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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Clinical, histological and genetic characterisation of patients with tubular aggregate myopathy caused by mutations in STIM1.
J. Med. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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Tubular aggregate myopathies (TAMs) are muscle disorders characterised by abnormal accumulations of densely packed single-walled or double-walled membrane tubules in muscle fibres. Recently, STIM1, encoding a major calcium sensor of the endoplasmic reticulum, was identified as a TAM gene.
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N-WASP is required for Amphiphysin-2/BIN1-dependent nuclear positioning and triad organization in skeletal muscle and is involved in the pathophysiology of centronuclear myopathy.
EMBO Mol Med
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2014
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Mutations in amphiphysin-2/BIN1, dynamin 2, and myotubularin are associated with centronuclear myopathy (CNM), a muscle disorder characterized by myofibers with atypical central nuclear positioning and abnormal triads. Mis-splicing of amphiphysin-2/BIN1 is also associated with myotonic dystrophy that shares histopathological hallmarks with CNM. How amphiphysin-2 orchestrates nuclear positioning and triad organization and how CNM-associated mutations lead to muscle dysfunction remains elusive. We find that N-WASP interacts with amphiphysin-2 in myofibers and that this interaction and N-WASP distribution are disrupted by amphiphysin-2 CNM mutations. We establish that N-WASP functions downstream of amphiphysin-2 to drive peripheral nuclear positioning and triad organization during myofiber formation. Peripheral nuclear positioning requires microtubule/Map7/Kif5b-dependent distribution of nuclei along the myofiber and is driven by actin and nesprins. In adult myofibers, N-WASP and amphiphysin-2 are only involved in the maintenance of triad organization but not in the maintenance of peripheral nuclear positioning. Importantly, we confirmed that N-WASP distribution is disrupted in CNM and myotonic dystrophy patients. Our results support a role for N-WASP in amphiphysin-2-dependent nuclear positioning and triad organization and in CNM and myotonic dystrophy pathophysiology.
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Adult-onset autosomal dominant centronuclear myopathy due to BIN1 mutations.
Brain
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2014
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Centronuclear myopathies are congenital muscle disorders characterized by type I myofibre predominance and an increased number of muscle fibres with nuclear centralization. The severe neonatal X-linked form is due to mutations in MTM1, autosomal recessive centronuclear myopathy with neonatal or childhood onset results from mutations in BIN1 (amphiphysin 2), and dominant cases were previously associated to mutations in DNM2 (dynamin 2). Our aim was to determine the genetic basis and physiopathology of patients with mild dominant centronuclear myopathy without mutations in DNM2. We hence established and characterized a homogeneous cohort of nine patients from five families with a progressive adult-onset centronuclear myopathy without facial weakness, including three sporadic cases and two families with dominant disease inheritance. All patients had similar histological and ultrastructural features involving type I fibre predominance and hypotrophy, as well as prominent nuclear centralization and clustering. We identified heterozygous BIN1 mutations in all patients and the molecular diagnosis was complemented by functional analyses. Two mutations in the N-terminal amphipathic helix strongly decreased the membrane-deforming properties of amphiphysin 2 and three stop-loss mutations resulted in a stable protein containing 52 supernumerary amino acids. Immunolabelling experiments revealed abnormal central accumulation of dynamin 2, caveolin-3, and the autophagic marker p62, and general membrane alterations of the triad, the sarcolemma, and the basal lamina as potential pathological mechanisms. In conclusion, we identified BIN1 as the second gene for dominant centronuclear myopathy. Our data provide the evidence that specific BIN1 mutations can cause either recessive or dominant centronuclear myopathy and that both disorders involve different pathomechanisms.
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Desmin in muscle and associated diseases: beyond the structural function.
Cell Tissue Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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Desmin is a muscle-specific type III intermediate filament essential for proper muscular structure and function. In human, mutations affecting desmin expression or promoting its aggregation lead to skeletal (desmin-related myopathies), or cardiac (desmin-related cardiomyopathy) phenotypes, or both. Patient muscles display intracellular accumulations of misfolded proteins and desmin-positive insoluble granulofilamentous aggregates, leading to a large spectrum of molecular alterations. Increasing evidence shows that desmin function is not limited to the structural and mechanical integrity of cells. This novel perception is strongly supported by the finding that diseases featuring desmin aggregates cannot be easily associated with mechanical defects, but rather involve desmin filaments in a broader spectrum of functions, such as in organelle positioning and integrity and in signaling. Here, we review desmin functions and related diseases affecting striated muscles. We detail emergent cellular functions of desmin based on reported phenotypes in patients and animal models. We discuss known desmin protein partners and propose an overview of the way that this molecular network could serve as a signal transduction platform necessary for proper muscle function.
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Correlative light and electron microscopy: from live cell dynamic to 3D ultrastructure.
Methods Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2014
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Correlative light and electron microscopy (CLEM) aims at combining data acquired from the same sample through both imaging modalities. Many combinations can be found in the literature where almost any kind of light microscopy (LM) has been associated to different processing in electron microscopy (EM) and applied to a wide variety of specimen, from cultured cells to multicellular organisms. In this chapter, we focus on a technique that intends to combine LM acquisition on living cells with transmission EM (TEM) analysis. A specific attention is given to the description of a method to bring precise coordinates to the object of interest, to allow a straightforward correlation between LM and EM. Moreover, we describe how, by using high-pressure freezing as a fixation technique, dynamic events observed at the LM are captured and studied at the ultrastructural level.
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Mutation Update: The Spectra of Nebulin Variants and Associated Myopathies.
Hum. Mutat.
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2014
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A mutation update on the nebulin gene (NEB) is necessary because of recent developments in analysis methodology, the identification of increasing numbers and novel types of variants and a widening in the spectrum of clinical and histological phenotypes associated with this gigantic, 183 exons containing gene. Recessive pathogenic variants in NEB are the major cause of nemaline myopathy (NM), one of the most common congenital myopathies. Moreover, pathogenic NEB variants have been identified in core-rod myopathy and in distal myopathies. In this update, we present the disease-causing variants in NEB in 159 families, 143 families with NM and 16 families with NM-related myopathies. Eighty-eight families are presented here for the first time. We summarize 86 previously published and 126 unpublished variants identified in NEB. Furthermore, we have analyzed the NEB variants deposited in the Exome Variant Server (http://evs.gs.washington.edu/EVS/), identifying that pathogenic variants are a minor fraction of all coding variants (?7%). This indicates that nebulin tolerates substantial changes in its amino acid sequence, providing an explanation as to why variants in such a large gene result in relatively rare disorders. Lastly, we discuss the difficulties of drawing reliable genotype-phenotype correlations in NEB-associated disease. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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Autosomal dominant eccentric core disease caused by a heterozygous mutation in the MYH7 gene.
J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatr.
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2014
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Autosomal dominant (AD) central core disease (CCD) is a congenital myopathy characterised by the presence of cores in the muscle fibres which correspond to broad areas of myofibrils disorganisation, Z-line streaming and lack of mitochondria. Heterozygous mutations in the RYR1 gene were observed in the large majority of AD-CCD families; however, this gene was excluded in some of AD-CCD families.
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Muscle histopathology in nebulin-related nemaline myopathy: ultrastrastructural findings correlated to disease severity and genotype.
Acta Neuropathol Commun
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2014
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Nemaline myopathy (NM) is a rare congenital myopathy characterised by hypotonia, muscle weakness, and often skeletal muscle deformities with the presence of nemaline bodies (rods) in the muscle biopsy. The nebulin (NEB) gene is the most commonly mutated and is thought to account for approximately 50% of genetically diagnosed cases of NM. We undertook a detailed muscle morphological analysis of 14 NEB-mutated NM patients with different clinical forms to define muscle pathological patterns and correlate them with clinical course and genotype. Three groups were identified according to clinical severity. Group 1 (n?=?5) comprises severe/lethal NM and biopsy in the first days of life. Group 2 (n?=?4) includes intermediate NM and biopsy in infancy. Group 3 (n?=?5) comprises typical/mild NM and biopsy in childhood or early adult life. Biopsies underwent histoenzymological, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural analysis. Fibre type distribution patterns, rod characteristics, distribution and localization were investigated. Contractile performance was studied in muscle fibre preparations isolated from seven muscle biopsies from each of the three groups. G1 showed significant myofibrillar dissociation and smallness with scattered globular rods in one third of fibres; there was no type 1 predominance. G2 presented milder sarcomeric dissociation, dispersed or clustered nemaline bodies, and type 1 predominance/uniformity. In contrast, G3 had well-delimited clusters of subsarcolemmal elongated rods and type 1 uniformity without sarcomeric alterations. In accordance with the clinical and morphological data, functional studies revealed markedly low forces in muscle bundles from G1 and a better contractile performance in muscle bundles from biopsies of patients from G2, and G3.In conclusion NEB-mutated NM patients present a wide spectrum of morphological features. It is difficult to establish firm genotype phenotype correlation. Interestingly, there was a correlation between clinical severity on the one hand and the degree of sarcomeric dissociation and contractility efficiency on the other. By contrast the percentage of fibres occupied by rods, as well as the quantity and the sub sarcolemmal position of rods, appears to inversely correlate with severity. Based on our observations, we propose myofibrillar dissociation and changes in contractility as an important cause of muscle weakness in NEB-mutated NM patients.
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Reducing dynamin 2 expression rescues X-linked centronuclear myopathy.
J. Clin. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2014
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Centronuclear myopathies (CNM) are congenital disorders associated with muscle weakness and abnormally located nuclei in skeletal muscle. An autosomal dominant form of CNM results from mutations in the gene encoding dynamin 2 (DNM2), and loss-of-function mutations in the gene encoding myotubularin (MTM1) result in X-linked CNM (XLCNM, also called myotubular myopathy), which promotes severe neonatal hypotonia and early death. Currently, no effective treatments exist for XLCNM. Here, we found increased DNM2 levels in XLCNM patients and a mouse model of XLCNM (Mtm1(-/y)). Generation of Mtm1(-/y) mice that were heterozygous for Dnm2 revealed that reduction of DNM2 in XLCNM mice restored life span, whole-body strength, and diaphragm function and increased muscle strength. Additionally, classic CNM-associated histological features, including fiber atrophy and nuclei mispositioning, were absent or reduced. Ultrastructural analysis revealed improvement of sarcomere organization and triad structures. Skeletal muscle-specific decrease of Dnm2 during embryogenesis or in young mice after disease onset revealed that the rescue associated with downregulation of Dnm2 is cell autonomous and is able to stop and potentially revert XLCNM progression. These data indicate that MTM1 and DNM2 regulate muscle organization and force through a common pathway. Furthermore, despite DNM2 being a key mechanoenzyme, its reduction is beneficial for XLCNM and represents a potential therapeutic approach for patients.
