Brain edema is a primary factor in the morbidity and mortality of traumatic brain injury (TBI). The various isoforms of aquaporin 4 (AQP4) and aquaporin 9 (AQP9) are important factors influencing edema following TBI. Others have reported that these AQPs are regulated by the transcription factor hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) 1?. Therefore, we examined the temporal alterations in the multiple isoforms of AQP4 and AQP9, and its possible upstream regulation by HIF1?, and evaluated whether different severities of penetrating injury influence these mechanisms.
The role of systemic autoimmunity in human traumatic brain injury (TBI) and other forms of brain injuries is recognized but not well understood. In this study, a systematic investigation was performed to identify serum autoantibody responses to brain-specific proteins after TBI in humans. TBI autoantibodies showed predominant immunoreactivity against a cluster of bands from 38-50 kDa on human brain immunoblots, which were identified as GFAP and GFAP breakdown products. GFAP autoantibody levels increased by 7 days after injury, and were of the IgG subtype predominantly. Results from in vitro tests and rat TBI experiments also indicated that calpain was responsible for removing the amino and carboxyl termini of GFAP to yield a 38 kDa fragment. Additionally, TBI autoantibody staining co-localized with GFAP in injured rat brain and in primary rat astrocytes. These results suggest that GFAP breakdown products persist within degenerating astrocytes in the brain. Anti-GFAP autoantibody also can enter living astroglia cells in culture and its presence appears to compromise glial cell health. TBI patients showed an average 3.77 fold increase in anti-GFAP autoantibody levels from early (0-1 days) to late (7-10 days) times post injury. Changes in autoantibody levels were negatively correlated with outcome as measured by GOS-E score at 6 months, suggesting that TBI patients with greater anti-GFAP immune-responses had worse outcomes. Due to the long lasting nature of IgG, a test to detect anti-GFAP autoantibodies is likely to prolong the temporal window for assessment of brain damage in human patients.
The rate of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in service members with wartime injuries has risen rapidly in recent years, and complex, variable links have emerged between TBI and long-term neurological disorders. The multifactorial nature of TBI secondary cellular response has confounded attempts to find cellular biomarkers for its diagnosis and prognosis or for guiding therapy for brain injury. One possibility is to apply emerging systems biology strategies to holistically probe and analyze the complex interweaving molecular pathways and networks that mediate the secondary cellular response through computational models that integrate these diverse data sets. Here, we review available systems biology strategies, databases, and tools. In addition, we describe opportunities for applying this methodology to existing TBI data sets to identify new biomarker candidates and gain insights about the underlying molecular mechanisms of TBI response. As an exemplar, we apply network and pathway analysis to a manually compiled list of 32 protein biomarker candidates from the literature, recover known TBI-related mechanisms, and generate hypothetical new biomarker candidates.
The tripeptide glycine-proline-glutamate analogue NNZ-2566 (Neuren Pharmaceuticals) demonstrates neuroprotective efficacy in models of traumatic brain injury. In penetrating ballistic-like brain injury (PBBI), it significantly decreases injury-induced upregulation of inflammatory cytokines including TNF-?, IFN-?, and IL-6. However, the mechanism by which NNZ-2566 acts has yet to be determined. The activating transcription factor-3 (ATF3) is known to repress expression of these inflammatory cytokines and was increased at the mRNA and protein level 24-h post-PBBI. This study investigated whether 12 h of NNZ-2566 treatment following PBBI alters atf3 expression. PBBI alone significantly increased atf3 mRNA levels by 13-fold at 12 h and these levels were increased by an additional fourfold with NNZ-2566 treatment. To confirm that changes in mRNA translated to changes in protein expression, ATF3 expression levels were determined in vivo in microglia/macrophages, T cells, natural killer cells (NKCs), astrocytes, and neurons. PBBI alone significantly increased ATF3 in microglia/macrophages (820%), NKCs (58%), and astrocytes (51%), but decreased levels in T cells (48%). NNZ-2566 treatment further increased ATF3 protein expression in microglia/macrophages (102%), NKCs (308%), and astrocytes (13%), while reversing ATF3 decreases in T cells. Finally, PBBI increased ATF3 levels by 55% in neurons and NNZ-2566 treatment further increased these levels an additional 33%. Since increased ATF3 may be an innate protective mechanism to limit inflammation following injury, these results demonstrating that the anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective drug NNZ-2566 increase both mRNA and protein levels of ATF3 in multiple cell types provide a cellular mechanism for NNZ-2566 modulation of neuroinflammation following PBBI.
