
Int. J. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2014
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Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-mediated signaling has been implicated in tumor cell invasion, survival and metastasis in several types of cancers. However, the expression of TLR4 in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and its biological function in the development and progression of NSCLC have not been elucidated to date. Here, we sought to characterize the expression of TLR4 in patients with NSCLC and to investigate the biological roles of TLR4 in lung metastasis, cell invasion and survival. In this study, we found that TLR4 expression was elevated in most patients with NSCLC, and its expression levels correlated with key pathological characteristics, including tumor differentiation, stage and metastasis. Our data also showed that downregulation of TLR4 expression using an RNA silencing approach in A549 tumor cells significantly suppressed cell proliferation, cell migration and cell invasion, and induced tumor apoptosis in vitro, and suppressed tumor growth in vivo. In addition, we also found that downregulation of TLR4 expression significantly decreased cell TNF-? and IL-6 levels. Furthermore, we found that knockdown of TLR4 was able to significantly suppress constitutive phosphorylation of Akt and PI3K, which may contribute to the inhibition of tumor growth. These data suggest that TLR4 plays an important role in tumorigenic properties of human NSCLC, and that RNA interference-directed targeting of TLR4 could be used as a potential anticancer therapeutic target in NSCLC.
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Probucol suppresses human glioma cell proliferation in vitro via ROS production and LKB1-AMPK activation.
Acta Pharmacol. Sin.
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2014
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Aim:Probucol, an anti-hyperlipidemic drug, has been reported to exert antitumor activities at various stages of tumor initiation, promotion and progression. In this study we examined whether the drug affected glioma cell growth in vitro and the underlying mechanisms.Methods:Human glioma U87 and glioblastoma SF295 cell lines were used. Cell proliferation was accessed using the cell proliferation assay and BrdU incorporation. The phosphorylation of AMPK, liver kinase B1 (LKB1) and p27(Kip1) was detected by Western blot. The activity of 26S proteasome was assessed with an in situ fluorescent substrate. siRNAs were used to suppress the expression of the relevant signaling proteins.Results:Treatment of U87 glioma cells with probucol (10-100 ?mol/L) suppressed the cell proliferation in dose- and time dependent manners. Meanwhile, probucol markedly increased the ROS production, phosphorylation of AMPK at Thr172 and LKB1 at Ser428 in the cells. Furthermore, probucol significantly decreased 26S proteasome activity and increased p27(Kip1) protein level in the cells in an AMPK-dependent manner. Probucol-induced suppression of U87 cell proliferation could be reversed by pretreatment with tempol (a superoxide dismutase mimetic), MG132 (proteasome inhibitor) or compound C (AMPK inhibitor), or by gene silencing of LKB1, AMPK or p27(Kip1). Similar results were observed in probucol-treated SF295 cells.Conclusion:Probucol suppresses human glioma cell proliferation in vitro via ROS production and LKB1-AMPK activation, which reduces 26S proteasome-dependent degradation of p27(Kip1).
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Macrophage activation state determines the response to rhinovirus infection in a mouse model of allergic asthma.
Respir. Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2014
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The mechanisms by which viruses cause asthma exacerbations are not precisely known. Previously, we showed that, in ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized and -challenged mice with allergic airway inflammation, rhinovirus (RV) infection increases type 2 cytokine production from alternatively-activated (M2) airway macrophages, enhancing eosinophilic inflammation and airways hyperresponsiveness. In this paper, we tested the hypothesis that IL-4 signaling determines the state of macrophage activation and pattern of RV-induced exacerbation in mice with allergic airways disease.
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Transport measurement of Landau level gaps in bilayer graphene with layer polarization control.
Nano Lett.
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2014
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Landau level (LL) gaps are important parameters for understanding electronic interactions and symmetry-broken processes in bilayer graphene (BLG). Here we present transport spectroscopy measurements of LL gaps in double-gated suspended BLG with high mobilities in the quantum Hall regime. By using bias as a spectroscopic tool, we measure the gap ? for the quantum Hall (QH) state at filling factors ? = ±4 and -2. The single-particle ?(?=4) scales linearly with magnetic field B and is independent of the out-of-plane electric field E?. For the symmetry-broken ? = -2 state, the measured values of ?(?=-2) are ?1.1 meV/T and 0.17 meV/T for singly gated geometry and dual-gated geometry at E? = 0, respectively. The difference between the two values arises from the E?. dependence of ?(?=-2), suggesting that the ? = -2 state is layer polarized. Our studies provide the first measurements of the gaps of the broken symmetry QH states in BLG with well-controlled E? and establish a robust method that can be implemented for studying similar states in other layered materials.
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Clinical and urodynamic evaluation of women referred with diabetes mellitus.
Int Urogynecol J
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2014
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We investigated the impact of diabetes mellitus (DM) on female lower urinary tract dysfunction.
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DAWN: a framework to identify autism genes and subnetworks using gene expression and genetics.
Mol Autism
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2014
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De novo loss-of-function (dnLoF) mutations are found twofold more often in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) probands than their unaffected siblings. Multiple independent dnLoF mutations in the same gene implicate the gene in risk and hence provide a systematic, albeit arduous, path forward for ASD genetics. It is likely that using additional non-genetic data will enhance the ability to identify ASD genes.
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Changes of temporomandibular joint and semaphorin 4D/Plexin-B1 expression in a mouse model of incisor malocclusion.
J Oral Facial Pain Headache
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2014
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To investigate the changes in condylar cartilage and subchondral bone of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) in a mouse model of incisor malocclusion.
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Decreased bone marrow stromal cells activity involves in unilateral anterior crossbite-induced early subchondral bone loss of temporomandibular joints.
