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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Klotho suppresses renal tubulo-interstitial fibrosis by controlling basic fibroblast growth factor-2 signalling.
J. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2014
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Increased basic fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2) and reduced Klotho have both been reported to be closely associated with renal fibrosis. However, the relationship between Klotho and FGF2 remains unclear. We demonstrate that FGF2 induced tubulo-epithelial plasticity in cultured HK-2 cells, accompanied by a reduction in Klotho expression, whereas recombinant Klotho protein could inhibit the action of FGF2. The FGF2 effects required extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1/2 activation, which was suppressed by Klotho. Moreover, Klotho also restrained FGF2-induced fibroblast proliferation and activation. The inhibitory effect of Klotho on the activity of FGF2 was likely due to its potent ability to compete with FGF2 binding to FGF receptor 1. Unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO)-induced renal fibrosis was associated with an increase in FGF2 and a reduction in Klotho expression in wild-type mice, whereas FGF2(-/-) mice largely preserved Klotho expression and developed only mild renal fibrosis after obstructive injury. Furthermore, administration of Klotho protein in UUO mice significantly reduced renal fibrosis, concomitant with a marked suppression of FGF2 production and signalling. These studies demonstrate a feedback loop between Klotho depletion and FGF2 activation in renal fibrosis. Our results also suggest that Klotho treatment reduces renal fibrosis, at least in part, by inhibiting FGF2 signalling. Copyright © 2014 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Cytosolic nucleotides block and regulate the Arabidopsis vacuolar anion channel AtALMT9.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2014
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The aluminum-activated malate transporters (ALMTs) form a membrane protein family exhibiting different physiological roles in plants, varying from conferring tolerance to environmental Al(3+) to the regulation of stomatal movement. The regulation of the anion channels of the ALMT family is largely unknown. Identifying intracellular modulators of the activity of anion channels is fundamental to understanding their physiological functions. In this study we investigated the role of cytosolic nucleotides in regulating the activity of the vacuolar anion channel AtALMT9. We found that cytosolic nucleotides modulate the transport activity of AtALMT9. This modulation was based on a direct block of the pore of the channel at negative membrane potentials (open channel block) by the nucleotide and not by a phosphorylation mechanism. The block by nucleotides of AtALMT9-mediated currents was voltage dependent. The blocking efficiency of intracellular nucleotides increased with the number of phosphate groups and ATP was the most effective cellular blocker. Interestingly, the ATP block induced a marked modification of the current-voltage characteristic of AtALMT9. In addition, increased concentrations of vacuolar anions were able to shift the ATP block threshold to a more negative membrane potential. The block of AtALMT9-mediated anion currents by ATP at negative membrane potentials acts as a gate of the channel and vacuolar anion tune this gating mechanism. Our results suggest that anion transport across the vacuolar membrane in plant cells is controlled by cytosolic nucleotides and the energetic status of the cell.
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P2X7 receptor blockade protects against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in mice by decreasing the activities of inflammasome components, oxidative stress and caspase-3.
Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2014
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Nephrotoxicity is a common complication of cisplatin chemotherapy and thus limits the use of cisplatin in clinic. The purinergic 2X7 receptor (P2X7R) plays important roles in inflammation and apoptosis in some inflammatory diseases; however, its roles in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity remain unclear. In this study, we first assessed the expression of P2X7R in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in C57BL/6 mice, and then we investigated the changes of renal function, histological injury, inflammatory response, and apoptosis in renal tissues after P2X7R blockade in vivo using an antagonist A-438079. Moreover, we measured the changes of nod-like receptor family, pyrin domain containing proteins (NLRP3) inflammasome components, oxidative stress, and proapoptotic genes in renal tissues in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity after treatment with A-438079. We found that the expression of P2X7R was significantly upregulated in the renal tubular epithelial cells in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity compared with that of the normal control group. Furthermore, pretreatment with A-438079 markedly attenuated the cisplatin-induced renal injury while lightening the histological damage, inflammatory response and apoptosis in renal tissue, and improved the renal function. These effects were associated with the significantly reduced levels of NLRP3 inflammasome components, oxidative stress, p53 and caspase-3 in renal tissues in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. In conclusions, our studies suggest that the upregulated activity of P2X7R might play important roles in the development of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity, and P2X7R blockade might become an effective therapeutic strategy for this disease.
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Rapamycin promotes podocyte autophagy and ameliorates renal injury in diabetic mice.
Mol. Cell. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2014
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The aim was to explore the effects of rapamycin on autophagy and injury of podocytes in streptozocin (STZ)-induced type 1 diabetic mice, and its role in delaying progression of diabetic nephropathy. In this study, male Balb/c mice were divided into three groups: control (n = 12), STZ-induced diabetic (n = 12), and rapamycin-treated diabetic (DM + Rapa) (n = 12), which received intraperitoneal injection of rapamycin (2 mg/kg/48 h) after induction of DM. Levels of urinary albumin (UA), blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, and kidney weight/body weight were measured at week 12. Renal pathologic changes, number of podocytes autophagy, and organelles injury were investigated by PAS staining, transmission electron microscopy, and immunofluorescence staining, respectively. Western blot was performed to determine the expression of LC3 (a podocyte autophagy marker), phosphorylated mammalian target of rapamycin, p-p70S6K, bax, and caspase-3 protein. Podocytes count was evaluated by immunofluorescence staining and Wilms tumor 1 immunohistochemistry, and Western blot of nephrin and podocin. The results indicated that rapamycin could reduce the kidney weight/body weight and UA secretion. It could alleviate podocyte foot process fusion, glomerular basement membrane thickening, and matrix accumulation, and increase the number of autophagosomes, and LC3-expressing podocytes. Down-regulation of bax and caspase-3 protein, and up-regulation of nephrin and podocin protein were observed in the glomeruli of diabetic mice after administration of rapamycin. In conclusion, rapamycin can ameliorate renal injury in diabetic mice by increasing the autophagy activity and inhibition of apoptosis of podocytes.