Stroke patients are at a high risk of developing post-ischemic seizures and cognitive impairment. Nefiracetam (NEF), a pyrrolidone derivative, has been shown to possess both anti-epileptic and cognitive-enhancing properties. In this study the anti-seizure effects of NEF were evaluated in a rat model of post-ischemic nonconvulsive seizures (NCSs). Its potential mechanisms were investigated in neuronal cell culture assays of neurotoxicity associated with ischemic brain injury and epileptogenesis.
The goal of this project was to determine whether biochemical markers of brain damage can be used to diagnose and assess the severity of injury in a rat model of penetrating ballistic-like brain injury (PBBI). To determine the relationship between injury magnitude and biomarker levels, rats underwent three discrete PBBI severity levels defined by the magnitude of the ballistic component of the injury, calibrated to equal 5%, 10%, or 12.5% of total rat brain volume. Cortex, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and blood were collected at multiple time points. Levels of three biomarkers (?II-spectrin breakdown product [SBDP150], glial fibrillary acidic protein [GFAP], and ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase-L1 [UCH-L1]), were measured using quantitative immunoblotting and/or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. In injured cortex, SBDP150 and GFAP levels were increased significantly over controls. Cortical SBDP150 was elevated at 1 day but not 7 days, and GFAP at 7 days but not 1 day. At their respective time points, mean levels of SBDP150 and GFAP biomarkers in the cortex rose stepwise as injury magnitude increased. In the CSF, increasing severity of PBBI was associated with increasing concentrations of both neuronal and glial biomarkers acutely at 1 day after injury, but no trends were observed at 7 days. In plasma, SBDP150 was elevated at 5?min after 10% PBBI and at 6?h after 12.5% PBBI. UCH-L1 levels in plasma were elevated acutely at 5?min post-injury reflecting injury severity and rapidly decreased within 2?h. Overall, our results support the conclusion that biomarkers are effective indicators of brain damage after PBBI and may also aid in the assessment of injury magnitude.
Closed-head concussive injury is one of the most common causes of traumatic brain injury (TBI). While single concussions result in short-term neurologic dysfunction, multiple concussions can result in cumulative damage and increased risk for neurodegenerative disease. Despite the prevalence of concussion, knowledge about what occurs in the brain following this injury is limited, in part due to the limited number of appropriate animal research models. To study clinically relevant concussion we recently developed a simple, non-invasive rodent model of closed-head projectile concussive impact (PCI) TBI. For this purpose, anesthetized rats were placed on a platform positioned above a torque-sealed microcentrifuge tube packed with fixed amounts of dry ice. Upon heating, rapid sublimation of the dry ice produced a build-up of compressed CO(2) that triggered an eruptive force causing the cap to launch as an intact projectile, resulting in a targeted PCI head injury. A stainless steel helmet was implemented to protect the head from bruising, yet allowing the brain to sustain a mild PCI event. Depending on the injury location and the application of the helmet, PCI-induced injuries ranged from severe (i.e., head injury with subdural hematomas, intracranial hemorrhage, and brain tissue damage), to mild (no head injury, intracranial hemorrhage, or gross morphological pathology). Although no gross pathology was evident in mild PCI-induced injury, the following protein changes and behavioral abnormalities were detected between 1 and 24 h after PCI injury: (1) upregulation of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in hippocampal regions; (2) upregulation of ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase L1 (UCHL-1) in cortical tissue; and (3) significant sensorimotor abnormalities. Overall, these results indicated that this PCI model was capable of replicating salient pathologies of a clinical concussion, and could generate reproducible and quantifiable outcome measures.
