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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Zebrafish and mouse alpha2,3-sialyltransferases responsible for synthesizing GM4 ganglioside.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2009
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We have previously reported that fish pathogens causing vibriosis specifically adhere to GM4 on the epithelial cells of fish intestinal tracts (Chisada, S., Horibata, Y., Hama, Y., Inagaki, M., Furuya, N., Okino, N., and Ito, M. (2005) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 333, 367-373). To identify the gene encoding the enzyme for GM4 synthesis in the fish intestinal tract, a phylogenetic tree of vertebrate ST3GalVs, including Danio rerio and Oryzias latipes, was generated in which two putative subfamilies of fish ST3GalVs were found. Two putative ST3GalVs of zebrafish (zST3GalV-1 and -2), each belonging to different subfamilies, were cloned from the zebrafish cDNA library. Interestingly, zST3GalV-1 synthesized GM3 (NeuAcalpha2-3Galbeta1-4Glcbeta1-1Cer) but not GM4, whereas zSTGalV-2 synthesized both gangliosides in vitro when expressed in CHO-K1 and RPMI1846 cells. Flow cytometric analysis using anti-GM4 antibody revealed that the transformation of RPMI1846 cells with zST3GalV-2 but not zST3GalV-1 cDNA increased the cell-surface expression of GM4. Whole mount in situ hybridization showed that the zST3GalV-2 transcript was strongly expressed in the gastrointestinal tract, whereas zST3GalV-1 was expressed in the brain and esophagus but not gastrointestinal tract in 3-day post-fertilization embryos. It has long been a matter of controversy which enzyme is responsible for the synthesis of GM4 in mammals. We found that three isoforms of mouse ST3GalV (mST3GalV) having different N-terminal sequences can synthesize GM4 as well as GM3 when expressed in RPMI1846 and CHO-K1 cells. Furthermore, mST3GalV knock-out mice were found to lack GM4 synthase activity and GM4 in contrast to wild-type mice. These results clearly indicate that zST3GalV-2 and mST3GalV are the enzymes responsible for the synthesis of GM4 in zebrafish and mice, respectively.
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Reduced motor and sensory functions and emotional response in GM3-only mice: emergence from early stage of life and exacerbation with aging.
Behav. Brain Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2009
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Sialic acid-containing glycosphingolipids (gangliosides) have been believed to play a role in the regulation and protection of nervous tissues. To clarify their function in the nervous system in vivo, double knockout (DKO) mice of GM2/GD2 synthase and GD3 synthase genes were generated and abnormal behaviors were analyzed. Mutant mice exhibited reduced weight and a round shape of the whole brain that progressively emerged with aging, and displayed motor dysfunction in the footprint, traction, open-field, and 24h locomotion activity tests. Sensory functions were also reduced in the von Frey and hot plate tests and greatly reduced in the acoustic startle response test. For emotional behavior, fear response was clearly decreased. Numerous neuronal dysfunctions were found even in younger mutant mice examined at 10-23 weeks after birth, which were exacerbated with aging. These results suggest that a lack of gangliosides other than GM3 induces severe neuronal degeneration in the early stage of life, and that the expression of complex gangliosides is essential to maintain the integrity of the nervous system throughout life.
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Detection of N-glycolyated gangliosides in non-small-cell lung cancer using GMR8 monoclonal antibody.
Cancer Sci.
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Gangliosides are glycosphingolipids found on the cell surface. They act as recognition molecules or signal modulators and regulate cell proliferation and differentiation. N-glycolylneuraminic acid (NeuGc)-containing gangliosides have been detected in some neoplasms in humans, although they are usually absent in normal human tissues. Our aim was to evaluate the presence of NeuGc-containing gangliosides including GM3 (NeuGc) and assess their relationship with the prognosis of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). NeuGc-containing ganglioside expression in NSCLC tissues was analyzed immunohistochemically using the mouse monoclonal antibody GMR8, which is specific for gangliosides with NeuGc alpha 2,3Gal-terminal structures. On the basis of NeuGc-containing ganglioside expression, we performed survival analysis. We also investigated the differences in the effects of GM3 (N-acetylneuraminic acid [NeuAc]) and GM3 (NeuGc) on inhibition of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase in A431 cells. As a result, the presence of NeuGc-containing gangliosides was evident in 86 of 93 (93.5%) NSCLC samples. The NSCLC patients with high NeuGc-containing ganglioside expression had a low overall survival rate and a significantly low progression-free survival rate. In the in vitro study, the inhibitory effect of GM3 on EGFR tyrosine kinase in A431 cells after exposure to GM3 (NeuGc) was lower than that after exposure to GM3 (NeuAc). In conclusion, NeuGc-containing gangliosides including GM3 (NeuGc) are widely expressed in NSCLC, and NeuGc-containing ganglioside expression is associated with patient survival. The difference in the effects of GM3 (NeuGc) and GM3 (NeuAc) on the inhibition of EGFR tyrosine kinase might contribute to improvement in the prognosis of NSCLC patients.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.