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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Monocytic cell differentiation from band-stage neutrophils under inflammatory conditions via MKK6 activation.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2014
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During inflammation, neutrophils are rapidly mobilized from the bone marrow storage pool into peripheral blood (PB) to enter lesional sites, where most rapidly undergo apoptosis. Monocytes constitute a second wave of inflammatory immigrates, giving rise to long-lived macrophages and dendritic cell subsets. According to descriptive immunophenotypic and cell culture studies, neutrophils may directly "transdifferentiate" into monocytes/macrophages. We provide mechanistic data in human and murine models supporting the existence of this cellular pathway. First, the inflammatory signal-induced MKK6-p38MAPK cascade activates a monocyte differentiation program in human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor-dependent neutrophils. Second, adoptively transferred neutrophils isolated from G-CSF-pretreated mice rapidly acquired monocyte characteristics in response to inflammatory signals in vivo. Consistently, inflammatory signals led to the recruitment of osteoclast progenitor cell potential from ex vivo-isolated G-CSF-mobilized human blood neutrophils. Monocytic cell differentiation potential was retained in left-shifted band-stage neutrophils but lost in neutrophils from steady-state PB. MKK6-p38MAPK signaling in HL60 model cells led to diminishment of the transcription factor C/EBP?, which enabled the induction of a monocytic cell differentiation program. Gene profiling confirmed lineage conversion from band-stage neutrophils to monocytic cells. Therefore, inflammatory signals relayed by the MKK6-p38MAPK cascade induce monocytic cell differentiation from band-stage neutrophils.
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The triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 inhibits complement component 1q effector mechanisms and exerts detrimental effects during pneumococcal pneumonia.
PLoS Pathog.
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2014
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Phagocytosis and inflammation within the lungs is crucial for host defense during bacterial pneumonia. Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells (TREM)-2 was proposed to negatively regulate TLR-mediated responses and enhance phagocytosis by macrophages, but the role of TREM-2 in respiratory tract infections is unknown. Here, we established the presence of TREM-2 on alveolar macrophages (AM) and explored the function of TREM-2 in the innate immune response to pneumococcal infection in vivo. Unexpectedly, we found Trem-2-/- AM to display augmented bacterial phagocytosis in vitro and in vivo compared to WT AM. Mechanistically, we detected that in the absence of TREM-2, pulmonary macrophages selectively produced elevated complement component 1q (C1q) levels. We found that these increased C1q levels depended on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR-?) activity and were responsible for the enhanced phagocytosis of bacteria. Upon infection with S. pneumoniae, Trem-2-/- mice exhibited an augmented bacterial clearance from lungs, decreased bacteremia and improved survival compared to their WT counterparts. This work is the first to disclose a role for TREM-2 in clinically relevant respiratory tract infections and demonstrates a previously unknown link between TREM-2 and opsonin production within the lungs.
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Early treatment with IgM-enriched intravenous immunoglobulin does not mitigate critical illness polyneuropathy and/or myopathy in patients with multiple organ failure and SIRS/sepsis: a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded trial.
Crit Care
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2013
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Critical illness polyneuropathy and/or myopathy (CIPNM) is a severe complication of critical illness. Retrospective data suggest that early application of IgM-enriched intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) may prevent or mitigate CIPNM. Therefore, the primary objective was to assess the effect of early IgM-enriched IVIG versus placebo to mitigate CIPNM in a prospective setting.
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Lipocalin 2 deactivates macrophages and worsens pneumococcal pneumonia outcomes.
J. Clin. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2013
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Macrophages play a key role in responding to pathogens and initiate an inflammatory response to combat microbe multiplication. Deactivation of macrophages facilitates resolution of the inflammatory response. Deactivated macrophages are characterized by an immunosuppressive phenotype, but the lack of unique markers that can reliably identify these cells explains the poorly defined biological role of this macrophage subset. We identified lipocalin 2 (LCN2) as both a marker of deactivated macrophages and a macrophage deactivator. We show that LCN2 attenuated the early inflammatory response and impaired bacterial clearance, leading to impaired survival of mice suffering from pneumococcal pneumonia. LCN2 induced IL-10 formation by macrophages, skewing macrophage polarization in a STAT3-dependent manner. Pulmonary LCN2 levels were tremendously elevated during bacterial pneumonia in humans, and high LCN2 levels were indicative of a detrimental outcome from pneumonia with Gram-positive bacteria. Our data emphasize the importance of macrophage deactivation for the outcome of pneumococcal infections and highlight the role of LCN2 and IL-10 as determinants of macrophage performance in the respiratory tract.
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Storage of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and accuracy of microbiologic diagnostics in the ICU: a prospective observational study.
