MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are an important class of small, non?coding RNA molecules that regulate gene expression at the transcriptional or post?transcriptional level. They are involved in apoptosis, proliferation and migration and are known to have an important role in many types of cancer. Aberrant expression of miRNA?451a (miR?451a) has previously been reported in tumors, however its role in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is currently unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of miR?451a in RCC. The expression of miR?451a was analyzed in 50 paired RCC and normal tissues by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Furthermore, the effects of miR?451a on cell migration, proliferation and apoptosis were evaluated, using migration scratch, MTT and flow cytometric assays. The present study demonstrated that miR?451a was upregulated in RCC, as compared with paired normal tissues (P<0.05). Downregulation of miR?451a using a synthesized inhibitor, significantly suppressed cell migration and proliferation, and induced apoptosis of renal cancer cells in vitro, as compared with a negative control (P<0.05). In the present study, it was determined that miR?451a may have an important role as a tumor enhancer in RCC. These results imply that miR?451a may be a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of RCC.
Bizarre leiomyomas of the scrotum are rare benign tumors that are often misdiagnosed. In this study, we present a case of bizarre leiomyoma of the scrotum in a 53-year-old male. The patient presented with a painless scrotal mass that was insidious in the right side of the scrotum with no sudden increase in size. Definitive preoperative diagnosis could not be established; however, following surgical resection of the tumor, a diagnosis of bizarre leiomyoma of the scrotum was determined by pathological examination. The patient was followed up six months following resection and no problems were reported. This is the first reported case of bizarre leiomyoma of the scrotum in China. A supplementary review of previously published cases and literature is also presented.
MicroRNA-7 (miR-7) has been described as a tumor suppressor in several human cancers, but the results of a study to identify miRNAs associated with metastatic capability in breast cancer suggested that miR-7 may be characterized as an oncogene. The present study was to determine the expression and function of miR-7 in renal cell carcinoma. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to validate the expressions of miR-7 in 48 paired renal cell carcinomas (RCC) and normal tissues, based on the preliminary sequencing results of miRNAs. Furthermore, the impacts of miR-7 on cell migration, proliferation and apoptosis were analyzed using wound scratch assay, MTT and flow cytometry, respectively. The results demonstrated that miR-7 was up-regulated in RCC compared with normal tissues (p = 0.001). Down-regulation of miR-7 with synthesized inhibitor inhibited cell migration in vitro, suppressed cell proliferation and induced renal cancer cell apoptosis, prompting that miR-7 could be characterized as an oncogene in RCC. The present study was the first to reveal that miR-7 was up-regulated in RCC and it played an important role in RCC by affecting cellular migration, proliferation and apoptosis. Further researches should be conducted to explore the roles and target genes of miR-7 in RCC and other cancers.
Many genes are regulated by androgen and its receptor (AR), but the direct target genes of AR, especially those involved in spermatogenesis and male infertility, remain unclear. Here, we identified ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2B (Ube2b) as a critical target gene of AR. The expression of UBE2B was decreased in the testes of Sertoli cell AR knockout (S-AR(-/y)) mice analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) and immunofluorescence. The upregulation of Ube2b gene by testosterone was further demonstrated by Western blot and qRT-PCR in TM4 cells, a mouse Sertoli cell line. Moreover, luciferase assay, electrophoretic mobility shift assay, and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay validated that the ligand-bound AR activated Ube2b transcription via direct binding to the androgen-responsive element of the Ube2b promoter. In vitro analyses showed that testosterone increased UBE2B expression and activated H2A ubiquitylation, while downregulation of UBE2B blocked the testosterone-induced H2A ubiquitylation. The ubiquitylation of H2A was markedly decreased in the testes of S-AR(-/y) mice by immunohistochemistry. Digital gene expression analysis showed that 113 genes were significantly downregulated and 71 were upregulated by UBE2B in TM4 cells. These results suggest that Ube2b, as a direct AR transcriptional target in Sertoli cells, mediates the function of AR in spermatogenesis by promoting H2A ubiquitylation.
Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) is the most common type of bladder cancer. Here we sequenced the exomes of nine individuals with TCC and screened all the somatically mutated genes in a prevalence set of 88 additional individuals with TCC with different tumor stages and grades. In our study, we discovered a variety of genes previously unknown to be mutated in TCC. Notably, we identified genetic aberrations of the chromatin remodeling genes (UTX, MLL-MLL3, CREBBP-EP300, NCOR1, ARID1A and CHD6) in 59% of our 97 subjects with TCC. Of these genes, we showed UTX to be altered substantially more frequently in tumors of low stages and grades, highlighting its potential role in the classification and diagnosis of bladder cancer. Our results provide an overview of the genetic basis of TCC and suggest that aberration of chromatin regulation might be a hallmark of bladder cancer.
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression. They are aberrantly expressed in many types of cancers. In this study, we determined the genome-wide miRNA profiles in bladder urothelial carcinoma by deep sequencing.
PCDH10 (protocadherin-10), a novel tumour suppressor gene, is down-regulated in several human cancers due to hypermethylation of promoter CGIs (CpG islands). Here, we investigated the expression of PCDH10 in different normal adult tissues and in a panel of prostate cancer cell lines. PCDH10 was widely expressed in normal tissues with higher levels in the prostate. The expression of PCDH10 was markedly reduced or silenced in prostate cancer cell lines compared with normal adult prostate tissue. Decreased PCDH10 expression was correlated with the methylation status of the PCDH10 promoter. Furthermore, the DNA demethylating agent 5-azacytidin restored PCDH10 expression by suppressing PCDH10 promoter methylation in prostate cancer cell lines. Treatment with Trichostatin A alone had no significant effect on the expression of PCDH10 but enhanced the effect of 5-azacytidin. In conclusion, we found that the decreased PCDH10 expression in prostate cancer cells was associated with the aberrant methylation of PCDH10 promoter CGI. Our results may contribute to the understanding of the role of PCDH10 inactivation in the progression of prostate cancers.
Recent studies have suggested roles for PCDH10 as a novel tumor suppressor gene. In our previous work, we located the core promoter of PCDH10 to a 462-bp segment of 5-flanking region characterized by a high GC content. Here we further identified and characterized the promoter for PCDH10. Transient transfection of PC3 and LNCaP cells with a series of deleted promoter constructs indicated that the minimal promoter region was between nucleotides -144 and -99. This segment contained a CAAT box, a GT box, and a putative transcription factor binding site for AP-4. Mutational analysis identified that the CAAT box and GT box are necessary for promoter activity. Ectopic expression of NF-Ys increased reporter gene activity, whereas expression of a dominant-negative NF-YA decreased reporter gene activity. Co-transfection of Sp1/Sp3 expression plasmids enhanced reporter gene activity in a dose-dependent manner. Mithramycin A, an inhibitor of Sp-DNA interaction, reduced PCDH10 promoter activity. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays and chromatin immunoprecipitation demonstrated binding of transcription factors Sp1/Sp3 to the promoter region in vitro and in vivo. Our data show that Sp1/Sp3 and CBF/NF-Y transcription factors play a crucial role in the basal expression of the human PCDH10 gene.
With the advent of second-generation sequencing, the expression of gene transcripts can be digitally measured with high accuracy. The purpose of this study was to systematically profile the expression of both mRNA and miRNA genes in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) using massively parallel sequencing technology.
Current methods for reliable detection of bladder cancer have some limitations. Finding better noninvasive methods for detection of bladder cancer is an important topic in urology. We want to evaluate prospectively the early detection power of human uroplakin 3 A (UPK3A) for bladder cancer.
FER tyrosine kinase (FER) has been demonstrated to play a critical role in tumorigenesis and metastasis; however, its potential value as a novel prognostic marker for clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) remains unclear. In 48 paired samples of ccRCCs and normal adjacent tissues (ADTs), real-time PCR was used to evaluate the expression of FER mRNA. The expression of FER protein was assessed in 87 ADTs and 206 samples of ccRCC using immunohistochemical methods. Statistical analysis was used to examine the correlations between the expression levels of FER and the clinical characteristics of ccRCC patients. A significant difference was identified between ccRCC tissues and ADTs in the mRNA levels of FER. Immunohistochemistry analyses revealed higher expression of FER protein in 87 ccRCC samples compared to the paired ADTs. In addition, FER protein expression in 206 ccRCC samples was significantly correlated with tumor size, T stage, N classification, metastasis, recurrence and Fuhrman grade, while associations with age and gender were not identifed. The Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that patients with high FER levels had a poorer survival outcome compared with those with lower levels. The log-rank test demonstrated that the cumulative survival rates were significantly different between the two groups. The Cox regression analysis indicated that FER expression, N stage and distant metastasis were independent prognostic factors for overall survival of ccRCC patients. Our results indicate that overexpression of FER in tumor tissues predicts a poor prognosis of patients with ccRCC, and FER may serve as a novel prognostic marker for ccRCC.