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Interferon-? release assay in the diagnosis of laryngeal tuberculosis.
Acta Otolaryngol.
PUBLISHED: 11-21-2013
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Abstract Conclusion: The T-SPOT test for Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (T-SPOT.TB) can be used for early diagnosis of laryngeal tuberculosis (TB). Objective: The incidence of TB is increasing on a global scale. Laryngeal TB is the most common extrapulmonary form of TB and its early diagnosis is still difficult. This study investigated the performance of the interferon-? release assay in the diagnosis of laryngeal TB. Methods: A total of 83 patients with laryngeal neoplasms were confirmed to have laryngeal TB by pathology, acid-fast staining, and/or fluorescence quantitative PCR. In addition, 52 patients with vocal cord polyps were enrolled as the control group. Two groups underwent both T-SPOT.TB and tuberculin skin test (TST). Results: T-SPOT.TB was positive in 75 cases in the laryngeal TB group and 4 cases in the control group, showing a sensitivity of 90.3% (75/83) and a specificity of 92.3% (48/52). The TST was positive in 42 cases and 20 cases, respectively, in these two groups. Obviously, TST and T-SPOT.TB were significantly different in terms of sensitivity when applied for detection of laryngeal TB (p < 0.05).
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Combined use of 18F-FDG PET/CT, DW-MRI, and DCE-MRI in treatment response for preoperative chemoradiation therapy in locally invasive rectal cancers.
Clin Nucl Med
PUBLISHED: 09-21-2013
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We investigated if 18F-FDG PET/CT, DW-MRI, and DCE-MRI are able to predict preoperative chemoradiation therapy (CRT) response in patients with T3-4 rectal adenocarcinomas. MRI and PET/CT scans were performed within 1 week, at baseline, early midtreatment (2 weeks of CRT), and posttreatment (6 weeks after completing CRT). Responders (n = 4) and nonresponders (n = 4) were defined according to tumor regression grade by histology. Only SUVmax (P = 0.030) at early midtreatment could significantly differentiate between responders and nonresponders, suggesting that 18F-FDG PET/CT may be effective to predict early treatment response compared with DW-MRI and DCE-MRI in T3-4 rectal cancer.
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Identification of a probable pore-forming domain in the multimeric vacuolar anion channel AtALMT9.
Plant Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2013
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Aluminum-activated malate transporters (ALMTs) form an important family of anion channels involved in fundamental physiological processes in plants. Because of their importance, the role of ALMTs in plant physiology is studied extensively. In contrast, the structural basis of their functional properties is largely unknown. This lack of information limits the understanding of the functional and physiological differences between ALMTs and their impact on anion transport in plants. This study aimed at investigating the structural organization of the transmembrane domain of the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) vacuolar channel AtALMT9. For that purpose, we performed a large-scale mutagenesis analysis and found two residues that form a salt bridge between the first and second putative transmembrane ?-helices (TM?1 and TM?2). Furthermore, using a combination of pharmacological and mutagenesis approaches, we identified citrate as an "open channel blocker" of AtALMT9 and used this tool to examine the inhibition sensitivity of different point mutants of highly conserved amino acid residues. By this means, we found a stretch within the cytosolic moiety of the TM?5 that is a probable pore-forming domain. Moreover, using a citrate-insensitive AtALMT9 mutant and biochemical approaches, we could demonstrate that AtALMT9 forms a multimeric complex that is supposedly composed of four subunits. In summary, our data provide, to our knowledge, the first evidence about the structural organization of an ion channel of the ALMT family. We suggest that AtALMT9 is a tetramer and that the TM?5 domains of the subunits contribute to form the pore of this anion channel.
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[Application of computed tomographic angiography in repairing skin defect after scalp avulsion with free latissimus dorsi flap transplantation].
Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2013
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To investigate the clinical value of computed tomographic angiography (CTA) and three-dimensional reconstruction technique in repairing scalp avulsion wound with large skull exposure by the free latissimus dorsi flap transplantation.
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Sulbactam-based therapy for Acinetobacter baumannii infection: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Braz J Infect Dis
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2013
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A number of studies have reported on the effectiveness of sulbactam-based therapies for Acinetobacter baumannii infection; however, there is little evidence that sulbactam-based therapies are more or less effective than alternative therapies. Unfortunately, there is a distinct lack of high quality data (i.e., from randomized controlled trials) available on this issue. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis comparing the efficacy of sulbactam-based and non-sulbactam-based regimens in the treatment of A. baumannii infection.
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AtALMT9 is a malate-activated vacuolar chloride channel required for stomatal opening in Arabidopsis.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2013
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Water deficit strongly affects crop productivity. Plants control water loss and CO2 uptake by regulating the aperture of the stomatal pores within the leaf epidermis. Stomata aperture is regulated by the two guard cells forming the pore and changing their size in response to ion uptake and release. While our knowledge about potassium and chloride fluxes across the plasma membrane of guard cells is advanced, little is known about fluxes across the vacuolar membrane. Here we present the molecular identification of the long-sought-after vacuolar chloride channel. AtALMT9 is a chloride channel activated by physiological concentrations of cytosolic malate. Single-channel measurements demonstrate that this activation is due to a malate-dependent increase in the channel open probability. Arabidopsis thaliana atalmt9 knockout mutants exhibited impaired stomatal opening and wilt more slowly than the wild type. Our findings show that AtALMT9 is a vacuolar chloride channel having a major role in controlling stomata aperture.