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Amphiphysin 2 (BIN1) in physiology and diseases.
J. Mol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2014
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Amphiphysin 2, also named bridging integrator-1 (BIN1) or SH3P9, has been recently implicated in rare and common diseases affecting different tissues and physiological functions. BIN1 downregulation is linked to cancer progression and also correlates with ventricular cardiomyopathy and arrhythmia preceding heart failure. Increased BIN1 expression is linked to increased susceptibility for late-onset Alzheimer's disease. In addition, altered splicing may account for the muscle component of myotonic dystrophies, while recessive germinal mutations cause centronuclear myopathy. Despite undoubtedly underlining the relevance of BIN1 in human diseases, the molecular and cellular bases leading to such different diseases are unclear at present. BIN1 is a key regulator of endocytosis and membrane recycling, cytoskeleton regulation, DNA repair, cell cycle progression, and apoptosis. In light of the recent findings on the molecular, cellular, and physiological roles of BIN1, we discuss potential pathological mechanisms and highlight common disease pathways and also tissue-specific regulation. Next challenges will be to validate BIN1 both as a prognostic marker for the related diseases and as a potential therapeutic target.
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Integrative data mining highlights candidate genes for monogenic myopathies.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Inherited myopathies are a heterogeneous group of disabling disorders with still barely understood pathological mechanisms. Around 40% of afflicted patients remain without a molecular diagnosis after exclusion of known genes. The advent of high-throughput sequencing has opened avenues to the discovery of new implicated genes, but a working list of prioritized candidate genes is necessary to deal with the complexity of analyzing large-scale sequencing data. Here we used an integrative data mining strategy to analyze the genetic network linked to myopathies, derive specific signatures for inherited myopathy and related disorders, and identify and rank candidate genes for these groups. Training sets of genes were selected after literature review and used in Manteia, a public web-based data mining system, to extract disease group signatures in the form of enriched descriptor terms, which include functional annotation, human and mouse phenotypes, as well as biological pathways and protein interactions. These specific signatures were then used as an input to mine and rank candidate genes, followed by filtration against skeletal muscle expression and association with known diseases. Signatures and identified candidate genes highlight both potential common pathological mechanisms and allelic disease groups. Recent discoveries of gene associations to diseases, like B3GALNT2, GMPPB and B3GNT1 to congenital muscular dystrophies, were prioritized in the ranked lists, suggesting a posteriori validation of our approach and predictions. We show an example of how the ranked lists can be used to help analyze high-throughput sequencing data to identify candidate genes, and highlight the best candidate genes matching genomic regions linked to myopathies without known causative genes. This strategy can be automatized to generate fresh candidate gene lists, which help cope with database annotation updates as new knowledge is incorporated.
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Recessive truncating titin gene, TTN, mutations presenting as centronuclear myopathy.
Neurology
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2013
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To identify causative genes for centronuclear myopathies (CNM), a heterogeneous group of rare inherited muscle disorders that often present in infancy or early life with weakness and hypotonia, using next-generation sequencing of whole exomes and genomes.
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Loss of catalytically inactive lipid phosphatase myotubularin-related protein 12 impairs myotubularin stability and promotes centronuclear myopathy in zebrafish.
PLoS Genet.
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2013
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X-linked myotubular myopathy (XLMTM) is a congenital disorder caused by mutations of the myotubularin gene, MTM1. Myotubularin belongs to a large family of conserved lipid phosphatases that include both catalytically active and inactive myotubularin-related proteins (i.e., "MTMRs"). Biochemically, catalytically inactive MTMRs have been shown to form heteroligomers with active members within the myotubularin family through protein-protein interactions. However, the pathophysiological significance of catalytically inactive MTMRs remains unknown in muscle. By in vitro as well as in vivo studies, we have identified that catalytically inactive myotubularin-related protein 12 (MTMR12) binds to myotubularin in skeletal muscle. Knockdown of the mtmr12 gene in zebrafish resulted in skeletal muscle defects and impaired motor function. Analysis of mtmr12 morphant fish showed pathological changes with central nucleation, disorganized Triads, myofiber hypotrophy and whorled membrane structures similar to those seen in X-linked myotubular myopathy. Biochemical studies showed that deficiency of MTMR12 results in reduced levels of myotubularin protein in zebrafish and mammalian C2C12 cells. Loss of myotubularin also resulted in reduction of MTMR12 protein in C2C12 cells, mice and humans. Moreover, XLMTM mutations within the myotubularin interaction domain disrupted binding to MTMR12 in cell culture. Analysis of human XLMTM patient myotubes showed that mutations that disrupt the interaction between myotubularin and MTMR12 proteins result in reduction of both myotubularin and MTMR12. These studies strongly support the concept that interactions between myotubularin and MTMR12 are required for the stability of their functional protein complex in normal skeletal muscles. This work highlights an important physiological function of catalytically inactive phosphatases in the pathophysiology of myotubular myopathy and suggests a novel therapeutic approach through identification of drugs that could stabilize the myotubularin-MTMR12 complex and hence ameliorate this disorder.
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Altered splicing of the BIN1 muscle-specific exon in humans and dogs with highly progressive centronuclear myopathy.
PLoS Genet.
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2013
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Amphiphysin 2, encoded by BIN1, is a key factor for membrane sensing and remodelling in different cell types. Homozygous BIN1 mutations in ubiquitously expressed exons are associated with autosomal recessive centronuclear myopathy (CNM), a mildly progressive muscle disorder typically showing abnormal nuclear centralization on biopsies. In addition, misregulation of BIN1 splicing partially accounts for the muscle defects in myotonic dystrophy (DM). However, the muscle-specific function of amphiphysin 2 and its pathogenicity in both muscle disorders are not well understood. In this study we identified and characterized the first mutation affecting the splicing of the muscle-specific BIN1 exon 11 in a consanguineous family with rapidly progressive and ultimately fatal centronuclear myopathy. In parallel, we discovered a mutation in the same BIN1 exon 11 acceptor splice site as the genetic cause of the canine Inherited Myopathy of Great Danes (IMGD). Analysis of RNA from patient muscle demonstrated complete skipping of exon 11 and BIN1 constructs without exon 11 were unable to promote membrane tubulation in differentiated myotubes. Comparative immunofluorescence and ultrastructural analyses of patient and canine biopsies revealed common structural defects, emphasizing the importance of amphiphysin 2 in membrane remodelling and maintenance of the skeletal muscle triad. Our data demonstrate that the alteration of the muscle-specific function of amphiphysin 2 is a common pathomechanism for centronuclear myopathy, myotonic dystrophy, and IMGD. The IMGD dog is the first faithful model for human BIN1-related CNM and represents a mammalian model available for preclinical trials of potential therapies.
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Lack of myotubularin (MTM1) leads to muscle hypotrophy through unbalanced regulation of the autophagy and ubiquitin-proteasome pathways.
FASEB J.
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2013
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Mutations in the phosphoinositide phosphatase myotubularin (MTM1) results in X-linked myotubular/centronuclear myopathy (XLMTM), characterized by a severe decrease in muscle mass and strength in patients and murine models. However, the molecular mechanism involved in the muscle hypotrophy is unclear. Here we show that the IGF1R/Akt pathway is affected in Mtm1-deficient murine muscles, characterized by an increase in IGF1 receptor and Akt levels in both the presymptomatic and symptomatic phases. Moreover, up-regulation of atrogenes was observed in the presymptomatic phase of the myopathy, supporting overactivation of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. In parallel, the autophagy machinery was affected as indicated by the increase in the number of autophagosomes and of autophagy markers, such as LC3 and P62. However, phosphorylation of FOXO3a and mTOR were abnormal at late but not at early stages of the disease, suggesting that myotubularin acts both upstream in the IGF1R/Akt pathway and downstream on the balance between the autophagy and ubiquitin-proteasome pathways in vivo. Adeno-associated virus-mediated delivery of Mtm1 into Mtm1-null muscles rescued muscle mass and normalized the expression levels of IGF1 receptor, the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway, and autophagy markers. These data support the hypothesis that the unbalanced regulation of the ubiquitin proteasome pathway and the autophagy machinery is a primary cause of the XLMTM pathogenesis.
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Hereditary myopathy with early respiratory failure: occurrence in various populations.
J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatr.
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2013
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OBJECTIVE: Several families with characteristic features of hereditary myopathy with early respiratory failure (HMERF) have remained without genetic cause. This international study was initiated to clarify epidemiology and the genetic underlying cause in these families, and to characterise the phenotype in our large cohort. METHODS: DNA samples of all currently known families with HMERF without molecular genetic cause were obtained from 12 families in seven different countries. Clinical, histopathological and muscle imaging data were collected and five biopsy samples made available for further immunohistochemical studies. Genotyping, exome sequencing and Sanger sequencing were used to identify and confirm sequence variations. RESULTS: All patients with clinical diagnosis of HMERF were genetically solved by five different titin mutations identified. One mutation has been reported while four are novel, all located exclusively in the FN3 119 domain (A150) of A-band titin. One of the new mutations showed semirecessive inheritance pattern with subclinical myopathy in the heterozygous parents. Typical clinical features were respiratory failure at mid-adulthood in an ambulant patient with very variable degree of muscle weakness. Cytoplasmic bodies were retrospectively observed in all muscle biopsy samples and these were reactive for myofibrillar proteins but not for titin. CONCLUSIONS: We report an extensive collection of families with HMERF with five different mutations in exon 343 of TTN, which establishes this exon as the primary target for molecular diagnosis of HMERF. Our relatively large number of new families and mutations directly implies that HMERF is not extremely rare, not restricted to Northern Europe and should be considered in undetermined myogenic respiratory failure.
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Combined cap disease and nemaline myopathy in the same patient caused by an autosomal dominant mutation in the TPM3 gene.
Neuromuscul. Disord.
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2013
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The slow ?-tropomyosin gene (TPM3) has been associated with three distinct histological entities: nemaline myopathy (NM, NEM1), congenital fibre-type disproportion (CFTD), and cap disease (CD). Here we describe a patient presenting an early-onset congenital myopathy associated with a combination of well separated cap structures and nemaline bodies in his muscle biopsy. Exome sequencing analysis allowed us to identify a de novo missense mutation in the TPM3 gene. Our study confirms the extreme variability of morphological findings in TPM3-related myopathies, and proves that cap and nemaline bodies are two sides of the same coin.
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Myotubularin and PtdIns3P remodel the sarcoplasmic reticulum in muscle in vivo.
