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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Validation study of the European Portuguese version of the Confusion Assessment Method (CAM).
Int Psychogeriatr
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2014
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ABSTRACT Background: The Confusion Assessment Method (CAM) is the most widely used delirium screening instrument. The aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability and validity of the European Portuguese version of CAM. Methods: The sample included elderly patients (?65 years), admitted for at least 48 h, into two intermediate care units (ICMU) of Intensive Medicine and Surgical Services in a university hospital. Exclusion criteria were: score ?11 on the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), blindness/deafness, inability to communicate and to speak Portuguese. For concurrent validity, a blinded assessment was conducted by a psychiatrist (DSM-IV-TR, as a reference standard) and by a trained researcher (CAM). This instrument was also compared with other cognitive measures to evaluate convergent validity. Inter-rater reliability was also assessed. Results: In this sample (n = 208), 25% (n = 53) of the patients had delirium, according to DSM-IV-TR. Using this reference standard, the CAM had a moderate sensitivity of 79% and an excellent specificity of 99%. The positive predictive value was 95%, indicating a strong ability to confirm delirium with a positive test result, and the negative predictive value was lower (93%). Good convergent validity was also found, in particular with Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) (rs = -0.676; p ?0.01) and Digit Span Test (DST) forward (rs = -0.605; p ?0.01), as well as a high inter-rater reliability (diagnostic k = 1.00; single items' k between 0.65 and 1.00). Conclusion: Robust results on concurrent and convergent validity and good reliability were achieved. This version was shown to be a valid and reliable instrument for delirium detection in elderly patients hospitalized in intermediate care units.
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Pilot study on the European Portuguese version of the Confusion Assessment Method.
Acta Neuropsychiatr
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2014
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To present the pilot study on the European Portuguese validation of the Confusion Assessment Method (CAM).
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Screening Methodologies for the Development of Spray-Dried Amorphous Solid Dispersions.
Pharm. Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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To present a new screening methodology intended to be used in the early development of spray-dried amorphous solid dispersions.
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Central arterial pulse waveform acquisition with a portable pen-like optical fiber sensor.
Blood Press Monit
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2014
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Pulse waveform features related to cardiovascular pathologies and arterial stiffness have been extensively studied, and optical fiber sensors have been studied with an aim to simplify the pulse waveform acquisition in the carotid artery. In this paper, a novel optical fiber sensor to record pulse waveform in the carotid artery has been proposed.
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First report of an exophilic Anopheles arabiensis population in Bissau city, Guinea-Bissau: recent introduction or sampling bias?
Malar. J.
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
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The malaria vector Anopheles arabiensis exhibits greater behavioural and ecological plasticity than the other major vectors of the Anopheles gambiae complex, which presents challenges for major control methods. This study reports for the first time the presence of An. arabiensis in Antula, a suburb of Bissau city, the capital of Guinea Bissau, where high levels of hybridization between Anopheles coluzzii and An. gambiae have been reported. Given that previous surveys in the area, based on indoor collections, did not sample An. arabiensis, the possibility of a recently introduced exophilic population was investigated.
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[Recommendations for physical exercise practice during pregnancy: a critical review].
Rev Bras Ginecol Obstet
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2014
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Physical exercise is recommended for all healthy pregnant women. Regular practice of exercises during pregnancy can provide many physical and psychological benefits, with no evidence of adverse outcomes for the fetus or the newborn when exercise is performed at mild to moderate intensity. However, few pregnant women engage in this practice and many still have fears and doubts about the safety of exercise. The objective of the present study was to inform the professionals who provide care for Brazilian pregnant women about the current recommendations regarding physical exercise during pregnancy based on the best scientific evidence available. In view of the perception that few systematic models are available about this topic and after performing several studies in this specific area, we assembled practical information of interest to both the professionals and the pregnant women. We also provide recommendations about the indications, contraindications, modalities (aerobics, resistance training, stretching and pelvic floor training), frequency, intensity and duration indicated for each gestational trimester. The review addresses physical exercise recommendation both for low risk pregnant women and for special populations, such as athletes and obese, hypertensive and diabetic subjects. The advantages of an active and healthy lifestyle should be always reinforced during and after gestation since pregnancy is an appropriate period to introduce new habits because pregnant women are usually more motivated to adhere to recommendations. Thus, routine exams, frequent returns and supervision are recommended in order to provide new guidelines that will have long-term beneficial effects for both mother and child.
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Immunohistochemical molecular phenotypes of gastric cancer based on SOX2 and CDX2 predict patient outcome.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2014
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Gastric cancer remains a serious health concern worldwide. Patients would greatly benefit from the discovery of new biomarkers that predict outcome more accurately and allow better treatment and follow-up decisions. Here, we used a retrospective, observational study to assess the expression and prognostic value of the transcription factors SOX2 and CDX2 in gastric cancer.
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Current situation and perspectives regarding human Chagas disease in midwestern of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2014
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Recognising the importance of Chagas disease in Brazil, Bambuí set up epidemiological surveillance for Chagas disease in 1974 and was the first municipality to do so. To ascertain the current epidemiology of Chagas disease in this municipality, 1.782 blood samples from the general population were analysed; 7.7% of samples were found to be seropositive for Chagas disease. A strong positive correlation between increasing age and Chagas disease was evident in both genders, with the highest prevalence in individuals aged over 60 years. Clinically, the cardiodigestive form of Chagas disease was the most common in these samples. These data confirm the interruption of Trypanosoma cruzi transmission, in parallel with a still important residual morbidity of Chagas disease in the county, thus supporting political decisions that will prioritise epidemiological surveillance and medical treatment of Chagas disease in the coming years.
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The paroxetine effect on exercise performance depends on the aerobic capacity of exercising individuals.
J Sports Sci Med
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2014
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This study investigated the influence of aerobic capacity on the activation of the central serotonergic system and exercise fatigue in young men that ingested a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor and were then subjected to moderate-intensity physical exercise. The maximal oxygen consumption of sixteen volunteers was measured during an incremental test. The volunteers were divided into two groups: subjects with higher (HAC) and lower (LAC) aerobic capacities. The volunteers were subjected to four experimental trials in which they ingested either placebo or paroxetine (10, 20 or 40 mg) and, 4.5 h later, cycled at 60% of their maximal power output until reaching fatigue. None of the three paroxetine doses influenced the total exercise time in the LAC group. However, for the HAC group, the time to fatigue in the 20 mg paroxetine condition was 15% less than that in the placebo condition (76.3 ± 5.1 min vs. 90.0 ± 7.9 min; p < 0.05). The time to fatigue was higher in the HAC group than in the LAC group for all treatments. Our results provide additional evidence that aerobic capacity modulates the activity of the serotonergic system. However, contrary to what would be expected considering previous reports, the activation of the serotonergic system in exercising subjects in the HAC group was not less than that in the LAC group. Key pointsThe physical performance of the higher aerobic capacity group after administration of 20 mg of paroxetine decreased relative to that after administration of the placebo, whereas the same dose of paroxetine had no effect in the lower aerobic capacity group.Our results provide additional evidence that aerobic capacity modulates the activity of the serotonergic system.Contrary to what would be expected considering previous reports, the present findings suggest that the activity of the serotonergic system during exercise is not attenuated in individuals with a higher aerobic capacity relative to those that have a lower aerobic capacity.A dose-dependent effect of paroxetine on physical performance was not observed in either group; for example, in the subjects with higher aerobic capacity, 40 mg of paroxetine did not enhance or even reproduce the ergolytic effect caused by 20 mg of paroxetine.None of the peripheral variables measured explain the reduced total exercise time after administration of 20 mg of paroxetine in the subjects with higher aerobic capacity.
