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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Candidate selection for quadrant-based focal ablation through a combination of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging and prostate biopsy.
BJU Int.
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2014
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? To identify prostatic quadrants that could be preserved without intervention, using diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) and extended core biopsy, as a step toward implementation of quadrant-based focal ablation with potential preservation of erectile and ejaculatory functions, based on comparisons with unilateral hemigland ablation.
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Intracellular Propionibacterium acnes infection in glandular epithelium and stromal macrophages of the prostate with or without cancer.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Recent reports on Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) suggest that this bacterium is prevalent in the prostate, is associated with acute and chronic prostatic inflammation, and might have a role in prostate carcinogenesis.
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Group VIB Ca(2+)-independent phospholipase A(2?) is associated with acute lung injury following trauma and hemorrhagic shock.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg
PUBLISHED: 10-26-2013
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Gut-derived mediators are carried via mesenteric lymph duct into systemic circulation after trauma/hemorrhagic shock (T/HS), thus leading to acute lung injury (ALI)/multiple-organ dysfunction syndrome. Phospholipase A2 (PLA(2)) is a key enzyme for the production of lipid mediators in posthemorrhagic shock mesenteric lymph (PHSML). However, the precise functions of PLA(2) subtype, such as cytosolic PLA(2), secretory PLA(2), and Ca-independent PLA(2), in the acute phase of inflammation have remained unclear. Our previous study has suggested that the activation of Group VIB Ca-independent PLA(2?) (PLA(2?)) may be associated with increased lyso-phosphatidylcholines (LPCs) in the PHSML. Therefore, our purpose was to verify the role of iPLA(2?) on the production of 2-polyunsaturated LPC species and the pathogenesis of T/HS-induced ALI using an iPLA(2?)-specific inhibitor, R-(E)-6-(bromoethylene)-3-(1-naphthalenyl)-2H-tetrahydropyran-2-one (R-BEL).
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Low-dose Hsp90 inhibitors tumor-selectively sensitize bladder cancer cells to chemoradiotherapy.
Cell Cycle
PUBLISHED: 12-15-2011
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Although radical cystectomy with urinary diversion is the standard treatment for muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC), loss of native bladder frequently impairs patients quality of life (QOL). Bladder-sparing approach incorporating chemoradiotherapy (CRT) improves QOL while not compromising survival outcomes in MIBC patients. In this approach, complete response to induction CRT is a prerequisite for bladder preservation and favorable oncological outcomes. We investigated a strategy to potentiate CRT response of bladder cancer cells by using Hsp90 inhibitors in preclinical models. Hsp90 inhibitors at low concentrations, which did not exert cytocidal effects but inactivated key anti-apoptotic proteins including erbB2, Akt, and NF-?B, efficiently sensitized bladder cancer cells (T24, 5637 and UM-UC-3 cells) to in vitro CRT by enhancing apoptosis. Importantly, the sensitizing effects were not observed in primarily cultured normal human urothelial cells. We also showed that CRT induces accumulation of nuclear phospho-Akt, which antagonizes apoptosis, and that Hsp90 inhibitors block the cellular process. Hsp90 inhibition sensitized bladder cancer cells to in vitro CRT more effectively than sole or combined inhibition of erbB2 and Akt. In mice UM-UC-3 tumor xenografts model, Hsp90 inhibitors successfully potentiated anti-tumor activity of CRT. These results encourage clinical trials of Hsp90 inhibitors to overcome CRT resistance in patients with MIBC.