Arch. Oral Biol.
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2014
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Subchondral bone loss in mandibular condyles was reported to be induced by experimentally created unilateral anterior crossbite (UAC) which altered the occlusal load distribution and hereafter the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) remodelling process. However, the initial cellular responses are poorly understood. In the present study, changes in osteoblast and osteoclast activities in TMJ subchondral bone were investigated using the rats treated with UAC.
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[Expression of myeloid-related protein complex in association with circulating endothelial cells in children with acute Kawasaki disease].
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2014
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To investigate the expression of myeloid-related protein complex (MRP-8/14) in children with acute Kawasaki Disease (KD).
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Multiscale reconstruction algorithm for compressed sensing.
ISA Trans
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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Compressed sensing (CS) method has attracted increasing attention owing to providing a novel insight for signal and image processing technology. Acquiring high-quality reconstruction results plays a crucial role in successful applications of CS method. This paper presents a multiscale reconstruction model that simultaneously considers the inaccuracy properties on the measurement data and the measurement matrix. Based on the wavelet analysis method, the original inverse problem is decomposed into a sequence of inverse problems, which are solved successively from the largest scale to the original scale. An objective functional, that integrate the beneficial advantages of the least trimmed sum of absolute deviations (LTA) estimation and the combinational M-estimation, is proposed. An iteration scheme that incorporates the advantages of the homotopy method and the evolutionary programming (EP) algorithm is designed for solving the proposed objective functional. Numerical simulations are implemented to validate the feasibility of the proposed reconstruction method.
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Ghrelin receptor agonist, GHRP-2, produces antinociceptive effects at the supraspinal level via the opioid receptor in mice.
Peptides
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
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GHRP-2 is a synthetic agonist of ghrelin receptor. GHRP-2 has similar physiological functions with ghrelin. In our previous study, ghrelin (i.c.v.) could induce analgesic effect through an interaction with GHS-R1? and with the central opioid system in the acute pain in mice. To date, the function of GHRP-2 in pain processing was not understood. Therefore the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of GHRP-2 on pain modulation at supraspinal level in mice using the tail immersion test. Intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of GHRP-2 (0.1, 0.3, 1, 3 and 10 nmol/L) produced a concentration- and time-related antinociceptive effect. This effect could be fully antagonized by GHS-R1? antagonist [d-Lys(3)]-GHRP-6, indicating that the analgesic effect induced by GHRP-2 is mediated through the activation of GHS-R1?. Interestingly, naloxone, naltrindole and nor-binaltorphimine, but not ?-funaltrexamine, could also block the analgesic effect markedly, suggesting that ?- and ?-opioid receptor is involved in the analgesic response evoked by GHRP-2. Moreover, i.c.v. administration of GHRP-2 potentiated the analgesic effect induced by morphine (i.c.v., 1 nmol/L) and this potentiated effect could not be reversed by [d-Lys(3)]-GHRP-6. Thus these findings may be a new strategy on investigating the interaction between ghrelin system and opioids on pain modulation. Furthermore, GHRP-2 may be a promising peptide for developing new analgesic drugs.
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Roles of the periaqueductal gray in descending facilitatory and inhibitory controls of intramuscular hypertonic saline induced muscle nociception.
Exp. Neurol.
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2014
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Despite the importance of the periaqueductal gray (PAG) in the modulation of nociception and pain, many aspects of the roles of the different columns of the PAG in descending controls: facilitation and inhibition, are not understood. Employing a tonic muscle pain model established by i.m. injection of 5.8% saline into the gastrocnemius muscle, we now report the results of investigations designed to explore any differences in Fos expression in the different functional columns of the PAG in male Sprague-Dawley rats. In a second series of experiments, effects of the PAG on descending control of spinally-organized nociception were assessed by measuring hind paw withdrawal reflexes to noxious mechanical and heat stimulation before and after electrolytic lesion of specific columns of the PAG. Our results show that Fos expression within different columns of the PAG increases significantly and differentially following i.m. injection of 5.8% saline. The mean number of Fos positive neurons in the dorsolateral (dl), lateral (l), dorsomedial (dm) PAG elicited by i.m. injection of 5.8% saline reached a peak at 4h with a gradual decrease over time, whereas the maximum number of Fos-positive neurons in the ventrolateral (vl) PAG was observed 8h after i.m. injection. Contralateral lesion of the dl PAG significantly depressed ipsilateral secondary mechanical hyperalgesia in intramuscularly induced (5.8% saline) nociception (P<0.05), whereas heat hypoalgesia was not affected (P>0.05). By contrast, contralateral lesion of the vl PAG completely blocked the occurrence of ipsilateral heat hypoalgesia (P<0.05), while bilateral mechanical hyperalgesia was unaffected (P>0.05). In conclusion, functions of specific columns of the PAG in the control of spinal nociceptive activities are not homogeneous. It is suggested that, in this muscle pain model, the dl PAG and vl PAG participate in descending facilitation and inhibition of nociception, respectively.
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[Treatment of knee osteoarthritis with acupuncture and moxibustion: a randomized controlled trial].
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu
PUBLISHED: 12-31-2013
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To compare the difference of the efficacy on knee osteoarthritis (KOA) between the combined therapy of acupuncture and moxibustion and western medication, and explore the better therapeutic method for KOA.
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[Changes of the hemodynamics and extravascular lung water after different-volume fluid resuscitation in a piglet model of endotoxic shock].
Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-17-2013
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Practice recommendations have evolved, and consensus now exists among leading organizations such as the American College of Critical Care Medicine (ACCM) and Surviving Sepsis Campaign that fluid infusion is best initiated with boluses of 20 ml/kg, commonly requires 40-60 ml/kg but can be as much as 200 ml/kg if the liver is not enlarged and/or rales are not heard. The present study aimed to investigate and compare the changes of the hemodynamics and extravascular lung water after higher volume fluid resuscitation in a piglet model of endotoxic shock.
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One-pot, single-step deracemization of 2-hydroxyacids by tandem biocatalytic oxidation and reduction.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2013
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A facile and efficient one-pot, single-step method for deracemizing a broad range of 2-hydroxyacids to (R)-2-hydroxyacids was established by combination of resting cells of an (S)-hydroxyacid dehydrogenase-producing microorganism and an (R)-ketoacid reductase-producing microorganism.
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[Research relating the use of systematic drug and cataracts].
Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2013
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Cataract is the leading cause of blindness in the world. The use of certain drugs is one of the risk factors for lens opacities, such as glucocorticoids and chlorpromazine. We reviewed new studies regarding the relationship between cataract formation and drugs that have become more widely used in recent years, such as statins, anti-epileptic drugs, antidepresssants, tamoxifen, amiodarone, eltrombopag, isotretinoin, nifedipine and quetiapine. We hope this review could offer suggestions and reference for clinical doctors.
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Two novel MOF-74 analogs exhibiting unique luminescent selectivity.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2013
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Two MOF-74 analogs with OH groups on 1D channel surfaces have been synthesized through multi-component self-assembly at room temperature. Their guest-free forms demonstrate a potential luminescent probe or sensor for small molecules, and OH-MOF-74 (2a) also showed exceptional fluorescence quenching and enhancement behavior for different types of aromatic molecules.
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Attenuation of systemic morphine-induced analgesia by central administration of ghrelin and related peptides in mice.
Peptides
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2013
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Ghrelin, an acylated 28-amino peptide secreted in the gastric endocrine cells, has been demonstrated to stimulate the release of growth hormone, increase food intake, and inhibit pro-inflammatory cascade, etc. Ghrelin mainly combines with its receptor (GHS-R1?) to play the role in physiological and pathological functions. It has been reported that ghrelin plays important roles in the control of pain through interaction with the opioid system in inflammatory pain and acute pain. However, very few studies show the effect of supraspinal ghrelin system on antinociception induced by intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of morphine. In the present study, intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of ghrelin (0.1, 1, 10 and 100nmol/L) produced inhibition of systemic morphine (6mg/kg, i.p.) analgesia in the tail withdrawal test. Similarly, i.c.v. injection GHRP-6 and GHRP-2 which are the agonists of GHS-R1?, also decreased analgesia effect induced by morphine injected intraperitoneally in mice. Furthermore, these anti-opioid activities of ghrelin and related peptides were not blocked by pretreatment with the GHS-R1? selective antagonist [d-Lys(3)]-GHRP-6 (100nmol/L, i.c.v.). These results demonstrated that central ghrelin and related peptides could inhibit the analgesia effect induced by intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of morphine. The anti-opioid effects of ghrelin and related peptides do not interact with GHS-R1a. These findings may pave the way for a new strategy on investigating the interaction between ghrelin system and opioids on pain modulation.
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Effects of green liquor pretreatment on the chemical composition and enzymatic digestibility of rice straw.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 07-04-2013
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Green liquor (Na2S+Na2CO3, GL) pretreatment is a proven pathway to improve the enzymatic saccharification for the production of bioethanol. In this work, the effects of GL pretreatment on the chemical composition and enzymatic digestibility of rice straw at various total titratable alkali (TTA) charge and temperature were investigated. The GL pretreatment showed excellent performance in high polysaccharides retention and delignification selectivity. Under the optimized GL pretreatment condition (4% TTA charge, 20% sulfidity and 140°C), 92.5% of glucan, 82.4% of xylan and 81.6% of arabinan in rice straw were recovered with a delignification of 39.4%. The maximum sugar yields of 83.9%, 69.6% and 78.0%, respectively for glucan, xylan and total sugar, were achieved at the same GL pretreatment condition with an enzyme loading of 40 FPU/g-substrate. The results suggested that GL pretreatment is a practicable method for rice straw to enhance enzymatic saccharification for bioethanol production.
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Small compound bigelovin exerts inhibitory effects and triggers proteolysis of E2F1 in multiple myeloma cells.
Cancer Sci.
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2013
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Multiple myeloma (MM) is a currently incurable blood cancer. Here we tested the effects of a small compound bigelovin on MM cells, and reported that it caused cell cycle arrest and subsequently induced apoptosis. Bigelovin triggered proteolysis of E2F1, which could be inhibited by caspase inhibitor. To investigate the clinical relevance, the expression of E2F1 in MM specimens was tested, and the results showed that E2F1 was overexpressed in 25-57% of MM patients and was associated with higher International Staging System (ISS) stage. These results suggest that E2F1 may be important for MM pathogenesis, and bigelovin could serve as a lead compound for the development of E2F1 inhibitor.
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Ligand-stabilized Au13Cu(x) (x = 2, 4, 8) bimetallic nanoclusters: ligand engineering to control the exposure of metal sites.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2013
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Three novel bimetallic Au-Cu nanoclusters stabilized by a mixed layer of thiolate and phosphine ligands bearing pyridyl groups are synthesized and fully characterized by X-ray single crystal analysis and density functional theory computations. The three clusters have an icosahedral Au13 core face-capped by two, four, and eight Cu atoms, respectively. All face-capping Cu atoms in the clusters are triply coordinated by thiolate or pyridyl groups. The surface ligands control the exposure of Au sites in the clusters. In the case of the Au13Cu8 cluster, the presence of 12 2-pyridylthiolate ligands still leaves open space for catalysis. All the 3 clusters are 8-electron superatoms displaying optical gaps of 1.8-1.9 eV. The thermal decomposition studies suggest that the selective release of organic ligands from the clusters is possible.
