Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) is a chemokine which plays critical roles in regulating host immune responses. Researches have shown that MCP-1 may greatly participate in the development of different cancers. In the current study, we investigated the effect of MCP-1 on ovarian cancer by examining the association between MCP-1 genetic polymorphisms and the susceptibility to ovarian cancer. MCP-1 -2158A/G and MCP-1 -362C/G polymorphisms were examined in ovarian cancer patients and healthy controls by using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Results showed that percentages of MCP-1 -2158GG genotype and G allele were significantly higher in ovarian cancer patients than in controls (odd ratio (OR)?=?1.87; 95 % confidence interval (CI), 1.19-2.76; P?=?0.012 and OR?=?1.47; 95 % CI, 1.11-1.79; P?=?0.003; data were adjusted for age and smoking status). The MCP-1 -362GG genotype also revealed increased number in patients. Stratification analyses presented that ovarian cancer cases with serous-papillary type had significantly increased percentage of -362GG genotype than those with other types (13.1 versus 5.0 %, P?=?0.032; data were adjusted for age and smoking status). Also, we evaluated the relation between these two polymorphisms and serum level of MCP-1. We identified that the subjects with MCP-1 -2158AG and GG genotypes had clearly increased serum level of MCP-1 than those with AA genotype. These data suggest that MCP-1 may be involved in the pathogenesis of ovarian cancer.
The CRISPR/Cas9 system has been demonstrated to efficiently induce targeted gene editing in a variety of organisms including plants. Recent work showed that CRISPR/Cas9-induced gene mutations in Arabidopsis were mostly somatic mutations in the early generation, although some mutations could be stably inherited in later generations. However, it remains unclear whether this system will work similarly in crops such as rice. In this study, we tested in two rice subspecies 11 target genes for their amenability to CRISPR/Cas9-induced editing and determined the patterns, specificity and heritability of the gene modifications. Analysis of the genotypes and frequency of edited genes in the first generation of transformed plants (T0) showed that the CRISPR/Cas9 system was highly efficient in rice, with target genes edited in nearly half of the transformed embryogenic cells before their first cell division. Homozygotes of edited target genes were readily found in T0 plants. The gene mutations were passed to the next generation (T1) following classic Mendelian law, without any detectable new mutation or reversion. Even with extensive searches including whole genome resequencing, we could not find any evidence of large-scale off-targeting in rice for any of the many targets tested in this study. By specifically sequencing the putative off-target sites of a large number of T0 plants, low-frequency mutations were found in only one off-target site where the sequence had 1-bp difference from the intended target. Overall, the data in this study point to the CRISPR/Cas9 system being a powerful tool in crop genome engineering.
Stripe rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst), is one of the most destructive diseases of wheat. Here we report a 110-Mb draft sequence of Pst isolate CY32, obtained using a fosmid-to-fosmid strategy, to better understand its race evolution and pathogenesis. The Pst genome is highly heterozygous and contains 25,288 protein-coding genes. Compared with non-obligate fungal pathogens, Pst has a more diverse gene composition and more genes encoding secreted proteins. Re-sequencing analysis indicates significant genetic variation among six isolates collected from different continents. Approximately 35% of SNPs are in the coding sequence regions, and half of them are non-synonymous. High genetic diversity in Pst suggests that sexual reproduction has an important role in the origin of different regional races. Our results show the effectiveness of the fosmid-to-fosmid strategy for sequencing dikaryotic genomes and the feasibility of genome analysis to understand race evolution in Pst and other obligate pathogens.
The X-box binding protein-1(XBP-1) is a 29?kDa protein belonging to the basic region/leucine zipper (bZIP) family of transcription factors. Previous studies showed that XBP-1 mediated a wide range of responses in B-cell differentiation, unfolded protein response (UPR), and tumorigenesis. For these reasons, it is believed that XBP-1 would be a novel therapeutic target in some pathogenic processes. In this study, a set of XBP-1 MAbs were raised and cloned. Then it was proven that some clones among them could be used in Western blot analysis, immunocytochemistry, or immunohistochemistry. Therefore, the obtained MAbs not only provided new powerful tools for investigation of expression profile and functions of XBP-1 protein, but also provided the possibility of generating gene engineering antibodies specific for targeting XBP-1.
The objective of this study is to explore the safety, efficacy, and administration method of the recombinant adenovirus p53 gene (rAd-p53, or gendicine) in the treatment of pulmonary metastasis tumor from advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Pulmonary metastasis tumors from HCC in 20 patients were treated by using transcatheter bronchial arterial gendicine infusion combined with transcatheter arterial embolization and intratumor injection of gendicine if the maximal diameter of a metastatic tumor is greater than or equal to 3 cm. Three patients received the combined therapy three times, seven received it twice, and ten received it once. Eighteen patients were followed for 2-12 months after treatment and two patients were lost to follow-up. Spiral computed tomography was performed during follow-up visits to monitor tumor progress. Lung metastasis tumor disappeared in four patients and the tumor size decreased in six patients, remained unchanged in five, and increased in three patients. Overall, the clinical symptoms were alleviated in 16 patients (88.9%) and were exacerbated in two patients. New metastatic lesions were found in eight patients. There were no serious adverse events except for self-limited fever (38 degrees C-39.5 degrees C), which was found in 16 patients. Transcatheter bronchial arterial gendicine infusion combined with transcatheter arterial embolization, with or without intratumor injection of gendicine, is a safe, effective therapy for the treatment of pulmonary metastasis tumor from HCC.
