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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Rotating Au nanorod and nanowire driven by circularly polarized light.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2014
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The wavelength-dependent optical torques provided by a circularly polarized (CP) plane wave driving Au nanorod (NR) and nanowire (NW) to rotate constantly were studied theoretically. Using the multiple multipole method, the resultant torque in terms of Maxwell's stress tensor was analyzed. Numerical results show that the optical torque spectrum is in accordance with the absorption spectrum of Au NR/NW. Under the same fluence, the maximum optical torque occurs at the longitudinal surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of Au NR/NW, accompanied by a severe plasmonic heating. The rotation direction of the light-driven NR/NW depends on the handedness of CP light. In contrast, the optical torque exerted on Au NR/NW illuminated by a linearly polarized light is null at LSPR. Due to the plasmonic effect, the optical torque on Au NR/NW by CP light is two orders of magnitude larger than that on a dielectric NR/NW of the same size. The steady-state rotation of NR/NW in water, resulting from the balance of optical torque and viscous torque, was also discussed. Our finding shed some light on manipulating a CP light-driven Au NR/NW as a rotating nanomotor for a variety of applications in optofluidics and biophysics.
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Next-generation sequencing of nine atrial fibrillation candidate genes identified novel de novo mutations in patients with extreme trait of atrial fibrillation.
J. Med. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2014
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Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained cardiac arrhythmia. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified common variants in nine genomic regions associated with AF (KCNN3, PRRX1, PITX2, WNT8A, CAV1, C9orf3, SYNE2, HCN4 and ZFHX3 genes); however, the genetic variability of these risk variants does not explain the entire genetic susceptibility to AF. Rare variants missed by GWAS may also contribute to genetic risk of AF.
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Dunaliella salina Exhibits an Antileukemic Immunity in a Mouse Model of WEHI-3 Leukemia Cells.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-08-2014
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Dunaliella salina has been shown to have antioxidant property and induce apoptotic cell death of human cancer cells in vitro. However, there is no information available on D. salina showing an antileukemia effect or immunomodulatory activity in vivo. This study applied D. salina to syngeneic leukemia-implanted mice (BALB/c and WEHI-3) to investigate its immunological and antileukemia properties. Oral administration of D. salina (184.5, 369, and 922.5 mg/kg) inhibited spleen metastasis and prolonged the survival in BALB/c mice that had received an intravenous injection of WEHI-3 cells. The results revealed that D. salina had reduced spleen enlargement in murine leukemia. It had also increased the population and proliferation of T-cells (CD3) and B-cells (CD19) following Con A/LPS treatment on flow cytometry and MTT assay, respectively. Furthermore, D. salina increased the phagocytosis of macrophages and enhanced the cytotoxicity of natural killer cells on flow cytometry and LDH assay. Moreover, D. salina enhanced the levels of interferon-? and interleukin 2 (IL-2) but reduced the levels of IL-4 and IL-10 in leukemic mice. In conclusion, these results demonstrated that the application of D. salina had beneficial effects on WEHI-3 leukemic mice by prolonging survival via modulating the immune responses.
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Real-time dual-loop electric current measurement for label-free nanofluidic preconcentration chip.
Lab Chip
PUBLISHED: 11-06-2014
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An electrokinetic trapping (EKT)-based nanofluidic preconcentration device with the capability of label-free monitoring trapped biomolecules through real-time dual-loop electric current measurement was demonstrated. Universal current-voltage (I-V) curves of EKT-based preconcentration devices, consisting of two microchannels connected by ion-selective channels, are presented for functional validation and optimal operation; universal onset current curves indicating the appearance of the EKT mechanism serve as a confirmation of the concentrating action. The EKT mechanism and the dissimilarity in the current curves related to the volume flow rate (Q), diffusion coefficient (D), and diffusion layer (DL) thickness were explained by a control volume model with a five-stage preconcentration process. Different behaviors of the trapped molecular plug were categorized based on four modes associated with different degrees of electroosmotic instability (EOI). A label-free approach to preconcentrating (bio)molecules and monitoring the multibehavior molecular plug was demonstrated through real-time electric current monitoring, rather than through the use of microscope images.
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Circadian Activity Rhythms and Sleep in Nurses Working Fixed 8-hr Shifts.
Biol Res Nurs
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2014
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Shift work is associated with adverse health outcomes. The aim of this study was to explore the effects of shift work on circadian activity rhythms (CARs) and objective and subjective sleep quality in nurses. Female day-shift (n = 16), evening-shift (n = 6), and night-shift (n = 13) nurses wore a wrist actigraph to monitor the activity. We used cosinor analysis and time-frequency analysis to study CARs. Night-shift nurses exhibited the lowest values of circadian rhythm amplitude, acrophase, autocorrelation, and mean of the circadian relative power (CRP), whereas evening-shift workers exhibited the greatest standard deviation of the CRP among the three shift groups. That is, night-shift nurses had less robust CARs and evening-shift nurses had greater variations in CARs compared with nurses who worked other shifts. Our results highlight the importance of assessing CARs to prevent the adverse effects of shift work on nurses' health.
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Cardiac myocyte-secreted cAMP exerts paracrine action via adenosine receptor activation.
J. Clin. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 10-14-2014
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Acute stimulation of cardiac ?-adrenoceptors is crucial to increasing cardiac function under stress; however, sustained ?-adrenergic stimulation has been implicated in pathological myocardial remodeling and heart failure. Here, we have demonstrated that export of cAMP from cardiac myocytes is an intrinsic cardioprotective mechanism in response to cardiac stress. We report that infusion of cAMP into mice averted myocardial hypertrophy and fibrosis in a disease model of cardiac pressure overload. The protective effect of exogenous cAMP required adenosine receptor signaling. This observation led to the identification of a potent paracrine mechanism that is dependent on secreted cAMP. Specifically, FRET-based imaging of cAMP formation in primary cells and in myocardial tissue from murine hearts revealed that cardiomyocytes depend on the transporter ABCC4 to export cAMP as an extracellular signal. Extracellular cAMP, through its metabolite adenosine, reduced cardiomyocyte cAMP formation and hypertrophy by activating A1 adenosine receptors while delivering an antifibrotic signal to cardiac fibroblasts by A2 adenosine receptor activation. Together, our data reveal a paracrine role for secreted cAMP in intercellular signaling in the myocardium, and we postulate that secreted cAMP may also constitute an important signal in other tissues.
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Disease-Targeted Sequencing of Ion Channel Genes identifies de novo mutations in Patients with Non-Familial Brugada Syndrome.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2014
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Brugada syndrome (BrS) is one of the ion channelopathies associated with sudden cardiac death (SCD). The most common BrS-associated gene (SCN5A) only accounts for approximately 20-25% of BrS patients. This study aims to identify novel mutations across human ion channels in non-familial BrS patients without SCN5A variants through disease-targeted sequencing. We performed disease-targeted multi-gene sequencing across 133 human ion channel genes and 12 reported BrS-associated genes in 15 unrelated, non-familial BrS patients without SCN5A variants. Candidate variants were validated by mass spectrometry and Sanger sequencing. Five de novo mutations were identified in four genes (SCNN1A, KCNJ16, KCNB2, and KCNT1) in three BrS patients (20%). Two of the three patients presented SCD and one had syncope. Interestingly, the two patients presented with SCD had compound mutations (SCNN1A:Arg350Gln and KCNB2:Glu522Lys; SCNN1A:Arg597* and KCNJ16:Ser261Gly). Importantly, two SCNN1A mutations were identified from different families. The KCNT1:Arg1106Gln mutation was identified in a patient with syncope. Bioinformatics algorithms predicted severe functional interruptions in these four mutation loci, suggesting their pivotal roles in BrS. This study identified four novel BrS-associated genes and indicated the effectiveness of this disease-targeted sequencing across ion channel genes for non-familial BrS patients without SCN5A variants.
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Dementia is associated with iron-deficiency anemia in females: A population-based study.