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Super-paramagnetic responsive nanofibrous scaffolds under static magnetic field enhance osteogenesis for bone repair in vivo.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2013
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A novel nanofibrous composite scaffold composed of super-paramagnetic ?-Fe2O3 nanoparticles (MNP), hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (nHA) and poly lactide acid (PLA) was prepared using electrospinning technique. The scaffold well responds extern static magnetic field with typical saturation magnetization value of 0.049?emu/g as well as possesses nanofibrous architecture. The scaffolds were implanted in white rabbit model of lumbar transverse defects. Permanent magnets are fixed in the rabbit cages to provide static magnetic field for the rabbits post surgery. Results show that MNP incorporated in the nanofibers endows the scaffolds super-paramagnetic responsive under the applied static magnetic field, which accelerates new bone tissue formation and remodeling in the rabbit defect. The scaffold also exhibits good compatibility of CK, Cr, ALT and ALP within normal limits in the serum within 110 days post implantation. In conclusion, the super-paramagnetic responding scaffold with applying of external magnetic field provides a novel strategy for scaffold-guided bone repair.
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Coexpression networks implicate human midfetal deep cortical projection neurons in the pathogenesis of autism.
Cell
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2013
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Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex developmental syndrome of unknown etiology. Recent studies employing exome- and genome-wide sequencing have identified nine high-confidence ASD (hcASD) genes. Working from the hypothesis that ASD-associated mutations in these biologically pleiotropic genes will disrupt intersecting developmental processes to contribute to a common phenotype, we have attempted to identify time periods, brain regions, and cell types in which these genes converge. We have constructed coexpression networks based on the hcASD "seed" genes, leveraging a rich expression data set encompassing multiple human brain regions across human development and into adulthood. By assessing enrichment of an independent set of probable ASD (pASD) genes, derived from the same sequencing studies, we demonstrate a key point of convergence in midfetal layer 5/6 cortical projection neurons. This approach informs when, where, and in what cell types mutations in these specific genes may be productively studied to clarify ASD pathophysiology.
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[Concentrations and distribution characteristics of PCDD/Fs in spent etching solution and its copper salt recycling products].
Huan Jing Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2013
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Concentrations of 17 PCDD/Fs congeners in spent etching solution and its copper salt recycling products were determined by the high resolution gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC-HRMS). The PCDD/F concentrations and corresponding WHO-TEQ (toxic equivalent quantity) values were in the range of 0-3 460 pg.L (mean= 616 pg.L-1) and 0-246 pg.L-1 (mean = 42.9 pg.L-1) , respectively, in the spent etching solution, and 1.08-24.6 ng.kg-1 (mean = 8.83 ng.kg-1) and 0.112-0.715 ng.kg-1 (mean = 0.338 ng.kg-1), respectively, in the copper salt products. The established purification treatment technique could remove most of the PCDD/Fs in the etching solution. Of the copper products, higher PCDD/F concentrations were detected in industrial products than in feed grade and plating grade products. Similar distribution characteristics were found for PCDD/ Fs in all copper salt products as the followings: 1. PCDFs were more abundant than PCDDs, 2. high chlorinated congeners were more abundant than low chlorinated congeners, except for 2,3,7,8-TCDF in the copper sulfate products.
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Nitric oxide, a protective molecule in the cardiovascular system.
Nitric Oxide
PUBLISHED: 05-05-2013
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Nitric oxide (NO) is an intra- and inter-signaling molecule that regulates vessel dilatation, neuronal transmission, cardiac contraction, immunomodulation, and stem cell differentiation and proliferation. NO plays an important protective role in the cardiovascular system. NO inhibits smooth muscle cells proliferation and migration; enhances proliferation and migration of endothelial cell and inhibits apoptosis; suppresses platelet aggregation; and prevents platelet, leukocyte and monocyte adhesion to endothelium. NO exerts an inhibitory effect on the development of intimal hyperplasia in mechanically or immunologically injured vessel. New therapeutic approaches aimed at enhancing NO bioavailability or assisting delivery of NO locally may help patients with cardiovascular disease.
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[Retrospective study on the dynamic development of Chinese medical syndrome types of gastric cancer].
Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 04-20-2013
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To observe the effects of surgery and chemotherapy on the development of Chinese medical syndrome types on patients with gastric cancer (GC), thus providing the evidence for treating GC by Chinese medical syndrome differentiation and treatment by stages.
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Broken symmetry quantum Hall states in dual-gated ABA trilayer graphene.
Nano Lett.
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2013
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ABA-stacked trilayer graphene is a unique 2D electron system with mirror reflection symmetry and unconventional quantum Hall effect. We present low-temperature transport measurements on dual-gated suspended trilayer graphene in the quantum Hall (QH) regime. We observe QH plateaus at filling factors ? = -8, -2, 2, 6, and 10, which is in agreement with the full-parameter tight binding calculations. In high magnetic fields, odd-integer plateaus are also resolved, indicating almost complete lifting of the 12-fold degeneracy of the lowest Landau level (LL). Under an out-of-plane electric field E(perpendicular), we observe degeneracy breaking and transitions between QH plateaus. Interestingly, depending on its direction, E(perpendicular) selectively breaks the LL degeneracies in the electron-doped or hole-doped regimes. Our results underscore the rich interaction-induced phenomena in trilayer graphene.
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Combined antihypertensive effect of luteolin and buddleoside enriched extracts in spontaneously hypertensive rats.
J Ethnopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2013
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Flos Chrysanthemi is used in a variety of diseases in traditional Chinese medicine including hypertension, and the total flavonoids (rich in luteolin (LUT) and buddleoside (BUD)) of Flos Chrysanthemi is known to modulate vascular functions and reduce the blood pressure. However, the active flavonoids and their synergistic effects on anti-hypertension are still unclear. To investigate the combined anti-hypertension effects of LUT and BUD enriched extracts on spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), as well as the anti-hypertensive mechanism of LUT&BUD mixture.
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Sulfite-formaldehyde pretreatment on rice straw for the improvement of enzymatic saccharification.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 03-16-2013
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Rice straw is one of the most abundant agricultural residues in China. It is considered as a promising raw material for bioethanol production. In this work, rice straw was pretreated by sodium sulfite-formaldehyde (SF) for improving enzymatic saccharification. The SF pretreatment, using proven technology and industrialized equipment, showed efficient delignification selectivity and high carbohydrates retention in pretreated solid. The highest sugar yields of 79.0%, 88.8% and 71.1% for total sugar, glucan and xylan, respectively were obtained at an enzyme loading of 40 FPU/g-substrate after the raw material pretreated with 12% sodium sulfite at 160°C. About 75% of lignin was dissolved in pretreatment spent liquor and 78% of silica was retained in the residue of enzymatic hydrolysis. The results proved sulfite-formaldehyde as a promising pretreatment for the production of bioethanol as well as potential high value added by-products of silica nanoparticles and lignosulfonate.
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Praziquantel derivatives with antischistosomal activity: aromatic ring modification.
Chem Biol Drug Des
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2013
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A series of aromatic ring-modified praziquantel derivatives were prepared and evaluated against juvenile and adult stage of Schistosoma japonicumin. Several analogs comparable in activity to the drug praziquantel have been identified based on in vitro and in vivo japonuicum schistosomes worm viability assay. Structure and activity relationship of these praziquantel aromatic ring-modified compounds was revealed. Specifically, a compound in which a bromine has been introduced in the aromatic ring of praziquantel demonstrated close antischistosomal activity to praziquantel in vivo.
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Design of secondary optics for IRED in active night vision systems.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2013
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An effective optical design method is proposed to solve the problem of adjustable view angle for infrared illuminator in active night vision systems. A novel total internal reflection (TIR) lens with three segments of the side surface is designed as the secondary optics of infrared emitting diode (IRED). It can provide three modes with different view angles to achieve a complete coverage of the monitored area. As an example, a novel TIR lens is designed for SONY FCB-EX 480CP camera. Optical performance of the novel TIR lens is investigated by both numerical simulation and experiments. The results demonstrate that it can meet the requirements of different irradiation distances quit well with view angles of 7.5°, 22° and 50°. The mean optical efficiency is improved from 62% to 75% and the mean irradiance uniformity is improved from 65% to 85% compared with the traditional structure.
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In vivo characterization of the effects of ghrelin on the modulation of acute pain at the supraspinal level in mice.
Peptides
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2013
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Ghrelin, an acylated peptide produced in the stomach, increases food intake and growth hormone secretion, inhibits pro-inflammatory cascade, etc. Ghrelin and its receptor (GHS-R1a) mRNA were found in the area related to the regions for controlling pain transmission, such as the hypothalamus, the midbrain, the spinal cord, etc. Ghrelin has been shown to have antinociceptive activity and also anti-inflammatory properties in inflammatory pain and chronic neuropathic pain. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of ghrelin for the first time in the acute pain modulation at the supraspinal level, using the tail withdrawal test and hot-plate test in mice. Intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of ghrelin (mouse, 0.1-3 nmol) produced a dose- and time-related antinociceptive effect in the tail withdrawal test and hot-plate test, respectively. Antinociceptive effect elicited by ghrelin (i.c.v., 1 nmol) was significantly antagonized by opioid receptor antagonist naloxone (i.c.v., 10 nmol co-injection or i.p., 10mg/kg, 10 min prior to ghrelin) in both tail withdrawal test and hot-plate test. At these doses, naloxone significantly antagonized the antinociceptive effect induced by morphine (i.c.v., 3 nmol). Ghrelin (i.c.v., 1 nmol)-induced antinociception was significantly antagonized by co-injection with 10 nmol [d-Lys3]-GHRP-6, the selective antagonist of GHS-R1a identified more recently, while [d-Lys3]-GHRP-6 (10 nmol) alone induced neither hyperalgesia nor antinociception. Overall this data indicate that ghrelin could produce antinociception through an interaction with GHS-R1a and with the central opioid system. Thus ghrelin may be a promising peptide for developing new analgesic drugs.
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The role of E3 ubiquitin ligase Cbl proteins in interleukin-2-induced Jurkat T-cell activation.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2013
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Interleukin- (IL-) 2 is the major growth factor for T-cell activation and proliferation. IL-2 has multiple functions in the regulation of immunological processes. Although most studies focus on T-cell immunomodulation, T-cell activation by IL-2 is the foundation of priming the feedback loop. Here, we investigated the effect of MAPK/ERK and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways on IL-2-induced cell activation and the regulatory mechanisms of upstream ubiquitin ligase Cbl-b and c-Cbl. Morphological analysis of Jurkat T cells was performed by cytospin preparations with Wright-Giemsa stain. CD25 expression on Jurkat T cells was determined by flow cytometry. Changes in cell activation proteins such as p-ERK, ERK, p-Akt, Akt, and ubiquitin ligase Casitas B-cell Lymphoma (Cbl) proteins were analyzed by western blot. Following IL-2-induced activation of Jurkat T cells, p-ERK expression was upregulated, while there was no change in p-Akt, ERK, or Akt expression. Thus, the MAPK/ERK signaling pathway, but not PI3K/Akt, was involved in IL-2-induced T-cell activation. Either using PD98059 (a specific inhibitor for p-ERK) or depletion of ERK with small interfering RNA (siRNA) reduced the expression of CD25. This study also showed that ubiquitin ligase proteins Cbl-b and c-Cbl might be involved in IL-2-induced Jurkat T-cell activation by negatively regulating the MAPK/ERK signaling pathway.