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The influence of drug physical state on the dissolution enhancement of solid dispersions prepared via hot-melt extrusion: a case study using olanzapine.
J Pharm Sci
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2014
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In this study, we examine the relationship between the physical structure and dissolution behavior of olanzapine (OLZ) prepared via hot-melt extrusion in three polymers [polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) K30, polyvinylpyrrolidone-co-vinyl acetate (PVPVA) 6:4, and Soluplus® (SLP)]. In particular, we examine whether full amorphicity is necessary to achieve a favorable dissolution profile. Drug–polymer miscibility was estimated using melting point depression and Hansen solubility parameters. Solid dispersions were characterized using differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray powder diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy. All the polymers were found to be miscible with OLZ in a decreasing order of PVP>PVPVA>SLP. At a lower extrusion temperature (160°C), PVP generated fully amorphous dispersions with OLZ, whereas the formulations with PVPVA and SLP contained 14%-16% crystalline OLZ. Increasing the extrusion temperature to 180°C allowed the preparation of fully amorphous systems with PVPVA and SLP. Despite these differences, the dissolution rates of these preparations were comparable, with PVP showing a lower release rate despite being fully amorphous. These findings suggested that, at least in the particular case of OLZ, the absence of crystalline material may not be critical to the dissolution performance. We suggest alternative key factors determining dissolution, particularly the dissolution behavior of the polymers themselves.
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Pseudomonas helmanticensis sp. nov., isolated from forest soil.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2014
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A bacterial strain, OHA11(T), was isolated during the course of a study of phosphate-solubilizing bacteria occurring in a forest soil from Salamanca, Spain. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain OHA11(T) shared 99.1% similarity with respect to Pseudomonas baetica a390(T), and 98.9% similarity with the type strains of Pseudomonas jessenii, Pseudomonas moorei, Pseudomonas umsongensis, Pseudomonas mohnii and Pseudomonas koreensis. The analysis of housekeeping genes rpoB, rpoD and gyrB confirmed its phylogenetic affiliation to the genus Pseudomonas and showed similarities lower than 95% in almost all cases with respect to the above species. Cells possessed two polar flagella. The respiratory quinone was Q9. The major fatty acids were C16 : 0, C18 : 1?7c and summed feature 3 (C16 : 1?7c/iso-C15 : 0 2-OH). The strain was oxidase-, catalase- and urease-positive, positive for arginine dihydrolase but negative for nitrate reduction, ?-galactosidase production and aesculin hydrolysis. It was able to grow at 31 °C and at pH 11. The DNA G+C content was 58.1 mol%. DNA-DNA hybridization results showed values lower than 49% relatedness with respect to the type strains of the seven closest related species. Therefore, the combined genotypic, phenotypic and chemotaxonomic data support the classification of strain OHA11(T) to a novel species of the genus Pseudomonas, for which the name Pseudomonas helmanticensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is OHA11(T) (?= LMG 28168(T)?= CECT 8548(T)).
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Suprapubic laparoscopic cholecystectomy: technique and preliminary results.
Arq Bras Cir Dig
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2014
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The minimally invasive abdominal surgery has evolved to reduce portals, culminating with a single incision and natural orifice operation. However, these methods are still expensive, difficult to implement and with questionable aesthetic results.
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Hybrid endoscopic thymectomy: combined transesophageal and transthoracic approach in a survival porcine model with cadaver assessment.
Surg Endosc
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2014
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Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery thymectomy has been used in the treatment of Myastenia Gravis and thymomas (coexisting or not). In natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery, new approaches to the thorax are emerging as alternatives to the classic transthoracic endoscopic surgery. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility and reliability of hybrid endoscopic thymectomy (HET) using a combined transthoracic and transesophageal approach.
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Seasonal genetic partitioning in the neotropical malaria vector, Anopheles darlingi.
Malar. J.
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2014
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Anopheles darlingi is the main malaria mosquito vector in the Amazonia region. In spite of being considered a riverine, forest-dwelling species, this mosquito is becoming more abundant in peri-urban areas, increasing malaria risk. This has been associated with human-driven environmental changes such as deforestation.
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Bionanoconjugation for Proteomics applications - An overview.
Biotechnol. Adv.
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2014
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Formed as an interdisciplinary domain on the basis of Human Genome Project, Proteomics aims at the large-scale study of proteins. The enthusiasm that resulted from obtaining the complete human genetic information has, however, been chastened by the realization that this information contributes little to the comprehension and knowledge of the expressed proteins. In the wake of this realization, the Human Proteome Project (HUPO) was founded, which is a global, collaborative initiative, aiming at the complete characterization of the proteins of all protein-coding genes. Nonetheless, the rapid detection of these molecules in complex biological samples under conditions considered to be of clinical relevance is extremely difficult, requiring the development of very sensitive, robust, reproducible and high throughput platforms. Nanoproteomics has emerged as a feasible, promising option, offering short assay times, low sample consumption, ultralow detection and high throughput capacity. Additionally, the successful synthesis of biomolecules and nanoparticle hybrids yields systems which often exhibit new or improved features. Herein, we overview the recent advances in bioconjugation at the nanolevel and, specifically, their application in Proteomics, discussing not only the merits and prospects of Proteomics, but also present day limitations.
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Delivery of drugs from laminar co-extrudates manufactured by a solvent-free process at room temperature.
J Pharm Sci
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2014
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This work aims to design and manufacture laminar co-extrudates as a new dosage form for the delivery of drugs. Co-extrudates made of lipid-based materials with a laminar shape were manufactured at room temperature in the absence of solvents and assessed over time for their mechanical properties (bending strength, deformation, stiffness, and elasticity), density, porosity, thermal behavior and main mechanism of drug release. The study has shown that the extrusion force at steady state increased with the extrusion rate and with the number of layers. The bending strength and stiffness of extrudates increased over time. Laminar co-extrudates with higher number of layers presented a decreasing dissolution efficiency of 38.3 ± 0.6%, 23.0 ± 0.2%, and 12.3 ± 0.2%, for mono-, bi-, and trilayer, respectively. After 90 days, the density, the deformation, and elasticity decreased: trilayer extrudates were the denser and the ones to present the lowest ability to deform and the highest elasticity, whereas monolayer extrudates were the less dense presenting the highest ability to deform. Changes were more evident in the first days after manufacture leading to stabilization over time. Laminar (co-)extrudates have been confirmed as an innovative dosage form for tailored delivery of drugs made without solvents at room temperature. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 103:3501-3510, 2014.
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Severe maternal morbidity and maternal near miss in the extremes of reproductive age: results from a national cross- sectional multicenter study.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2014
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The aim of this study was to assess severe maternal morbidity (SMM) and near miss (NM) cases among adolescent girls and women over 35 years of age in the Brazilian Network for Surveillance of Severe Maternal Morbidity, using a set of standard criteria, compared to pregnant women aged 20 to 34 years.
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Glossina palpalis palpalis populations from Equatorial Guinea belong to distinct allopatric clades.