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ErbB2 and NF?B overexpression as predictors of chemoradiation resistance and putative targets to overcome resistance in muscle-invasive bladder cancer.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 09-27-2011
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Radical cystectomy for muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) patients frequently impairs their quality of life (QOL) due to urinary diversion. To improve their QOL, a bladder-sparing alternative strategy using chemoradiation has been developed. In bladder-sparing protocols, complete response (CR) to induction chemoradiation is a prerequisite for bladder preservation and favorable survival. Thus predicting chemoradiation resistance and overcoming it would increase individual MIBC patients chances of bladder preservation. The aim of this study is to investigate putative molecular targets for treatment aimed at improving chemoradiation response. Expression levels of erbB2, NF?B, p53, and survivin were evaluated immunohistochemically in pretreatment biopsy samples from 35 MIBC patients in whom chemoradiation sensitivity had been pathologically evaluated in cystectomy specimens, and associations of these expression levels with chemoradiation sensitivity and cancer-specific survival (CSS) were investigated. Of the 35 patients, 11 (31%) achieved pathological CR, while tumors in the remaining 24 patients (69%) were chemoradiation-resistant. Multivariate analysis identified erbB2 and NF?B overexpression and hydronephrosis as significant and independent risk factors for chemoradiation resistance with respective relative risks of 11.8 (P?=?0.014), 15.4 (P?=?0.024) and 14.3 (P?=?0.038). The chemoradiation resistance rate was 88.5% for tumors overexpressing erbB2 and/or NF?B, but only 11.1% for those negative for both (P <0.0001). The 5-year CSS rate was 74% overall. Through multivariate analysis, overexpression of erbB2 and/or NF?B was identified as an independent risk factor for bladder cancer death with marginal significance (hazard ratio 21.5, P?=?0.056) along with chemoradiation resistance (P?=?0.003) and hydronephrosis (P?=?0.018). The 5-year CSS rate for the 11 patients achieving pathological CR was 100%, while that for the 24 with chemoradiation-resistant disease was 61% (P?=?0.018). Thus, erbB2 and NF?B overexpression are relevant to chemoradiation resistance and are putative targets aimed at overcoming chemoradiation resistance in MIBC.
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Prognostic value of co-expression of STAT3, mTOR and EGFR in gastric cancer.
Exp Ther Med
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2011
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Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), proteins that mediate intracellular signaling related to cell growth, proliferation and differentiation, have received considerable interest as possible targets for cancer treatment. We examined whether the expression of STAT3, mTOR and EGFR correlates with clinicopathological features and patient outcome in gastric cancer. Tumor samples were obtained from 126 patients with gastric adenocarcinomas who underwent a radical gastrectomy between 1999 and 2002. The expression of phosphorylated STAT3 (p-STAT3), p-mTOR and EGFR was analyzed by immunohistochemical staining. The relations of these to clinicopathological factors and outcomes were assessed. The expression of p-STAT3 p-mTOR and EGFR positively correlated with the following variables related to tumor progression: the depth of tumor invasion (T1 vs. T2-4; p<0.001, p=0.036 and p<0.001, respectively), lymph node involvement (p=0.008, p=0.027 and p=0.007) and tumor stage (I vs. II-IV; p<0.001, p=0.041 and p<0.001). The expression of p-STAT3 and EGFR was significantly related to distant metastasis and recurrence (p=0.001 and p=0.039), as well as significantly poorer disease-specific survival (DSS; p=0.0018 and p=0.026). The expression of p-STAT3 was a marginally non-significant prognostic factor for DSS (hazard ratio=2.0, 95% CI 0.91-4.5, p=0.082). Increasing expression of p-STAT3, p-mTOR and EGFR was associated with progressively worse DSS. Interactions among p-STAT3, p-mTOR and EGFR may play an important role in tumor progression and outcomes in patients with gastric cancer.
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A novel repeat biopsy nomogram based on three-dimensional extended biopsy.
Urology
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2010
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To develop a nomogram based on a cohort examined with 3-dimensional (3D) protocol for diagnosis of prostate cancer on repeat biopsy.
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Pancreas-specific aquaporin 12 null mice showed increased susceptibility to caerulein-induced acute pancreatitis.
Am. J. Physiol., Cell Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2009
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Aquaporin 12 (AQP12) is the most recently identified member of the mammalian AQP family and is specifically expressed in pancreatic acinar cells. In vitro expression studies have revealed that AQP12 is localized at intracellular sites. To determine the physiological roles of AQP12 in the pancreas, we generated knockout mice for this gene (AQP12-KO). No obvious differences were observed under normal conditions between wild-type (WT) and AQP12-KO mice in terms of growth, blood chemistry, pancreatic fluid content, or histology. However, when we induced pancreatitis through the administration of a cholecystokinin-8 (CCK-8) analog, the AQP12-KO mice showed more severe pathological damage to this organ than WT mice. Furthermore, when we analyzed exocytosis in the pancreatic acini using a two-photon excitation imaging method, the results revealed larger exocytotic vesicles (vacuoles) in the acini of AQP12-KO mice at a high CCK-8 dose (100 nM). From these results, we conclude that AQP12 may function in the mechanisms that control the proper secretion of pancreatic fluid following rapid and intense stimulation.