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An image reconstruction algorithm for electrical capacitance tomography based on robust principle component analysis.
Sensors (Basel)
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2013
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Electrical capacitance tomography (ECT) attempts to reconstruct the permittivity distribution of the cross-section of measurement objects from the capacitance measurement data, in which reconstruction algorithms play a crucial role in real applications. Based on the robust principal component analysis (RPCA) method, a dynamic reconstruction model that utilizes the multiple measurement vectors is presented in this paper, in which the evolution process of a dynamic object is considered as a sequence of images with different temporal sparse deviations from a common background. An objective functional that simultaneously considers the temporal constraint and the spatial constraint is proposed, where the images are reconstructed by a batching pattern. An iteration scheme that integrates the advantages of the alternating direction iteration optimization (ADIO) method and the forward-backward splitting (FBS) technique is developed for solving the proposed objective functional. Numerical simulations are implemented to validate the feasibility of the proposed algorithm.
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Endogenous descending facilitation and inhibition differ in control of formalin intramuscularly induced persistent muscle nociception.
Exp. Neurol.
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2013
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In conscious rats, intramuscular injection of 2.5% formalin into the gastrocnemius muscle, at volumes between 25 and 200 ?l, evoked dose-dependent biphasic persistent flinching activities: phase 1 (0-10 min) and phase 2 (10-60 min). During this intramuscular formalin-induced ipsilateral muscle nociception, bilateral secondary mechanical hyperalgesia and heat hypoalgesia assessed by measuring thresholds of paw withdrawal reflex to noxious mechanical and heat stimuli were observed (P<0.05). Lesion of either the ipsilateral dorsal funiculus (DF) or contralateral thalamic mediodorsal (MD) nucleus significantly alleviated the formalin-induced flinches in both phase 1 and phase 2 of the behavioral response, and blocked the occurrence of secondary mechanical hyperalgesia, but not heat hypoalgesia. By contrast, lesion of the ipsilateral dorsal lateral funiculus (DLF) or contralateral thalamic ventromedial (VM) nucleus markedly enhanced the formalin induced flinching behavior in the late part (30-60 min) of phase 2 alone; phase 1 and early part (10-30 min) of phase 2 response were unaffected. Heat hypoalgesia, but not mechanical hyperalgesia, was markedly attenuated by this treatment (P<0.05). Microinjection of GABA (0.1 ?g/0.5 ?l) into the thalamic MD nucleus significantly depressed the intramuscular formalin-induced biphasic persistent nociception, and the occurrence of bilateral secondary mechanical hyperalgesia was significantly delayed (P<0.05). By contrast, microinjection of GABA into the thalamic VM nucleus significantly enhanced the formalin-induced nociceptive behavior in the late part (30-60 min) of phase 2, and the bilateral secondary heat hypoalgesia was temporarily prevented (P<0.05). The present study demonstrates that intramuscular formalin evokes biphasic muscle nociception, and that bilateral secondary mechanical hyperalgesia and heat hypoalgesia are differentially controlled by endogenous descending facilitation and inhibition respectively. It is further suggested that thalamic MD nucleus and VM nucleus constitute an endogenous discriminative, modulatory system that exerts, via pathways in the DF and DLF, descending facilitatory and inhibitory actions on responses to peripheral afferent activity evoked by noxious mechanical and heat stimulation.
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Optimal Duration of Fluorouracil-Based Adjuvant Chemotherapy for Patients with Resectable Gastric Cancer.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Although several clinical trials have suggested that postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy can improve survival of patients with gastric cancer, the optimal treatment duration has not been studied. This retrospective analysis evaluated the outcomes of patients with gastric cancer treated with six cycles of fluorouracil-based treatment compared with a cohort treated with four or eight cycles.
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Responses of nutrients and mobile carbohydrates in Quercus variabilis seedlings to environmental variations using in situ and ex situ experiments.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Forest tree species distributed across a wide range of geographical areas are subjected to differential climatic and edaphic conditions and long-term selection, leading to genotypes with morphological and physiological adaptation to the local environment. To test the ability of species to cope with changing environmental conditions, we studied the ecophysiological features of Quercus variabilis using seedlings grown in geographically widely isolated populations (Exp. I, in situ) and in a common garden (Exp. II, ex situ) using seedlings originating from those populations. We found that Q. variabilis plants grown in different locations along a south-north gradient had different levels of nutrients (N, P, K) and carbon-physiological performance (photosynthesis, non-structural carbohydrates, such as soluble sugars and starch), and that these physiological differences were not correlated with local soil properties. These geographic variations of plant physiology disappeared when plants from different locations were grown in the same environment. Our results indicate that the physiological performance of Q. variabilis plants is mainly determined by the climatic variations across latitude rather than by their soils or by genetic differentiation. The adaptive ability of Q. variabilis found in the present study suggests that this species has the potential to cope, at least to some extent, with changing environmental conditions.
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SPARC modulates expression of extracellular matrix genes in human trabecular meshwork cells.
Acta Ophthalmol
PUBLISHED: 12-02-2011
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To investigate the effects of secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) on the expression of components of the extracellular matrix (ECM) in cultured human trabecular meshwork (TM) cells.