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The influence of cathelicidin LL37 in human anti-neutrophils cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis.
Arthritis Res. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2013
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Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV) is characterised by the autoinflammation and necrosis of blood vessel walls. The renal involvement is commonly characterised by a pauci-immune crescentic glomerulonephritis (PiCGN) with a very rapid decline in renal function. Cathelicidin LL37, an endogenous antimicrobial peptide, has recently been implicated in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. To assess whether serum LL37 reflects renal crescentic formation, we measured the serum levels of LL37 in AAV patients with and without crescentic glomerulonephritis (crescentic GN) as compared to healthy controls (HCs). We also analysed the correlation of the serum levels of LL37 and interferon-? (IFN-?) with the clinical characteristics of the patients.
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Probucol inhibits hydrogen peroxide to induce apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2013
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The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the antioxidant probucol on hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) apoptosis. H2O2 (1 mmol/l) was used as the VSMC apoptosis-inducing agent, and 100, 10 and 1 µmol/l probucol concentrations were incubated with cells for 6 h. The cell apoptosis was observed using Annexin V-FITC, TUNEL and Hoechst 33258 staining methods. H2O2 promoted VSMC apoptosis, ASK-1 protein expression increased and Trx-l protein expression decreased. Probucol reduced H2O2-induced apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner; while ASK-1 protein expression decreased, Trx-1 protein expression increased. Probuco1 is capable of antagonizing the H2O2-induced apoptosis in VSMCs, which may be related to the decrease in ASK-1 protein expression and the increase in Trx-1 protein expression.
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Sinomenine inhibits the expression of PD?L1 in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of mesangial proliferative nephritis patients.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2013
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Sinomenine has been used to treat autoimmune diseases for centuries. However, little is known about its exact mechanisms of action. Whether sinomenine has an effect on programmed death?1 (PD?1) ligands (PD?Ls) in vivo remains unclear. The present study aimed to determine the effect of sinomenine on the expression of PD?L1 and PD?L2 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). A total of 25 patients with mesangial proliferative nephritis (MsPGN) were treated with sinomenine and followed up for 3 months. The expression of PD?L1 and PD?L2 was studied by using real?time RT?PCR and flow cytometric analysis, and recorded at months 0, 1 and 3 within the PBMCs. The intra?renal expression of PD?L1 and PD?L2 was studied by immunohistochemistry. The results revealed that the PBMCs from the MsPGN patients expressed high levels of PD?L1 at the mRNA and protein levels compared with the healthy donors. Immunohistochemistry revealed an increased PD?L1 expression in the renal tissues from the MsPGN patients. Sinomenine was observed to have a significant effect in decreasing the PD?L1 expression in the PBMCs. The present study therefore suggests a novel mechanism for the therapeutic effects of sinomenine on MsPGN in vivo.
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The vacuolar channel VvALMT9 mediates malate and tartrate accumulation in berries of Vitis vinifera.
Planta
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2013
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Vitis vinifera L. represents an economically important fruit species. Grape and wine flavour is made from a complex set of compounds. The acidity of berries is a major parameter in determining grape berry quality for wine making and fruit consumption. Despite the importance of malic and tartaric acid (TA) storage and transport for grape berry acidity, no vacuolar transporter for malate or tartrate has been identified so far. Some members of the aluminium-activated malate transporter (ALMT) anion channel family from Arabidopsis thaliana have been shown to be involved in mediating malate fluxes across the tonoplast. Therefore, we hypothesised that a homologue of these channels could have a similar role in V. vinifera grape berries. We identified homologues of the Arabidopsis vacuolar anion channel AtALMT9 through a TBLASTX search on the V. vinifera genome database. We cloned the closest homologue of AtALMT9 from grape berry cDNA and designated it VvALMT9. The expression profile revealed that VvALMT9 is constitutively expressed in berry mesocarp tissue and that its transcription level increases during fruit maturation. Moreover, we found that VvALMT9 is targeted to the vacuolar membrane. Using patch-clamp analysis, we could show that, besides malate, VvALMT9 mediates tartrate currents which are higher than in its Arabidopsis homologue. In summary, in the present study we provide evidence that VvALMT9 is a vacuolar malate channel expressed in grape berries. Interestingly, in V. vinifera, a tartrate-producing plant, the permeability of the channel is apparently adjusted to TA.