J. Cell. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2013
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The sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) is a specialized form of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in skeletal muscle and is essential for calcium homeostasis. The mechanisms involved in SR remodeling and maintenance of SR subdomains are elusive. In this study, we identified myotubularin (MTM1), a phosphoinositide phosphatase mutated in X-linked centronuclear myopathy (XLCNM, or myotubular myopathy), as a key regulator of phosphatidylinositol 3-monophosphate (PtdIns3P) levels at the SR. MTM1 is predominantly located at the SR cisternae of the muscle triads, and Mtm1-deficient mouse muscles and myoblasts from XLCNM patients exhibit abnormal SR/ER networks. In vivo modulation of MTM1 enzymatic activity in skeletal muscle using ectopic expression of wild-type or a dead-phosphatase MTM1 protein leads to differential SR remodeling. Active MTM1 is associated with flat membrane stacks, whereas dead-phosphatase MTM1 mutant promotes highly curved cubic membranes originating from the SR and enriched in PtdIns3P. Overexpression of a tandem FYVE domain with high affinity for PtdIns3P alters the shape of the SR cisternae at the triad. Our findings, supported by the parallel analysis of the Mtm1-null mouse and an in vivo study, reveal a direct function of MTM1 enzymatic activity in SR remodeling and a key role for PtdIns3P in promoting SR membrane curvature in skeletal muscle. We propose that alteration in SR remodeling is a primary cause of X-linked centronuclear myopathy. The tight regulation of PtdIns3P on specific membrane subdomains may be a general mechanism to control membrane curvature.
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Extensive morphological and immunohistochemical characterization in myotubular myopathy.
Brain Behav
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2013
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The X-linked myotubular myopathy (XLMTM) also called X-linked centronuclear myopathy is a rare congenital myopathy due to mutations in the MTM 1 gene encoding myotubularin. The disease gives rise to a severe muscle weakness in males at birth. The main muscle morphological characteristics (significant number of small muscle fibers with centralized nuclei and type 1 fiber predominance) are usually documented, but the sequence of formation and maintenance of this particular morphological pattern has not been extensively characterized in humans. In this study, we perform a reevaluation of morphological changes in skeletal muscle biopsies in severe XLMTM. We correlate the pathologic features observed in the muscle biopsies of 15 newborns with MTM 1-mutations according to the "adjusted-age" at the time of muscle biopsy, focusing on sequential analysis in the early period of the life (from 34 weeks of gestation to 3 months of age). We found a similar morphological pattern throughout the period analyzed; the proportion of myofibers with central nuclei was high in all muscle biopsies, independently of the muscle type, the age of the newborns at time of biopsy and the specific MTM 1 mutation. We did not observe a period free of morphological abnormalities in human skeletal muscle as observed in myotubularin-deficient mouse models. In addition, this study demonstrated some features of delayed maturation of the muscle fibers without any increase in the number of satellite cells, associated with a marked disorganization of the muscle T-tubules and cytoskeletal network in the skeletal muscle fibers.
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The myotubularin-amphiphysin 2 complex in membrane tubulation and centronuclear myopathies.
EMBO Rep.
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2013
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Myotubularin (MTM1) and amphiphysin 2 (BIN1) are two proteins mutated in different forms of centronuclear myopathy, but the functional and pathological relationship between these two proteins was unknown. Here, we identified MTM1 as a novel binding partner of BIN1, both in vitro and endogenously in skeletal muscle. Moreover, MTM1 enhances BIN1-mediated membrane tubulation, depending on binding and phosphoinositide phosphatase activity. BIN1 patient mutations induce a conformational change in BIN1 and alter its binding and regulation by MTM1. In conclusion, we identified the first molecular and functional link between MTM1 and BIN1, supporting a common pathological mechanism in different forms of centronuclear myopathy.
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Constitutive activation of the calcium sensor STIM1 causes tubular-aggregate myopathy.
Am. J. Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2013
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Tubular aggregates are regular arrays of membrane tubules accumulating in muscle with age. They are found as secondary features in several muscle disorders, including alcohol- and drug-induced myopathies, exercise-induced cramps, and inherited myasthenia, but also exist as a pure genetic form characterized by slowly progressive muscle weakness. We identified dominant STIM1 mutations as a genetic cause of tubular-aggregate myopathy (TAM). Stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1) is the main Ca(2+) sensor in the endoplasmic reticulum, and all mutations were found in the highly conserved intraluminal Ca(2+)-binding EF hands. Ca(2+) stores are refilled through a process called store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE). Upon Ca(2+)-store depletion, wild-type STIM1 oligomerizes and thereby triggers extracellular Ca(2+) entry. In contrast, the missense mutations found in our four TAM-affected families induced constitutive STIM1 clustering, indicating that Ca(2+) sensing was impaired. By monitoring the calcium response of TAM myoblasts to SOCE, we found a significantly higher basal Ca(2+) level in TAM cells and a dysregulation of intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis. Because recessive STIM1 loss-of-function mutations were associated with immunodeficiency, we conclude that the tissue-specific impact of STIM1 loss or constitutive activation is different and that a tight regulation of STIM1-dependent SOCE is fundamental for normal skeletal-muscle structure and function.
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An integrated diagnosis strategy for congenital myopathies.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Congenital myopathies are severe muscle disorders affecting adults as well as children in all populations. The diagnosis of congenital myopathies is constrained by strong clinical and genetic heterogeneity. Moreover, the majority of patients present with unspecific histological features, precluding purposive molecular diagnosis and demonstrating the need for an alternative and more efficient diagnostic approach. We used exome sequencing complemented by histological and ultrastructural analysis of muscle biopsies to identify the causative mutations in eight patients with clinically different skeletal muscle pathologies, ranging from a fatal neonatal myopathy to a mild and slowly progressive myopathy with adult onset. We identified RYR1 (ryanodine receptor) mutations in six patients and NEB (nebulin) mutations in two patients. We found novel missense and nonsense mutations, unraveled small insertions/deletions and confirmed their impact on splicing and mRNA/protein stability. Histological and ultrastructural findings of the muscle biopsies of the patients validated the exome sequencing results. We provide the evidence that an integrated strategy combining exome sequencing with clinical and histopathological investigations overcomes the limitations of the individual approaches to allow a fast and efficient diagnosis, accelerating the patients access to a better healthcare and disease management. This is of particular interest for the diagnosis of congenital myopathies, which involve very large genes like RYR1 and NEB as well as genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity.
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Mild functional differences of dynamin 2 mutations associated to centronuclear myopathy and Charcot-Marie Tooth peripheral neuropathy.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2011
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The large GTPase dynamin 2 is a key player in membrane and cytoskeletal dynamics mutated in centronuclear myopathy (CNM) and Charcot-Marie Tooth (CMT) neuropathy, two discrete dominant neuromuscular disorders affecting skeletal muscle and peripheral nerves respectively. The molecular basis for the tissue-specific phenotypes observed and the physiopathological mechanisms linked to dynamin 2 mutations are not well established. In this study, we have analyzed the impact of CNM and CMT implicated dynamin 2 mutants using ectopic expression of four CNM and two CMT mutations, and patient fibroblasts harboring two dynamin 2 CNM mutations in established cellular processes of dynamin 2 action. Wild type and CMT mutants were seen in association with microtubules whereas CNM mutants lacked microtubules association and did not disrupt interphase microtubules dynamics. Most dynamin 2 mutants partially decreased clathrin-mediated endocytosis when ectopically expressed in cultured cells; however, experiments in patient fibroblasts suggested that endocytosis is overall not defective. Furthermore, CNM mutants were seen in association with enlarged clathrin stained structures whereas the CMT mutant constructs were associated with clathrin structures that appeared clustered, similar to the structures observed in Dnm1 and Dnm2 double knock-out cells. Other roles of dynamin 2 including its interaction with BIN1 (amphiphysin 2), and its function in Golgi maintenance and centrosome cohesion were not significantly altered. Taken together, these mild functional defects are suggestive of differences between CMT and CNM disease-causing dynamin 2 mutants and suggest that a slight impairment in clathrin-mediated pathways may accumulate over time to foster the respective human diseases.
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The phosphoinositide phosphatase MTM-1 regulates apoptotic cell corpse clearance through CED-5-CED-12 in C. elegans.
Development
PUBLISHED: 04-13-2011
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Multicellular organisms use programmed cell death to eliminate unwanted or potentially harmful cells. Improper cell corpse removal can lead to autoimmune diseases. The development of interventional therapies that increase engulfment activity could represent an attractive approach to treat such diseases. Here, we describe mtm-1, the Caenorhabditis elegans homolog of human myotubularin 1, as a potential negative regulator of apoptotic cell corpse clearance. Loss of mtm-1 function leads to substantially reduced numbers of persistent cell corpses in engulfment mutants, which is a result of a restoration of engulfment function rather than of impaired or delayed programmed cell death. Epistatic analyses place mtm-1 upstream of the ternary GEF complex, which consists of ced-2, ced-5 and ced-12, and parallel to mig-2. Over-activation of engulfment results in the removal of viable cells that have been brought to the verge of death under limiting caspase activity. In addition, mtm-1 also promotes phagosome maturation in the hermaphrodite gonad, potentially through CED-1 receptor recycling. Finally, we show that the CED-12 PH domain can bind to PtdIns(3,5)P(2) (one target of MTM-1 phosphatase activity), suggesting that MTM-1 might regulate CED-12 recruitment to the plasma membrane.
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Misregulated alternative splicing of BIN1 is associated with T tubule alterations and muscle weakness in myotonic dystrophy.
Nat. Med.
PUBLISHED: 04-06-2011
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Myotonic dystrophy is the most common muscular dystrophy in adults and the first recognized example of an RNA-mediated disease. Congenital myotonic dystrophy (CDM1) and myotonic dystrophy of type 1 (DM1) or of type 2 (DM2) are caused by the expression of mutant RNAs containing expanded CUG or CCUG repeats, respectively. These mutant RNAs sequester the splicing regulator Muscleblind-like-1 (MBNL1), resulting in specific misregulation of the alternative splicing of other pre-mRNAs. We found that alternative splicing of the bridging integrator-1 (BIN1) pre-mRNA is altered in skeletal muscle samples of people with CDM1, DM1 and DM2. BIN1 is involved in tubular invaginations of membranes and is required for the biogenesis of muscle T tubules, which are specialized skeletal muscle membrane structures essential for excitation-contraction coupling. Mutations in the BIN1 gene cause centronuclear myopathy, which shares some histopathological features with myotonic dystrophy. We found that MBNL1 binds the BIN1 pre-mRNA and regulates its alternative splicing. BIN1 missplicing results in expression of an inactive form of BIN1 lacking phosphatidylinositol 5-phosphate-binding and membrane-tubulating activities. Consistent with a defect of BIN1, muscle T tubules are altered in people with myotonic dystrophy, and membrane structures are restored upon expression of the normal splicing form of BIN1 in muscle cells of such individuals. Finally, reproducing BIN1 splicing alteration in mice is sufficient to promote T tubule alterations and muscle weakness, a predominant feature of myotonic dystrophy.