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[Clinical characteristics and genetic mutation analysis in a Hui family with Huntington disease].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2011
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To perform clinical analysis and gene diagnosis of Huntington disease (HD) in a Hui pedigree from Xinjiang.
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No evidence of association between the LINGO4 gene and essential tremor in Chinese Han patients.
Parkinsonism Relat. Disord.
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2011
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Essential tremor (ET) is shown an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance, with no disease-causing gene has been found. Genetic variations in the leucine-rich repeat and lg domain containing nogo receptor-interacting protein genes (LINGO1 and LINGO2) were reported to be associated with an increased risk of developing ET. To explore whether the LINGO4 gene (a homologous gene of the LINGO1 and the LINGO2 genes) plays a role in ET susceptibility, we performed genetic analysis of coding region of the LINGO4 gene in 100 patients with ET from Mainland China. Two nucleotide variants had been identified: (1) T > A transition (rs61746299), predicted to lead to the amino acid change Thr444Ser, and (2) C > T transition (rs1521179), located 12 bp downstream to the end of coding region. To evaluate whether these variants are related to ET susceptibility, we investigated a total of 150 Chinese Han ET patients (77 familial ET and 73 sporadic ET) and 300 sex, age and ethnicity matched normal controls. No significant differences in genotypic and allele distributions between patients and control subjects for rs61746299 and rs1521179 (p = 0.531 and p = 0.867 for genotypic distributions; p = 1.000 and p = 0.844 for allele distributions) were observed, suggesting variants in coding region of the LINGO4 gene may play litter or no role in the risk of ET susceptibility.
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Mutation screening of the HDC gene in Chinese Han patients with Tourette syndrome.
Am. J. Med. Genet. B Neuropsychiatr. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2011
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Tourette Syndrome (TS) is a complex neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by vocal and motor tics. While environmental causes have been proposed to play a role, genetic factors are believed to be the main determinants of the disorder and its clinical manifestations. Recently, a heterozygous W317X mutation in the histidine decarboxylase gene (HDC) was reported to be responsible for TS in a two-generation pedigree. To investigate whether the HDC gene play a role in TS in Chinese Han population, we performed genetic analysis of the coding region of the HDC gene in 100 Chinese Han patients with TS. Three variants were found including a C?>?T transition (IVS1?+?52C?>?T), a novel C?>?A transition (c.426C?>?A) in exon 4, and a novel G?>?A transition (c.1743G?>?A) in exon 12, both predicted with no amino acid change. Extended analysis was conducted in a total of 120 TS patients and 240 sex, age, and ethnicity matched healthy controls. No significant differences in genotypic and allele distribution between patients and controls for these three variants (P?=?0.274, P?=?1.000 and P?=?0.632 for genotypic distribution, respectively; P?=?0.143, P?=?1.000 and P?=?0.582 for allele distribution, respectively) were observed, suggesting variants in the HDC gene may play little or no role in TS susceptibility in Chinese Han population.
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Pancreatic and peri-pancreatic lesions mimic pancreatic islet cell tumor in multidetector computed tomography.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2011
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This pictorial review aimed to summarize the most possible differential diagnosis of pancreatic islet cell tumor (PICT).
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Variation of pain and vasomotor responses evoked by intramuscular infusion of hypertonic saline in human subjects: influence of gender and its potential neural mechanisms.
Brain Res. Bull.
PUBLISHED: 06-22-2011
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The aim of current study was to explore role of gender in pain and cutaneous vasomotor responses during the condition of intramuscular (i.m.) hypertonic (HT, 5.8%) saline induced muscle pain. In 20 healthy human subjects (10 females), 2-4.8ml of either HT or isotonic (IT, 0.9%) saline was infused into the left tibialis anterior muscle to elicit muscle pain, during which the intensity and distribution of pain together with skin vasomotor responses were investigated. Cutaneous blood flow was assessed using laser-Doppler flowmetry in 4 different skin areas: ipsilateral infusion area (5cm×5cm), ipsilateral referred pain area (5cm×10cm), contralateral area to the infusion site (5cm×5cm), and contralateral area to the referred pain site (5cm×10cm). Among the different i.m. infusions, 4.8ml HT saline evoked the highest pain intensity, the longest pain duration, and the largest pain distribution area in different subjects (P<0.001). Gender-related differences in pain and skin vasomotor responses were observed following the i.m. HT, but not IT, saline infusion while women exhibited stronger pain intensity and duration (P<0.001), and more expressed vasomotor responses (P<0.05) at the infusion area and contralateral mirror site. Intramuscularly pre-treating the infusion area with 1ml of 2% lidocaine markedly reduced the muscle pain and blocked the increased skin blood flow in both men and women (P<0.05). However, post-treatment with lidocaine significantly reduced the pain intensity and the increased skin blood flow only in men, but not women. The data demonstrate that gender-associated difference exists in HT saline intramuscularly induced local muscle pain and vasomotor responses. Neural mechanisms underlying gender-related differences in vasomotor responses is significantly different, suggesting that local pre-treatment, but not post-treatment, with anesthetic may provide superior analgesia to block sex-associated difference in pain and vasomotor responses.
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[c-SRC knockdown decreases phosphorylated STAT3 expression and viability of HeLa cells].