J. Neurol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2014
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Cognitive derangement and neurological symptoms are observed in patients with anemia. Although it is still controversial, a few studies suggested that anemia may increase the risk of dementia. This study aimed to explore the association between iron-deficiency anemia (IDA) and dementia in a population-based case-control study. We retrieved our study sample from the Taiwan Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2000. We extracted 8300 subjects with a diagnosis of dementia and 8300 age- and gender-matched controls. The results showed that there was a significant difference in the prevalence of prior IDA between cases and controls (6.0% vs. 3.8%, p<0.001). The conditional logistic regression analysis suggested that the odds ratio (OR) of prior IDA for cases was 1.36 (95% CI: 1.07-1.74) compared to controls after adjusting for subjects' monthly income, geographic location, urbanization level, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, hypertension, and alcohol abuse. Among female subjects, the adjusted OR of prior IDA for cases was as high as 2.00 (95% CI: 1.42-2.80) compared to controls. However, in men-no increased odds of prior IDA were observed, compared to controls. We concluded that women with dementia had a higher prevalence of prior IDA, compared to controls.
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Antrodia camphorata induces G(1) cell-cycle arrest in human premyelocytic leukemia (HL-60) cells and suppresses tumor growth in athymic nude mice.
Food Funct
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2014
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Antrodia camphorata is a well-known medicinal mushroom in Taiwan. The broth from a fermented culture of Antrodia camphorata (AC) has been shown to induce apoptosis in cultured human premyelocytic leukemia (HL-60) cells. In the present study, we examined the effects of AC on cell cycle arrest in vitro in HL-60 cells and on tumor regression in vivo using an athymic nude mouse model. We found that AC (20-80 ?g mL(-1)) treatment significantly induced G1 cell-cycle arrest in HL-60 cells by reducing the levels of cyclin D1, CDK4, cyclin E, CDK2, cyclin A, and phosphorylation of retinoblastoma protein (p-Rb). Moreover, AC treatment led to significantly increased protein expression levels of CDK inhibitors, including p21(WAF1) and p15(NIK4B). Additionally, AC treatment markedly induced intracellular ROS generation and mitochondrial dysfunction in HL-60 cells. Furthermore, the in vivo study results revealed that AC treatment was effective in terms of delaying the tumor incidence in nude mice that had been inoculated with HL-60 cells as well as in reducing the tumor burden. Histological analysis confirmed that AC treatment significantly modulated the xenografted tumor progression as demonstrated by a reduction in mitotic cells. Our data strongly suggest that Antrodia camphorata could be an anti-cancer agent for human leukemia.
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Attenuating the mortality risk of high serum uric acid: the role of physical activity underused.
Ann. Rheum. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2014
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High serum uric acid (sUA) has been associated with increased mortality risks, but its clinical treatment varied with potential side effects. The role of physical activity has received limited attention.
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Sildenafil can induce the onset of a cluster headache bout.
Can Urol Assoc J
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2014
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About 25% of patients who are prescribed sildenafil, the phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE-5) inhibitor, for erectile dysfunction (ED) experience headaches. These migraine effects are well-described, including cluster headaches. We report the case of a man who experienced a cluster headache attack following each of 2 sildenafil doses. His symptoms were resolved by adding naproxen to his treatment regimen and changing his ED treatment from 50 mg of sildenafil to 5 mg of vardenafil. To our knowledge, no study has reported cluster headaches triggered by the less commonly used PDE-5 inhibitors, namely vardenafil and tadalafil. Urologists should be cautious in prescribing sildenafil to patients with ED and with a history of cluster headaches. In these patients, they should consider prescribing low-dose vardenafil or tadalafil instead. Failure to recognize sildenafil risks could result in unnecessary headache bouts in patients with a history of cluster headaches.
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The efficacy and safety of cilostazol in ischemic stroke patients with peripheral arterial disease (SPAD): protocol of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled multicenter trial.
Int J Stroke
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2014
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It is not uncommon for patients with ischemic stroke to have peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Patients with polyvascular diseases carry greater burden of atherosclerosis and higher risks of developing vascular events and death. More effective regimens, such as dual antiplatelet agents, may be more effective for controlling progression of atherosclerosis in secondary prevention.
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Wavelength-dependent longitudinal polarizability of gold nanorod on optical torques.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2014
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This study theoretically investigates the wavelength-dependent longitudinal polarizability of a gold nanorod (GNR) irradiated by a polarized laser beam. The resultant optical torque in terms of the Maxwell stress tensor was analyzed quantitatively using the multiple multipole method. Our results indicate that the real part of the longitudinal polarizability of GNR can be either positive or negative, leading to the parallel or perpendicular modes, respectively. For the parallel and perpendicular modes, the long axis of GNR is rotated to align parallel and perpendicular, respectively, to the polarization direction of the illuminating light. The turning point between these two modes, depending on the aspect ratio (AR) and the size of GNR, nearly coincides with the longitudinal surface plasmon resonance (LSPR). The perpendicular mode ranges from the transverse SPR to LSPR, and the range of the parallel mode is broadband from LSPR to the near infrared regime. Owing to that a larger optical torque and less plasmonic heating are of concern, an efficiency of optical torque is defined to evaluate the performance of different wavelengths. Analysis results indicate that lasers with wavelength in the perpendicular mode are applicable to rotate and align a GNR of a higher AR. For example, the laser of 785 nm (the perpendicular mode) is superior to that of 1064 nm (the parallel mode, off-resonant from LSPR of 955 nm) for rotating a GNR of AR = 4 and radius 20 nm with an orientation of 45° with respect to the laser polarization.
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Bovine lactoferrin and piroxicam as an adjunct treatment for lymphocytic-plasmacytic gingivitis stomatitis in cats.
Vet. J.
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2014
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Feline lymphocytic-plasmacytic gingivitis/stomatitis (LPGS) or caudal stomatitis is an inflammatory disease that causes painfully erosive lesions and proliferations of the oral mucosa. The disease is difficult to cure and can affect cats at an early age, resulting in lifetime therapy. In this study, a new treatment using a combination of bovine lactoferrin (bLf) oral spray and oral piroxicam was investigated using a randomized double-blinded clinical trial in 13 cats with caudal stomatitis. Oral lesion grading and scoring of clinical signs were conducted during and after the trial to assess treatment outcome. Oral mucosal biopsies were used to evaluate histological changes during and after treatment. Clinical signs were significantly improved in 77% of the cats. In a 4-week study, clinical signs were considerably ameliorated by oral piroxicam during the first 2?weeks. In a 12-week study, the combined bLf oral spray and piroxicam, when compared with piroxicam alone, exhibited an enhanced effect that reduced the severity of the oral lesions (P?=?0.059), while also significantly improving clinical signs (P?<0.05), quality of life (P?<0.05), and weight gain (P?<0.05). The remission of oral inflammation was closely correlated with the decreased number of macrophages (OR?=?4.719, P?
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Relationships among sexual self-concept and sexual risk cognition toward sexual self-efficacy in adolescents: Cause-and-effect model testing.
Jpn J Nurs Sci
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2014
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Sexual self-efficacy plays an important role in adolescents' sexual health. The aim of this study was to test a cause-and-effect model of sexual self-concept and sexual risk cognition toward sexual self-efficacy in adolescents.
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SAA drives proinflammatory heterotypic macrophage differentiation in the lung via CSF-1R-dependent signaling.
FASEB J.
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2014
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Serum amyloid A (SAA) is expressed locally in chronic inflammatory conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), where macrophages that do not accord with the classic M1/M2 paradigm also accumulate. In this study, the role of SAA in regulating macrophage differentiation was investigated in vitro using human blood monocytes from healthy subjects and patients with COPD and in vivo using an airway SAA challenge model in BALB/c mice. Differentiation of human monocytes with SAA stimulated the proinflammatory monokines IL-6 and IL-1? concurrently with the M2 markers CD163 and IL-10. Furthermore, SAA-differentiated macrophages stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) expressed markedly higher levels of IL-6 and IL-1?. The ALX/FPR2 antagonist WRW4 reduced IL-6 and IL-1? expression but did not significantly inhibit phagocytic and efferocytic activity. In vivo, SAA administration induced the development of a CD11c(high)CD11b(high) macrophage population that generated higher levels of IL-6, IL-1?, and G-CSF following ex vivo LPS challenge. Blocking CSF-1R signaling effectively reduced the number of CD11c(high)CD11b(high) macrophages by 71% and also markedly inhibited neutrophilic inflammation by 80%. In conclusion, our findings suggest that SAA can promote a distinct CD11c(high)CD11b(high) macrophage phenotype, and targeting this population may provide a novel approach to treating chronic inflammatory conditions associated with persistent SAA expression.-Anthony, D., McQualter, J. L., Bishara, M., Lim, E. X., Yatmaz, S., Seow, H. J., Hansen, M., Thompson, M., Hamilton, J. A., Irving, L. B., Levy, B. D., Vlahos, R., Anderson, G. P., Bozinovski, S. SAA drives proinflammatory heterotypic macrophage differentiation in the lung via CSF-1R-dependent signaling.