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T-tubule biogenesis and triad formation in skeletal muscle and implication in human diseases.
Skelet Muscle
PUBLISHED: 03-02-2011
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In skeletal muscle, the excitation-contraction (EC) coupling machinery mediates the translation of the action potential transmitted by the nerve into intracellular calcium release and muscle contraction. EC coupling requires a highly specialized membranous structure, the triad, composed of a central T-tubule surrounded by two terminal cisternae from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. While several proteins located on these structures have been identified, mechanisms governing T-tubule biogenesis and triad formation remain largely unknown. Here, we provide a description of triad structure and plasticity and review the role of proteins that have been linked to T-tubule biogenesis and triad formation and/or maintenance specifically in skeletal muscle: caveolin 3, amphiphysin 2, dysferlin, mitsugumins, junctophilins, myotubularin, ryanodine receptor, and dihydhropyridine Receptor. The importance of these proteins in triad biogenesis and subsequently in muscle contraction is sustained by studies on animal models and by the direct implication of most of these proteins in human myopathies.
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Impaired neuromuscular transmission and response to acetylcholinesterase inhibitors in centronuclear myopathies.
Neuromuscul. Disord.
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2011
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Many clinical features of autosomal centronuclear myopathies (CNM) and X-linked myotubular myopathy (XLMTM) are common to congenital myasthenic syndromes (CMS). We describe three children whose clinical and electrophysiological findings originally suggested CMS, in whom CNM was diagnosed pathologically, though not yet genetically characterised. A fourth case, with XLMTM, also showed electrophysiological features of a neuromuscular transmission defect. Three (including the XLMTM case) showed improved strength with acetylcholinesterase inhibitor treatment. We also studied neuromuscular junction structure and function in the MTM1 knockdown zebrafish model of XLMTM, demonstrating abnormal neuromuscular junction organization; anticholinesterase therapy resulted in marked clinical response. These observations suggest that a neuromuscular transmission defect may accompany CNM and contribute to muscle weakness. Muscle biopsy should be considered in infants suspected to have CMS, especially if treatment response is incomplete, or no CMS gene mutation is identified. Treatment with acetylcholinesterase inhibitors may benefit some CNM patients. This warrants further confirmation.
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Increased expression of wild-type or a centronuclear myopathy mutant of dynamin 2 in skeletal muscle of adult mice leads to structural defects and muscle weakness.
Am. J. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2011
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Dynamin 2 (DNM2) is a large GTPase implicated in many cellular functions, including cytoskeleton regulation and endocytosis. Although ubiquitously expressed, DNM2 was found mutated in two genetic disorders affecting different tissues: autosomal dominant centronuclear myopathy (ADCNM; skeletal muscle) and peripheral Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy (peripheral nerve). To gain insight into the function of DNM2 in skeletal muscle and the pathological mechanisms leading to ADCNM, we introduced wild-type DNM2 (WT-DNM2) or R465W DNM2 (RW-DNM2), the most common ADCNM mutation, into adult wild-type mouse skeletal muscle by intramuscular adeno-associated virus injections. We detected altered localization of RW-DNM2 in mouse muscle. Several ADCNM features were present in RW-DNM2 mice: fiber atrophy, nuclear mislocalization, and altered mitochondrial staining, with a corresponding reduction in specific maximal muscle force. The sarcomere and triad structures were also altered. We report similar findings in muscle biopsy specimens from an ADCNM patient with the R465W mutation. In addition, expression of wild-type DNM2 induced some muscle defects, albeit to a lesser extent than RW-DNM2, suggesting that the R465W mutation has enhanced activity in vivo. In conclusion, we show the RW-DNM2 mutation acts in a dominant manner to cause ADCNM in adult muscle, and the disease arises from a primary defect in skeletal muscle rather than secondary to peripheral nerve involvement. Therefore, DNM2 plays important roles in the maintenance of adult muscle fibers.
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Case report of intrafamilial variability in autosomal recessive centronuclear myopathy associated to a novel BIN1 stop mutation.
Orphanet J Rare Dis
PUBLISHED: 08-17-2010
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Centronuclear myopathies (CNM) describe a group of rare muscle diseases typically presenting an abnormal positioning of nuclei in muscle fibers. To date, three genes are known to be associated to a classical CNM phenotype. The X-linked neonatal form (XLCNM) is due to mutations in MTM1 and involves a severe and generalized muscle weakness at birth. The autosomal dominant form results from DNM2 mutations and has been described with early childhood and adult onset (ADCNM). Autosomal recessive centronuclear myopathy (ARCNM) is less characterized and has recently been associated to mutations in BIN1, encoding amphiphysin 2. Here we present the first clinical description of intrafamilal variability in two first-degree cousins with a novel BIN1 stop mutation. In addition to skeletal muscle defects, both patients have mild mental retardation and the more severely affected male also displays abnormal ventilation and cardiac arrhythmia, thus expanding the phenotypic spectrum of BIN1-related CNM to non skeletal muscle defects. We provide an up-to-date review of all previous cases with ARCNM and BIN1 mutations.
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Defects in amphiphysin 2 (BIN1) and triads in several forms of centronuclear myopathies.
Acta Neuropathol.
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2010
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Myotubular myopathy and centronuclear myopathies (CNM) are congenital myopathies characterized by generalized muscle weakness and mislocalization of muscle fiber nuclei. Genetically distinct forms exist, and mutations in BIN1 were recently identified in autosomal recessive cases (ARCNM). Amphiphysins have been implicated in membrane remodeling in brain and skeletal muscle. Our objective was to decipher the pathogenetic mechanisms underlying different forms of CNM, with a focus on ARCNM cases. In this study, we compare the histopathological features from patients with X-linked, autosomal recessive, and dominant forms, respectively, mutated in myotubularin (MTM1), amphiphysin 2 (BIN1), and dynamin 2 (DNM2). We further characterize the ultrastructural defects in ARCNM muscles. We demonstrate that the two BIN1 isoforms expressed in skeletal muscle possess the phosphoinositide-binding domain and are specifically targeted to the triads close to the DHPR-RYR1 complex. Cardiac isoforms do not contain this domain, suggesting that splicing of BIN1 regulates its specific function in skeletal muscle. Immunofluorescence analyses of muscles from patients with BIN1 mutations reveal aberrations of BIN1 localization and triad organization. These defects are also observed in X-linked and autosomal dominant forms of CNM and in Mtm1 knockout mice. In addition to previously reported implications of BIN1 in cancer as a tumor suppressor, these findings sustain an important role for BIN1 skeletal muscle isoforms in membrane remodeling and organization of the excitation-contraction machinery. We propose that aberrant BIN1 localization and defects in triad structure are part of a common pathogenetic mechanism shared between the three forms of centronuclear myopathies.
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MTM1 mutation associated with X-linked myotubular myopathy in Labrador Retrievers.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 08-03-2010
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Mutations in the MTM1 gene encoding myotubularin cause X-linked myotubular myopathy (XLMTM), a well-defined subtype of human centronuclear myopathy. Seven male Labrador Retrievers, age 14-26 wk, were clinically evaluated for generalized weakness and muscle atrophy. Muscle biopsies showed variability in fiber size, centrally placed nuclei resembling fetal myotubes, and subsarcolemmal ringed and central dense areas highlighted with mitochondrial specific reactions. Ultrastructural studies confirmed the centrally located nuclei, abnormal perinuclear structure, and mitochondrial accumulations. Wild-type triads were infrequent, with most exhibiting an abnormal orientation of T tubules. MTM1 gene sequencing revealed a unique exon 7 variant in all seven affected males, causing a nonconservative missense change, p.N155K, which haplotype data suggest derives from a recent founder in the local population. Analysis of a worldwide panel of 237 unaffected Labrador Retrievers and 59 additional control dogs from 25 other breeds failed to identify this variant, supporting it as the pathogenic mutation. Myotubularin protein levels and localization were abnormal in muscles from affected dogs, and expression of GFP-MTM1 p.N155K in COS-1 cells showed that the mutant protein was sequestered in proteasomes, where it was presumably misfolded and prematurely degraded. These data demonstrate that XLMTM in Labrador Retrievers is a faithful genetic model of the human condition.
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Myotubularin controls desmin intermediate filament architecture and mitochondrial dynamics in human and mouse skeletal muscle.
J. Clin. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2010
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Muscle contraction relies on a highly organized intracellular network of membrane organelles and cytoskeleton proteins. Among the latter are the intermediate filaments (IFs), a large family of proteins mutated in more than 30 human diseases. For example, mutations in the DES gene, which encodes the IF desmin, lead to desmin-related myopathy and cardiomyopathy. Here, we demonstrate that myotubularin (MTM1), which is mutated in individuals with X-linked centronuclear myopathy (XLCNM; also known as myotubular myopathy), is a desmin-binding protein and provide evidence for direct regulation of desmin by MTM1 in vitro and in vivo. XLCNM-causing mutations in MTM1 disrupted the MTM1-desmin complex, resulting in abnormal IF assembly and architecture in muscle cells and both mouse and human skeletal muscles. Adeno-associated virus-mediated ectopic expression of WT MTM1 in Mtm1-KO muscle reestablished normal desmin expression and localization. In addition, decreased MTM1 expression and XLCNM-causing mutations induced abnormal mitochondrial positioning, shape, dynamics, and function. We therefore conclude that MTM1 is a major regulator of both the desmin cytoskeleton and mitochondria homeostasis, specifically in skeletal muscle. Defects in IF stabilization and mitochondrial dynamics appear as common physiopathological features of centronuclear myopathies and desmin-related myopathies.
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Vici syndrome associated with sensorineural hearing loss and evidence of neuromuscular involvement on muscle biopsy.