Sheng Li Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2011
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The present study was to determine the effect of c-SRC on the viability of human cervical cancer HeLa cells and the expression of phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (p-STAT3) of the cell. Post-transfection of c-SRC RNA interference vector, RT-PCR and Western blot were utilized to observe the contents of c-SRC mRNA and protein, respectively, in HeLa cells. The MTT was used to observe the viability of the cells. Cell cycle was observed by flow cytometry. The content of p-STAT3 in the cells was also investigated after knockdown of c-SRC. Knockdown of c-SRC significantly decreased the contents of c-SRC mRNA and protein in the cells. The viability of the cells decreased by 23.1%, 29.3%, 38.6% and 45.0% (all P < 0.05), respectively, after the cells were transfected with c-SRC RNA interference vector for 24, 48, 72, and 96 h. The number of S-phase cells decreased by 5.6%, 10.0%, 15.2% and 19.9% (all P < 0.05), respectively, after transfection of c-SRC RNA interference vector for 24, 48, 72, and 96 h. The content of p-STAT3 also decreased when c-SRC was knockdowned. Compared with the control group, after treatment of HeLa cells with STAT3 inhibitor Piceatannol for 24, 48, 72, and 96 h, the cell viability decreased by 23.8%, 29.7%, 37.3% and 45.4% (all P < 0.05), respectively, while increase of c-SRC content could not reverse the inhibitory effect. These results suggest that the inhibited viability of HeLa cells caused by knockdown of c-SRC is associated with the decreased content of p-STAT3 protein.
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Chemical and physical factors in design of antibiofouling polymer coatings.
Biomacromolecules
PUBLISHED: 06-07-2011
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Because most "low fouling" polymers resisting bacterial attachment are hydrophilic, they are usually also significantly swollen. Swelling leads to purely physical dilution of interaction and weakens attachment; however, these nonspecific contributions are usually not separated from the specific effect of polymer chemistry. Taking advantage of the fact that chemistry and swelling of hydrogels may be independently varied through the fraction of a cross-linker, the roles of chemistry and physical dilution (swelling) in bacterial attachment are analyzed for selected hydrogels. Using as a quantitative indicator the rate of bacterial deposition in a parallel plate setup under defined flow conditions, the observed correlation of deposition rate with swelling provides a straightforward comparison of gels with different chemistries that can factor out the effect of swelling. In particular, it is found that chemistry appears to contribute similarly to bacterial deposition on hydrogels prepared from acrylamide and a zwitterioninic monomer 2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl) dimethyl-(3-sulfopropyl) ammonium hydroxide so that the observed differences may be related to swelling only. In contrast, these gels were inferior to PEG-based hydrogels, even when swelling of the latter was lower, indicating a greater contribution of PEG chemistry to reduced bacterial deposition. This demonstrates that swelling must be accounted for when comparing different biofouling-resistant materials. Chemical and physical principles may be combined in hydrogel coatings to develop efficient antibiofouling surfaces.
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Suspension and measurement of graphene and Bi2Se3 thin crystals.
Nanotechnology
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2011
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Coupling high-quality suspended atomic membranes to specialized electrodes enables the investigation of many novel phenomena, such as spin or Cooper pair transport in these two-dimensional systems. However, many electrode materials are not stable in the acids that are used to dissolve underlying substrates. Here we present a versatile and powerful multilevel lithographical technique to suspend thin crystals, which can be applied to the vast majority of substrate, crystal and electrode materials. Using this technique, we fabricated suspended graphene devices with Al electrodes and a mobility of 5500 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1). We also demonstrate, for the first time, fabrication and measurement of a free-standing thin Bi(2)Se(3) crystal, which has low contact resistance to electrodes and a mobility of approximately > 580 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1).
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[Expression and prognostic value of M2 macrophages and regulatory T cells in gastric carcinoma tissue].
Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2011
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To explore the prognostic value of M2 macrophages and regulatory T cells(Tregs) in gastric carcinoma.
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Evaluation of image quality and radiation dose at prospective ECG-triggered axial 256-slice multi-detector CT in infants with congenital heart disease.
Pediatr Radiol
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2011
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There are a limited number of reports on the technical and clinical feasibility of prospective electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) in infants with congenital heart disease (CHD).
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[Gene mutation and clinical characteristics of a Chinese Uygur family with spinocerebellar ataxia type 12].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2011
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To investigate the CAG trinucleotide repeat expansion and clinical characteristics of a Chinese Uygur family with spinocerebellar ataxia type 12 (SCA12) in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region.
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Protective effects of hydrogen-rich saline on monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension in a rat model.
Respir. Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2011
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Hydrogen-rich saline has been reported to have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects and effectively protect against organ damage. Oxidative stress and inflammation contribute to the pathogenesis and/or development of pulmonary hypertension. In this study, we investigated the effects of hydrogen-rich saline on the prevention of pulmonary hypertension induced by monocrotaline in a rat model.
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Involvement of c-Src/STAT3 signal in EGF-induced proliferation of rat spermatogonial stem cells.
Mol. Cell. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2011
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Epidermal growth factor (EGF) plays a role in male germ cell development, but the precise function is yet to be defined. This study shows that EGF stimulates rat spermatogonial proliferation in a dose-dependent manner and significantly increased the protein levels of phosphated c-Src (p-c-Src) and phosphated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (p-STAT3). Moreover, overexpression of c-Src tagged with enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP) in rat spermatogonial stem cells enhances the cell viability. In contrast, knockdown or inhibition of c-Src inhibits rat spermatogonial stem cell proliferation; EGF could not abrogate the inhibitory effect. Evidently, the content of p-STAT3 protein was increased in c-Src-expressing cells and decreased in c-Src-suppressing cells. Furthermore, knockdown or inhibition of STAT3 also suppressed cell viability; neither EGF nor increased c-Src could reverse the inhibitory effect. These results are the first evidence that EGF induces proliferation of rat spermatogonial stem cells through c-Src/STAT3 signal.
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