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Combination of ?-carotene and quercetin against benzo[a]pyrene-induced pro-inflammatory reaction accompanied by the regulation of antioxidant enzyme activity and NF-?B translocation in Mongolian gerbils.
Eur J Nutr
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2014
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We have previously shown that quercetin modulates the proinflammatory effect of ?-carotene (BC) induced by oral benzo[a]pyren (Bap) partly through the regulation of the JNK pathway. In the present study, we determined whether the combination of BC and quercetin regulates the antioxidant enzymes and the activation of NF-?B in Mongolian gerbils exposed to Bap. We also compared the combined effects of BC+ quercetin with that of BC+ ascorbic acid (C)+ ?-tocopherol (E).
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A vapor response mechanism study of surface-modified single-walled carbon nanotubes coated chemiresistors and quartz crystal microbalance sensor arrays.
Talanta
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2014
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This paper compares the selectivity and discusses the response mechanisms of various surface-modified, single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT)-coated sensor arrays for the detection of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Two types of sensor platforms, chemiresistor and quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), were used to probe the resistance changes and absorption masses during vapor sensing. Four sensing materials were used in this comparison study: pristine, acidified, esterified, and surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulfate, SDS)-coated SWCNTs. SWCNT-coated QCMs reached the response equilibrium faster than the chemiresistors did, which revealed a delay diffusion behavior at the inter-tube junction. In addition, the calibration lines for QCMs were all linear, but the chemiresistors showed curvature calibration lines which indicated less effectiveness of swelling at high concentrations. While the sorption of vapor molecules caused an increase in the resistance for most SWCNTs due to the swelling, the acidified SWCNTs showed no responses to nonpolar vapors and a negative response to hydrogen bond acceptors. This discovery provided insight into the inter-tube interlocks and conductivity modulation of acidified SWCNTs via a hydrogen bond. The results in this study provide a stepping-stone for further understanding of the mechanisms behind the vapor selectivity of surface-modified SWCNT sensor arrays.
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Renin-angiotensin system gene polymorphisms predict the risk of stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation: a 10-year prospective follow-up study.
Heart Rhythm
PUBLISHED: 04-13-2014
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Little evidence is available regarding the impact of genetic polymorphisms on the risk of stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Angiotensin II plays a pathophysiologic role in prothrombotic atrial endocardial remodeling.
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A real-time fatigue monitoring and analysis system for lower extremity muscles with cycling movement.
Sensors (Basel)
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2014
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A real-time muscle fatigue monitoring system was developed to quantitatively detect the muscle fatigue of subjects during cycling movement, where a fatigue progression measure (FPM) was built-in. During the cycling movement, the electromyogram (EMG) signals of the vastus lateralis and gastrocnemius muscles in one leg as well as cycling speed are synchronously measured in a real-time fashion. In addition, the heart rate (HR) and the Borg rating of perceived exertion scale value are recorded per minute. Using the EMG signals, the electrical activity and median frequency (MF) are calculated per cycle. Moreover, the updated FPM, based on the percentage of reduced MF counts during cycling movement, is calculated to measure the onset time and the progressive process of muscle fatigue. To demonstrate the performance of our system, five young healthy subjects were recruited. Each subject was asked to maintain a fixed speed of 60 RPM, as best he/she could, under a constant load during the pedaling. When the speed reached 20 RPM or the HR reached the maximal training HR, the experiment was then terminated immediately. The experimental results show that the proposed system may provide an on-line fatigue monitoring and analysis for the lower extremity muscles during cycling movement.
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Oral and intraperitoneal administration of quercetin decreased lymphocyte DNA damage and plasma lipid peroxidation induced by TSA in vivo.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2014
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Our previous study showed that quercetin enhances the anticancer effect of trichostatin A (TSA) in xenograft mice given quercetin intraperitoneally (10?mg/kg, 3 times/week). Herein, we investigate whether quercetin administered orally exerts such an effect and prevents the cytotoxic side effects of TSA. We found that quercetin given orally (20 and 100?mg/kg, 3 times/week) failed to enhance the antitumor effect of TSA although it increased the total quercetin concentration more than quercetin administered intraperitoneally in the plasma. The compound quercetin-3-glucuronide (Q3G) increased the most. However, quercetin administered intraperitoneally increased the total quercetin level in tumor tissues more than oral quercetin. Oral and intraperitoneal administration of quercetin similarly decreased lymphocyte DNA damage and plasma lipid peroxidation level induced by TSA. Furthermore, we found that the enhancing effect of Q3G on the antitumor effect of TSA and the incorporation of Q3G was less than that of quercetin in A549 cells. However, we found that A549 cells possessed the ability to convert Q3G to quercetin. In conclusion, different from quercetin administered intraperitoneally, quercetin administered orally failed to enhance the antitumor effect of TSA because of its metabolic conversion. However, it prevented TSA-induced DNA damage and lipid peroxidation.
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CMR-Verified Diffuse Myocardial Fibrosis Is Associated With Diastolic Dysfunction in HFpEF.
JACC Cardiovasc Imaging
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2014
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The purpose of this study was to investigate diffuse myocardial fibrosis in patients with systolic heart failure (SHF) and in patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) and the association with diastolic dysfunction of the left ventricle (LV).
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Connective tissue growth factor and cardiac diastolic dysfunction: human data from the Taiwan diastolic heart failure registry and molecular basis by cellular and animal models.
Eur. J. Heart Fail.
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2014
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Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is an emerging marker for tissue fibrosis. We investigated the association between CTGF and cardiac diastolic function using cellular and animal models and clinical human data.
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Anti-anxiety drugs use and cardiovascular outcomes in patients with myocardial infarction: a national wide assessment.
Atherosclerosis
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2014
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Anti-anxiety medication in patients with anxiety may lessen the stress and thereby lower their risk for myocardial infarction (MI). The aim of current study is to examine an association between the use of anti-anxiety medication and long-term mortality risk in patients following MI.
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Association of dysmenorrhea with interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome: a case-control study.
Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2014
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Interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) is a chronic disabling condition of the urological system. Many gynecological conditions are reported to be associated with IC/BPS. This study presents epidemiological evidence of a possible association between dysmenorrhea and IC/BPS, using population-based data.
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Utilizing multiple in silico analyses to identify putative causal SCN5A variants in Brugada syndrome.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2014
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Brugada syndrome (BrS) is an inheritable sudden cardiac death disease mainly caused by SCN5A mutations. Traditional approaches can be costly and time-consuming if all candidate variants need to be validated through in vitro studies. Therefore, we developed a new approach by combining multiple in silico analyses to predict functional and structural changes of candidate SCN5A variants in BrS before conducting in vitro studies. Five SCN5A non-synonymous variants (1651G>A, 1776C>G, 1673A>G, 3269C>T and 3578G>A) were identified in 14 BrS patients using direct DNA sequencing. Several bioinformatics algorithms were applied and predicted that 1651G>A (A551T) and 1776C>G (N592K) were high-risk SCN5A variants (odds ratio 59.59 and 23.93). The results were validated by Mass spectrometry and in vitro electrophysiological assays. We concluded that integrating sequence-based information and secondary protein structures elements may help select highly potential variants in BrS before conducting time-consuming electrophysiological studies and two novel SCN5A mutations were validated.
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Kidney stone distribution caused by melamine and cyanuric acid in rats.
Clin. Chim. Acta
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2014
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Melamine (M), which is composed of multi-amine, has been used as a food additive to falsely increase protein contents. Furthermore, cyanuric acid (CA) is a derivative of melamine. It is known that these mixtures can cause renal toxicity.