This study evaluated the injury severity profile of unilateral, frontal penetrating ballistic-like brain injury (PBBI) on neurofunctional outcome, blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability, and brain edema formation. The degree of injury severity was determined by the delivery of a water-pressure pulse designed to produce a temporary cavity by rapid (<40?ms) expansion of the probes elastic balloon calibrated to equal 5%, 10%, 12.5%, or 15% of total rat brain volume (control groups consisted of sham surgery or insertion of the probe only). Neurofunctional assessments revealed motor and cognitive deficits related to the degree of injury severity, with the most clear-cut profile of PBBI injury severity depicted by the Morris water maze (MWM) results. A biphasic pattern of BBB leakage was detected in the injured hemisphere at all injury severity levels at 4?h post-injury, and again at 48-72?h post-injury, which remained evident out to 7 days post-PBBI in the 10% and 12.5% PBBI groups. Likewise, significant brain edema was detected in the injured hemisphere by 4?h post-injury and remained elevated out to 7 days post-injury in the 10% and 12.5% PBBI groups. However, following 5% PBBI, significant levels of edema were only detected from 24?h to 48h post-injury. These results identify an injury severity profile of BBB permeability, brain edema, and neurofunctional impairment that provides sensitive and clinically relevant outcome metrics for studying potential therapeutics.
Brain edema formation associated with trauma-induced intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a clinical complication with high mortality. Studies have shown that heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) plays an important role in ICH-induced brain edema. In order to understand the role of HO-1 in the protective effect of selective brain cooling (SBC), we investigated the time course of HO-1 changes following penetrating ballistic-like brain injury (PBBI) in rats. Samples were collected from injured and control animals at 6, 24, 48, and 72 h, and 7 days post-injury to evaluate HO-1 expression, heme concentration, brain water content, and immunohistochemistry (IHC). Following a 10% frontal PBBI, HO-1 mRNA and protein was increased at all time points studied, reaching maximum expression levels at 24-48 h post-injury. An increase in the heme concentration and the development of brain edema coincided with the upregulation of HO-1 mRNA and protein during the 7-day post-injury period. SBC significantly decreased PBBI-induced heme concentration, attenuated HO-1 upregulation, and concomitantly reduced brain water content. These results suggest that the neuroprotective effects of SBC may be partially mediated by reducing the heme accumulation, which reduced injury-mediated upregulation of HO-1, and in turn ameliorated edema formation. Collectively, these results suggest a potential value of HO-1 as a diagnostic and/or therapeutic biomarker in hemorrhagic brain injury.
Diagnosis and treatment of stroke and traumatic brain injury remain significant health care challenges to society. Patient care stands to benefit from an improved understanding of the interactive biochemistry underlying neurotrauma pathobiology. In this study, we assessed the power of neuroproteomics to contrast biochemical responses following ischemic and traumatic brain injuries in the rat. A middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model was employed in groups of 30-min and 2-h focal neocortical ischemia with reperfusion. Neuroproteomes were assessed via tandem cation-anion exchange chromatography-gel electrophoresis, followed by reversed-phase liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. MCAO results were compared with those from a previous study of focal contusional brain injury employing the same methodology to characterize homologous neocortical tissues at 2 days post-injury. The 30-min MCAO neuroproteome depicted abridged energy production involving pentose phosphate, modulated synaptic function and plasticity, and increased chaperone activity and cell survival factors. The 2-h MCAO data indicated near complete loss of ATP production, synaptic dysfunction with degraded cytoarchitecture, more conservative chaperone activity, and additional cell survival factors than those seen in the 30-min MCAO model. The TBI group exhibited disrupted metabolism, but with retained malate shuttle functionality. Synaptic dysfunction and cytoarchitectural degradation resembled the 2-h MCAO group; however, chaperone and cell survival factors were more depressed following TBI. These results underscore the utility of neuroproteomics for characterizing interactive biochemistry for profiling and contrasting the molecular aspects underlying the pathobiological differences between types of brain injuries.