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Mesenchymal stem cells ameliorate podocyte injury and proteinuria in a type 1 diabetic nephropathy rat model.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2013
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Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) attenuate albuminuria and preserve normal renal histology in diabetic mice. However, the effects of MSC on glomerular podocyte injury remain uncertain. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of MSC on podocyte injury in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Thirty days after diabetes induction by STZ injection (65 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) in Sprague-Dawley rats, the diabetic rats received medium or 2 × 10(6) enhanced green fluorescent protein-labeled MSC via the renal artery. In vivo tracking of MSC was followed by immunofluorescence analysis. Diabetes-related physical and biochemical parameters were measured on day 60 after the MSC infusion. The expression of podocyte markers (nephrin and podocin), podocyte survival factors (VEGF and BMP-7), and the ultrastructural pathology of podocytes were also assessed. MSC were only detected in the glomeruli from the left kidney receiving MSC infusion. Compared with medium-treated diabetic rats, rats treated with MSC showed a suppressed increase in kidney weight, kidney to body weight index, creatinine clearance rate, and urinary albumin to creatinine ratio; however, the treatment had no effect on blood glucose or body weight levels. Furthermore, the MSC treatment reduced the loss of podocytes, effacement of foot processes, widening of foot processes, thickening of glomerular basal membrane (GBM), and loss of glomerular nephrin and podocin. Most important, MSC-injected kidneys expressed higher levels of BMP-7 but not of VEGF. Our results clearly demonstrated that intra-arterial administration of MSC prevented the development of albuminuria as well as any damage to or loss of podocytes, though there was no improvement in blood sugar levels. The protective effects of MSC may be mediated in part by increasing BMP-7 secretion.
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Prediction of methylation sites using the composition of K-spaced amino acid pairs.
Protein Pept. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2013
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Protein methylation is one of the most important post-translational modifications. Typically methylation occurs on arginine or lysine residues in the protein sequence. In the biological system, methylation is catalyzed by enzymes, and should be involved in modification of heavy metals, regulation of gene expression, regulation of protein function, and RNA metabolism. Thus the prediction of methylation sites plays a crucial role. As we know, traditional experiment approaches to predict the sites are accurate, but that are always labor-intensive and time-consuming. Thus, it is common to see that computational methods receive increasingly attentions due to their convenience and fast speed in recent years. In this study, we develop a computational approach to predict the performance of methylarginine and methyllysine sites. First, a new encoding schema as called the CKASSP is used in our method. Then, the support vector machine (SVM) algorithm is used as a predictor. Experimental results show that our method can obtain average prediction accuracy of 87.46%, sensitivity of 99.09%, specificity of 86.89% for arginine methylation sites, and average prediction accuracy of 88.78%, sensitivity of 93.75%, specificity of 81.79% for lysine methylation sites as well, which is better than those of other state-of-art predictors. The online service is implemented by java 1.4.2 and is freely available at http://202.198.129.219:8080/cksaap_methsite.
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Pentraxin 3: an immuno-regulator in the lungs.
Front Immunol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Pentraxin 3 (PTX3) is a soluble pattern recognition receptor that is a humoral component of the innate immune system. It interacts with pathogenic moieties, infected and dying host cells and facilitates their removal through activation of appropriate innate and adaptive mechanisms. PTX3 is secreted by a diverse variety of cells, ranging from immune cells to structural cells, in response to Toll like receptor (TLR) engagement, inflammatory stimuli, and physical and chemical stress. Further, PTX3 plays an essential role in female fertility as it facilitates the organization of extracellular matrix in the cumulus oophorus. Such activity is also implicated in post-inflammation tissue repair. PTX3 is a multifunctional protein and plays a non-redundant role in providing immunity against potential immunological dangers. Thus, we assessed its role in lung immunity, as lungs are at a constant risk of infections and tissue damage that is attributable to perpetual exposure to foreign agents.
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Whole-body diffusion-weighted imaging: the added value to whole-body MRI at initial diagnosis of lymphoma.
AJR Am J Roentgenol
PUBLISHED: 08-25-2011
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The objective of our study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of conventional whole-body MRI without and with diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in the detection of known (18)F-FDG-avid lymphomas. The conventional whole-body MRI protocol consisted of a T2-weighted sequence and a T2-weighted spectral attenuated inversion recovery (SPAIR) sequence with frequency-selective fat suppression. The second protocol used the same sequences as the first protocol but also included DWI.
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Bladder cancer imaging: an update.
Curr Opin Urol
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2011
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To present the recent advances in imaging for diagnosis, staging, and follow-up of bladder cancer.
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Cerebral arteriovenous malformations associated with flow-related and circle of Willis aneurysms.
World Neurosurg
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2011
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To evaluate the characteristics of brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) with coexisting flow-related and Willis circle aneurysms.
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Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI of primary rectal cancer: quantitative correlation with positron emission tomography/computed tomography.
J Magn Reson Imaging
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2011
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To assess the correlations between parameters measured on dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) in rectal cancer.
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Effect of anchoring groups on electrochemical self-assembly of ZnO/xanthene dye hybrid thin films.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 07-06-2010
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Three xanthene dyes with different anchoring groups, eosin Y (EY), dicarboxy-eosin Y (CEY) and sulfonated eosin Y (SEY) were employed to electrodeposit ZnO/dye hybrid thin films to study the effect of anchoring groups on the electrochemical self-assembly (ESA) of hybrid thin films. The adsorption stabilities of the dyes in oxidized form were in the order, CEY > EY > SEY, as evaluated by Langmuir isothermal adsorption experiments. The reduction potential of dyes, the dependence on Zn(2+) concentration that reflects stabilities of complexes between reduced dyes and Zn(2+) ion, and the diffusion coefficients of dyes were determined by electrochemical measurements. These properties of the dyes were considered as the key parameters to dominate ESA of hybrid thin films which were actually prepared with these dyes by potentiostatic electrolysis at -0.8 and -1.0 V (vs. SCE) representing ESA with dyes in oxidized and reduced forms, respectively, and were analyzed for their chemical composition and structural features.
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Quantitative assessment of diffusion-weighted MR imaging in patients with primary rectal cancer: correlation with FDG-PET/CT.