The aim of the present study was to identify a new prostate cancer?associated gene and analyze its expression pattern. Comprehensive expression analysis of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) and microarray data and serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) were conducted to screen in silico for candidate prostate cancer?associated genes. Reverse transcription (RT)-PCR was performed to validate prostate cancer specificity. Prostate cancer?associated gene 1 (PCAG1) was identified. The expression of PCAG1 mRNA and protein was evaluated in common human normal tissues, common malignant tumors, prostate adenocarcinoma and paired adjacent normal prostate tissues. An immunofluorescence assay was conducted to determine the subcellular location of PCAG1. PCAG1 mRNA was absent in the 15 pooled normal tissues (including normal prostate tissue) but registered at low levels in the spleen tissue (+). By contrast, PCAG1 mRNA was significantly higher than in the adjacent normal tissues in each of the 14 cases of prostate cancer, with ~50% scoring a high degree of expression (+++). Of the 32 types of normal tissues, 29 (including normal prostate tissue) demonstrated negative PCAG1 protein staining while the remaining tissues of the adrenal gland, parathyroid gland and liver expressed low levels. While 18/20 cases of prostate adenocarcinoma showed positive expression results, PCAG1 protein expression in the remaining types of cancer was scarce when present at all; only 41/380 other cancer cases demonstrated positive results at a low level. The most substantial PCAG1-positive expression results were identified by cytoplasmic staining in 36/38 prostate adenocarcinoma cases, with 10 cases showing high expression levels, 20 showing medium levels and 6 showing low levels. In the paired adjacent normal prostate tissues, only 3/38 cases showed low level positive staining, while 35/38 cases were negative. Immunofluorescent staining of the human prostate cancer PC3 cell line showed positive PCAG1 expression results in the mitochondria. The present study demonstrated that while PCAG1 mRNA was highly expressed in prostate cancer tissues, it was almost absent in all common normal tissues and paired adjacent normal prostate tissues. Furthermore, PCAG1 protein was also highly expressed in prostate cancer tissues, while few common normal tissues, other common malignant tumors and paired adjacent normal prostate tissues had even low levels of expression. Clarification of the function and transcriptional mechanism of PCAG1 may aid the elucidation of the mechanisms of carcinogenesis and progression of prostate cancer. The unique expression pattern of PCAG1 suggests its potential in certain clinical applications.
Haemangioblastoma is a benign tumour which generally occurs in a relatively restricted area of the central nervous system. Renal haemangioblastoma are extremely rare. We report a rare case of renal haemangioblastoma occurring in a 61-year-old male with a solid mass, which was detected during a routine examination. The patient was asymptomatic and abdominal computed tomography (CT) revealed a solid mass in the right kidney. No definitive preoperative diagnosis could be established. Surgical resection of the tumour revealed sporadic renal haemangioblastoma by pathological examination. The patient was followed up at 1 year without any problems. We also present a supplementary review of previously published cases and literature.
Idiopathic azoospermia (IA) is a severe form of male infertility due to unknown causes. The HSF2 gene, encoding the heat shock transcription factor 2, had been suggested to play a significant role in the spermatogenesis process since the Hsf2-knockout male mice showed spermatogenesis defects. To examine whether HSF2 is involved in the pathogenesis of IA in human, we sequenced all the exons of HSF2 in 766 patients diagnosed with IA and 521 proven fertile men. A number of coding mutations private to the patient group, which include three synonymous mutations and five missense mutations, were identified. Of the missense mutations, our functional assay demonstrated that one heterozygous mutation, R502H, caused a complete loss of HSF2 function and that the mutant suppressed the normal function of the wild-type (WT) allele through a dominant-negative effect, thus leading to the dominant penetrance of the mutant allele. These results support a role for HSF2 in the pathogenesis of IA and further implicate this transcription factor as a potential therapeutic target.
The use of ketamine as a recreational drug is on the increase among young adults attending clubs and parties. Recreational ketamine users have anecdotally reported increased lower urinary tract symptoms while using the substance.
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