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IL-17A and Serum Amyloid A Are Elevated in a Cigarette Smoke Cessation Model Associated with the Persistence of Pigmented Macrophages, Neutrophils and Activated NK Cells.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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While global success in cessation advocacy has seen smoking rates fall in many developed countries, persistent lung inflammation in ex-smokers is an increasingly important clinical problem whose mechanistic basis remains poorly understood. In this study, candidate effector mechanisms were assessed in mice exposed to cigarette smoke (CS) for 4 months following cessation from long term CS exposure. BALF neutrophils, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and lung innate NK cells remained significantly elevated following smoking cessation. Analysis of neutrophil mobilization markers showed a transition from acute mediators (MIP-2?, KC and G-CSF) to sustained drivers of neutrophil and macrophage recruitment and activation (IL-17A and Serum Amyoid A (SAA)). Follicle-like lymphoid aggregates formed with CS exposure and persisted with cessation, where they were in close anatomical proximity to pigmented macrophages, whose number actually increased 3-fold following CS cessation. This was associated with the elastolytic protease, MMP-12 (macrophage metallo-elastase) which remained significantly elevated post-cessation. Both GM-CSF and CSF-1 were significantly increased in the CS cessation group relative to the control group. In conclusion, we show that smoking cessation mediates a transition to accumulation of pigmented macrophages, which may contribute to the expanded macrophage population observed in COPD. These macrophages together with IL-17A, SAA and innate NK cells are identified here as candidate persistence determinants and, we suggest, may represent specific targets for therapies directed towards the amelioration of chronic airway inflammation.
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Herpes zoster is associated with prior statin use: a population-based case-control study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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This study investigated the association between statin use and herpes zoster (HZ) occurrence in a population-based case-control study.
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Gallic acid ameliorated impaired glucose and lipid homeostasis in high fat diet-induced NAFLD mice.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Gallic acid (GA), a naturally abundant plant phenolic compound in vegetables and fruits, has been shown to have potent anti-oxidative and anti-obesity activity. However, the effects of GA on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the beneficial effects of GA administration on nutritional hepatosteatosis model by a more "holistic view" approach, namely 1H NMR-based metabolomics, in order to prove efficacy and to obtain information that might lead to a better understanding of the mode of action of GA. Male C57BL/6 mice were placed for 16 weeks on either a normal chow diet, a high fat diet (HFD, 60%), or a high fat diet supplemented with GA (50 and 100 mg/kg/day, orally). Liver histopathology and serum biochemical examinations indicated that the daily administration of GA protects against hepatic steatosis, obesity, hypercholesterolemia, and insulin resistance among the HFD-induced NAFLD mice. In addition, partial least squares discriminant analysis scores plots demonstrated that the cluster of HFD fed mice is clearly separated from the normal group mice plots, indicating that the metabolic characteristics of these two groups are distinctively different. Specifically, the GA-treated mice are located closer to the normal group of mice, indicating that the HFD-induced disturbances to the metabolic profile were partially reversed by GA treatment. Our results show that the hepatoprotective effect of GA occurs in part through a reversing of the HFD caused disturbances to a range of metabolic pathways, including lipid metabolism, glucose metabolism (glycolysis and gluconeogenesis), amino acids metabolism, choline metabolism and gut-microbiota-associated metabolism. Taken together, this study suggested that a 1H NMR-based metabolomics approach is a useful platform for natural product functional evaluation. The selected metabolites are potentially useful as preventive action biomarkers and could also be used to help our further understanding of the effect of GA in hepatosteatosis mice.
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Increased risk of stroke after septicaemia: a population-based longitudinal study in Taiwan.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Inflammation and infection have been noted to increase stroke risk. However, the association between septicaemia and increased risk of stroke remains unclear. This population-based cohort study, using a National Health Insurance database, aimed to investigate whether patients with septicaemia are predisposed to increased stroke risk. The study included all patients hospitalised for septicaemia for the first time between 2000 and 2003 without prior stroke. Patients were followed until the end of 2010 to evaluate incidence of stroke. An age-, gender- and co-morbidities-matched cohort without prior stroke served as the control. Cox's proportional hazards regressions were used to assess differences in stroke risk between groups. Based on hazard ratios (HRs), patients with septicaemia had greater stroke risk, especially in the younger age groups (age <45: HR = 4.16, 95% CI: 2.39-7.24, p<0.001; age 45-64: HR = 1.76, 95% CI: 1.41-2.19, p<0.001; age ? 65: HR = 1.05, 95% CI: 0.91-1.22, p>0.05). Haemorrhagic stroke was the dominant type (ischaemic stroke: HR = 1.20, 95% CI: 1.06-1.37, p<0.01; haemorrhagic stroke: HR = 1.82, 95% CI: 1.35-2.46, p<0.001) and patients without co-morbidities were at slightly higher risk (without co-morbidities: HR = 1.49, 95% CI: 1.02-2.17, p<0.05; with co-morbidities: HR = 1.24, 95% CI: 1.10-1.41, p<0.001). The impact of septicaemia on stroke risk was highest within 6 months of the event and gradually declined over time. Our results suggest that septicaemia is associated with an increase in stroke risk, which is greatest in haemorrhagic stroke. Closer attention to patients with history of septicaemia may be warranted for stroke preventive measures, especially for younger patients without co-morbidities.
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Chronic rhinosinusitis confers an increased risk of acute myocardial infarction.
Am J Rhinol Allergy
PUBLISHED: 11-27-2013
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The link between chronic inflammatory disease and cardiovascular disease (CVD) is recognized. Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is one of the most common chronic inflammatory diseases. However, whether CRS increases the risk for CVD is still unknown. This epidemiology study investigated the risk for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in patients with CRS using a large-scale population-based cohort study.
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Longitudinal plasmon modes of Ag nanorod coupled with a pair of quantum dots.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2013
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The longitudinal plasmon modes of an elongated Ag nanorod induced by an obliquely incident plane wave were analyzed theoretically. Our results show that the proximities at the two apexes of the nanorod are the hotspots at the dipole (m = 1), quadrupole (m = 2), sextupole (m = 3), octupole (m = 4), decapole (m = 5) and duodecapole (m = 6) modes. This phenomenon implies that a pair of quantum dots (QDs) located at these hotspots might be excited simultaneously through these plasmon modes. Consequently, the coherent spontaneous emission of the paired QDs could be induced through these modes. Furthermore, the coherent emission of the pair of excited QDs was studied, where these QDs were modeled as two electric dipoles (bi-dipole) oscillating with anti-symmetric or symmetric configurations. The radiative and nonradiative powers show that the maximum Purcell factors occur at these modes; the odd modes enhance the emission of the anti-symmetric configuration, and the even modes the symmetric one. However, only those bi-dipoles emitting at the lower-order (e.g., dipole, quadrupole and sextupole) modes of Ag nanorod are with high apparent quantum yields. In addition, the correlation of these plasmon modes of Ag nanorod with the dispersion relation of Ag nanowire was discussed.
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Therapeutic efficacy for hepatocellular carcinoma by boric acid-mediated boron neutron capture therapy in a rat model.
Anticancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2013
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Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common malignant tumor with poor prognosis. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) may provide an alternative therapy for HCC. This study investigated the therapeutic efficacy of boric acid (BA)-mediated BNCT for HCC in a rat model.
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Inactivation of Myosin binding protein C homolog in zebrafish as a model for human cardiac hypertrophy and diastolic dysfunction.
J Am Heart Assoc
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2013
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Sudden cardiac death due to malignant ventricular arrhythmia is a devastating manifestation of cardiac hypertrophy. Sarcomere protein myosin binding protein C is functionally related to cardiac diastolic function and hypertrophy. Zebrafish is a better model to study human electrophysiology and arrhythmia than rodents because of the electrophysiological characteristics similar to those of humans.
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Plasmonic Fano resonance and dip of Au-SiO2-Au nanomatryoshka.