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Rapid detection of matrix metalloproteinase-7 and carcinoembryonic antigen mRNA expression in intraoperative pleural lavage samples using the reverse transcriptase loop-mediated isothermal amplification method.
Acta Cytol.
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2009
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To detect the RNA of the tumor origin in intraoperative pleural lavage accurately by examining using rapid nucleic acid amplification method because patients with lung cancer often have recurrence detected by a cytologic examination of cancer cells in intraoperative pleural lavage.
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Colorectal Carcinoma: Local Tumor Staging and Assessment of Lymph Node Metastasis by High-Resolution MR Imaging in Surgical Specimens.
Int J Biomed Imaging
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2009
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Purpose. To assess the accuracy of high-resolution MR imaging as a means of evaluating mural invasion and lymph node metastasis by colorectal carcinoma in surgical specimens. Materials and Methods. High-resolution T1-weighted and T2-weighted MR images were obtained in 92 surgical specimens containing 96 colorectal carcinomas. Results. T2-weighted MR images clearly depicted the normal colorectal wall as consisting of seven layers. In 90 (94%) of the 96 carcinomas the depth of mural invasion depicted by MR imaging correlated well with the histopathologic stage. Nodal signal intensity on T2-weighted images (93%) and nodal border contour (93%) were more accurate than nodal size (89%) as indicators of lymph node metastasis, and MR imaging provided the highest accuracy (94%-96%) when they were combined. Conclusion. High-resolution MR imaging is a very accurate method for evaluating both mural invasion and lymph node metastasis by colorectal carcinoma in surgical specimens.
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An integrated approach of differential mass spectrometry and gene ontology analysis identified novel proteins regulating neuronal differentiation and survival.
Mol. Cell Proteomics
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2009
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MS-based quantitative proteomics is widely used for large scale identification of proteins. However, an integrated approach that offers comprehensive proteome coverage, a tool for the quick categorization of the identified proteins, and a standardized biological study method is needed for helping the researcher focus on investigating the proteins with biologically important functions. In this study, we utilized isobaric tagging for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ)-based quantitative differential LC/MS/MS, functional annotation with a proprietary gene ontology tool (Molecular Annotation by Gene Ontology (MANGO)), and standard biochemical methods to identify proteins related to neuronal differentiation in nerve growth factor-treated rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells, which serve as a representative model system for studying neuronal biological processes. We performed MS analysis by using both nano-LC-MALDI-MS/MS and nano-LC-ESI-MS/MS for maximal proteome coverage. Of 1,482 non-redundant proteins semiquantitatively identified, 72 were differentially expressed with 39 up- and 33 down-regulated, including 64 novel nerve growth factor-responsive PC12 proteins. Gene ontology analysis of the differentially expressed proteins by MANGO indicated with statistical significance that the up-regulated proteins were mostly related to the biological processes of cell morphogenesis, apoptosis/survival, and cell differentiation. Some of the up-regulated proteins of unknown function, such as PAIRBP1, translationally controlled tumor protein, prothymosin alpha, and MAGED1, were further analyzed to validate their significant functions in neuronal differentiation by immunoblotting and immunocytochemistry using each antibody combined with a specific short interfering RNA technique. Knockdown of these proteins caused abnormal cell morphological changes, inhibition of neurite formation, and cell death during each course of the differentiation, confirming their important roles in neurite formation and survival of PC12 cells. These results show that our iTRAQ-MANGO-biological analysis framework, which integrates a number of standard proteomics strategies, is effective for targeting and elucidating the functions of proteins involved in the cellular biological process being studied.
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Development and external validation of a new outcome prediction model for patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma treated with nephrectomy based on preoperative serum C-reactive protein and TNM classification: the TNM-C score.
J. Urol.
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2009
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C-reactive protein has been shown to be a prognostic factor for renal cell carcinoma. We developed a new prediction model including C-reactive protein in patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma.