Parasit Vectors
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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Luba is one of the four historical foci of Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT) on Bioko Island, in Equatorial Guinea. Although no human cases have been detected since 1995, T. b. gambiense was recently observed in the vector Glossina palpalis palpalis. The existence of cryptic species within this vector taxon has been previously suggested, although no data are available regarding the evolutionary history of tsetse flies populations in Bioko.
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Maternal near miss and death among women with severe hypertensive disorders: a Brazilian multicenter surveillance study.
Reprod Health
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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Hypertensive disorders represent the major cause of maternal morbidity in middle income countries. The main objective of this study was to identify the prevalence and factors associated with severe maternal outcomes in women with severe hypertensive disorders.
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The burden of eclampsia: results from a multicenter study on surveillance of severe maternal morbidity in Brazil.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Maternal mortality (MM) is a core indicator of disparities in women's rights. The study of Near Miss cases is strategic to identifying the breakdowns in obstetrical care. In absolute numbers, both MM and occurrence of eclampsia are rare events. We aim to assess the obstetric care indicators and main predictors for severe maternal outcome from eclampsia (SMO: maternal death plus maternal near miss).
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Large-scale preparation of shape controlled SnO and improved capacitance for supercapacitors: from nanoclusters to square microplates.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2013
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Here, we first provide a facile ultrasonic-assisted synthesis of SnO using SnCl2 and the organic solvent of ethanolamine (ETA). The moderate alkalinity of ETA and ultrasound play very important roles in the synthesis of SnO. After the hydrolysis of the intermediate of ETA-Sn(II), the as-synthesized SnO nanoclusters undergo assembly, amalgamation, and preferential growth to microplates in hydrothermal treatment. The as-synthesized SnO was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy (UV-vis) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). To explore its potential applications in energy storage, SnO was fabricated into a supercapacitor electrode and characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and galvanostatic charge-discharge measurements. The as-synthesized SnO exhibits remarkable pseudocapacitive activity including high specific capacitance (208.9 F g(-1) at 0.1 A g(-1)), good rate capability (65.8 F g(-1) at 40 A g(-1)), and excellent cycling stability (retention 119.3% after 10,000 cycles) for application in supercapacitors. The capacitive behavior of SnO with various crystal morphologies was observed by fitted EIS using an equivalent circuit. The novel synthetic route for SnO is a convenient and potential way to large-scale production of microplates which is expected to be applicable in the synthesis of other metal oxide nanoparticles.
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Rehabilitative treatment of cleft lip and palate: experience of the Hospital for Rehabilitation of Craniofacial Anomalies/USP (HRAC/USP) - Part 5: institutional outcomes assessment and the role of the Laboratory of Physiology.
J Appl Oral Sci
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2013
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The Laboratory of Physiology provides support for the diagnosis of functional disorders associated with cleft lip and palate and also conducts studies to assess, objectively, the institutional outcomes, as recommended by the World Health Organization. The Laboratory is conceptually divided into three units, namely the Unit for Upper Airway Studies, Unit for Stomatognathic System Studies and the Unit for Sleep Studies, which aims at analyzing the impact of different surgical and dental procedures on the upper airways, stomatognathic system and the quality of sleep of individuals with cleft lip and palate. This paper describes the main goals of the Laboratory in the assessment of procedures which constitute the basis of the rehabilitation of cleft lip and palate, i.e., Plastic Surgery, Orthodontics and Maxillofacial Surgery and Speech Pathology.
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Human chagas disease and migration in the context of globalization: some particular aspects.
J Trop Med
PUBLISHED: 03-30-2013
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Human Chagas disease originated in Latin America, being spread around the world in relation with multiple bioecological, sociocultural, and political factors. The process of the disease production and dispersion is discussed, emphasizing the human migration and correlated aspects, in the context of globalization. Positive and negative consequences concern the future of this trypanosomiasis, mainly in terms of the ecologic and sociopolitical characteristics of the endemic and nonendemic countries.
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Treatment of Pregnancy-Related Lumbar and Pelvic Girdle Pain by the Yoga Method: A Randomized Controlled Study.
J Altern Complement Med
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2013
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Abstract Objective: Pregnancy-related lumbopelvic pain is a major problem for the majority of pregnant women. Complementary medicine has been used to alleviate pain, and yoga is one of the most commonly chosen alternative methods. The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of Hatha yoga in the reduction of lumbopelvic pain in pregnancy. Methods: A randomized controlled trial with 60 pregnant women (age range, 14-40 years) who reported lumbopelvic pain at 12 to 32 weeks of gestation was conducted from June 2009 to June 2011. Pregnant women who had twin pregnancies, had medical restrictions for exercise, used analgesics, and participated in physical therapy were excluded from the study. Pregnant women were divided into two groups: the yoga group, practicing exercises guided by this method, and the postural orientation group, performing standardized posture orientation according to instructions provided in a pamphlet. Treatment in each group lasted 10 weeks. A visual analog scale (VAS) was used to measure pain intensity. Lumbar pain and posterior pelvic pain provocation tests were used to confirm the presence of pain. Statistical analysis included the Mann-Whitney test, the McNemar test, a paired Wilcoxon test, and analysis of covariance. Results: The median pain score was lower in the yoga group (p<.0058) than the postural orientation group. Lumbar pain provocation tests showed a decreased response in relation to posterior pelvic pain provocation tests and a gradual reduction in pain intensity during 10 yoga sessions (p<.024). Conclusions: The yoga method was more effective at reducing lumbopelvic pain intensity compared with postural orientation.
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A serological, parasitological and clinical evaluation of untreated Chagas disease patients and those treated with benznidazole before and thirteen years after intervention.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2013
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The etiological treatment of Chagas disease is recommended for all patients with acute or recent chronic infection, but controversies remain regarding the benefit of chemotherapy and interpretations of the parasitological cure after etiological treatment. This study compares the laboratory and clinical evaluations of Chagas disease patients who were diagnosed 13 years earlier. Fifty-eight Chagas disease patients (29 treated with benznidazole and 29 untreated) were matched at the time of treatment based on several variables. Conventional serology revealed the absence of seroconversion in all patients. However, lower serological titres were verified in the treated group, primarily among patients who had the indeterminate form of the disease. Haemoculture performed 13 years after the intervention was positive for 6.9% and 27.6% of the treated and untreated patients, respectively. Polymerase chain reaction tests were positive for 44.8% and 13.8% of the treated and untreated patients, respectively. Patients who presented with the indeterminate form of the disease at the beginning of the study exhibited less clinical progression (17.4%) compared with the untreated group (56.5%). Therefore, this global analysis revealed that etiological treatment with benznidazole may benefit patients with respect to the clinical progression of Chagas disease and the prognosis, particularly when administered to patients with the indeterminate form of the disease.
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Lower head temperature does not affect childrens self-paced running velocity.
Pediatr Exerc Sci
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2013
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To test if the use of a peaked cap protects children against sun radiation, allowing increased exercise performance, nineteen healthy children (10.3 ± 0.8 years old, 146.2 ± 6.9 cm, 36.8 ± 5.5 kg, 1.2 ± 0.1 m2 and 44.1 ± 2.8 mL.kg-1.min-1) took part in 4 experimental situations: 2 initial familiarization runs and 2 self-paced 6km runs (4 × 1.5 km exercise bouts with 3min rest intervals) one of them wearing a peaked cap (CAP) and another situation without the cap (NOCAP). The CAP and NOCAP situations were randomized. Exercise was performed outdoors 3-7 days apart. Environmental variables were measured every 10min, and physiological variables were measured before and after each run and during the rest intervals. Running velocity did not differ between CAP and NOCAP situations. The mean head temperature was reduced by 1.1 °C in the CAP situation (p < .05). Average skin temperature, mean heart rate, rate of perceived exertion and wet bulb and globe temperature did not differ between CAP and NOCAP. The decrease in the mean head temperature was not sufficient to alter running velocity.