Nanoscale Res Lett
PUBLISHED: 09-15-2013
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This study theoretically investigates Fano resonances and dips of an Au-SiO2-Au nanomatryoshka that is excited by a nearby electric dipole. An analytical solution of dyadic Greens functions is used to analyze the radiative and nonradiative power spectra of a radial dipole in the proximity of a nanomatryoshka. From these spectra, the plasmon modes and Fano resonances that accompany the Fano dips are identified. In addition, the scattering and absorption spectra of a nanomatryoshka that is illuminated by a plane wave are investigated to confirm these modes and Fano dips. Our results reveal that a Fano dip splits each of the dipole and quadrupole modes into bonding and anti-bonding modes. The Fano dip and resonance result from the destructive interference of the plasmon modes of the Au shell and the Au core. The Fano factors that are obtained from the nonradiative power spectra of the Au shell and the Au core of a nanomatryoshka are in accordance with those obtained from the absorption cross section spectra. Moreover, these Fano factors increase as the plasmonic coupling of the Au shell with the core increases for both dipole and quadrupole modes.
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Nanohybrids of silver particles on clay platelets delaminate Pseudomonas biofilms.
Nanomedicine (Lond)
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2013
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Aim: To evaluate the effectiveness of novel nanohybrids, composed of silver nanoparticles and nanoscale silicate platelets, to clear Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms. Materials & methods: The nanohybrids were manufactured from an in situ reduction of silver salts in the silicate platelet dispersion, and then applied to biofilms in vitro and in vivo. Results: In reference to the biocidal effects of gentamycin, the nanohybrids mitigated the spreading of the biofilms, and initiated robust cell death and exfoliation from the superficial layers of the biofilms in vitro. In vivo, the nanohybrids exhibited significant therapeutic effects by eliminating established biofilms from infected corneas and promoting the recovery of corneal integrity. Conclusion: All of the evaluations indicate the high potency of the newly developed silver nanoparticle/nanoscale silicate platelet nanohybrids for eliminating biofilms. Original submitted 6 June 2012; revised submitted 13 February 2013.
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Additive effect of the metabolic syndrome score to the conventional CHADS2 score for the thromboembolic risk stratification of patients with atrial fibrillation.
Heart Rhythm
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2013
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The CHA2DS2-VASC scoring scheme may not be better than the CHADS2 scoring scheme in predicting thromboembolic risk for patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) in Asians. Metabolic syndrome is associated with an increased risk of thrombosis.
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Establishment of the Metabolite Profile for an Antrodia cinnamomea Health Food Product and Investigation of Its Chemoprevention Activity.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2013
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Antrodia cinnamomea is an edible fungus endemic to Taiwan that has been attributed with health promotion benefits. An A. cinnamomea mycelium health food product, which was produced by solid-state culture, was selected as the target for investigation in this study. Fourteen representative metabolites of A. cinnamomea mycelium (EMAC) were selected as index compounds to establish the metabolite profile for evaluation of EMAC product quality. It was also demonstrated that EMAC administration significantly reduced liver inflammation and serum oxidative stress in vivo. 4-Acetylantroquinonol B obtained by a bioactivity-guided fractionation from EMAC was able to not only inhibit LPS-induced nitric oxide formation in macrophages but also protect against ethanol-induced oxidative stress in liver cells. The results suggest this A. cinnamomea product might be a potent antioxidative and anti-inflammatory supplement for chemoprevention.
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Induction of cardiac fibrosis and transforming growth factor-?1 by motorcycle exhaust in rats.
Inhal Toxicol
PUBLISHED: 08-03-2013
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Motorcycle exhaust (ME) is a major source of air pollution and a potential health hazard in urban areas where motorcycles are a popular means of transportation. The main objectives of this study were to determine the ability of ME to cause cardiotoxicity in rats and investigate the possible mechanisms of toxicity. Male rats were exposed to 1:10 diluted ME by inhalation 2?h daily and Monday through Friday for 8 weeks. Exposure to ME increased heart weight and decreased cardiac antioxidant enzymes glutathione S-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Analysis of echocardiographic parameters indicated that ME increased left ventricle posterior wall thickness, interventricular septum thickness and left ventricle mass. Histopathological examinations of the hearts revealed that ME exposure caused focal cardial degeneration and necrosis, mononuclear cell infiltration, and fibrosis. The results of reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction studies showed that ME decreased GST-M1 and GST-P1 mRNA expression and increased the expression of proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1?, hypertrophy marker atrial natriuretic peptide, fibrosis markers type I and III collagen, profibrotic cytokine connective tissue growth factor, and hypertrophy and fibrosis mediator transforming growth factor (TGF)-?1 in the heart. The data of Western blot analysis showed that cardiac TGF-?1 protein was induced by ME. These findings demonstrate that subchronic ME exposure caused hypertrophy and fibrosis, and modulated GST and TGF-?1 expression in rat heart possibly by mechanisms involving oxidative stress and inflammation.
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Inhibitory effects of cultured Dendrobium tosaense on atopic dermatitis murine model.
Int J Pharm
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2013
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Dendrobium tosaense is one of the most valuable Chinese medicines and well developed health food. Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic skin disease that occurs mainly in childhood. The pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis had been studied in BALB/c mice modeling by skin-inoculated ovalbumin (OVA) with 2,4,6-trinitro-1-chrolobenzene (TNCB). These mice exhibit features of chronic dermatitis, including skin rash, mast cells infiltration, and elevated serum anti-OVA specific IgE and cytokines modulation. In this study, a standardized ethyl acetate extract of D. tosaense (DtE) was used to protect these mice from the OVA/TNCB-induced skin lesions of atopic dermatitis. The results indicated an increased population of natural T regulatory cell was accompanied by immunosuppression in cytokine profiles and anti-OVA IgE level to significantly reduce Th2 polarization. Finally, toluidine blue staining indicated mast cell infiltration and degranulation was reduced in skin lesion. Our results were shed light on the usage of D. tosaense in AD.
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Conductive channels identified with contrast-enhanced MR imaging predict ventricular tachycardia in systolic heart failure.
JACC Cardiovasc Imaging
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2013
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This study evaluated whether the conductive channel (CC) identified by late gadolinium enhanced-cardiac magnetic resonance (LGE-CMR) is associated with ventricular tachycardia (VT) in patients with systolic heart failure (HF).
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Homocysteine induces cerebral endothelial cell death by activating the acid sphingomyelinase ceramide pathway.
Prog. Neuropsychopharmacol. Biol. Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2013
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Homocysteine (Hcy) levels may rise after a stroke, but the mechanism of Hcy-induced cerebral endothelial cell (CEC) dysfunction has not been explored. In this study we examined the role of the acid sphingomyelinase (Asm)-ceramide pathway in the molecular mechanism of Hcy-induced CEC dysfunction. Murine CECs were prepared from fresh mouse brains. CECs were treated with 50-500 ?M Hcy and 30-100 ?M C2-ceramide for 48 h. Sphingomyelinase assays were performed to determine Asm activity. Quantitative assessments of cell survival and death by the MTT reduction and LDH release were conducted. Treatment of murine CECs with Hcy and ceramide caused cell death in a dose-dependent manner as determined by LDH and MTT assays. 250 ?M Hcy and 50 ?M C2-ceramide caused 50% cell death. Hcy induced murine CEC death also occurred in a time-dependant manner with substantial cell death noted as early as 24h after Hcy exposure. C2-ceramide-induced murine CEC death occurred earlier than Hcy-induced cell death by about 18h. Hcy treatment increased Asm activity and intracellular ceramide accumulation. This study demonstrated that Hcy and C2-ceramide can cause murine CEC death. Hcy induces CEC death possibly by activating the Asm-ceramide pathway.
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Serum amyloid A promotes lung neutrophilia by increasing IL-17A levels in the mucosa and ?? T cells.
Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2013
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Neutrophilic inflammation is an important pathologic feature of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and infectious exacerbations of COPD. Serum amyloid A (SAA) promotes neutrophilic inflammation by its interaction with lung mucosal ALX/FPR2 receptors. However, little is known about how this endogenous mediator regulates IL-17A immunity.
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Evaluation of Acute 13-Week Subchronic Toxicity and Genotoxicity of the Powdered Root of Tongkat Ali (Eurycoma longifolia Jack).