Mol Imaging Biol
PUBLISHED: 06-09-2010
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The aim of the study was to assess correlations between parameters on diffusion-weighted imaging and 2-deoxy-2-[(18)F]fluoro-D-glucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) in rectal cancer.
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Are histopathological features of prostate cancer lesions associated with identification of extracapsular extension on magnetic resonance imaging?
BJU Int.
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2010
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To assess the effect of histopathological lesion characteristics on the sensitivity of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for per-lesion identification of extracapsular extension (ECE) of prostate cancer.
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Protective effect of BMP-7 against aristolochic acid-induced renal tubular epithelial cell injury.
Toxicol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2010
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Aristolochic acid nephropathy (AAN) is regarded as a kind of rapidly progressive renal fibrosis caused by the ingestion of herbal remedies containing aristolochic acid (AA). Recent studies showed that bone morphogenetic protein-7 (BMP-7) exerts beneficial effects on acute and chronic kidney injuries induced by different pathological conditions. We examined whether BMP-7 protects human renal tubular epithelial cells (HK-2) against AA-induced injury in vitro. HK-2 cells were cultured with different concentrations of AA and BMP-7 for 48h. Cell viability was determined by Cell Counting Kit-8 assay and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release. The apoptosis rate and the activity of caspase 3 protease were also examined. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) was determined by cell morphology, E-cadherin and ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA) protein expression, and TGF-?(1) and collagen III secretion. Additionally, the effect of anti-TGF-?1 antibody on AA-induced EMT was assessed. Our results indicated that BMP-7 significantly increased cell proliferation, decreased apoptosis rate and attenuated activation of caspase-3, resulting in the protection of HK-2 cells from AA-induced cytotoxicity. In addition, studies on EMT revealed that BMP-7 could inhibit AA-induced myofibroblast phenotype and restored the epithelial morphology in a dose-dependent manner. It was partially through reducing the activation of a myofibroblast phenotype and production TGF-?1. Treatment with neutralizing anti-TGF-?1 antibody also blocked AA-induced EMT and collagen III secretion. Together, these observations strongly suggest that BMP-7 is a potent inhibitor of AA-induced renal tubular epithelial cell injury and might be a promising agent for aristolochic acid-induced kidney damage.
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Altered microRNA expression profile with miR-146a upregulation in CD4+ T cells from patients with rheumatoid arthritis.
Arthritis Res. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 03-09-2010
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Increasing evidence indicates that microRNAs (miRNAs) play a critical role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases. The aim of the study was to investigate the expression pattern and function of miRNAs in CD4+ T cells from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA).
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Diffusion tensor imaging of renal ischemia reperfusion injury in an experimental model.
NMR Biomed
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2010
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Renal ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) is a major cause of acute renal failure. It occurs in various clinical settings such as renal transplantation, shock and vascular surgery. Serum creatinine level has been used as an index for estimating the degree of renal functional loss in renal IRI. However, it only evaluates the global renal function. In this study, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was used to characterize renal IRI in an experimental rat model. Spin-echo echo-planar DTI with b-value of 300 s/mm(2) and 6 diffusion gradient directions was performed at 7 T in 8 Sprague-Dawley (SD) with 60-min unilateral renal IRI and 8 normal SD rats. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), directional diffusivities and fractional anisotropy (FA) were measured at the acute stage of IRI. The IR-injured animals were also examined by diffusion-weighted imaging with 7 b-values up to 1000 s/mm(2) to estimate true diffusion coefficient (D(true)) and perfusion fraction (P(fraction)) using a bi-compartmental model. ADC of injured renal cortex (1.69 +/- 0.24 x 10(-3) mm(2)/s) was significantly lower (p < 0.01) than that of contralateral intact cortex (2.03 +/- 0.35 x 10(-3) mm(2)/s). Meanwhile, both ADC and FA of IR-injured medulla (1.37 +/- 0.27 x 10(-3) mm(2)/s and 0.28 +/- 0.04, respectively) were significantly less (p < 0.01) than those of contralateral intact medulla (2.01 +/- 0.38 x 10(-3) mm(2)/s and 0.36 +/- 0.04, respectively). The bi-compartmental model analysis revealed the decrease in D(true) and P(fraction) in the IR-injured kidneys. Kidney histology showed widespread cell swelling and erythrocyte congestion in both cortex and medulla, and cell necrosis/apoptosis and cast formation in medulla. These experimental findings demonstrated that DTI can probe both structural and functional information of kidneys following renal IRI.
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Preparation of high concentration polyaluminum chloride with high content of Alb or Alc.
J Environ Sci (China)
PUBLISHED: 12-17-2009
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A novel membrane distillation concentration method was used to prepare high concentration polyaluminum chloride (PACl) with high content of Alb or Alc. 2.52 mol/L PACl1 with 88% Alb and 2.38 mol/L PACl2 with 61% Alc were successfully prepared. Three coagulants, AlCl3, PACl1 and PACl2 were investigated on their hydrolysis behavior and speciation under different conditions. The effects of pH and dilution ratio on Al species distribution were investigated by ferron assay. Experimental result showed that pH had a significant effect on Al species distribution for the three coagulants. Dilution ratio had little effects on Alb and Alc distribution in whole dilution process except the beginning for PACl1 and PACl2. The results indicated that transformation of Al depends largely on their original composition. AlCl3 was the most unstable coagulant among these three coagulants during hydrolysis process. PACl1 and PACl2 with significant amounts of highly charged and stable polynuclear aluminum hydrolysis products were less affected by the hydrolysis conditions and could maintain high speciation stability under various conditions.
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Spectrum of (18)F-FDG PET/CT appearances in peritoneal disease.