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Effect of hormonal contraceptives during breastfeeding on infants milk ingestion and growth.
Fertil. Steril.
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2013
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To measure infants breast milk intake and infant growth when their mothers initiated either combined oral contraceptive (COC), levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system, or etonogestrel-releasing implant, or copper intrauterine device (IUD) as a reference group.
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Glycoproteomic analysis of serum from patients with gastric precancerous lesions.
J. Proteome Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2013
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Gastric cancer is preceded by a carcinogenesis pathway that includes gastritis caused by Helicobacter pylori infection, chronic atrophic gastritis that may progress to intestinal metaplasia (IM), dysplasia, and ultimately gastric carcinoma of the more common intestinal subtype. The identification of glycosylation changes in circulating serum proteins in patients with precursor lesions of gastric cancer is of high interest and represents a source of putative new biomarkers for early diagnosis and intervention. This study applies a glycoproteomic approach to identify altered glycoproteins expressing the simple mucin-type carbohydrate antigens T and STn in the serum of patients with gastritis, IM (complete and incomplete subtypes), and control healthy individuals. The immunohistochemistry analysis of the gastric mucosa of these patients showed expression of T and STn antigens in gastric lesions, with STn being expressed only in IM. The serum glycoproteomic analysis using 2D-gel electrophoresis, Western blot, and MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry led to the identification of circulating proteins carrying these altered glycans. One of the glycoproteins identified was plasminogen, a protein that has been reported to play a role in H. pylori chronic infection of the gastric mucosa and is involved in extracellular matrix modeling and degradation. Plasminogen was further characterized and showed to carry STn antigens in patients with gastritis and IM. These results provide evidence of serum proteins displaying abnormal O-glycosylation in patients with precursor lesions of gastric carcinoma and include a panel of putative targets for the non-invasive clinical diagnosis of individuals with gastritis and IM.
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Rehabilitative treatment of cleft lip and palate: experience of the Hospital for Rehabilitation of Craniofacial Anomalies/USP (HRAC/USP) - Part 4: oral rehabilitation.
J Appl Oral Sci
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2013
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Treatment of patients with cleft lip and palate is completed with fixed prostheses, removable, total, implants and aims to restore aesthetics, phonetics and function and should be guided by the basic principles of oral rehabilitation, such as physiology, stability, aesthetics, hygiene and the expectations of the patient. In order to obtain longevity of a prosthetic rehabilitation, the periodontal and dental tissue as well as the biomechanics of the prosthesis are to be respected. The purpose of this article is to describe the types of prosthetics treatment, which are performed at HRAC/USP for the rehabilitation of cleft area in adult patients.
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Distribution and hybridization of Culex pipiens forms in Greece during the West Nile virus outbreak of 2010.
Infect. Genet. Evol.
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2013
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In 2010, an outbreak of West Nile virus (WNV) infections occurred in the region of Thessaloniki, Central Macedonia, in northern Greece. During this period, Culex pipiens sensu stricto mosquitoes were found infected by WNV lineage 2. Cx. pipiens s.s. presents two distinct biological forms, denoted molestus and pipiens. Hybrids between the two forms may potentiate the accidental transmission of WNV to humans. We have genetically characterized the form composition of Cx. pipiens s.s. samples collected during the outbreak from the region of Thessaloniki, where WNV cases occurred, and from the region Schinias-Marathonas, with no reported cases at the time. Information on bird fauna was also obtained for the two regions. Application of the CQ11FL diagnostic marker revealed a 350 bp variant of the pipiens-specific allele. Sympatric pipiens and molestus populations were detected in Thessaloniki, whereas Schinias-Marathonas presented a more genetically homogenous molestus population. A pattern of asymmetric introgression between molestus and pipiens was also observed in Thessaloniki. The presence of hybrids between molestus and pipiens forms suggests a greater receptivity of the Thessaloniki region for the establishment of WNV zoonotic cycles. However, the Schinias-Marathonas region also displayed characteristics to sustain WNV transmission cycles. These observations highlight the importance of maintaining active surveillance systems in selected regions geographically located within the range of major migratory bird flyways.
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Maternal morbidity and near miss associated with maternal age: the innovative approach of the 2006 Brazilian demographic health survey.
Clinics (Sao Paulo)
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2013
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To study the prevalence of potentially life-threatening maternal conditions and near miss in Brazil according to maternal age.
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Feeding patterns of molestus and pipiens forms of Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae) in a region of high hybridization.
Parasit Vectors
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2013
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Two biological forms of the mosquito Culex pipiens s.s., denoted pipiens and molestus, display behavioural differences that may affect their role as vectors of arboviruses. In this study, the feeding patterns of molestus and pipiens forms were investigated in Comporta (Portugal), where high levels of inter-form admixture have been recorded.
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Feasibility studies of Bragg probe for noninvasive carotid pulse waveform assessment.
J Biomed Opt
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2013
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The arterial stiffness evaluation is largely reported as an independent predictor of cardiovascular diseases. The central pulse waveform can provide important data about arterial health and has been studied in patients with several pathologies, such as diabetes mellitus, coronary artery disease and hypertension. The implementation and feasibility studies of a fiber Bragg grating probe for noninvasive monitoring of the carotid pulse are described based on fiber Bragg grating technology. Assessment tests were carried out in carotids of different volunteers and it was possible to detect the carotid pulse waveform in all subjects. In one of the subjects, the sensor was also tested in terms of repeatability. Although further tests will be required for clinical investigation, the first studies suggest that the developed sensor can be a valid alternative to electromechanical tonometers.
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Multilayer laminar co-extrudate as a novel controlled release dosage form.
Eur J Pharm Sci
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2013
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Design of a new dosage form manufactured by laminar extrusion for oral administration of drugs. Different mixtures of materials (microcrystalline cellulose [MCC], hydroxypropyl methylcellulose [HPMC], lactose [LAC], dicalcium phosphate [DCP], coumarin [COU], propranolol hydrochloride [PRO], water [W]) were prepared prior to laminar extrusion. Mono, bi and tri layer extrudates were manufactured and evaluated for extrudability, drying, water uptake and swelling ability and in vitro characterization of the drug release. Good quality extrudates were manufactured with higher HPMC molecular weight and fraction in formulation at an extrusion rate of 400 mm/min and slow drying (forced air stream), otherwise surface roughness, thickness in-homogeneity, bending and shark skin were present in the extrudates. Swelling of extrudates was dependent on HPMC fraction and molecular weight (60% up to 90% weight gain for low and high polymer chains, respectively) and the presence of either MCC or DCP. The release of drug was dependent on its solubility (PRO>COU), the fraction of HPMC (low>high fractions), the type of diluent (DCP>MCC) and number of layers (1>2>3 layers). By designing the number and type of layers, dosage forms with well-defined release-kinetics can be tailored. The study has shown the ability of the technology of extrusion to manufacture a controlled release dosage form in a continuous fashion.