Am. J. Med. Genet. A
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2010
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Vici syndrome is a rare, genetically unresolved congenital multisystem disorder comprising agenesis of the corpus callosum, cataracts, immunodeficiency, cardiomyopathy, and hypopigmentation. An associated neuromuscular phenotype has not previously been described in detail. We report on an infant with clinical features suggestive of Vici syndrome and additional sensorineural hearing loss. Muscle biopsy revealed several changes including markedly increased variability in fiber size, increased internal nuclei, and abnormalities on Gomori trichrome and oxidative stains, raising a wide differential diagnosis including neurogenic atrophy, centronuclear myopathy (CNM) or a metabolic (mitochondrial) cytopathy. Respiratory chain enzyme studies, however, were normal and sequencing of common CNM-associated genes did not reveal any mutations. This case expands the clinical spectrum of Vici syndrome and indicates that muscle biopsy ought to be considered in infants presenting with suggestive clinical features. In addition, we suggest that Vici syndrome is considered in the differential diagnosis of infants presenting with congenital callosal agenesis and that additional investigation has to address the possibility of associated ocular, auditory, cardiac, and immunologic involvement when this radiologic finding is present.
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Novel molecular diagnostic approaches for X-linked centronuclear (myotubular) myopathy reveal intronic mutations.
Neuromuscul. Disord.
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2010
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X-linked centronuclear myopathy (XLMTM), also called myotubular myopathy, is a severe congenital myopathy characterized by generalized hypotonia and weakness at birth and the typical histological finding of centralization of myo-nuclei. It is caused by mutations in the MTM1 gene encoding the 3-phosphoinositides phosphatase myotubularin. Mutations in dynamin 2 and amphiphysin 2 genes lead to autosomal forms of centronuclear myopathy (CNM). While XLMTM is the most frequent and severe form of CNM, no mutations are found in about 30% of patients by sequencing all MTM1 exons. Moreover, the impact of MTM1 sequence variants is sometimes difficult to assess. It is thus important to devise a complete molecular diagnostic strategy that includes analysis of the myotubularin transcript and protein expression. We therefore developed novel antibodies against human myotubularin and showed that they are able to detect the endogenous protein by direct Western blot from muscle samples and from cultured cells. In conjunction with RT-PCR analysis we validated the consequences of missense and splice mutations on transcript integrity and protein level. We also detected and characterized a novel deep intronic mutation consisting of a single nucleotide change that induces exonisation of a conserved intronic sequence. Patients with centronuclear myopathy and no molecular diagnosis should be investigated for MTM1 defects at the cDNA and protein level.
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From dynamic live cell imaging to 3D ultrastructure: novel integrated methods for high pressure freezing and correlative light-electron microscopy.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2010
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In cell biology, the study of proteins and organelles requires the combination of different imaging approaches, from live recordings with light microscopy (LM) to electron microscopy (EM).
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T-tubule disorganization and defective excitation-contraction coupling in muscle fibers lacking myotubularin lipid phosphatase.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2009
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Skeletal muscle contraction is triggered by the excitation-contraction (E-C) coupling machinery residing at the triad, a membrane structure formed by the juxtaposition of T-tubules and sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) cisternae. The formation and maintenance of this structure is key for muscle function but is not well characterized. We have investigated the mechanisms leading to X-linked myotubular myopathy (XLMTM), a severe congenital disorder due to loss of function mutations in the MTM1 gene, encoding myotubularin, a phosphoinositide phosphatase thought to have a role in plasma membrane homeostasis and endocytosis. Using a mouse model of the disease, we report that Mtm1-deficient muscle fibers have a decreased number of triads and abnormal longitudinally oriented T-tubules. In addition, SR Ca(2+) release elicited by voltage-clamp depolarizations is strongly depressed in myotubularin-deficient muscle fibers, with myoplasmic Ca(2+) removal and SR Ca(2+) content essentially unaffected. At the molecular level, Mtm1-deficient myofibers exhibit a 3-fold reduction in type 1 ryanodine receptor (RyR1) protein level. These data reveal a critical role of myotubularin in the proper organization and function of the E-C coupling machinery and strongly suggest that defective RyR1-mediated SR Ca(2+) release is responsible for the failure of muscle function in myotubular myopathy.
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Adult course in dynamin 2 dominant centronuclear myopathy with neonatal onset.
Neuromuscul. Disord.
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2009
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We report a family with autosomal dominant centronuclear (myotubular) myopathy caused by a novel mutation, p.A618D, in dynamin 2 (DNM2). The 64-year-old mother and 26-year-old daughter had neonatal onset with hypotonia and weak suckling, followed by improvement, then slowly progressive muscle weakness and respiratory restriction. Muscle biopsy showed radial sarcoplasmic strands around the frequent central nuclei. Electrophysiology revealed predominantly myopathic patterns without peripheral nerve involvement. Centronuclear myopathy with neonatal onset caused by a DNM2 mutation in the C-terminal part of the pleckstrin homology domain may have a favorable prognosis and follow a course similar to adult-onset centronuclear myopathy. We advise respiratory follow-up in these patients.
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Detection of myotubularin phosphatases activity on phosphoinositides in vitro and ex vivo.
Methods Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2009
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Phosphoinositides (PPIn) are important regulators of cellular processes like intracellular protein transport, cellular proliferation, apoptosis, and cytoskeletal organization. The amount and localization of these membrane-bound second messengers are regulated through a set of specific phospholipases, lipid kinases, and phosphatases. The elucidation of PPIn-phosphatases and their cellular function has gained much attention because phosphatase dysregulation is often associated with human genetic diseases. Our laboratory has identified the 3-PPIn-phosphatase myotubularin 1 (MTM1) mutated in X-linked myotubular myopathy (XLMTM). In addition, a whole family of myotubularin-related proteins (MTMR1-MTMR13) has been discovered. Some of them display phosphatase activity, whereas for other family members no enzymatic activity could be detected. Nevertheless, these "dead phosphatases" myotubularins are conserved throughout evolution and probably exert regulatory function by heteromeric interaction with active phosphatase members. It was shown that MTM1 and related phosphatases act on PtdIns3P and PtdIns(3,5)P2; both PPIn species are important regulators of endocytic pathways. We describe two methods to determine phosphatase activity and substrate specificity of myotubularins. One is an immunoprecipitation-phosphatase assay, testing the activity of myotubularin immunoprecipitated from overexpressing cells on artificial PPIn. The other method analyzes phosphatase activity indirectly ex vivo in transiently transfected mammalian cells. The presence and subcellular localization of the myotubularin substrate PtdIns3P were determined using a specific binding domain (2xFYVE) produced recombinantly as a biosensor.
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MAMLD1 (CXorf6): a new gene involved in hypospadias.
Horm. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2009
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MAMLD1 (mastermind-like domain containing 1), previously known as CXorf6 (chromosome X open reading frame 6), has been shown to be a causative gene for hypospadias. This is primarily based on the identification of nonsense mutations (E124X, Q197X, and R653X), which undergo nonsense-mediated mRNA decay, in patients with penoscrotal hypospadias. Subsequent studies have shown that (1) the mouse homolog is transiently expressed in fetal Sertoli and Leydig cells around the critical period of sex development; (2) transient knockdown of MAMLD1 results in significantly reduced testosterone production in murine Leydig tumor cells; (3) MAMLD1 protein shares homology to mastermind-like 2 (MAML2) protein that functions as a co-activator in canonical Notch signaling; (4) MAMLD1 localizes to the nuclear bodies and transactivates the promoter activity of a non-canonical Notch target gene hairy/enhancer of split 3 (Hes3), rather than the canonical Notch target genes such as Hes1 and Hes5, without demonstrable DNA-binding capacity, and (5) MAMLD1 is regulated by steroidogenic factor 1. These findings suggest that the MAMLD1 mutations cause hypospadias primarily because of compromised testosterone production around the critical period of sex development, and provide useful information for the molecular network involved in fetal testosterone production.
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Control of autophagy initiation by phosphoinositide 3-phosphatase Jumpy.
EMBO J.
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2009
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The majority of studies on autophagy, a cytoplasmic homeostasis pathway of broad biological and medical significance, have been hitherto focused on the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases as the regulators of autophagy. Here, we addressed the reverse process driven by phosphoinositide phosphatases and uncovered a key negative regulatory role in autophagy of a phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PI3P) phosphatase Jumpy (MTMR14). Jumpy associated with autophagic isolation membranes and early autophagosomes, defined by the key factor Atg16 necessary for proper localization and development of autophagic organelles. Jumpy orchestrated orderly succession of Atg factors by controlling recruitment to autophagic membranes of the sole mammalian Atg factor that interacts with PI3P, WIPI-1 (Atg18), and by affecting the distribution of Atg9 and LC3, the two Atg factors controlling organization and growth of autophagic membranes. A catalytically inactive Jumpy mutant, R336Q, found in congenital disease centronuclear myopathy, lost the ability to negatively regulate autophagy. This work reports for the first time that initiation of autophagy is controlled not only by the forward reaction of generating PI3P through a lipid kinase but that its levels are controlled by a specific PI3P phosphatase, which when defective can lead to human disease.
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Dementia in a child with myotubular myopathy.
Pediatr. Neurol.
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2009
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An 8-year old boy with genetically confirmed X-linked myotubular myopathy developed progressively worsening dementia and subclinical seizures at age 5-6 years. Previously, seizures or dementia have been noted in only a small number of myotubular myopathy patients, and only in association with significant metabolic disturbances. This patient had no evidence of hypoxemia or other metabolic disturbance. The present case suggests that the clinical spectrum of X-linked myotubular myopathy is broader than previously considered and may include mutation-dependent central nervous system disease.
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Impacts of massively parallel sequencing for genetic diagnosis of neuromuscular disorders.
Acta Neuropathol.
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Neuromuscular disorders (NMD) such as neuropathy or myopathy are rare and often severe inherited disorders, affecting muscle and/or nerves with neonatal, childhood or adulthood onset, with considerable burden for the patients, their families and public health systems. Genetic and clinical heterogeneity, unspecific clinical features, unidentified genes and the implication of large and/or several genes requiring complementary methods are the main drawbacks in routine molecular diagnosis, leading to increased turnaround time and delay in the molecular validation of the diagnosis. The application of massively parallel sequencing, also called next generation sequencing, as a routine diagnostic strategy could lead to a rapid screening and fast identification of mutations in rare genetic disorders like NMD. This review aims to summarize and to discuss recent advances in the genetic diagnosis of neuromuscular disorders, and more generally monogenic diseases, fostered by massively parallel sequencing. We remind the challenges and benefit of obtaining an accurate genetic diagnosis, introduce the massively parallel sequencing technology and its novel applications in diagnosis of patients, prenatal diagnosis and carrier detection, and discuss the limitations and necessary improvements. Massively parallel sequencing synergizes with clinical and pathological investigations into an integrated diagnosis approach. Clinicians and pathologists are crucial in patient selection and interpretation of data, and persons trained in data management and analysis need to be integrated to the diagnosis pipeline. Massively parallel sequencing for mutation identification is expected to greatly improve diagnosis, genetic counseling and patient management.