AJR Am J Roentgenol
PUBLISHED: 11-26-2009
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The objective of our study was to illustrate the spectrum of appearances of peritoneal diseases on (18)F-FDG PET/CT, show the usefulness of fused FDG PET/CT as a diagnostic tool for the peritoneum, and discuss the pitfalls in FDG PET/CT interpretation of peritoneal disease.
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Clinical stage T1c prostate cancer: evaluation with endorectal MR imaging and MR spectroscopic imaging.
Radiology
PUBLISHED: 10-30-2009
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To assess the diagnostic accuracy of endorectal magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and MR spectroscopic imaging for prediction of the pathologic stage of prostate cancer and the presence of clinically nonimportant disease in patients with clinical stage T1c prostate cancer.
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Endovascular treatment of cerebral aneurysms with the use of stents in small cerebral vessels.
Neurol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-12-2009
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To report the results of the Neuroform, Leo and Wingspan stents used to treat cerebral aneurysms in vessels of small caliber.
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Characteristics of expanded CD4+CD28null T cells in patients with chronic hepatitis B.
Immunol. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2009
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Expanded CD4(+)CD28(null) T cells have not been described in the circulation of patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB). The aim of the present was to detect and characterize the surface phenotype and functional capacity of these cells in CHB patients. Expanded CD4(+)CD28(null) T cells were detected in the circulation of CHB patients with high viral load and elevated aminotransferase levels. Most CD4(+)CD28(null) T cells showed a CD27-CD45RA(-)CD45RO(+) surface phenotype. The markers CD56, CD57 and killer immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) were detected on CD4(+)CD28(null) T cells, but the majority were positive for CD57. Functionally, CD4(+)CD28(null) T cells were found to be potent cytotoxic T lymphocytes with perforin and granzyme B secretion profiles. These findings indicate that the expanded CD4(+)CD28(null) T cells are cytotoxic memory T cells and display a distinct functional phenotype in comparison with CD4(+)CD28(+) T cells. The presence of these cells appears to be associated with inflammatory conditions, suggesting that these elevated CD4(+)CD28(null) T cells might be involved in the pathogenesis of CHB.
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Elevated interleukin-21 correlated to Th17 and Th1 cells in patients with immune thrombocytopenia.
J. Clin. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2009
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Interleukin-21 (IL-21) is critical in the development of autoimmune diseases. The role of IL-21 in the pathogenesis of immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) remains unknown.
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Endovascular treatment of high-risk tentorial dural arteriovenous fistulas: clinical outcomes.
Neuroradiology
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2009
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An increasing number of intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs) are amenable to endovascular treatment with Onyx-18. We reviewed our experience with the endovascular management of tentorial dural arteriovenous fistulas (TDAVFs) treated transarterially and transvenously.
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Renal oncocytosis: imaging considerations.
Abdom Imaging
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2009
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Renal oncocytosis is a very rare entity. Although it has been described in pathology and surgery literature, the imaging findings of renal oncocytosis have not yet been described in the radiology literature. We present three cases of renal oncocytosis. The imaging features and clinical considerations are discussed.
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Improvements of photocurrent by using modified SiO(2) in the poly(ether urethane)/poly(ethylene oxide) polymer electrolyte for all-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2009
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Nanocomposite polymer electrolytes containing poly(ether urethane) (PEUR)/poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO)/modified SiO(2) were prepared for all-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells with a high efficiency of 4.86% and an active area of 0.25 cm(2) under AM1.5 conditions at 100 mW cm(-2) irradiation.
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Imaging appearance of granulomatous disease after intravesical Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) treatment of bladder carcinoma.
AJR Am J Roentgenol
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2009
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The purpose of our study is to present the radiographic findings in a series of 16 patients with complications associated with intravesical bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) treatment of bladder cancer.
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Immunoregulatory effects of sinomenine on the T-bet/GATA-3 ratio and Th1/Th2 cytokine balance in the treatment of mesangial proliferative nephritis.
Int. Immunopharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2009
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Sinomenine has been used to treat autoimmune diseases for centuries. However, the mechanism underlying its therapeutic effects remains unknown. Increasing recognition of the importance of the Th1/Th2 imbalance in nephritis has raised the questions of whether there is a Th1/Th2 imbalance in patients with mesangial proliferative nephritis (MsPGN) and whether sinomenine can modulate the Th1/Th2 imbalance. In this study, 25 MsPGN patients were treated with sinomenine and followed for 3 months. The expression of T-bet and GATA-3 mRNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and the serum levels of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), interleukin (IL)-4, and IL-10 were studied at month 0, month 1, and month 3. The intra-renal expression of T-bet and GATA-3 was studied via immunohistochemistry. Results reveal that PBMCs from MsPGN patients expressed high levels of T-bet mRNA and low levels of GATA-3 mRNA, and the T-bet/GATA-3 ratio in MsPGN patients was significantly higher than that in healthy donors. Meanwhile, MsPGN patients were found to have simultaneously elevated IFN-gamma values and decreased IL-10 values. Immunohistochemistry revealed increased T-bet and decreased GATA-3 expression in renal tissues from MsPGN patients. Moreover, sinomenine was found to cause a decrease in T-bet mRNA expression, resulting in a drop in the T-bet/GATA-3 ratio. Sinomenine was also found to elicit a decrease in the serum levels of IFN-gamma. These results suggest that a shift toward the Th1 pathway of Th cell activation occurs in MsPGN patients, and that sinomenine has the potential to counter this shift in the Th1/Th2 balance and thereby produce therapeutic effects.