One of the histopathological consequences of a penetrating ballistic brain injury is the formation of a permanent cavity. In a previous study using the penetrating ballistic-like brain injury (PBBI) model, engrafted human amnion-derived multipotent progenitor (AMP) cells failed to survive when injected directly in the injury tract, suggesting that the cell survival requires a supportive matrix. In this study, we seated AMP cells in a collagen-based scaffold, injected into the injury core, and investigated cell survival and neuroprotection following PBBI. AMP cells suspended in AMP cell conditioned medium (ACCS) or in a liquefied collagen matrix were injected immediately after a PBBI along the penetrating injury tract. Injured control rats received only liquefied collagen matrix. All animals were allowed to survive two weeks. Consistent with our previous results, AMP cells suspended in ACCS failed to survive; likewise, no collagen was identified at the injury site when injected alone. In contrast, both AMP cells and the collagen were preserved in the injury cavity when injected together. In addition, AMP cells/collagen treatment preserved some apparent brain tissue in the injury cavity, and there was measurable infiltration of endogenous neural progenitor cells and astrocytes into the preserved brain tissue. AMP cells were also found to have migrated into the subventricular zone and the corpus callosum. Moreover, the AMP cell/collagen treatment significantly attenuated the PBBI-induced axonal degeneration in the corpus callosum and ipsilateral thalamus and improved motor impairment on rotarod performance. Overall, collagen-based scaffold provided a supportive matrix for AMP cell survival, migration, and neuroprotection.
Ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase-L1 (UCH-L1), also called neuronal-specific protein gene product 9.5, is a highly abundant protein in the neuronal cell body and has been identified as a possible biomarker on the basis of a recent proteomic study. In this study, we examined whether UCH-L1 was significantly elevated in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) following controlled cortical impact (CCI) and middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO; model of ischemic stroke) in rats. Quantitative immunoblots of rat CSF revealed a dramatic elevation of UCH-L1 protein 48 h after severe CCI and as early as 6 h after mild (30 min) and severe (2 h) MCAO. A sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay constructed to measure UCH-L1 sensitively and quantitatively showed that CSF UCH-L1 levels were significantly elevated as early as 2 h and up to 48 h after CCI. Similarly, UCH-L1 levels were also significantly elevated in CSF from 6 to 72 h after 30 min of MCAO and from 6 to 120 h after 2 h of MCAO. These data are comparable to the profile of the calpain-produced alphaII-spectrin breakdown product of 145 kDa biomarker. Importantly, serum UCH-L1 biomarker levels were also significantly elevated after CCI. Similarly, serum UCH-L1 levels in the 2-h MCAO group were significantly higher than those in the 30-min group. Taken together, these data from two rat models of acute brain injury strongly suggest that UCH-L1 is a candidate brain injury biomarker detectable in biofluid compartments (CSF and serum).
To identify a viable cell source with potential neuroprotective effects, we studied amnion-derived multipotent progenitor (AMP) cells in a rat model of penetrating ballistic-like brain injury (PBBI). AMP cells were labeled with fluorescent dye PKH26 and injected in rats immediately following right hemispheric PBBI or sham PBBI surgery by ipsilateral i.c.v. administration. At 2 weeks post-injury, severe necrosis developed along the PBBI tract and axonal degeneration was prominent along the corpus callosum (cc) and in the ipsilateral thalamus. Injected AMP cells first entered the subventricular zone (SVZ) in both sham and PBBI rats. Further AMP cell migration along the cc only occurred in PBBI animals. No significant difference in injury volume was observed across all treatment groups. In contrast, treatment with AMP cells significantly attenuated axonal degeneration in both the thalamus and the cc. Interestingly, PKH26-labeled AMP cells were detected only in the SVZ and the cc (in parallel with the axonal degeneration), but not in the thalamus. None of the labeled AMP cells appeared to express neural differentiation, as evidenced by the lack of double labeling with nestin, S-100, GFAP, and MAP-2 immunostaining. In conclusion, AMP cell migration was specifically induced by PBBI and requires SVZ homing, yet the neuroprotective effect of intracerebral ventrical treatment using AMP cells was not limited to the area where the cells were present. This suggests that the attenuation of the secondary brain injury following PBBI was likely to be mediated by mechanisms other than cell replacement, possibly through delivery or sustained secretion of neurotrophic factors.