Mid-infrared (MIR) and near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy have been compared and evaluated for differentiating kaolinite, coal bearing kaolinite and halloysite. Kaolinite, coal bearing kaolinite and halloysite are the three relative abundant minerals of the kaolin group, especially in China. In the MIR spectra, the differences are shown in the 3000-3600 cm?¹ between kaolinite and halloysite. It cannot obviously differentiate the kaolinite and halloysite, leaving alone kaolinite and coal bearing kaolinite. However, NIR, together with MIR, gives us the sufficient evidence to differentiate the kaolinite and halloysite, especially kaolinite and coal bearing kaolinite. There are obvious differences between kaolinite and halloysite in all range of their spectra, and they also show some difference between kaolinite and coal bearing kaolinite. Therefore, the reproducibility of measurement, signal to noise ratio and richness of qualitative information should be simultaneously considered for proper selection of a spectroscopic method for mineral analysis.
Structural changes in intercalated kaolinite after wet ball-milling were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), specific surface area (SSA) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The X-ray diffraction pattern at room temperature indicated that the intercalation of potassium acetate into kaolinite caused an increase of the basal spacing from 0.718 to 1.42 nm, and with the particle size reduction. The surface area increased sharply with the intercalation and delamination by ball-milling. The wet ball-milling kaolinite after intercalation did not change the structural order, and the particulates have high aspect ratio according SEM images.
Memory impairment is one of main clinical symptoms of brain senescence. To address the effects of Cordyceps militaris Link extract (CE) on memory impairment, a D-galactose (D-Gal)-induced aging mouse model was employed. Mice injected with D-Gal showed a significant learning and memory impairment that was rescued by CE treatment. The mechanism was further investigated by analyzing the protein level and activity of oxidant and antioxidant molecules, including malondialdehyde (MDA), monoamine oxidase (MAO), total super-oxide dismutase (T-SOD), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), glutathione (GSH), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-px), which played critical roles in the development of brain senescence. The results showed that CE treatment resulted in a significant decrease in the oxidative activity of MAO and the level of MDA, and significantly increased the antioxidant activities of T-SOD and T-AOC in the cerebral cortices. Moreover, the level of GSH and the activity of antioxidant enzymes GSH-px in serum were significantly upregulated after CE treatment. Taken together, our results suggest that Cordyceps militaris extract could ameliorate experimental memory impairment in mice with D-Gal-induced aging through its potent antioxidant activities.
Calcineurin plays a key role in morphogenesis, pathogenesis and drug resistance in most fungi. However, the function of calcineurin genes in Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst) is unclear. We identified and characterized the calcineurin genes PsCNA1 and PsCNB1 in Pst. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that PsCNA1 and PsCNB1 form a calcium/calmodulin regulated protein phosphatase belonging to the calcineurin heterodimers composed of subunits A and B. Quantitative RT-PCR analyses revealed that both PsCNA1 and PsCNB1 expression reached their maximum in the stage of haustorium formation, which is one day after inoculation. Using barely stripe mosaic virus (BSMV) as a transient expression vector in wheat, the expression of PsCNA1 and PsCNB1 in Pst was suppressed, leading to slower extension of fungal hyphae and reduced production of urediospores. The immune-suppressive drugs cyclosporin A and FK506 markedly reduced the germination rates of urediospores, and when germination did occur, more than two germtubes were produced. These results suggest that the calcineurin signaling pathway participates in stripe rust morphogenetic differentiation, especially the formation of haustoria during the early stage of infection and during the production of urediospores. Therefore PsCNA1 and PsCNB1 can be considered important pathogenicity genes involved in the wheat-Pst interaction.
Accumulated understanding of epigenetic modifications during ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury suggests that additional targeted approaches and novel mechanisms that have not been explored in the reproductive system underlie the pathogenesis. Here we show, with a standard murine model of testicular IR, ischemia-induced histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity in the testis with concomitant reduction in histone acetyl transferase activity in vivo. Pretreatment with chemical HDAC inhibitors significantly induced apoptosis in tetraploid pachytene spermatocytes during ischemic insult and thereafter resulted in attenuated meiotic differentiation. We also identified the distinct HDACs involved in primary spermatocytes upon hypoxic stress. In vitro, elevated expression of HDAC2 was physiologically associated with p53, a master regulator believed to be a guardian of genome integrity during spermatogenesis. p53-mediated apoptosis was inhibited by deacetylation of p53 in differentiating pachytene spermatocytes in response to ischemic stress. Overall, the current data suggest that hypoxia-induced deacetylation may operate as an indispensible defensive mechanism for meiotic differentiation during the ischemic period of IR testis, thus pointing to a novel therapeutic target for future medical intervention.
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