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Evaluation of gastric cancer by high-resolution three-dimensional CISS MR imaging in vitro.
Clin Imaging
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2009
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The objective of this study was to demonstrate the usefulness of high-resolution three-dimensional (3D) constructive interference in steady-state (CISS) MR imaging for evaluating mural invasion and the morphologic features of gastric cancers in vitro.
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Combination of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging and extended prostate biopsy predicts lobes without significant cancer: application in patient selection for hemiablative focal therapy.
Eur. Urol.
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Significant cancer in contralateral sides of the prostate that was missed on prostate biopsy (PBx) is a concern in hemiablative focal therapy (FT) of prostate cancer (PCa). However, extended PBx, a common diagnostic procedure, has a limited predictive ability for lobes without significant cancer.
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Extended biopsy based criteria incorporating cumulative cancer length for predicting clinically insignificant prostate cancer.
BJU Int.
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Whats known on the subject? and What does the study add? The criteria used for selecting patients with prostate cancer for active surveillance (AS) are still not satisfactory due to the difficulty in predicting the significance of the prostate cancer. Urologists could predict insignificant prostate cancer by incorporating cumulative cancer length and biopsy Gleason score, derived from extended biopsy. The present study has added new criteria for predicting insignificant prostate cancer, which would lead to a better selection of candidates for AS.
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The importance of clinical information in patients with gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumor.
Hepatogastroenterology
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The WHO 2010 grading system for gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors(GEP-NETs) is used to evaluate the malignant potential without clinicopathological information. This study was conducted to examine whether the new index is superior to the previous WHO 2004 classification, e.g.for well-differentiated endocrine carcinoma (WEC),involving clinical information.
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Prognoses of GEP-NETS with undetermined malignant potentials of their primary sites.
Hepatogastroenterology
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In gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NETs), primary lesions cannot be resected when the patients have highly advanced disease or when the primary sites are undefined. Such GEP-NETs cannot be evaluated with Ki-67 or the mitotic index. The aim of this study was to examine the prognosis of GEP-NETs that were ungraded by WHO G1-3 grading (U-NET group).
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Non-human primate model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis with cytoplasmic mislocalization of TDP-43.
Brain
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Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a fatal neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive motoneuron loss. Redistribution of transactive response deoxyribonucleic acid-binding protein 43 from the nucleus to the cytoplasm and the presence of cystatin C-positive Bunina bodies are considered pathological hallmarks of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, but their significance has not been fully elucidated. Since all reported rodent transgenic models using wild-type transactive response deoxyribonucleic acid-binding protein 43 failed to recapitulate these features, we expected a species difference and aimed to make a non-human primate model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. We overexpressed wild-type human transactive response deoxyribonucleic acid-binding protein 43 in spinal cords of cynomolgus monkeys and rats by injecting adeno-associated virus vector into the cervical cord, and examined the phenotype using behavioural, electrophysiological, neuropathological and biochemical analyses. These monkeys developed progressive motor weakness and muscle atrophy with fasciculation in distal hand muscles first. They also showed regional cytoplasmic transactive response deoxyribonucleic acid-binding protein 43 mislocalization with loss of nuclear transactive response deoxyribonucleic acid-binding protein 43 staining in the lateral nuclear group of spinal cord innervating distal hand muscles and cystatin C-positive cytoplasmic aggregates, reminiscent of the spinal cord pathology of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Transactive response deoxyribonucleic acid-binding protein 43 mislocalization was an early or presymptomatic event and was later associated with neuron loss. These findings suggest that the transactive response deoxyribonucleic acid-binding protein 43 mislocalization leads to ?-motoneuron degeneration. Furthermore, truncation of transactive response deoxyribonucleic acid-binding protein 43 was not a prerequisite for motoneuronal degeneration, and phosphorylation of transactive response deoxyribonucleic acid-binding protein 43 occurred after degeneration had begun. In contrast, similarly prepared rat models expressed transactive response deoxyribonucleic acid-binding protein 43 only in the nucleus of motoneurons. There is thus a species difference in transactive response deoxyribonucleic acid-binding protein 43 pathology, and our monkey model recapitulates amyotrophic lateral sclerosis pathology to a greater extent than rodent models, providing a valuable tool for studying the pathogenesis of sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.