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Dynamin 2 homozygous mutation in humans with a lethal congenital syndrome.
Eur. J. Hum. Genet.
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Heterozygous mutations in dynamin 2 (DNM2) have been linked to dominant Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy and centronuclear myopathy. We report the first homozygous mutation in the DNM2 protein p.Phe379Val, in three consanguineous patients with a lethal congenital syndrome associating akinesia, joint contractures, hypotonia, skeletal abnormalities, and brain and retinal hemorrhages. In vitro membrane tubulation, trafficking and GTPase assays are consistent with an impact of the DNM2p.Phe379Val mutation on endocytosis. Although DNM2 has been previously implicated in axonal and muscle maintenance, the clinical manifestation in our patients taken together with our expression analysis profile during mouse embryogenesis and knockdown approaches in zebrafish resulting in defects in muscle organization and angiogenesis support a pleiotropic role for DNM2 during fetal development in vertebrates and humans.
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Myotubularin phosphoinositide phosphatases in human diseases.
Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol.
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The level and turnover of phosphoinositides (PIs) are tightly controlled by a large set of PI-specific enzymes (PI kinases and phosphatases). Mammalian PI phosphatases are conserved through evolution and among this large family the dual-specificity phosphatase (PTP/DSP) are metal-independent enzymes displaying the amino acid signature Cys-X5-Arg-Thr/Ser (CX5RT/S) in their active site. Such catalytic site characterizes the myotubularin 3-phosphatases that dephosphorylate PtdIns3P and PtdIns(3,5)P? and produce PtdIns5P. Substrates of myotubularins have been implicated in endocytosis and membrane trafficking while PtdIns5P may have a role in signal transduction. As a paradox, 6 of the 14 members of the myotubularin family lack enzymatic activity and are considered as dead phosphatases. Several myotubularins have been genetically linked to human diseases: MTM1 is mutated in the congenital myopathy X-linked centronuclear or myotubular myopathy (XLCNM) and MTMR14 (JUMPY) has been linked to an autosomal form of such disease, while MTMR2 and MTMR13 are mutated in Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) neuropathies. Furthermore, recent evidences from genetic association studies revealed that several other myotubularins could be associated to chronic disorders such as cancer and obesity, highlighting their importance for human health. Here, we discuss cellular and physiological roles of myotubularins and their implication in human diseases, and we present potential pathological mechanisms affecting specific tissues in myotubularin-associated diseases.
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Phosphatase-dead myotubularin ameliorates X-linked centronuclear myopathy phenotypes in mice.
PLoS Genet.
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Myotubularin MTM1 is a phosphoinositide (PPIn) 3-phosphatase mutated in X-linked centronuclear myopathy (XLCNM; myotubular myopathy). We investigated the involvement of MTM1 enzymatic activity on XLCNM phenotypes. Exogenous expression of human MTM1 in yeast resulted in vacuolar enlargement, as a consequence of its phosphatase activity. Expression of mutants from patients with different clinical progression and determination of PtdIns3P and PtdIns5P cellular levels confirmed the link between vacuolar morphology and MTM1 phosphatase activity, and showed that some disease mutants retain phosphatase activity. Viral gene transfer of phosphatase-dead myotubularin mutants (MTM1(C375S) and MTM1(S376N)) significantly improved most histological signs of XLCNM displayed by a Mtm1-null mouse, at similar levels as wild-type MTM1. Moreover, the MTM1(C375S) mutant improved muscle performance and restored the localization of nuclei, triad alignment, and the desmin intermediate filament network, while it did not normalize PtdIns3P levels, supporting phosphatase-independent roles of MTM1 in maintaining normal muscle performance and organelle positioning in skeletal muscle. Among the different XLCNM signs investigated, we identified only triad shape and fiber size distribution as being partially dependent on MTM1 phosphatase activity. In conclusion, this work uncovers MTM1 roles in the structural organization of muscle fibers that are independent of its enzymatic activity. This underlines that removal of enzymes should be used with care to conclude on the physiological importance of their activity.
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Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy.
Daniel J Klionsky, Fábio C Abdalla, Hagai Abeliovich, Robert T Abraham, Abraham Acevedo-Arozena, Khosrow Adeli, Lotta Agholme, Maria Agnello, Patrizia Agostinis, Julio A Aguirre-Ghiso, Hyung Jun Ahn, Ouardia Ait-Mohamed, Slimane Ait-Si-Ali, Takahiko Akematsu, Shizuo Akira, Hesham M Al-Younes, Munir A Al-Zeer, Matthew L Albert, Roger L Albin, Javier Alegre-Abarrategui, Maria Francesca Aleo, Mehrdad Alirezaei, Alexandru Almasan, Maylin Almonte-Becerril, Atsuo Amano, Ravi Amaravadi, Shoba Amarnath, Amal O Amer, Nathalie Andrieu-Abadie, Vellareddy Anantharam, David K Ann, Shailendra Anoopkumar-Dukie, Hiroshi Aoki, Nadezda Apostolova, Giuseppe Arancia, John P Aris, Katsuhiko Asanuma, Nana Y O Asare, Hisashi Ashida, Valerie Askanas, David S Askew, Patrick Auberger, Misuzu Baba, Steven K Backues, Eric H Baehrecke, Ben A Bahr, Xue-Yuan Bai, Yannick Bailly, Robert Baiocchi, Giulia Baldini, Walter Balduini, Andrea Ballabio, Bruce A Bamber, Edward T W Bampton, Gábor Bánhegyi, Clinton R Bartholomew, Diane C Bassham, Robert C Bast, Henri Batoko, Boon-Huat Bay, Isabelle Beau, Daniel M Béchet, Thomas J Begley, Christian Behl, Christian Behrends, Soumeya Bekri, Bryan Bellaire, Linda J Bendall, Luca Benetti, Laura Berliocchi, Henri Bernardi, Francesca Bernassola, Sébastien Besteiro, Ingrid Bhatia-Kiššová, Xiaoning Bi, Martine Biard-Piechaczyk, Janice S Blum, Lawrence H Boise, Paolo Bonaldo, David L Boone, Beat C Bornhauser, Karina R Bortoluci, Ioannis Bossis, Fréderic Bost, Jean-Pierre Bourquin, Patricia Boya, Michaël Boyer-Guittaut, Peter V Bozhkov, Nathan R Brady, Claudio Brancolini, Andreas Brech, Jay E Brenman, Ana Brennand, Emery H Bresnick, Patrick Brest, Dave Bridges, Molly L Bristol, Paul S Brookes, Eric J Brown, John H Brumell, Nicola Brunetti-Pierri, Ulf T Brunk, Dennis E Bulman, Scott J Bultman, Geert Bultynck, Lena F Burbulla, Wilfried Bursch, Jonathan P Butchar, Wanda Buzgariu, Sérgio P Bydlowski, Ken Cadwell, Monika Cahova, Dongsheng Cai, Jiyang Cai, Qian Cai, Bruno Calabretta, Javier Calvo-Garrido, Nadine Camougrand, Michelangelo Campanella, Jenny Campos-Salinas, Eleonora Candi, Lizhi Cao, Allan B Caplan, Simon R Carding, Sandra M Cardoso, Jennifer S Carew, Cathleen R Carlin, Virginie Carmignac, Leticia A M Carneiro, Serena Carra, Rosario A Caruso, Giorgio Casari, Caty Casas, Roberta Castino, Eduardo Cebollero, Francesco Cecconi, Jean Celli, Hassan Chaachouay, Han-Jung Chae, Chee-Yin Chai, David C Chan, Edmond Y Chan, Raymond Chuen-Chung Chang, Chi-Ming Che, Ching-Chow Chen, Guang-Chao Chen, Guo-Qiang Chen, Min Chen, Quan Chen, Steve S-L Chen, WenLi Chen, Xi Chen, Xiangmei Chen, Xiequn Chen, Ye-Guang Chen, Yingyu Chen, Yongqiang Chen, Yu-Jen Chen, Zhixiang Chen, Alan Cheng, Christopher H K Cheng, Yan Cheng, Heesun Cheong, Jae-Ho Cheong, Sara Cherry, Russ Chess-Williams, Zelda H Cheung, Eric Chevet, Hui-Ling Chiang, Roberto Chiarelli, Tomoki Chiba, Lih-Shen Chin, Shih-Hwa Chiou, Francis V Chisari, Chi Hin Cho, Dong-Hyung Cho, Augustine M K Choi, DooSeok Choi, Kyeong Sook