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Superior cerebellar artery infarction in endovascular treatment for tentorial dural arteriovenous fistulas.
Eur J Radiol
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2009
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Superior cerebellar artery (SCA) syndrome shows ipsilateral cerebellar ataxia and Horners syndrome, contralateral superficial sensory disturbance, as well as nystagmus toward the impaired side, vertigo, and nausea. Occasionally, unilateral lesions may produce bilateral hypogeusia and contralateral hypoacusia.
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Induced B7-H1 expression on human renal tubular epithelial cells by the sublytic terminal complement complex C5b-9.
Mol. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2009
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The co-inhibitory molecule B7-H1 has been broadly detectable on human inflammatory renal tubular epithelial cells (TECs) and is proposed to limit tubular damage through down-regulation of tubulointerstitial infiltration T cell activation. Nevertheless, factors that initiate B7-H1 expression on TECs remain unclarified. The terminal complement complex C5b-9, which deposits diffusely on tubules and glomerules of diseased kidneys, is now recognized as a mediator that triggers cellular activation rather than inducing cell death. Whether the up-regulation of B7-H1 on tubules is also induced by C5b-9 is uncertain. Here, after assembling functional sublytic C5b-9 on the membranes of TECs based on purified complement components, we found that B7-H1 gene transcription and protein synthesis was enhanced by C5b-9. Promoter constructs in a luciferase assay, site-directed mutagenesis and laser scanning confocal microscopy assay (LSCM) revealed that the transcription factor NF-kappaB is primarily responsible for C5b-9-mediated B7-H1 expression. To further detect the physiologic function of B7-H1, triggering B7-H1 with its agonist mAb (clone 5H1) profoundly enhanced Fas expression on C5b-9-treated TECs and thus induced TEC apoptosis. Interestingly, pretreatment of TECs with Fas blocking antibodies prevented this effect. Our results propose that C5b-9 regulates tubular pathogenesis in glomerulonephritis or other renal autoimmune diseases, possibly through enhances cell apoptosis mediated by B7-H1 signals, in addition to it directly promotes tubular damage.
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Distribution of renal tumor growth rates determined by using serial volumetric CT measurements.
Radiology
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2009
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To retrospectively determine the distribution of growth rates across different sizes and subtypes of renal cortical tumors by assessing tumor volume and maximum tumor diameter at serial volumetric computed tomographic (CT) examinations.
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Intracranial pseudoaneurysms, fusiform aneurysms and carotid-cavernous fistulas. Repair with percutaneous implantation of endovascular covered stents.
Interv Neuroradiol
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2009
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Summary: The study assessed the effectiveness and safety of endovascular covered stents in the management of intracranial pseudoaneurysms, fusiform aneurysms and direct carotid-cavernous fistulas. Fourteen endovascular covered stents were used to repair three pseudoaneurysms, six fusiform aneurysms and six direct carotid-cavernous fistulas. Aneurysms were in the carotid artery in seven cases, in the vertebral artery two cases. It was not possible to treat two additional cases transcutaneously for technical reasons (2/15). Percutaneous closure of the lesions with an endovascular covered stent was successful in 13 of 15 cases. Initial follow-up showed good stent patency. No complications were observed after stent implantation. During follow-up, stent thromboses were detected in two of nine patients with follow-up digital subtracted angiography. One carotid-cavernous fistula of Barrow Type A transformed into Barrow Type D at nine month follow-up study was cured with a procudure of Onyx-18 injection. Endovascular covered stents may be an option for percutaneous closure of intracranial pseudoaneurysms, fusiform aneurysms and direct carotid-cavernous fistulas. Endoluminal vascular repair with covered stents offers an alternative therapeutic approach to conventional modalities.
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Amelioration of uremic toxin indoxyl sulfate-induced endothelial cell dysfunction by Klotho protein.
Toxicol. Lett.
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Indoxyl sulfate (IS), a common kind of uremic toxin, is considered as a risk factor for aggravating endothelial function in CKD patients due to its oxidative activity. The anti-aging protein Klotho, which is produced by the kidneys and down-regulated in uremic conditions, has the ability to resist oxidative stress. Here, we carried out an in vitro study to investigate the deleterious effects of IS on endothelial cells and the protective role of Klotho protein. The cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were incubated with IS in the presence or absence of Klotho protein. The release of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) were enhanced while the cell viability and production of nitric oxide (NO) were inhibited by IS in a concentration-dependent manner. Meanwhile, the phosphorylation of p38MAPK and the nuclear translocation of NF-?B were increased in HUVECs treated with IS. Pretreatment with Klotho protein resulted in remarkable increase of cell viability and decrease of ROS production in IS-treated HUVECs. Like ROS scavenger, N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC), Klotho protein could inhibit the IS-induced activations of p38MAPK and NF-?B. Moreover, Klotho protein could also attenuate IS-induced reduction of NO production and up-regulation of MCP-1 expression. These results suggest that IS can damage the functions of endothelial cells. Klotho protein has the ability to ameliorate the IS-induced endothelial dysfunction, which may be partly through inhibiting the ROS/p38MAPK and downstream NF-?B signaling pathways.
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Performance characteristics of MR imaging in the evaluation of clinically low-risk prostate cancer: a prospective study.
Radiology
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To prospectively evaluate diagnostic performance of T2-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and MR spectroscopic imaging in detecting lesions stratified by pathologic volume and Gleason score in men with clinically determined low-risk prostate cancer.