Protein changes induced by traumatic or ischemic brain injury can serve as diagnostic markers as well as therapeutic targets for neuroprotection. The focus of this chapter is to provide a representative overview of preclinical brain injury and proteomics analysis protocols for evaluation and discovery of novel biomarkers. Detailed surgical procedures have been provided for inducing MCAo and implantation of chronic indwelling cannulas for drug delivery. Sample collection and tissue processing techniques for collection of blood, CSF, and brain are also described including standard biochemical methodology for the proteomic analysis of these tissues.The dynamics of proteomic analysis is a multistep process comprising sample preparation, separation, quantification, and identification of proteins. Our approach is to separate proteins first by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis according to charge and molecular mass. Proteins are then fragmented and analyzed using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Identification of proteins can be achieved by comparing the mass-to-charge data to protein sequences in respective databases.
Inflammatory cytokines play a crucial role in the pathophysiology of traumatic brain injury (TBI), exerting either deleterious effects on the progression of tissue damage or beneficial roles during recovery and repair. NNZ-2566, a synthetic analogue of the neuroprotective tripeptide Glypromate, has been shown to be neuroprotective in animal models of brain injury. The goal of this study was to determine the effects of NNZ-2566 on inflammatory cytokine expression and neuroinflammation induced by penetrating ballistic-like brain injury (PBBI) in rats.
To gain additional insights into the pathogenic cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying different types of brain injury (e.g., trauma versus ischemia), recently attention has focused on the discovery and study of protein biomarkers. In previous studies, using a high-throughput immunoblotting (HTPI) technique, we reported changes in 29 out of 998 proteins following acute injuries to the rat brain (penetrating traumatic versus focal ischemic). Importantly, we discovered that one protein, endothelial monocyte-activating polypeptide II precursor (p43/pro-EMAPII), was differentially expressed between these two types of brain injury. Among other functions, p43/pro-EMAPII is a known pro-inflammatory cytokine involved in the progression of apoptotic cell death. Our current objective was to verify the changes in p43/pro-EMAPII expression, and to evaluate the potentially important implications that the differential regulation of this protein has on injury development. At multiple time points following either a penetrating ballistic-like brain injury (PBBI), or a transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo) brain injury, tissue samples (6-72 h), CSF samples (24 h), and blood samples (24 h) were collected from rats for analysis. Changes in protein expression were assessed by Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry. Our results indicated that p43/pro-EMAPII was significantly increased in brain tissues, CSF, and plasma following PBBI, but decreased after MCAo injury compared to their respective sham control samples. This differential expression of p43/pro-EMAPII may be a useful injury-specific biomarker associated with the underlying pathologies of traumatic versus ischemic brain injury, and provide valuable information for directing injury-specific therapeutics.
Glycine-proline-glutamate (GPE) is an N-terminal tripeptide endogenously cleaved from insulin-like growth factor-1 in the brain and is neuroprotective against hypoxic-ischemic brain injury and neurodegeneration. NNZ-2566 is an analog of GPE designed to have improved bioavailability. In this study, we tested NNZ-2566 in a rat model of penetrating ballistic-type brain injury (PBBI) and assessed its effects on injury-induced histopathology, behavioral deficits, and molecular and cellular events associated with inflammation and apoptosis. In the initial dose-response experiments, NNZ-2566 (0.01-3 mg/kg/h x 12 h intravenous infusion) was given at 30 min post-injury and the therapeutic time window was established by delaying treatments 2-4 h post-injury, but with the addition of a 10- or 30-mg/kg bolus dose. All animals survived 72 h. Neuroprotection was evaluated by balance beam testing and histopathology. The effects of NNZ-2566 on injury-induced changes in Bax and Bcl-2 proteins, activated microgliosis, neutrophil infiltration, and astrocyte reactivity were also examined. Behavioral results demonstrated that NNZ-2566 dose-dependently reduced foot faults by 19-66% after acute treatments, and 35-55% after delayed treatments. Although gross lesion volume was not affected, NNZ-2566 treatment significantly attenuated neutrophil infiltration and reduced the number of activated microglial cells in the peri-lesion regions of the PBBI. PBBI induced a significant upregulation in Bax expression (36%) and a concomitant downregulation in Bcl-2 expression (33%), both of which were significantly reversed by NNZ-2566. Collectively, these results demonstrated that NNZ-2566 treatment promoted functional recovery following PBBI, an effect related to the modulation of injury-induced neural inflammatory and apoptotic mechanisms.