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2013
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Tongkat Ali (Eurycoma longifolia) is an indigenous traditional herb in Southern Asia. Its powdered root has been processed to produce health supplements, but no detailed toxicology report is available. In this study, neither mutagenicity nor clastogenicity was noted, and acute oral LD50 was more than 6?g/kg b.w. After 4-week subacute and 13-week subchronic exposure paradigms (0, 0.6, 1.2, and 2?g/kg b.w./day), adverse effects attributable to test compound were not observed with respect to body weight, hematology, serum biochemistry, urinalysis, macropathology, or histopathology. However, the treatment significantly reduced prothrombin time, partial thromboplastin time, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, aspartate aminotransferase, creatine phosphate kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, and cholesterol levels, especially in males (P < 0.05). These changes were judged as pharmacological effects, and they are beneficial to health. The calculated acceptable daily intake (ADI) was up to 1.2 g/adult/day. This information will be useful for product development and safety management.
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Effects of sodium citrate on melamine-cyanuric acid mixture-induced urolithiasis in rats.
Clin. Chim. Acta
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2013
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When melamine is used as an additive in infant formula, it may cause acute nephrotoxicity in humans as well as in other animals. This study was designed to examine the effects of a melamine-cyanuric acid mixture on cytotoxicity in vitro and rat-acute nephrotoxicity.
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Impact of obesity and hypertriglyceridemia on gout development with or without hyperuricemia: a prospective study.
Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken)
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2013
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Hyperuricemia is the most important risk factor for the development of gout; however, not all patients with hyperuricemia develop gout, and patients experiencing a gout attack are not necessarily found to have hyperuricemia. We hypothesized that the interactions between serum uric acid (sUA) and other potential metabolic comorbidities increase the risk of gout development.
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Magnetic gold-nanorod/ PNIPAAmMA nanoparticles for dual magnetic resonance and photoacoustic imaging and targeted photothermal therapy.
Biomaterials
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2013
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Nanomedicine can provide a multi-functional platform for image-guided diagnosis and treatment of cancer. Although gold nanorods (GNRs) have been developed for photoacoustic (PA) imaging and near infra-red (NIR) photothermal applications, their efficiency has remained limited by low thermal stability. Here we present the synthesis, characterization, and functional evaluation of non-cytotoxic magnetic polymer-modified gold nanorods (MPGNRs), designed to act as dual magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and PA imaging contrast agents. In addition, their high magnetization allowed MPGNRs to be actively localized and concentrated by targeting with an external magnet. Finally, MPGNRs significantly enhanced the NIR-laser-induced photothermal effect due to their increased thermal stability. MPGNRs thus provide a promising new theranostic platform for cancer diagnosis and treatment by combining dual MR/PA imaging with highly effective targeted photothermal therapy.
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Inhibition of high-mobility group box 1 in lung reduced airway inflammation and remodeling in a mouse model of chronic asthma.
Biochem. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2013
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The role of high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) in chronic allergic asthma is currently unclear. Both airway neutrophilia and eosinophilia and increase in HMGB1 expression in the lungs in our murine model of chronic asthma. Inhibition of HMGB1 expression in lung in ovalbumin (OVA)-immunized mice decreased induced airway inflammation, mucus formation, and collagen deposition in lung tissues. Analysis of the numbers of CD4(+) T helper (Th) cells in the mediastinal lymph nodes and lungs revealed that Th17 showed greater increases than Th2 cells and Th1 cells in OVA-immunized mice; further, the numbers of Th1, Th2, and Th17 cells decreased in anti-HMGB1 antibody (Ab)-treated mice. In OVA-immunized mice, TLR-2 and TLR-4 expression, but not RAGE expression, was activated in the lungs and attenuated after anti-HMGB1 Ab treatment. The results showed that increase in HMGB1 release and expression in the lungs could be an important pathological mechanism underlying chronic allergic asthma and HMGB1 might a potential therapeutic target for chronic allergic asthma.
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Highly sensitive ammonia sensor with organic vertical nanojunctions for noninvasive detection of hepatic injury.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2013
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We successfully demonstrate the first solid-state sensor to have reliable responses to breath ammonia of rat. For thioacetamide (TAA)-induced hepatopathy rats, we observe that the proposed sensor can detect liver that undergoes acute-moderate hepatopathy with a p-value less than 0.05. The proposed sensor is an organic diode with vertical nanojunctions produced by using low-cost colloidal lithography. Its simple structure and low production cost facilitates the development of point-of-care technology. We also anticipate that the study is a starting point for investigating sophisticated breath-ammonia-related disease models.
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Nox1 oxidase suppresses influenza a virus-induced lung inflammation and oxidative stress.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 03-02-2013
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Influenza A virus infection is an ongoing clinical problem and thus, there is an urgent need to understand the mechanisms that regulate the lung inflammation in order to unravel novel generic pharmacological strategies. Evidence indicates that the Nox2-containing NADPH oxidase enzyme promotes influenza A virus-induced lung oxidative stress, inflammation and dysfunction via ROS generation. In addition, lung epithelial and endothelial cells express the Nox1 isoform of NADPH oxidase, placing this enzyme at key sites to regulate influenza A virus-induced lung inflammation. The aim of this study was to investigate whether Nox1 oxidase regulates the inflammatory response and the oxidative stress to influenza infection in vivo in mice. Male WT and Nox1-deficient (Nox1(-/y)) mice were infected with the moderately pathogenic HkX-31 (H3N2, 1×10(4) PFU) influenza A virus for analysis of bodyweight, airways inflammation, oxidative stress, viral titre, lung histopathology, and cytokine/chemokine expression at 3 and 7 days post infection. HkX-31 virus infection of Nox1(-/y) mice resulted in significantly greater: loss of bodyweight (Day 3); BALF neutrophilia, peri-bronchial, peri-vascular and alveolar inflammation; Nox2-dependent inflammatory cell ROS production and peri-bronchial, epithelial and endothelial oxidative stress. The expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines including CCL2, CCL3, CXCL2, IL-1?, IL-6, GM-CSF and TNF-? was higher in Nox1(-/y) lungs compared to WT mice at Day 3, however, the expression of CCL2, CCL3, CXCL2, IFN-? and the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 were lower in lungs of Nox1(-/y) mice vs. WT mice at Day 7. Lung viral titre, and airways infiltration of active CD8(+) and CD4(+) T lymphocytes, and of Tregs were similar between WT and Nox1(-/y) mice. In conclusion, Nox1 oxidase suppresses influenza A virus induced lung inflammation and oxidative stress in mice particularly at the early phases of the infection. Nox1 and Nox2 oxidases appear to have opposing roles in the regulation of inflammation caused by influenza A viruses.
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Impacts of mitral E/e on myocardial contractile motion and synchronicity in heart failure patients with reduced ejection fraction: An exercise-echocardiography study.
Clin Cardiol
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2013
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The association between diastolic abnormality and postexercise contractile decompensation is uncertain in heart failure (HF) patients with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF).
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Toxicity assessment of transgenic papaya ringspot virus of 823-2210 line papaya fruits.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2013
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The transgenic papaya is a valuable strategy for creating plants resistant to papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) infection and increasing production. This study was further performed to evaluate the comparative toxicity effects of the newly developed transgenic line of the fruits of two backcross transgenic papaya lines (2210 and 823) and one hybrid line (823-2210) and compare to their parent non-transgenic (TN-2) counterparts. The stability analysis of coat protein (CP) of PRSV was investigated using the digestion stability assays in simulated gastric fluid (SGF), simulated intestinal fluid (SIF), and bile salts to detect the CP fragments. Results revealed that the CP fragments were rapidly hydrolyzed in SGF and were undetectable in organs and gastrointestinal contents in rats. For the genotoxicity, three in vitro assays were conducted and exhibited that non-transgenic and backcross transgenic papaya fruits were negative. Moreover, a repeated animal feeding study was conducted by feeding 2 g/kg of body weight (bw) of non-transgenic and backcross transgenic papaya fruits for 28 days in rats. There were no biological or toxicological significances between non-transgenic and backcross transgenic papaya fruits in rats. The results demonstrated that the backcross transgenic papaya fruit can be recognized as an equivalent substitution for traditional papaya in food safety.
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Expression of MAGE--A restricted to testis and ovary or to various cancers in dogs.
Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol.