Choi, Mary E Choi, Salem Chouaib, Divaker Choubey, Vinay Choubey, Charleen T Chu, Tsung-Hsien Chuang, Sheau-Huei Chueh, Taehoon Chun, Yong-Joon Chwae, Mee-Len Chye, Roberto Ciarcia, Maria R Ciriolo, Michael J Clague, Robert S B Clark, Peter G H Clarke, Robert Clarke, Patrice Codogno, Hilary A Coller, María I Colombo, Sergio Comincini, Maria Condello, Fabrizio Condorelli, Mark R Cookson, Graham H Coombs, Isabelle Coppens, Ramón Corbalán, Pascale Cossart, Paola Costelli, Safia Costes, Ana Coto-Montes, Eduardo Couve, Fraser P Coxon, James M Cregg, José L Crespo, Marianne J Cronjé, Ana Maria Cuervo, Joseph J Cullen, Mark J Czaja, Marcello D'Amelio, Arlette Darfeuille-Michaud, Lester M Davids, Faith E Davies, Massimo De Felici, John F de Groot, Cornelis A M de Haan, Luisa De Martino, Angelo De Milito, Vincenzo De Tata, Jayanta Debnath, Alexei Degterev, Benjamin Dehay, Lea M D Delbridge, Francesca Demarchi, Yi Zhen Deng, Jörn Dengjel, Paul Dent, Donna Denton, Vojo Deretic, Shyamal D Desai, Rodney J Devenish, Mario Di Gioacchino, Gilbert Di Paolo, Chiara Di Pietro, Guillermo Díaz-Araya, Inés Díaz-Laviada, Maria T Diaz-Meco, Javier Diaz-Nido, Ivan Dikic, Savithramma P Dinesh-Kumar, Wen-Xing Ding, Clark W Distelhorst, Abhinav Diwan, Mojgan Djavaheri-Mergny, Svetlana Dokudovskaya, Zheng Dong, Frank C Dorsey, Victor Dosenko, James J Dowling, Stephen Doxsey, Marlène Dreux, Mark E Drew, Qiuhong Duan, Michel A Duchosal, Karen Duff, Isabelle Dugail, Madeleine Durbeej, Michael Duszenko, Charles L Edelstein, Aimee L Edinger, Gustavo Egea, Ludwig Eichinger, N Tony Eissa, Suhendan Ekmekcioglu, Wafik S El-Deiry, Zvulun Elazar, Mohamed Elgendy, Lisa M Ellerby, Kai Er Eng, Anna-Mart Engelbrecht, Simone Engelender, Jekaterina Erenpreisa, Ricardo Escalante, Audrey Esclatine, Eeva-Liisa Eskelinen, Lucile Espert, Virginia Espina, Huizhou Fan, Jia Fan, Qi-Wen Fan, Zhen Fan, Shengyun Fang, Yongqi Fang, Manolis Fanto, Alessandro Fanzani, Thomas Farkas, Jean-Claude Farré, Mathias Faure, Marcus Fechheimer, Carl G Feng, Jian Feng, Qili Feng, Youji Feng, László Fésüs, Ralph Feuer, Maria E Figueiredo-Pereira, Gian Maria Fimia, Diane C Fingar, Steven Finkbeiner, Toren Finkel, Kim D Finley, Filomena Fiorito, Edward A Fisher, Paul B Fisher, Marc Flajolet, Maria L Florez-McClure, Salvatore Florio, Edward A Fon, Francesco Fornai, Franco Fortunato, Rati Fotedar, Daniel H Fowler, Howard S Fox, Rodrigo Franco, Lisa B Frankel, Marc Fransen, José M Fuentes, Juan Fueyo, Jun Fujii, Kozo Fujisaki, Eriko Fujita, Mitsunori Fukuda, Ruth H Furukawa, Matthias Gaestel, Philippe Gailly, Malgorzata Gajewska, Brigitte Galliot, Vincent Galy, Subramaniam Ganesh, Barry Ganetzky, Ian G Ganley, Fen-Biao Gao, George F Gao, Jinming Gao, Lorena Garcia, Guillermo Garcia-Manero, Mikel Garcia-Marcos, Marjan Garmyn, Andrei L Gartel, Evelina Gatti, Mathias Gautel, Thomas R Gawriluk, Matthew E Gegg, Jiefei Geng, Marc Germain, Jason E Gestwicki, David A Gewirtz, Saeid Ghavami, Pradipta Ghosh, Anna M Giammarioli, Alexandra N Giatromanolaki, Spencer B Gibson, Robert W Gilkerson, Michael L Ginger, Henry N Ginsberg, Jakub Golab, Michael S Goligorsky, Pierre Golstein, Candelaria Gomez-Manzano, Ebru Goncu, Céline Gongora, Claudio D Gonzalez, Ramon Gonzalez, Cristina González-Estévez, Rosa Ana González-Polo, Elena Gonzalez-Rey, Nikolai V Gorbunov, Sharon Gorski, Sandro Goruppi, Roberta A Gottlieb, Devrim Gozuacik, Giovanna Elvira Granato, Gary D Grant, Kim N Green, Aleš Gregorc, Frédéric Gros, Charles Grose, Thomas W Grunt, Philippe Gual, Jun-Lin Guan, Kun-Liang Guan, Sylvie M Guichard, Anna S Gukovskaya, Ilya Gukovsky, Jan Gunst, Asa B Gustafsson, Andrew J Halayko, Amber N Hale, Sandra K Halonen, Maho Hamasaki, Feng Han, Ting Han, Michael K Hancock, Malene Hansen, Hisashi Harada, Masaru Harada, Stefan E Hardt, J Wade Harper, Adrian L Harris, James Harris, Steven D Harris, Makoto Hashimoto, Jeffrey A Haspel, Shin-Ichiro Hayashi, Lori A Hazelhurst, Congcong He, You-Wen He, Marie-Josee Hebert, Kim A Heidenreich, Miep H Helfrich, Gudmundur V Helgason, Elizabeth P Henske, Brian Herman, Paul K Herman, Claudio Hetz, Sabine Hilfiker, Joseph A Hill, Lynne J Hocking, Paul Hofman, Thomas G Hofmann, Jörg Höhfeld, Tessa L Holyoake, Ming-Huang Hong, David A Hood, Gökhan S Hotamisligil, Ewout J Houwerzijl, Maria Høyer-Hansen, Bingren Hu, Chien-An A Hu, Hong-Ming Hu, Ya Hua, Canhua Huang, Ju Huang, Shengbing Huang, Wei-Pang Huang, Tobias B Huber, Won-Ki Huh, Tai-Ho Hung, Ted R Hupp, Gang Min Hur, James B Hurley, Sabah N A Hussain, Patrick J Hussey, Jung Jin Hwang, Seungmin Hwang, Atsuhiro Ichihara, Shirin Ilkhanizadeh, Ken Inoki, Takeshi Into, Valentina Iovane, Juan L Iovanna, Nancy Y Ip, Yoshitaka Isaka, Hiroyuki Ishida, Ciro Isidoro, Ken-Ichi Isobe, Akiko Iwasaki, Marta Izquierdo, Yotaro Izumi, Panu M Jaakkola, Marja Jäättelä, George R Jackson, William T Jackson, Bassam Janji, Marina Jendrach, Ju-Hong Jeon, Eui-Bae Jeung, Hong Jiang, Hongchi Jiang, Jean X Jiang, Ming Jiang, Qing Jiang, Xuejun Jiang, Alberto Jiménez, Meiyan Jin, Shengkan Jin, Cheol O Joe, Terje Johansen, Daniel E Johnson, Gail V W Johnson, Nicola L Jones, Bertrand Joseph, Suresh K Joseph, Annie M Joubert, Gábor Juhász, Lucienne Juillerat-Jeanneret, Chang Hwa Jung, Yong-Keun Jung, Kai Kaarniranta, Allen Kaasik, Tomohiro Kabuta, Motoni Kadowaki, Katarina Kågedal, Yoshiaki Kamada, Vitaliy O Kaminskyy, Harm H Kampinga, Hiromitsu Kanamori, Chanhee Kang, Khong Bee Kang, Kwang Il Kang, Rui Kang, Yoon-A Kang, Tomotake Kanki, Thirumala-Devi Kanneganti, Haruo Kanno, Anumantha G Kanthasamy, Arthi Kanthasamy, Vassiliki Karantza, Gur P Kaushal, Susmita Kaushik, Yoshinori Kawazoe, Po-Yuan Ke, John H Kehrl, Ameeta Kelekar, Claus Kerkhoff, David H Kessel, Hany Khalil, Jan A K W Kiel, Amy A Kiger, Akio Kihara, Deok Ryong Kim, Do-Hyung Kim, Dong-Hou Kim, Eun-Kyoung Kim, Hyung-Ryong Kim, Jae-Sung Kim, Jeong Hun Kim, Jin Cheon Kim, John K Kim, Peter K Kim, Seong Who Kim, Yong-Sun Kim, Yonghyun Kim, Adi Kimchi, Alec C Kimmelman, Jason S King, Timothy J Kinsella, Vladimir Kirkin, Lorrie A Kirshenbaum, Katsuhiko Kitamoto, Kaio Kitazato, Ludger Klein, Walter T Klimecki, Jochen Klucken, Erwin Knecht, Ben C B Ko, Jan C Koch, Hiroshi Koga, Jae-Young Koh, Young Ho Koh, Masato Koike, Masaaki Komatsu, Eiki Kominami, Hee Jeong Kong, Wei-jia Kong, Viktor I Korolchuk, Yaichiro Kotake, Michael I Koukourakis, Juan B Kouri Flores, Attila L Kovács, Claudine Kraft, Dimitri Krainc, Helmut Krämer, Carole Kretz-Remy, Anna M Krichevsky, Guido Kroemer, Rejko Krüger, Oleg Krut, Nicholas T Ktistakis, Chia-Yi Kuan, Róza Kucharczyk, Ashok Kumar, Raj Kumar, Sharad Kumar, Mondira Kundu, Hsing-Jien Kung, Tino Kurz, Ho Jeong Kwon, Albert R La Spada, Frank Lafont, Trond Lamark, Jacques Landry, Jon D Lane, Pierre Lapaquette, Jocelyn F Laporte, Lajos László, Sergio Lavandero, Josée N Lavoie, Robert Layfield, Pedro A Lazo, Weidong Le, Laurent Le Cam, Daniel J Ledbetter, Alvin J X Lee, Byung-Wan Lee, Gyun Min Lee, Jongdae Lee, Ju-Hyun Lee, Michael Lee, Myung-Shik Lee, Sug Hyung Lee, Christiaan Leeuwenburgh, Patrick Legembre, Renaud Legouis, Michael Lehmann, Huan-Yao Lei, Qun-Ying Lei, David A Leib, José Leiro, John J Lemasters, Antoinette Lemoine, Maciej S Lesniak, Dina Lev, Victor V Levenson, Beth Levine, Efrat Levy, Faqiang Li, Jun-lin Li, Lian Li, Sheng Li, Weijie Li, Xue-Jun Li, Yan-Bo Li, Yi-Ping Li, Chengyu Liang, Qiangrong Liang, Yung-Feng Liao, Pawel P Liberski, Andrew Lieberman, Hyunjung J Lim, Kah-Leong Lim, Kyu Lim, Chiou-Feng Lin, Fu-Cheng Lin, Jian Lin, Jiandie D Lin, Kui Lin, Wan-Wan Lin, Weei-Chin Lin, Yi-Ling Lin, Rafael Linden, Paul Lingor, Jennifer Lippincott-Schwartz, Michael P Lisanti, Paloma B Liton, Bo Liu, Chun-Feng Liu, Kaiyu Liu, Leyuan Liu, Qiong A Liu, Wei Liu, Young-Chau Liu, Yule Liu, Richard A Lockshin, Chun-Nam Lok, Sagar Lonial, Benjamin Loos, Gabriel Lopez-Berestein, Carlos Lopez-Otin, Laura