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The incremental value of contrast-enhanced MRI in the detection of biopsy-proven local recurrence of prostate cancer after radical prostatectomy: effect of reader experience.
AJR Am J Roentgenol
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The purpose of this study is to retrospectively assess the incremental value of contrast-enhanced MRI (CE-MRI) to T2-weighted MRI in the detection of postsurgical local recurrence of prostate cancer by readers of different experience levels, using biopsy as the reference standard.
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Stent-assisted coil embolization of intracranial aneurysms using Solitaire stent.
Neurol India
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To report patients with intracranial wide-necked or complex aneurysms who underwent Solitaire stent-assisted coil embolization.
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Magnetic light.
Sci Rep
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Spherical silicon nanoparticles with sizes of a few hundreds of nanometers represent a unique optical system. According to theoretical predictions based on Mie theory they can exhibit strong magnetic resonances in the visible spectral range. The basic mechanism of excitation of such modes inside the nanoparticles is very similar to that of split-ring resonators, but with one important difference that silicon nanoparticles have much smaller losses and are able to shift the magnetic resonance wavelength down to visible frequencies. We experimentally demonstrate for the first time that these nanoparticles have strong magnetic dipole resonance, which can be continuously tuned throughout the whole visible spectrum varying particle size and visually observed by means of dark-field optical microscopy. These optical systems open up new perspectives for fabrication of low-loss optical metamaterials and nanophotonic devices.
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Pentraxin 3 (PTX3) expression in allergic asthmatic airways: role in airway smooth muscle migration and chemokine production.
PLoS ONE
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Pentraxin 3 (PTX3) is a soluble pattern recognition receptor with non-redundant functions in inflammation and innate immunity. PTX3 is produced by immune and structural cells. However, very little is known about the expression of PTX3 and its role in allergic asthma.
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Gremlin-mediated decrease in bone morphogenetic protein signaling promotes aristolochic acid-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in HK-2 cells.
Toxicology
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Ingestion of aristolochic acid (AA) is associated with the development of aristolochic acid nephropathy (AAN), which is characterized by progressive tubulointerstitial fibrosis, chronic renal failure and urothelial cancer. Our previous study showed that bone morphogenetic protein-7 (BMP-7) could attenuate AA-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in human proximal tubule epithelial cells (PTEC). However, how gremlin (a BMP-7 antagonist) antagonizes the BMP-7 action in PTEC remained unsolved. The aim of the current study was to investigate the role of gremlin in AA-induced EMT in PTEC (HK-2 cells). HK-2 cells were treated with AA (10 ?mol/L) for periods up to 72 h. Cell viability was determined by tetrazolium dye (MTT) assay. Morphological changes were assessed by phase-contrast microscopy. Markers of EMT, including E-cadherin and ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA) were detected by indirect immunofluorescence stains. The BMP-7 and gremlin mRNA and protein expression in HK-2 cells were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR (real-time RT-PCR) and western blotting after exposure to AA. The level of phosphorylated Smad1/5/8, a marker of BMP-7 activity, was also determined by western blot analysis. Cells were transfected with gremlin siRNA to determine the effects of gremlin knockdown on markers of EMT following treatment with AA. Our results indicated that AA-induced EMT was associated with acquisition of fibroblast-like cell shape, loss of E-cadherin, and increases of alpha-SMA and collagen type I. Interestingly, exposure of HK-2 cells to 10 ?mol/L AA increased the mRNA and protein expression of gremlin in HK-2 cells. This increase was in parallel with a decrease in BMP-7 expression and a down-regulation of phosphorylated Smad1/5/8 protein levels. Moreover, transfection with siRNA to gremlin was able to recover BMP-7 signaling activity, and attenuate EMT-associated phenotypic changes induced by AA. Together, these observations strongly suggest that gremlin plays a critical role in the modulation of reno-protective action of BMP, and that inhibition of gremlin will be a promising means of developmenting novel treatments for AAN.
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Computational prediction and experimental assessment of an HLA-A*0201-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocyte epitope from neutral endopeptidase.
Immunol. Res.
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Neutral endopeptidase (NEP) is the first target antigen identified on podocytes in human membranous nephropathy (MN). Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) are considered essential for glomerular destruction in MN model. The aim of this study was to show that the CTL epitopes of NEP could be used to design more effective and better tolerated therapies. The CTL epitopes of NEP were screened using the long-distance prediction system SYFPEITHI and the Bioinformatics and Molecular Analysis Section of the MHC Peptide Binding Predictions program. Peptides were synthesized and immunoreactivity was assessed by peptide-MHC-binding affinity assay, cytotoxicity assay and HLA-A2.1/Kb transgenic mice immunization. Five candidates were identified according to the high scores generated by the computer predicting system. Peptide NEP(375-383) (FIMDLVSSL), which up-regulated HLA-A2.1 molecular expression, showed a high affinity to HLA-A2.1, whereas NEP(268-276), NEP(297--305) and NEP(492-500) (QLALEMNKV, MLLYNKMRL and KLNNEYLEL) showed a moderate affinity and NEP(559-567) (ILQPPFFSA) only had a low affinity. Cytotoxicity assay further showed that NEP(268-276) and NEP(375-383) could induce NEP-specific CTL responses in vitro. Unexpectedly, we found that a single CTL epitope, NEP(375-383), could induce proteinuria and glomerular injury in HLA-A2.1/K(b) transgenic mice in vivo. HLA-A*0201-restricted CTL epitope NEP(375-383) can serve as a potential candidate for designing MN vaccine.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.