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2013
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Expression of MAGE-A protein, a family of cancer/testis antigens, was investigated in normal and neoplastic canine tissues. Immunohistochemical analysis of cross-reactions between a mouse anti-human MAGE-A proteins including MAGE-A1, -A2, -A3, -A4, -A6, -A10, and -A12 monoclonal antibody and canine proteins, showed positive immunoreactivity only in testicular spermatogonia and spermatocytes, and ovary oocytes. The immunoreaction was negative in all other tissues tested, including normal tissues of the skin, gingiva, muscle, adipose, connective, salivary gland, lymph node, intestinal mucosa, mammary gland, liver, cartilage, oviduct, endometrium, cerebrum and cerebellum. Use of a scoring system in the investigated tumors showed positive immunoreactivity in 75% (21/28) of melanomas including oral, cutaneous, eyelid, and interdigital melanomas; in 68.7% (22/32) of oral and nasal tumors; in 52.5% (21/40) discrete round cell tumors; and in 40.5% (15/37) of soft tissue sarcomas. Different tumor types also showed large difference in percentage of MAGE-A expression. Although oral squamous cell carcinomas, multicentric lymphomas and extraosseous osteosarcomas showed no expression, overexpression occurred in oral melanomas (81.82%, 18/21), malignant nasal tumors (100%, 3/3) and in transmissible venereal tumors (100%, 10/10). Based on the characteristic expression of MAGE-A in canine germ cells and in various neoplasms, MAGE-A has potential use as an indicator of malignancy but is probably unsuitable for strictly diagnostic purposes (i.e., diagnosis of tumor type).
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A new method to estimate the amplitude spectrum analysis of ventricular fibrillation during cardiopulmonary resuscitation.
Resuscitation
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2013
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Accurate ventricular fibrillation (VF) waveform analysis usually requires rescuers to discontinue cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). However, prolonged "hands-off" time has a deleterious impact on the outcome. We developed a new filter technique that could clean the CPR artifacts and help preserve the shockability index of VF METHODS: We analyzed corrupted ECGs, which were constructed by randomly adding different scaled CPR artifacts to the VF waveforms. A newly developed algorithm was used to identify the CPR fluctuations. The algorithm contained two steps. First, decomposing the raw data by empirical mode decomposition (EMD) into several intrinsic mode fluctuations (IMFs) and combining the dominant IMFs to reconstruct a new signal. Second, calculating each CPR cycle frequency from the new signal and fitting the new signal to the original corrupted ECG by least square mean (LSM) method to derive the CPR artifacts. The estimated VF waveform was derived by subtraction of the CPR artifacts from the corrupted ECG. We then performed amplitude spectrum analysis (AMSA) for original VF, corrupted ECG and estimated VF.
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Soluble ST2 as a biomarker for detecting stable heart failure with a normal ejection fraction in hypertensive patients.
J. Card. Fail.
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2013
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We investigated the measurement of soluble ST2 (sST2) in stable heart failure (HF) with a normal ejection fraction (HFNEF) in hypertensive patients.
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Elucidating the role of ApxI in hemolysis and cellular damage by using a novel apxIA mutant of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 10.
J. Vet. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2013
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Exotoxins produced by Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (Apx) play major roles in the pathogenesis of pleuropneumonia in swine. This study investigated the role of ApxI in hemolysis and cellular damage using a novel apxIA mutant, ApxIA336, which was developed from a parental strain Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 10 producing only ApxI in vitro. The genotype of ApxIA336 was confirmed by PCR, Southern blot, and gene sequencing. Exotoxin preparation derived from ApxIA336 was analyzed for its bioactivity towards porcine erythrocytes and alveolar macrophages. Analysis results indicated that ApxIA336 had a kanamycin-resistant cassette inserted immediately after 1,005 bp of the apxIA gene. Phenotype analysis of ApxIA336 revealed no difference in the growth rate as compared to the parental strain. Meanwhile, ApxI production was abolished in the bacterial culture supernatant, i.e. exotoxin preparation. The inability of ApxIA336 to produce ApxI corresponded to the loss of hemolytic and cytotoxic bioactivity in exotoxin preparation, as demonstrated in hemolysis, LDH release, mitochondrial activity, and apoptosis assays. Additionally, the virulence of ApxIA336 appeared to be attenuated in BALB/c mice by 15-fold. Collectively, ApxI, but not other components in the exotoxin preparation of A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 10, was responsible for the hemolytic and cytotoxic activities towards porcine erythrocytes and alveolar macrophages.
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Vancomycin-chitosan composite deposited on post porous hydroxyapatite coated Ti6Al4V implant for drug controlled release.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2013
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Through the hydrogen bonds and the deprotonation, the vancomycin-chitosan composite has been originally deposited on Ti4Al4V by electrochemical technology. However, the rapid destruction of the hydrogen bonding between them by polar water molecules during immersion tests revealed 80% drug burst in a few hours. In this study, the post porous hydroxyapatite (HA) coated Ti4Al4V is prepared for the subsequent electrolytic deposition of vancomycin-chitosan composite to control the drug release. As expected, the initial burst is reduced to 55%, followed by a steady release about 20% from day 1 to day 5 and a slower release of the retained 25% after day 6, resulting in bacterial inhibition zone diameter of 30 mm which can last for more than a month in antibacterial tests, compared with the coated specimen without HA gradually loosing inhibition zone after 21 days. Besides, the cell culture indicates that the vancomycin-chitosan/HA composite coated has enhanced the proliferation, the differentiation and the mineralization of the osteoblast-like cell. In general, it is helpful for the osteointegration on permanent implants. Consistently, it effectively provides the prophylaxis and therapy of osteomyelitis according to the results of the rabbit infection animal model.
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Quercetin enhances the antitumor activity of trichostatin A through upregulation of p53 protein expression in vitro and in vivo.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2013
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This study investigated the effects of quercetin on the anti-tumor effect of trichostatin A (TSA), a novel anticancer drug, in vitro and in vivo and the possible mechanisms of these effects in human lung cancer cells. We first showed that quercetin (5 µM) significantly increased the growth arrest and apoptosis in A549 cells (expressing wild-type p53) induced by 25 ng/mL of (82.5 nM) TSA at 48 h by about 25% and 101%, respectively. However, such enhancing effects of quercetin (5 µM) were not significant in TSA-exposed H1299 cells (a p53 null mutant) or were much lower than in A549 cells. In addition, quercetin significantly increased TSA-induced p53 expression in A549 cells. Transfection of p53 siRNA into A549 cells significantly but not completely diminished the enhancing effects of quercetin on TSA-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, we demonstrated that quercetin enhanced TSA-induced apoptosis through the mitochondrial pathway. Transfection of p53 siRNA abolished such enhancing effects of quercetin. However, quercetin increased the acetylation of histones H3 and H4 induced by TSA in A549 cells, even with p53 siRNA transfection as well as in H1299 cells. In a xenograft mouse model of lung cancer, quercetin enhanced the antitumor effect of TSA. Tumors from mice treated with TSA in combination with quercetin had higher p53 and apoptosis levels than did those from control and TSA-treated mice. These data indicate that regulation of the expression of p53 by quercetin plays an important role in enhancing TSA-induced apoptosis in A549 cells. However, p53-independent mechanisms may also contribute to the enhancing effect of quercetin.
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In vitro and in vivo studies disclosed the depigmenting effects of gallic acid: a novel skin lightening agent for hyperpigmentary skin diseases.
Biofactors
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2013
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Gallic acid (GA) is a phenolic compound, which has been reported to suppress melanogenesis in melanoma cells. However, the molecular mechanism underlying this inhibitory effect was poorly understood. In this article, we revealed that GA down-regulated melanogenic regulatory genes including tyrosinase, tyrosinase related protein-1 (TRP-1), and dopachrome tatamerase (Dct) expression at transcriptional and translational level. In addition, GA effectively suppressed the microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) expression by down-regulating the cAMP-mediated PKA/CREB signaling cascades. To delineate the inhibition of MITF by GA, the activation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) and AKT was investigated. GA caused significant increase of ERK and AKT phosphorylation, while ERK (PD98059) or AKT (LY294002) inhibitor prevents their phosphorylation and increased melanin biosynthesis. In addition, pre-treatment of MITF-siRNA significantly reduced melanin production from 100 to 40%, and even decreased into 10% by combination treatment with GA. Furthermore, UVB-induced hyperpigmentation in the mice skin was significantly rescued by topical application of GA for 4 weeks. Immunohistochemical analyses also confirmed that GA significantly inhibited melanin production followed by the down-regulation of MITF, tyrosinase and their regulatory proteins. In addition, when compared with control zebrafish, GA caused a remarkable inhibition on the endogenous pigmentation in the zebrafish. Results presented in this study strongly suggest that GA is an effective de-pigmenting or skin lightening cosmetics for topical application.