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Production of dosage forms for oral drug delivery by laminar extrusion of wet masses.
Eur J Pharm Biopharm
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2013
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Laminar extrusion of wet masses was studied as a novel technology for the production of dosage forms for oral drug delivery. Extrusion was carried out with a ram extruder. Formulations contained either microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) or dicalcium phosphate (DCP) as diluent, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), lactose, and water. Extrudates were characterized for their tensile strength, Youngs modulus of elasticity, water absorption, gel forming capacity, and release of two model drugs, coumarin (COU) and propranolol hydrochloride (PRO). Cohesive extrudates could be produced with both filling materials (MCC and DCP) when HPMC was included as a binder at low amounts (3.3-4.5% w/w dry weight). Employing more HPMC, the elasticity of the wet masses increased which resulted in distinct surface defects. For MCC, the maximum HPMC amount that could be included in the formulations (15% w/w dry weight) did not affect the mechanical properties or decrease the drug release significantly. For DCP extrudates, the maximally effective HPMC amount was 30% (w/w dry weight) with influence on both the mechanical properties and drug release. This study suggests that laminar extrusion of wet masses is a feasible technique for the production of dosage forms for oral drug delivery.
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Maternal and Perinatal Outcomes of Exercise in Pregnant Women with Chronic Hypertension and/or Previous Preeclampsia: A Randomized Controlled Trial.
ISRN Obstet Gynecol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Objectives. To evaluate the association between physical exercise supervised in pregnant women with chronic hypertension and/or previous preeclampsia and maternal and neonatal outcomes. Method. Randomized controlled trial, which included 116 pregnant women with chronic hypertension and/or previous preeclampsia, considered risk of preeclampsia development. They were divided into two groups: study group that performed physical exercise with a stationary bicycle once a week, for 30 minutes; the intensity was controlled (heart rate 20% above resting values), under professional supervision and a control group that was not engaged in any physical exercise. The data was retrieved from medical charts. Significance level assumed was 5%. Results. Women from study group performed 9.24 ± 7.03 of physical exercise sessions. There were no differences between groups comparing type of delivery and maternal outcomes, including maternal morbidity and hospitalization in intensive unit care, and neonatal outcomes, including birth weight, adequacy of weight to gestational age, prematurity, Apgar scale at first and fifth minutes, hospitalization in intensive unit care, and neonatal morbidity. Conclusions. Physical exercise using a stationary bicycle in pregnant women with chronic hypertension and/or previous preeclampsia, once a week, under professional supervision, did not interfere in the delivery method and did not produce maternal and neonatal risks of the occurrence of morbidity. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01395342.
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New insights into the population structure of Anopheles gambiae s.s. in the Gulf of Guinea Islands revealed by Herves transposable elements.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Transposable elements (TEs) are mobile portions of DNA that are able to replicate and spread in the genome of many organisms. TEs can be used as a means to insert transgenes in insects, being stably inherited throughout generations. Anopheles gambiae is the main vector of human malaria in Sub-Saharan Africa. Given the extraordinary burden this disease imposes, the mosquito became a choice target for genetic control approaches with the purpose of reducing malaria transmission. In this study, we investigated the abundance and distribution of Herves TE in An. gambiae s.s. from Cameroon and four islands in the Gulf of Guinea, in order to determine their genetic structure. We have detected a population subdivision between Equatorial Guinea islands and the islands of São Tomé, Príncipe and mainland. This partitioning associates more with political rather than geographic boundaries, possibly reflecting different mainland source populations colonizing the islands.
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Three decades of clinical-pathological trends in gastric cancer: prospective data from a Portuguese hospital.
Int J Surg
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Gastric cancer is a heterogeneous disease, whose pathological and clinical patterns have changed in the last decades. In most western countries, decreases in incidence and mortality and a proximal migration have been reported. The clinical and pathological trends in an European country with high prevalence of gastric cancer were reviewed, based on the patients treated at a University Hospital.
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[Retroperitoneal laparoscopic nephrectomy in children younger than nine years-old: state of the art].
Acta Med Port
PUBLISHED: 12-31-2011
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In Portugal, there is very few experience in pediatric retroperitoneoscopy. The authors present the first Portuguese series of retroperitoneal laparoscopic nephrectomies (RLN) in children younger than nine years-old, as well as a literature review about the theme.
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Natural orifice transluminal endoscopy surgery: A review.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 10-12-2011
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Minimally invasive surgery started spreading worldwide in 1987, when the first laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed. Meanwhile, improvement of endoscopic equipment and instruments allowed gastroenterologists to attempt more aggressive endoluminal interventions, even beyond the wall barrier. The first transgastric peritoneoscopy, in 2004, brought to light the concept of natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES). The idea of incisionless surgery is attractive and has become a new goal for both surgeons and other people interested in this field of investigation. The authors present a review of all developments concerning NOTES, including animal studies and human experience.
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Characterization of different water/powder ratios of dental gypsum using fiber Bragg grating sensors.
Dent Mater J
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2011
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The impact of five different water/powder (w/p) ratios in the characterization of high strength dental stone was evaluated, since the recommendations of the gypsum manufacturers are not always correctly followed by the dental prosthesis technicians. Fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors were used to measure the setting expansion and temperature variation which occurred during the setting reaction for each w/p ratio, as well as the thermal expansion coefficient. Thick mixtures with low w/p ratios had more crystals impinging upon each other during crystal growth, resulting in more expansion and more heat released. This thermal behavior was only achieved to w/p ratios within the manufacturer-recommended mixing ratio range. The results also revealed the existence of boundary condition; this corresponding to the limit of the mixing ratio recommended by the gypsum manufacturer. Data provided in this study are particularly important for dental technicians with a view to attaining the best results in accuracy of fit for their prosthetic works.
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Upper pole nephrectomy: a simplified technique using a retroperitoneal laparoscopic approach.
Case Rep Urol
PUBLISHED: 09-14-2011
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Objective. To describe a simplified technique already used in our institution for several years in the open heminephrectomy for duplication anomalies, now performed through a retroperitoneal laparoscopic approach. Methods. The technique begins with upper pole parenchyma incision since the demarcation between the affected upper moiety and the healthy lower pole is easily established. The dissection proceeds until the urothelium of the collecting system is entered, which will guide further excision, minimizing damage of the surrounding structures. The vascular supply is then identified since the upper pole is attached to the remaining renal parenchyma only by these structures that can be safely divided. Dissection and division of the ectopic ureter is carried next. Results. The operative time was 188 minutes. The blood loss was not significant, and there were no other complications during the procedure. The patient was discharged home 48 hours after the procedure, without any early or late postoperative complications. Conclusion. We believe this simplified technique allows a safer excision of nonfunctioning upper pole renal tissue by avoiding the initial dissection of the renal hilum, which associated with the known advantages of a laparoscopic approach makes us consider it the procedure of choice for upper pole nephrectomy in children.
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[Factors associated with low birth weight among adolescents in the Brazil Southeast region].
Rev Bras Ginecol Obstet
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2011
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To determine the rate of low birth weight and some of the risk factors associated with this event among adolescents.
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Gene flow-dependent genomic divergence between Anopheles gambiae M and S forms.
Mol. Biol. Evol.
