Tunable control over the functionalization of graphene is significantly important to manipulate its structure and optoelectronic properties. Yet the chemical inertness of this noble carbon material poses a particular challenge for its decoration without forcing reaction conditions. Here, a mild, operationally simple and controllable protocol is developed to synthesize hydroxylated graphene (HOG) from fluorinated graphene (FG). We successfully demonstrate that under designed alkali environment, fluorine atoms on graphene framework are programmably replaced by hydroxyl groups via a straightforward substitution reaction pathway. Element constituent analyses confirm that homogeneous C-O bonds are successfully grafted on graphene. Rather different from graphene oxide, the photoluminescence (PL) emission spectrum of the obtained HOG becomes split when excited with UV radiation. More interestingly, such transformation from FG facilitates highly tunable PL emission ranging from greenish white (0.343, 0.392) to deep blue (0.156, 0.094). Additionally, both experimental data and density function theory calculation indicate that the chemical functionalization induced structural rearrangement is more important than the chemical decoration itself in tuning the PL emission band tail and splitting energy gaps. This work not only presents a new way to effectively fabricate graphene derivatives with tunable PL performance, but also provides an enlightening insight into the PL origin of graphene related materials.
This study reports a simple synthesis of amorphous nickel tungstate (NiWO4) nanostructure and its application as a novel cathode material for supercapacitors. The effect of reaction temperature on the electrochemical properties of the NiWO4 electrode was studied, and results demonstrate that the material synthesized at 70 °C (NiW-70) has shown the highest specific capacitance of 586.2 F g(-1) at 0.5 A g(-1) in a three-electrode system. To achieve a high energy density, a NiW-70//activated carbon asymmetric supercapacitor is successfully assembled by use of NiW-70 and activated carbon as the cathode and anode, respectively, and then, its electrochemical performance is characterized by cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge-discharge measurements. The results show that the assembled asymmetric supercapacitor can be cycled reversibly between 0 and 1.6 V with a high specific capacitance of 71.1 F g(-1) at 0.25 A g(-1), which can deliver a maximum energy density of 25.3 Wh kg(-1) at a power density of 200 W kg(-1). Furthermore, this asymmetric supercapacitor also presented an excellent, long cycle life along with 91.4% specific capacitance being retained after 5000 consecutive times of cycling.
We created a cross-species display system that allows the display of the same antibody libraries on both prokaryotic phage and eukaryotic yeast without the need for molecular cloning. Using this cross-display system, a large, diverse library can be constructed once and subsequently used for display and selection in both phage and yeast systems. In this article, we performed the parallel phage and yeast selection of an antibody maturation library using this cross-display platform. This parallel selection allowed us to isolate more unique hits than single-species selection, with 162 unique clones from phage and 107 unique clones from yeast. In addition, we were able to shuttle yeast hits back to Escherichia coli cells for affinity characterization at a higher throughput.
The mechanism of osteoarthritis (OA) is not well understood. Cytokines have been implicated in the episode, and there is increasing evidence that the hosts cytokine response is genetically determined. We determined the predictive value of IL-634G./C, ICAM-1 469 K/E and IL-10-1082A/G, -819T/C and -592A/C gene polymorphisms on knee OA. The study included 1007 patients with end-stage knee OA and 910 healthy controls. Genomic DNA was prepared from peripheral blood leukocytes. Genotypes and allele frequencies were determined using restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of polymerase chain reaction products. No significant difference in the IL-10 promoter allele or haplotype frequencies between end-stage knee OA and controls was found. Patients with end-stage knee OA showed a significantly higher prevalence of IL-6-634G/ICAM-1 469E carrier than that in controls (P = 0.017). Results indicate that IL-6-634G/ICAM-1 469E carrier could be associated with increased susceptibility to end-stage knee OA.
Reduced graphene oxide (RGO) sheets were covalently assembled onto silicon wafers via a multistep route based on the chemical adsorption and thermal reduction of graphene oxide (GO). The formation and microstructure of RGO were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and water contact angle (WCA) measurements. Characterization by atomic force microscopy (AFM) was performed to evaluate the morphology and microtribological behaviors of the samples. Macrotribological performance was tested on a ball-on-plate tribometer. Results show that the assembled RGO possesses good friction reduction and antiwear ability, properties ascribed to its intrinsic structure, that is, the covalent bonding to the substrate and self-lubricating property of RGO.