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Applications of flexible ultrasonic transducer array for defect detection at 150 °C.
Sensors (Basel)
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2013
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In this study, the feasibility of using a one dimensional 16-element flexible ultrasonic transducer (FUT) array for nondestructive testing at 150 °C is demonstrated. The FUT arrays were made by a sol-gel sprayed piezoelectric film technology; a PZT composite film was sprayed on a titanium foil of 75 µm thickness. Since the FUT array is flexible, it was attached to a steel pipe with an outer diameter of 89 mm and a wall thickness of 6.5 mm at 150 °C. Using the ultrasonic pulse-echo mode, pipe thickness measurements could be performed. Moreover, using the ultrasonic pulse-echo and pitch-catch modes of each element of FUT array, the defect detection was performed on an Al alloy block of 30 mm thickness with a side-drilled hole (SDH) of f3 mm at 150 °C. In addition, a post-processing algorithm based on the total focusing method was used to process the full matrix of these A-scan signals of each single transmitter and multi-receivers, and then the phase-array image was obtained to indicate this defect- SDH. Both results show the capability of FUT array being operated at 150 °C for the corrosion and defect detections.
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Antioxidant, Analgesic, Anti-Inflammatory, and Hepatoprotective Effects of the Ethanol Extract of Mahonia oiwakensis Stem.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2013
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The aim of this study was to evaluate pharmacological properties of ethanol extracted from Mahonia oiwakensis Hayata stems (MOS(EtOH)). The pharmacological properties included antioxidant, analgesic, anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective effects. The protoberberine alkaloid content of the MOS(EtOH) was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results revealed that three alkaloids, berberine, palmatine and jatrorrhizine, could be identified. Moreover, the MOS(EtOH) exhibited antioxidative activity using the DPPH assay (IC(50), 0.743 mg/mL). The DPPH radical scavenging activity of MOS(EtOH) was five times higher that that of vitamin C. MOS(EtOH) was also found to inhibit pain induced by acetic acid, formalin, and carrageenan inflammation. Treatment with MOS(EtOH) (100 and 500 mg/kg) or silymarin (200 mg/kg) decreased the serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels compared with the CCl(4)-treated group. Histological evaluation showed that MOS(EtOH) reduced the degree of liver injury, including vacuolization, inflammation and necrosis of hepatocytes. The anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective effect of MOS(EtOH) were found to be related to the modulation of antioxidant enzyme activity in the liver and decreases in malondialdehyde (MDA) level and nitric oxide (NO) contents. Our findings suggest that MOS(EtOH) has analgesic, anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective effects. These effects support the use of MOS(EtOH) for relieving pain and inflammation in folk medicine.
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Reversal of ophthalmic artery flow and stroke outcomes in asian patients with acute ischemic stroke and unilateral severe cervical carotid stenosis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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The aim of this study was to assess the clinical implications of reversed ophthalmic artery flow (ROAF) for stroke risk and outcomes in subjects with unilateral severe cervical carotid stenosis/occlusion.
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Internalized gold nanoparticles do not affect the osteogenesis and apoptosis of MG63 osteoblast-like cells: a quantitative, in vitro study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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The long-term toxicity effects of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) on the proliferation and differentiation of a progenitor cell line, MG63 osteoblast-like cells, was investigated. These cells were treated for 20 hours with two media that contained 10 nm GNPs at concentrations of 1 ppm and 10 ppm. The mitosis of the GNP-treated MG63 was observed after at least 21 hours using dark-field and fluorescence microscopy. The TEM, LSCM and dark-field hyperspectral images indicated that the late endosomes in cells that contained aggregated GNPs were caused by vesicle fusion. Subsequently, after 21 days of being cultured in fresh medium, the specific nodule-like phenotypes and bone-associated gene expression of the treated MG63 cells exhibited the same behaviors as those of the control group. Statistically, after 21 days, the viability of the treated cells was identical to that of the untreated ones. During the cell death program analysis, the apoptosis and necrosis percentages of cells treated for 8 or fewer days were also observed to exhibit no significant difference with those of the untreated cells. In summary, our experiments show that the long-term toxicity of GNPs on the osteogenetic differentiation of MG63 is low. In addition, because of their low toxicity and non-biodegradability, GNPs can potentially be used as biomarkers for the long-term optical observation of the differentiation of progenitor or stem cells based on their plasmonic light-scattering properties.
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Recreational nitrous oxide abuse-induced vitamin B12 deficiency in a patient presenting with hyperpigmentation of the skin.
Case Rep Dermatol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Vitamin B12 deficiency causes skin hyperpigmentation, subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord, and megaloblastic anemia. Although vitamin B12 deficiency rarely occurs in well-nourished, healthy, young people, nitrous oxide (N2O) intoxication is an important cause of vitamin B12 deficiency in this cohort. N2O, a colorless gas used as an anesthetic since the late 19th century because of its euphoric and analgesic qualities, is now used as a recreational drug and is available via the Internet and at clubs. Here, we describe the case of a 29-year-old woman presenting with skin hyperpigmentation as her only initial symptom after N2O abuse for approximately 2 years. N2O intoxication-induced vitamin B12 deficiency was diagnosed based on the skin pigmentation that had manifested over the dorsa of her fingers, toes, and trunk, coupled with myeloneuropathy of the posterior and lateral columns, a low serum vitamin B12 level, an elevated serum homocysteine level, and the N2O exposure revealed while establishing the patients history. Symptoms improved significantly with vitamin B12 treatment. We recommend that dermatologists consider N2O intoxication-induced vitamin B12 deficiency as a potential cause of skin hyperpigmentation and myeloneuropathy of the posterior and lateral columns in young, otherwise healthy patients. Failure to recognize this presentation may result in inappropriate treatment, thus affecting patients clinical outcomes.
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Dietary uptake of Wedelia chinensis extract attenuates dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in mice.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Traditional medicinal herbs are increasingly used as alternative therapies in patients with inflammatory diseases. Here we evaluated the effect of Wedelia chinensis, a medicinal herb commonly used in Asia, on the prevention of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced acute colitis in mice. General safety and the effect of different extraction methods on the bioactivity of W. chinensis were also explored.
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Increased risk of multiple sclerosis after traumatic brain injury: a nationwide population-based study.
J. Neurotrauma
PUBLISHED: 12-23-2011
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The etiology of multiple sclerosis (MS) is still not well known. Previous data show conflicting results regarding the association between MS and prior brain trauma. This study aims to investigate the risk for MS following a traumatic brain injury (TBI) using a large-scale cohort study design. This study used data from the National Health Insurance Research Database. A total of 72,765 patients with TBI were identified and included as the study cohort, and 218,295 randomly selected subjects were matched with the study cohort by sex and age as controls. We traced each patient individually for a 6-year period from their index health care utilization to identify those who received a subsequent diagnosis of MS. We used the Kaplan-Meier method and the log-rank test to compare the difference in 6-year MS-free survival rates between the two groups. Stratified Cox proportional hazard regressions were computed to compare the risk of developing MS for these two cohorts. Patients with TBI had a higher incidence of MS during the 6-year period than the comparison group (0.055% versus 0.037%). After excluding cases who died from non-MS causes, stratifying for hospitalization of cases as a proxy for severity, and adjusting for monthly income and geographic region of the community in which the patient resided, the hazard ratio (HR) of MS for patients with hospital-treated TBI injuries was 1.97 (95% CI 1.31,2.93, p<0.01) that of patients without TBI during the 6-year follow-up period after index health care use. Our study concludes that patients with TBI are at higher risk for subsequent MS over a 6-year follow-up period.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.