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2011
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Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto exists as two often-sympatric races termed the M and S molecular forms, characterized by fixed differences at an X-linked marker. Extreme divergence between M and S forms at pericentromeric "genomic islands" suggested that selection on variants therein could be driving interform divergence in the presence of ongoing gene flow, but recent work has detected much more widespread genomic differentiation. Whether such genomic islands are important in reproductive isolation or represent ancestral differentiation preserved by low recombination is currently unclear. A critical test of these competing hypotheses could be provided by comparing genomic divergence when rates of recent introgression vary. We genotyped 871 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in A. gambiae sensu stricto from locations of M and S sympatry and allopatry, encompassing the full range of observed hybridization rates (0-25%). M and S forms were readily partitioned based on genomewide SNP variation in spite of evidence for ongoing introgression that qualitatively reflects hybridization rates. Yet both the level and the heterogeneity of genomic divergence varied markedly in line with levels of introgression. A few genomic regions of differentiation between M and S were common to each sampling location, the most pronounced being two centromere-proximal speciation islands identified previously but with at least one additional region outside of areas expected to exhibit reduced recombination. Our results demonstrate that extreme divergence at genomic islands does not simply represent segregating ancestral polymorphism in regions of low recombination and can be resilient to substantial gene flow. This highlights the potential for islands comprising a relatively small fraction of the genome to play an important role in early-stage speciation when reproductive isolation is limited.
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I Latin American Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of Chagas heart disease: executive summary.
Arq. Bras. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 07-27-2011
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Much has been achieved in one century after Carlos Chagas discovery. However, there is surely much to be done in the next decades. At present, we are witnessing many remarkable efforts to monitor the epidemiology of the disease, to better understand the biology of the T. cruzi and its interaction with human beings as well as the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of the complications in the chronic phase, and deal more appropriately and effectively with late cardiac and digestive manifestations. Although the vector and transfusion-derived transmission of the disease has been controlled in many countries, there remains a pressing need for sustained surveillance of the measures that led to this achievement. It is also necessary to adopt initiatives that enable appropriate management of social and medical conditions resulting from the migration of infected individuals to countries where the disease formerly did not exist. Its also necessary to standardize the most reliable methods of detection of infection with T. cruzi, not only for diagnosis purposes, but more crucially, as a cure criterion. The etiological treatment of millions of patients in the chronic stage of the disease is also to be unraveled. A renewed interest in this area is observed, including prospects of studies focusing on the association of drugs with benznidazole. We also wait for full evidence of the actual effectiveness of the etiological treatment to impact favorably on the natural history of the disease in its chronic phase. Eventually, cardiologists are primarily responsible for improving the clinical management of their patients with Chagas disease, judiciously prescribing drugs and interventions that respect, as much as possible, the peculiar pathophysiology of the disease, wasting no plausible therapeutic opportunities.
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pSEUDO, a genetic integration standard for Lactococcus lactis.
Appl. Environ. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2011
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Plasmid pSEUDO and derivatives were used to show that llmg_pseudo_10 in Lactococcus lactis MG1363 and its homologous locus in L. lactis IL1403 are suitable for chromosomal integrations. L. lactis MG1363 and IL1403 nisin-induced controlled expression (NICE) system derivatives (JP9000 and IL9000) and two general stress reporter strains (NZ9000::PhrcA-GFP and NZ9000::PgroES-GFP) enabling in vivo noninvasive monitoring of cellular fitness were constructed.
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Endoscopic sinus surgery: a safe procedure among the less experienced surgeons?
Auris Nasus Larynx
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2011
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To determine the incidence of complications in endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS), in a surgical centre with 20 years of experience, and whether or not the surgeons experience can be a predisposing factor for them to happen.
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Mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus in aten years period.
Reprod Health
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2011
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to evaluate mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) rates and related factors in HIV-infected pregnant women from a tertiary hospital between 2000 and 2009.
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Comparative analyses reveal discrepancies among results of commonly used methods for Anopheles gambiaemolecular form identification.
Malar. J.
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2011
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Anopheles gambiae M and S molecular forms, the major malaria vectors in the Afro-tropical region, are ongoing a process of ecological diversification and adaptive lineage splitting, which is affecting malaria transmission and vector control strategies in West Africa. These two incipient species are defined on the basis of single nucleotide differences in the IGS and ITS regions of multicopy rDNA located on the X-chromosome. A number of PCR and PCR-RFLP approaches based on form-specific SNPs in the IGS region are used for M and S identification. Moreover, a PCR-method to detect the M-specific insertion of a short interspersed transposable element (SINE200) has recently been introduced as an alternative identification approach. However, a large-scale comparative analysis of four widely used PCR or PCR-RFLP genotyping methods for M and S identification was never carried out to evaluate whether they could be used interchangeably, as commonly assumed.
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[Prevention concerning the different alternative routes for transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi in Brazil].
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop.
PUBLISHED: 05-18-2011
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Vectorial, transfusion and congenital are considered the main transmission mechanisms in human Chagas disease. Alternative mechanisms are accidental, oral and by organ transplantation. Other hypothetic mechanisms could be by other vectors, sexual, criminal and by means of marsupial anal secretions. The present accorded strategies for prevention are: CONGENITAL: early case detection and immediate treatment. If possible, start during the pre natal period, throughout mothers serology, performing parasitological tests in the new born from positive women. For positive cases, immediate treatment; for those negative babies, conventional serology at the 8th month, treating specifically those with positive results. ACCIDENTAL TRANSMISSION: Rigorous training and utilization of protection equipments. IF accident occurs, immediate disinfection, conventional serology and beginning of specific treatment by ten days. Revision of the serology after 30 days: if positive, extend the treatment until the total dose (60 days or more). ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION: previous serology for donor and receptor. When the former is infected and the last negative, cancel the surgery or install the specific treatment by ten days before the surgery for the donor, followed by the receptor during ten days after the transplantation. ORAL TRANSMISSION: Specific measures are not available, food hygiene is recommended, including the cooking of meats delivered from possible reservoirs. Nowadays, the detection and immediate treatment of the case is recommended, followed by active research of new cases around the detected one.
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[The control of vectorial transmission].
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop.
PUBLISHED: 05-18-2011
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Between 1950 and 1951, the first Prophylactic campaign against Chagas Diseases was carried on in Brazil by the so existing Serviço Nacional de Malária. The actions involving chemical vector control comprehended 74 municipalities along the Rio Grande Valley, between the States of São Paulo and Minas Gerais. Ever since, until 1975, the activities were performed according the availability of resources, being executed with more or less regularity and coverage. At that time, Chagas disease did no represent priority, in comparison with other endemic diseases prevalent in the Country. Even so, taking into account the accumulated data along those 25 years, the volume of work realized cannot be considered despicable. Nevertheless, it was few consistent, in terms of its impact on disease transmission. In 1975, with an additional injection of resources surpassed from the malaria program, plus the methodological systematization of the activities, and with the results of two extensive national inquiries (entomologic and serologic), the activities for vector control could be performed regularly, following two basic principles: interventions in always contiguous areas, progressively enlarged, and sustainability (continuity) of the activities, until being attained determined requirements and purpose previously established. Such actions and strategies lead into the exhaustion of the populations of the principal vector species, Triatoma infestans, no autochthonous and exclusively domiciliary, as well as the control of the domiciliary colonization of autochthonous species important to disease transmission. Vector transmission today is being considered residual, by means of some few native and peridomestic species, such as Triatoma brasiliensis and Triatoma pseudomaculata. There is, also, the risk of progressive domiciliation of some species before considered sylvatic, such as Panstrongylus lutzi and Triatoma rubrovaria. Finally, there is the possibility of the occurrence of cases of human infection directly related to the enzootic cycle of the parasite. By all these reasons, it is still indispensable the maintenance of a strict epidemiological surveillance against Chagas Disease in Brazil.