At the room temperature, a novel and environmental friendly approach for synthesizing polyaniline (PANI) nanofibers on a large scale is presented firstly in the aqueous phase by ultraviolet (UV)-assisted polymerization using cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as the "soft-template." It is obvious that the polymerization process can be accelerated under the illumination of UV light and the preliminary mechanism has been pointed out. Furthermore, it also can be noted that the lower concentrations of CTAB and HCl are helpful for the fabrication of smooth and uniform PANI nanofibers. As observed with FE-SEM and TEM, the as-synthesized PANI nanostructures under the appropriate conditions are composed of uniform nanofibers with the average diameter of about 100 nm and the length of several micrometers. Subsequently, the synthesized PANI nanostructures are characterized with UV-vis, FT-IR, XRD spectra, and the typical physical and chemical properties of PANI are displayed. In addition, the conductivity of the synthesized PANI nanofibers was also measured with the four probe method and the excellent conductivity was presented. In summary, the procedure presented here only involving exposure of an acidic aqueous solution of aniline to UV light illumination is so simple and the needed equipment is so low cost, from the viewpoint of technological applications, that the large-scale UV-assisted polymerization of PANI nanofibers from the monomer solution is feasible and promising.
A novel adapter-directed yeast display system with modular features was developed. This display system consists of two modules, a display vector and a helper vector, and is capable of displaying proteins of interest on the surface of Saccharomyces cerevisiae through the interaction of two small adapters that are expressed from the display and helper vectors. In this report, an anti-VEGF scFv antibody gene was cloned into the display vector and introduced alone into yeast S. cerevisiae cells. This led to the expression and secretion of a scFv antibody that was fused in-frame with the coiled-coil adapter GR1. For display purposes, a helper vector was constructed to express the second coiled-coil adapter GR2 that was fused with the outer wall protein Cwp2, and this was genetically integrated into the yeast genome. Co-expression of the scFv-GR1 and GR2-Cwp2 fusions in the yeast cells resulted in the functional display of anti-VEGF scFv antibodies on the yeast cell surfaces through pairwise interaction between the GR1 and GR2 adapters. Visualization of the co-localization of GR1 and GR2 on the cell surfaces confirmed the adapter-directed display mechanism. When the adapter-directed phage and yeast display modules are combined, it is possible to expand the adapter-directed display to a novel cross-species display that can shuttle between phage and yeast systems.
Genetic analyses aimed at identification of the pathways and downstream effectors of calorie restriction (CR) in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae suggest the importance of central metabolism for the extension of replicative life span by CR. However, the limited gene expression studies to date are not informative, because they have been conducted using cells grown in batch culture which markedly departs from the conditions under which yeasts are grown during life span determinations. In this study, we have examined the gene expression changes that occur during either glucose limitation or elimination of nonessential-amino acids, both of which enhance yeast longevity, culturing cells in a chemostat at equilibrium, which closely mimics conditions they encounter during life span determinations. Expression of 59 genes was examined quantitatively by real-time, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), and the physiological state of the cultures was monitored. Extensive gene expression changes were detected, some of which were common to both CR regimes. The most striking of these was the induction of tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and retrograde response target genes, which appears to be at least partially due to the up-regulation of the HAP4 gene. These gene regulatory events portend an increase in the generation of biosynthetic intermediates necessary for the production of daughter cells, which is the measure of yeast replicative life span.
Titanium oxide (TiO(2)) films were successfully deposited onto the polymer substrates of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), polyethylene (PE), and polyethylene terephthalate (PET), which were pre-modified with polydopamine coating (polydopamine and its coating are coded as PDA and PDAc, respectively), by a simple liquid phase deposition (LPD) process. The morphology and chemical state of the obtained TiO(2) films were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), respectively. Subsequently, the biocompatibility of the samples was investigated by 3-(4,5-dimethyldiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) colorimetric assay and acridine orange staining of MC-3T3 osteoblast cells, and the results demonstrated that the fabricated TiO(2) films could markedly improve the in vitro cytocompatibility. So, the presented route is anticipated to be a promising surface modification methodology to improve the practical outcome of the implanted materials for its versatility and validity.
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