Crit Care
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2013
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Early initiation of appropriate antimicrobial treatment is a cornerstone in managing pneumonia. Because microbiologic processing may not be available around the clock, optimal storage of specimens is essential for accurate microbiologic identification of pathogenetic bacteria. The aim of our study was to determine the accuracy of two commonly used storage approaches for delayed processing of bronchoalveolar lavage in critically ill patients with suspected pneumonia.
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Myeloid PTEN promotes inflammation but impairs bactericidal activities during murine pneumococcal pneumonia.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2010
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Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase has been described as an essential signaling component involved in the chemotactic cell influx that is required to eliminate pathogens. At the same time, PI3K was reported to modulate the immune response, thus limiting the magnitude of acute inflammation. The precise role of the PI3K pathway and its endogenous antagonist phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) during clinically relevant bacterial infections is still poorly understood. Utilizing mice lacking myeloid cell-specific PTEN, we studied the impact of PTEN on the immune response to Streptococcus pneumoniae. Survival analysis disclosed that PTEN-deficient mice displayed less severe signs of disease and prolonged survival. The inflammatory response to S. pneumoniae was greatly reduced in macrophages in vitro and in vivo. Unexpectedly, neutrophil influx to the lungs was significantly impaired in animals lacking myeloid-cell PTEN, whereas the additional observation of improved phagocytosis by alveolar macrophages lacking PTEN ultimately resulted in unaltered lung CFUs following bacterial infection. Together, the absence of myeloid cell-associated PTEN and consecutively enhanced PI3K activity dampened pulmonary inflammation, reduced neutrophil influx, and augmented phagocytic properties of macrophages, which ultimately resulted in decreased tissue injury and improved survival during murine pneumococcal pneumonia.
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Real-time continuous glucose monitoring in critically ill patients: a prospective randomized trial.
Diabetes Care
PUBLISHED: 12-10-2009
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OBJECTIVE To evaluate the impact of real-time continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) on glycemic control and risk of hypoglycemia in critically ill patients. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A total 124 patients receiving mechanical ventilation were randomly assigned to the real-time CGM group (n = 63; glucose values given every 5 min) or to the control group (n = 61; selective arterial glucose measurements according to an algorithm; simultaneously blinded CGM) for 72 h. Insulin infusion rates were guided according to the same algorithm in both groups. The primary end point was percentage of time at a glucose level <110 mg/dl. Secondary end points were mean glucose levels and rate of severe hypoglycemia (<40 mg/dl). RESULTS Percentage of time at a glucose level <110 mg/dl (59.0 +/- 20 vs. 55.0 +/- 18% in the control group, P = 0.245) and the mean glucose level (106 +/- 18 vs. 111 +/- 10 mg/dl in the control group, P = 0.076) could not be improved using real-time CGM. The rate of severe hypoglycemia was lower in the real-time CGM group (1.6 vs. 11.5% in the control group, P = 0.031). CGM reduced the absolute risk of severe hypoglycemia by 9.9% (95% CI 1.2-18.6) with a number needed to treat of 10.1 (95% CI 5.4-83.3). CONCLUSIONS In critically ill patients, real-time CGM reduces hypoglycemic events but does not improve glycemic control compared with intensive insulin therapy guided by an algorithm.
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Bbeta(15-42) protects against acid-induced acute lung injury and secondary pseudomonas pneumonia in vivo.
Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2009
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Acute lung injury (ALI) is a serious condition in critically ill patients that predisposes to secondary bacterial pneumonia. Vascular leak is a hallmark in the pathogenesis of ALI. The fibrin-derived peptide Bbeta(15-42) was shown to preserve endothelial barriers, thereby reducing vascular leak. The potential therapeutic role of Bbeta(15-42) in ALI has not been addressed so far.
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Hypoxic hepatitis: underlying conditions and risk factors for mortality in critically ill patients.
Intensive Care Med
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2009
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Hypoxic hepatitis (HH) is a frequent cause of acute hepatocellular damage at the intensive care unit. Although mortality is reported to be high, risk factors for mortality in this population are unknown.
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Impact of shock requiring norepinephrine on the accuracy and reliability of subcutaneous continuous glucose monitoring.
Intensive Care Med
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2009
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To evaluate the impact of circulatory shock requiring norepinephrine therapy on the accuracy and reliability of a subcutaneous continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS) in critically ill patients.
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Health-related quality of life of long-term survivors of intensive care: changes after intensive care treatment. Experience of an Austrian intensive care unit.
Wien. Klin. Wochenschr.
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The aim of the study was to determine if health-related quality of life of long-term survivors changes 24 months after intensive care treatment compared to the quality of life before admission.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.