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[The electrocardiographic survey].
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop.
PUBLISHED: 05-18-2011
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In order to investigate the prevalence of chagasic heart disease in Brazil, a national electrocardiographic survey was carried out from 1977 to 1981. A total of 5,347 electrocardiograms (ECG) were performed and paired by age and gender. The results obtained in relation with the autochthonous cases, were distributed by Brazilian states, as follows: Rio Grande do Sul (1,078), Minas Gerais (760), Bahia (612), Paraná (400), Paraiba (340), Piauí (218), Sergipe (216), Goiás (176), Pernambuco (170), Ceará (136) and Alagoas 134. The higher proportions of altered ECGs among seropositive individuals were found in the States of Goiás (63.6%), Minas Gerais (57.6%), Ceará (57.3%), Paraná (54.5%), Piauí (53.2%) and Paraiba (52.3%). Among the control individuals, these proportions were respectively 25%, 25.7%, 25%, 12.5%, 22.9% and 26.5%. A significant statistical difference of altered ECGs between positive and negative individuals was verified in all the States, with a single exception (Alagoas). The estimation of the gradient showed to be higher in Paraná State (42%), followed by Goiás (38.6%), Ceará (32.3%), Minas Gerais (31.9%), Piauí (30.3%), Paraíba (25.8%), Pernambuco (22.3%), Bahia (18.9%), Sergipe (16.7%), Rio Grande do Sul (9.9%) and Alagoas (7.5%). Concerning the distribution of the electrocardiographical alterations found in the eleven states, the main alterations find among the seropositive group were: ventricular extrasystoles, complete right bundle branch block, left anterior fascicular block, the association of complete right bundle branch block with left anterior fascicular block and primary alterations of the ST segment and of the T wave. Furthermore, these ECG alterations were more prevalent in the group of infected individuals.
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[The beginning of Chagas disease control (homage to Dr. Emmanuel Dias, the pioneer of Chagas disease control, in the year of his birth centenary)].
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop.
PUBLISHED: 05-18-2011
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Very soon Carlos Chagas took into account the need of trypanosomiasis control, considering its great social impact and geographical dispersion The vector was considered the more vulnerable target and housing improvement the basic strategy to face the disease. In parallel, it was required a more clinical visibility for the disease, as an argument for its control. The first concrete tentative occurred in 1918 when Souza Araújo dedicating his efforts in Paraná, trying housing improvement. He was followed by Ezequiel Dias et al, in 1921, employing chemical compounds against the vector, The chemical fight will be retaken by Emmanuel Dias in 1944, assaying several old compounds, fire thrower and cyanidric gas. In 1946, DDT showed to be ineffective, but one year later Dias & Pellegrino described the insecticide gammexane, highly effective against domestic triatomines. Working with Mario Pinotti, expanded trials occurred in Minas Gerais (Triangle Region), justifying the expansion of the campaign to other endemic regions, with the rationale of continuous work in contiguous areas. In 1957 Pedreira de Freitas proposed the selective spraying, which was the model for the future strategy of program evaluation, by SUVEN and SUCAN organizations. In 1975 the national program is reorganized, launching two national surveys (entomology and serology). In 1979 the new pyrethroid compounds are tried and im 1983 the national program is expanded. Transfusion transmitted Chagas Disease was studied since the 1950 by the Nussenzweig group in S. Paulo, showing to be vulnerable to chemoprophylaxis and blood donor pre transfusional serologic screening. Nevertheless, these preventive measures only were implemented in the 1980 decade, following the emergence of HIV/AIDS pandemic. Practically, since the pioneer essays, the control of Chagas Disease transmission showed to be efficient against vector and blood bank mechanisms, depending on continuity, educative support and political will.
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[The beginning of the disease].
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop.
PUBLISHED: 05-18-2011
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Originating from the ancient enzootic cycle of Trypanosoma cruzi, human Chagas disease (HCD) emerged focally in different points of America, in the Pre Christian period. Being slowly expanded as a consequence of internal migrations, HCD was settled in those locals where some vector species reached domiciliation and where different kinds of reservoirs entered in domestic environment , with major expression in the post Columbus era, particularly between the final of XIX Century and the middle of XX Century, when the maximum prevalence rates were attained. Originally, scarce evidences of acute cases, chronic cardiopathy and megacolon could be detected in different points of the Region, but the diagnosis of such clinical pictures was not easily ascertained. Nevertheless, the megaoesophagus picture proved to be the more specific marker of ancient HCD, with several descriptions of its occurrence in different Brazilian regions, mainly since the XVIII Century. The social burden of HCD depends basically of the presence of chronic cardiopathy, and only after its recognition, control actions of the disease were definitely lounged in endemic countries.
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From planning to practice: building the national network for the Surveillance of Severe Maternal Morbidity.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2011
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Improving maternal health is one of the Millennium Development Goals for 2015. Recently some progress has been achieved in reducing mortality. On the other hand, in developed regions, maternal death is a relatively rare event compared to the number of cases of morbidity; hence studying maternal morbidity has become more relevant. Electronic surveillance systems may improve research by facilitating complete data reporting and reducing the time required for data collection and analysis. Therefore the purpose of this study was to describe the methods used in elaborating and implementing the National Network for the Surveillance of Severe Maternal Morbidity in Brazil.
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Varicocoelectomy in adolescents: laparoscopic versus open high ligation technique.
Afr J Paediatr Surg
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2011
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Treatment of varicocoele is aimed at eliminating the retrograde reflux of venous blood through the internal spermatic veins. The purpose of this investigation was to compare laparoscopic varicocoelectomy (LV) with open high ligation technique in the adolescent population.
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[Acute occlusion of a popliteal aneurysm - The value of intra-arterial preoperative thrombolysis].
Rev Port Cir Cardiotorac Vasc
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2011
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In this paper it is presented a clinical report on intra-arterial thrombolysis of an acute thrombosed popliteal artery aneurysm. We report the technical aspects and discuss indications, principal advantages and contraindications of this form of treatment.
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Alpha-tricalcium phosphate cement in the reconstruction of bone defects in rats.
Acta Cir Bras
PUBLISHED: 03-30-2011
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To evaluate the ability of a mixture of ?-TCP and autogenous bone (AB) vs. ?-TCP alone and AB alone to promote new bone formation and tissue repair in bone defects.
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Applicability of an optimized non-conventional flow cytometry method to detect anti-Trypanosoma cruzi immunoglobulin G for the serological diagnosis and cure assessment following chemotherapeutic treatment of Chagas disease.