Proteomics and systems biology have significantly contributed to biomarker discovery in the field of brain injury. This study utilized 2D-DIGE-PMF-MS as a preliminary screen to detect biomarkers in a rat model of penetrating ballistic-like brain injury (PBBI). Brain-specific systems biology analysis of brain tissue identified 386 proteins having a fold change of more than 2, of which 321 proteins were increased and 65 were decreased 24 h after PBBI compared to sham controls. The majority of upregulated proteins were cytoskeletal (10.5%), nucleic acid binding (9.3%), or kinases (8.9%). Most proteins were involved in protein metabolism (22.7%), signal transduction (20.4%), and development (9.6%). Pathway analysis indicated that these proteins were involved in neurite outgrowth and cell differentiation. Semiquantitative Western blotting of 6, 24, 48, and 72 h after PBBI indicated ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase isozyme L1 (a proposed traumatic brain injury biomarker in human clinical trials), tyrosine hydroxylase, and syntaxin-6 were found to be consistently elevated in brain tissue and cerebral spinal fluid after PBBI compared to sham controls. Combining proteomics and brain-specific systems biology can define underlying mechanisms of traumatic brain injury and provide valuable information in biomarker discovery that, in turn, may lead to novel therapeutic targets.
Previous work has shown that human amnion-derived progenitor (AMP) cell therapy is neuroprotective in a penetrating ballistic-like brain injury (PBBI) model. However, the neuroprotective capacity of AMP cells seemed to be mediated by the sustained secretion of AMP cell-derived neurotrophic factors, which are abundant in the amnion-derived cellular cytokine suspension (ACCS). To test this theory, the current study assessed the neuroprotective efficacy of long-term ACCS delivery in the PBBI model.
We investigated apoptotic pathways in a model of severe traumatic brain injury, penetrating ballistic-like brain injury (PBBI). TUNEL staining identified increasing apoptosis within 24 h. From targeted arrays, 11 genes were identified for temporal mRNA evaluation. In addition, mRNA levels and enzyme activity for caspases 3, 8, and 9 were examined. In the death receptor-mediated apoptosis pathway, the relative quantities (RQs) of mRNA for tnfr1, fas, and tnf were upregulated while trail mRNA was downregulated. In the anti-apoptotic TNF-R2 pathway, tnfr2 and flip were upregulated while xiap was downregulated. These findings indicate that increases in tnf levels following injury are not only pro-apoptotic but may also signal competing anti-apoptotic mechanisms. For the mitochondria-mediated apoptosis pathway, RQs of anti-apoptotic factors bcl2a1d and birc3 were upregulated while both bcl2 and bax were downregulated. RQs for casp 3 and casp 8 increased while casp9 decreased. Enzymatic activity increased for caspases 3, 8, and 9. While multiple mechanisms promoting and inhibiting apoptosis are at play during the first week after a PBBI, the cumulative result remains increased apoptosis. The ability to understand and dissect these events will assist in the development and evaluation of treatments targeting apoptosis following severe brain injury.
Blood brain barrier (BBB) disruption is a pathological hallmark of severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) and is associated with neuroinflammatory events contributing to brain edema and cell death. The goal of this study was to elucidate the profile of BBB disruption following penetrating ballistic-like brain injury (PBBI) in conjunction with changes in neuroinflammatory markers. Brain uptake of biotin-dextran amine (BDA; 3 kDa) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP; 44 kDa) was evaluated in rats at 4h, 24h, 48h, 72h, and 7 days post-PBBI and compared with the histopathologic and molecular profiles for inflammatory markers. BDA and HRP both displayed a uniphasic profile of extravasation, greatest at 24h post-injury and which remained evident out to 48h for HRP and 7 days for BDA. This profile was most closely associated with markers for adhesion (mRNA for intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and E-selectin) and infiltration of peripheral granulocytes (mRNA for matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and myeloperoxidase staining). Improvement of BBB dysfunction coincided with increased expression of markers implicated in tissue remodeling and repair. The results of this study reveal a uniphasic and gradient opening of the BBB following PBBI and suggest MMP-9 and resident inflammatory cell activation as candidates for future neurotherapeutic intervention following PBBI.
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