J. Immunol. Methods
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2011
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One of the challenges on immunodiagnostic of Chagas disease in endemic areas has been the search for more practical and safe antigenic preparation that provides tests with higher sensitivity and specificity, with low cross-reactivity. A new approach using fixed Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigotes to detect IgG reactivity was investigated previously. In order to continue this investigation, this study aimed at optimizing the flow cytometry-based method to the diagnosis of Chagas disease patients after specific chemotherapy. To achieve our goal, serum samples from 93 subjects - 52 adults chronically infected by T. cruzi, and 41 uninfected controls were tested by flow cytometry. Secondly, serum samples from patients Treated Cured and Treated Uncured from Chagas disease were also tested to evaluate the potential of the method on assessing cure. After establishing the ideal serum dilution and cut off, 121 serum samples from patients with other endemic infections were tested to check cross-reactivity. The results showed that parasite staining with Evans blue dye eliminated debris, allowing trustworthy analysis of anti-fixed epimastigote IgG reactivity. The applicability of the method to diagnose Chagas disease was confirmed by the high sensitivity (98.1%) and specificity (100%) found. This method also contributed for post-therapeutic assessment of cure, identifying 94.1% of Treated Uncured and 83.3% of Treated Cured patients. Cross-reactivity was observed in a very low number (6.7%). On the whole, these data highly recommend the use of anti-fixed T. cruzi epimastigote IgG reactivity by flow cytometry to the diagnosis and cure monitoring of Chagas disease in endemic areas.
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[Socio-demographic features of puerperas and pregnancy follow-up: what has changed in 17 years?].
Acta Med Port
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2011
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In recent years, the time for motherhood has been postponed, which is related to social aspects and can lead to health problems for the pregnant women and the child. An appropriate follow-up of the pregnancy is essential for identification and early treatment of possible complications. The purpose of this study was to evaluate some social and demographic characteristics and the pregnancy follow-up among puerperas, in two different times separated by 17 years (1991 e 2008). In this study, we found that the birth of a first child occurs now later, is more planned and happens more frequently outside of marriage. The postponement of motherhood can be associated with an increased rate of miscarriages. There has been a decrease in the rate of induced abortions, which is probably the result of the implementation of strategies for family planning. We noticed a decline in the number of pregnancies that had not a proper follow-up, demonstrating the improvement of health care. The immigrant population is responsible for about one quarter of the births in the Algarve, with a higher percentage of unplanned pregnancies, which eventually might be related to socio-economic vulnerabilities, but no difference was found in the surveillance of pregnancy, demonstrating a good accessibility of this population to health care. It is essential the existence of information about the risks of a late pregnancy and of social infrastructures to support motherhood at younger ages. Pregnancy surveillance programs have been successful, but there are still gaps in obstetric monitoring. Despite good results in terms of surveillance of pregnancy, the immigrant population may present some vulnerabilities, which means that their access to maternal and child health care should be monitored.
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Relationship between files that bind at the apical foramen and foramen openings in maxillary central incisors--a SEM study.
Braz Dent J
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2011
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Considering that instrumentation of the apical foramen has been suggested for root canal infection control, this study analyzed the relationship between the files that bind at the apical foramen and the foraminal openings in 50 maxillary central incisors. After preparation of the pulp chamber, access to the canal was obtained with #1 and 2 LA Axxess and K-files with tip cut were inserted up to the apical foramen until binding was felt. The files were fixed with methyl cyanoacrylate and the tooth-file sets were cross-sectioned 10 mm short of the apex. Scanning electron microscopic analysis was carried out and files and foraminal areas were measured using Image Tool software. Statistically significant difference (p<0.0001) was found between files and the apical foraminal areas. The mean foraminal area was 3.8 times larger than the mean file area. The results of this study suggest that it would require 4 files of greater size beyond the one that bound to the foramen in order to allow a better relationship between files and apical openings of maxillary central incisors.
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The response of Lactococcus lactis to membrane protein production.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2011
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The biogenesis of membrane proteins is more complex than that of water-soluble proteins, and recombinant expression of membrane proteins in functional form and in amounts high enough for structural and functional studies is often problematic. To better engineer cells towards efficient protein production, we set out to understand and compare the cellular consequences of the overproduction of both classes of proteins in Lactococcus lactis, employing a combined proteomics and transcriptomics approach.
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The "far-west" of Anopheles gambiae molecular forms.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2011
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The main Afrotropical malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto, is undergoing a process of sympatric ecological diversification leading to at least two incipient species (the M and S molecular forms) showing heterogeneous levels of divergence across the genome. The physically unlinked centromeric regions on all three chromosomes of these closely related taxa contain fixed nucleotide differences which have been found in nearly complete linkage disequilibrium in geographic areas of no or low M-S hybridization. Assays diagnostic for SNP and structural differences between M and S forms in the three centromeric regions were applied in samples from the western extreme of their range of sympatry, the only area where high frequencies of putative M/S hybrids have been reported. The results reveal a level of admixture not observed in the rest of the range. In particular, we found: i) heterozygous genotypes at each marker, although at frequencies lower than expected under panmixia; ii) virtually all possible genotypic combinations between markers on different chromosomes, although genetic association was nevertheless detected; iii) discordant M and S genotypes at two X-linked markers near the centromere, suggestive of introgression and inter-locus recombination. These results could be indicative either of a secondary contact zone between M and S, or of the maintenance of ancestral polymorphisms. This issue and the perspectives opened by these results in the study of the M and S incipient speciation process are discussed.
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First report of Panstrongylus megistus sylvatic focus in municipality of Bambuí, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2011
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In 1943, the Center for the Study and Prophylaxis of Chagas Disease, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, state of Minas Gerais (MG), was created in the municipality of Bambuí to carry out studies related to Chagas disease in the mid-western region of MG. Since that time, several investigations have been conducted to determine the natural habitat of triatomines, but Panstrongylus megistus colonies have never been found in this region. This paper records the first finding of a P. megistus sylvatic colony in 69 years of research. The characteristics of this ecotope and its implications for the epidemiology of Chagas disease are discussed.
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Efficient overproduction of membrane proteins in Lactococcus lactis requires the cell envelope stress sensor/regulator couple CesSR.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2011
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Membrane proteins comprise an important class of molecules whose study is largely frustrated by several intrinsic constraints, such as their hydrophobicity and added requirements for correct folding. Additionally, the complexity of the cellular mechanisms that are required to insert membrane proteins functionally in the membrane and to monitor their folding state makes it difficult to foresee the yields at which one can obtain them or to predict which would be the optimal production host for a given protein.
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In the trail of a new bio-sensor for measuring strain in bone: osteoblastic biocompatibility.
Biosens Bioelectron
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2011
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Fibre Bragg Grating (FBG) is an optical sensor recorded within the core of a standard optical fibre, which responds faithfully to strain and temperature. FBG sensors are a promising alternative to other sensing methodologies to assess bone mechanics in vivo. However, response of bone cells/bone tissue to FBGs and its sensing capability in this environment have not been recorded yet. The present study addressed these issues in long-term human osteoblastic cell cultures. Results showed that osteoblastic cells were able to adhere and proliferate over the fibre and, also, the protective polymer coating. RT-PCR analysis showed the expression of Col I, ALP, BMP-2, M-CSF, RANKL and OPG. In addition, cultures presented high ALP activity and the formation of a calcium phosphate mineralized extracellular matrix. Cell behavior over the fibre without and with the coating polymer was similar to that found in cultures grown in standard tissue culture plates (control). In addition to the excellent osteoblastic cytocompatibility, FBGs maintained the physical integrity and functionality, as its sensing capability was not affected through the culture period. Results suggest the possibility of in vivo osseointegration of the optical fibre/FBGs anticipating a variety of applications in bone mechanical dynamics.
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Acute diverticulitis in younger patients: any rationale for a different approach?
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2011
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To compare the natural history and course of acute diverticulitis in a younger age group with an older population and to evaluate whether younger patients should be managed differently.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.