Lossi, Michael T Lotze, Péter Low, Binfeng Lu, Bingwei Lu, Bo Lu, Zhen Lu, Fredéric Luciano, Nicholas W Lukacs, Anders H Lund, Melinda A Lynch-Day, Yong Ma, Fernando Macian, Jeff P MacKeigan, Kay F Macleod, Frank Madeo, Luigi Maiuri, Maria Chiara Maiuri, Davide Malagoli, May Christine V Malicdan, Walter Malorni, Na Man, Eva-Maria Mandelkow, Stéphen Manon, Irena Manov, Kai Mao, Xiang Mao, Zixu Mao, Philippe Marambaud, Daniela Marazziti, Yves L Marcel, Katie Marchbank, Piero Marchetti, Stefan J Marciniak, Mateus Marcondes, Mohsen Mardi, Gabriella Marfè, Guillermo Mariño, Maria Markaki, Mark R Marten, Seamus J Martin, Camille Martinand-Mari, Wim Martinet, Marta Martinez-Vicente, Matilde Masini, Paola Matarrese, Saburo Matsuo, Raffaele Matteoni, Andreas Mayer, Nathalie M Mazure, David J McConkey, Melanie J McConnell, Catherine McDermott, Christine McDonald, Gerald M McInerney, Sharon L McKenna, BethAnn McLaughlin, Pamela J McLean, Christopher R McMaster, G Angus McQuibban, Alfred J Meijer, Miriam H Meisler, Alicia Meléndez, Thomas J Melia, Gerry Melino, Maria A Mena, Javier A Menendez, Rubem F S Menna-Barreto, Manoj B Menon, Fiona M Menzies, Carol A Mercer, Adalberto Merighi, Diane E Merry, Stefania Meschini, Christian G Meyer, Thomas F Meyer, Chao-Yu Miao, Jun-Ying Miao, Paul A M Michels, Carine Michiels, Dalibor Mijaljica, Ana Milojkovic, Saverio Minucci, Clelia Miracco, Cindy K Miranti, Ioannis Mitroulis, Keisuke Miyazawa, Noboru Mizushima, Baharia Mograbi, Simin Mohseni, Xavier Molero, Bertrand Mollereau, Faustino Mollinedo, Takashi Momoi, Iryna Monastyrska, Martha M Monick, Mervyn J Monteiro, Michael N Moore, Rodrigo Mora, Kevin Moreau, Paula I Moreira, Yuji Moriyasu, Jorge Moscat, Serge Mostowy, Jeremy C Mottram, Tomasz Motyl, Charbel E-H Moussa, Sylke Müller, Sylviane Muller, Karl Münger, Christian Münz, Leon O Murphy, Maureen E Murphy, Antonio Musarò, Indira Mysorekar, Eiichiro Nagata, Kazuhiro Nagata, Aimable Nahimana, Usha Nair, Toshiyuki Nakagawa, Kiichi Nakahira, Hiroyasu Nakano, Hitoshi Nakatogawa, Meera Nanjundan, Naweed I Naqvi, Derek P Narendra, Masashi Narita, Miguel Navarro, Steffan T Nawrocki, Taras Y Nazarko, Andriy Nemchenko, Mihai G Netea, Thomas P Neufeld, Paul A Ney, Ioannis P Nezis, Huu Phuc Nguyen, Daotai Nie, Ichizo Nishino, Corey Nislow, Ralph A Nixon, Takeshi Noda, Angelika A Noegel, Anna Nogalska, Satoru Noguchi, Lucia Notterpek, Ivana Novak, Tomoyoshi Nozaki, Nobuyuki Nukina, Thorsten Nürnberger, Beat Nyfeler, Keisuke Obara, Terry D Oberley, Salvatore Oddo, Michinaga Ogawa, Toya Ohashi, Koji Okamoto, Nancy L Oleinick, F Javier Oliver, Laura J Olsen, Stefan Olsson, Onya Opota, Timothy F Osborne, Gary K Ostrander, Kinya Otsu, Jing-hsiung James Ou, Mireille Ouimet, Michael Overholtzer, Bulent Ozpolat, Paolo Paganetti, Ugo Pagnini, Nicolas Pallet, Glen E Palmer, Camilla Palumbo, Tianhong Pan, Theocharis Panaretakis, Udai Bhan Pandey, Zuzana Papackova, Issidora Papassideri, Irmgard Paris, Junsoo Park, Ohkmae K Park, Jan B Parys, Katherine R Parzych, Susann Patschan, Cam Patterson, Sophie Pattingre, John M Pawelek, Jianxin Peng, David H Perlmutter, Ida Perrotta, George Perry, Shazib Pervaiz, Matthias Peter, Godefridus J Peters, Morten Petersen, Goran Petrovski, James M Phang, Mauro Piacentini, Philippe Pierre, Valérie Pierrefite-Carle, Gérard Pierron, Ronit Pinkas-Kramarski, Antonio Piras, Natik Piri, Leonidas C Platanias, Stefanie Pöggeler, Marc Poirot, Angelo Poletti, Christian Poüs, Mercedes Pozuelo-Rubio, Mette Prætorius-Ibba, Anil Prasad, Mark Prescott, Muriel Priault, Nathalie Produit-Zengaffinen, Ann Progulske-Fox, Tassula Proikas-Cezanne, Serge Przedborski, Karin Przyklenk, Rosa Puertollano, Julien Puyal, Shu-Bing Qian, Liang Qin, Zheng-Hong Qin, Susan E Quaggin, Nina Raben, Hannah Rabinowich, Simon W Rabkin, Irfan Rahman, Abdelhaq Rami, Georg Ramm, Glenn Randall, Felix Randow, V Ashutosh Rao, Jeffrey C Rathmell, Brinda Ravikumar, Swapan K Ray, Bruce H Reed, John C Reed, Fulvio Reggiori, Anne Regnier-Vigouroux, Andreas S Reichert, John J Reiners, Russel J Reiter, Jun Ren, Jose L Revuelta, Christopher J Rhodes, Konstantinos Ritis, Elizete Rizzo, Jeffrey Robbins, Michel Roberge, Hernan Roca, Maria C Roccheri, Stéphane Rocchi, H Peter Rodemann, Santiago Rodríguez de Córdoba, Bärbel Rohrer, Igor B Roninson, Kirill Rosen, Magdalena M Rost-Roszkowska, Mustapha Rouis, Kasper M A Rouschop, Francesca Rovetta, Brian P Rubin, David C Rubinsztein, Klaus Ruckdeschel, Edmund B Rucker, Assaf Rudich, Emil Rudolf, Nelson Ruiz-Opazo, Rossella Russo, Tor Erik Rusten, Kevin M Ryan, Stefan W Ryter, David M Sabatini, Junichi Sadoshima, Tapas Saha, Tatsuya Saitoh, Hiroshi Sakagami, Yasuyoshi Sakai, Ghasem Hoseini Salekdeh, Paolo Salomoni, Paul M Salvaterra, Guy Salvesen, Rosa Salvioli, Anthony M J Sanchez, José A Sánchez-Alcázar, Ricardo Sánchez-Prieto, Marco Sandri, Uma Sankar, Poonam Sansanwal, Laura Santambrogio, Shweta Saran, Sovan Sarkar, Minnie Sarwal, Chihiro Sasakawa, Ausra Sasnauskiene, Miklós Sass, Ken Sato, Miyuki Sato, Anthony H V Schapira, Michael Scharl, Hermann M Schätzl, Wiep Scheper, Stefano Schiaffino, Claudio Schneider, Marion E Schneider, Regine Schneider-Stock, Patricia V Schoenlein, Daniel F Schorderet, Christoph Schüller, Gary K Schwartz, Luca Scorrano, Linda Sealy, Per O Seglen, Juan Segura-Aguilar, Iban Seiliez, Oleksandr Seleverstov, Christian Sell, Jong Bok Seo, Duska Separovic, Vijayasaradhi Setaluri, Takao Setoguchi, Carmine Settembre, John J Shacka, Mala Shanmugam, Irving M Shapiro, Eitan Shaulian, Reuben J Shaw, James H Shelhamer, Han-Ming Shen, Wei-Chiang Shen, Zu-Hang Sheng, Yang Shi, Kenichi Shibuya, Yoshihiro Shidoji, Jeng-Jer Shieh, Chwen-Ming Shih, Yohta Shimada, Shigeomi Shimizu, Takahiro Shintani, Orian S Shirihai, Gordon C Shore, Andriy A Sibirny, Stan B Sidhu, Beata Sikorska, Elaine C M Silva-Zacarin, Alison Simmons, Anna Katharina Simon, Hans-Uwe Simon, Cristiano Simone, Anne Simonsen, David A Sinclair, Rajat Singh, Debasish Sinha, Frank A Sinicrope, Agnieszka Sirko, Parco M Siu, Efthimios Sivridis, Vojtech Skop, Vladimir P Skulachev, Ruth S Slack, Soraya S Smaili, Duncan R Smith, María S Soengas, Thierry Soldati, Xueqin Song, Anil K Sood, Tuck Wah Soong, Federica Sotgia, Stephen A Spector, Claudia D Spies, Wolfdieter Springer, Srinivasa M Srinivasula, Leonidas Stefanis, Joan S Steffan, Ruediger Stendel, Harald Stenmark, Anastasis Stephanou, Stephan T Stern, Cinthya Sternberg, Björn Stork, Peter Stralfors, Carlos S Subauste, Xinbing Sui, David Sulzer, Jiaren Sun, Shi-Yong Sun, Zhi-Jun Sun, Joseph J Y Sung, Kuninori Suzuki, Toshihiko Suzuki, Michele S Swanson, Charles Swanton, Sean T Sweeney, Lai-King Sy, Gyorgy Szabadkai, Ira Tabas, Heinrich Taegtmeyer, Marco Tafani, Krisztina Takács-Vellai, Yoshitaka Takano, Kaoru Takegawa, Genzou Takemura, Fumihiko Takeshita, Nicholas J Talbot, Kevin S W Tan, Keiji Tanaka, Kozo Tanaka, Daolin Tang, Dingzhong Tang, Isei Tanida, Bakhos A Tannous, Nektarios Tavernarakis, Graham S Taylor, Gregory A Taylor, J Paul Taylor, Lance S Terada, Alexei Terman, Gianluca Tettamanti, Karin Thevissen, Craig B Thompson, Andrew Thorburn, Michael Thumm, Fengfeng Tian, Yuan Tian, Glauco Tocchini-Valentini, Aviva M Tolkovsky, Yasuhiko Tomino, Lars Tönges, Sharon A Tooze, Cathy Tournier, John Tower, Roberto Towns, Vladimir Trajkovic, Leonardo H Travassos, Ting-Fen Tsai, Mario P Tschan, Takeshi Tsubata, Allan Tsung, Boris Turk, Lorianne S Turner, Suresh C Tyagi, Yasuo Uchiyama, Takashi Ueno, Midori Umekawa, Rika Umemiya-Shirafuji, Vivek K Unni, Maria I Vaccaro, Enza Maria Valente, Greet Van den Berghe, Ida J van der Klei, Wouter van Doorn, Linda F van Dyk, Marjolein van Egmond, Leo A van Grunsven, Peter Vandenabeele, Wim P Vandenberghe, Ilse Vanhorebeek, Eva C Vaquero, Guillermo Velasco, Tibor Vellai, Jose Miguel Vicencio, Richard D Vierstra, Miquel Vila, Cécile Vindis, Giampietro Viola, Maria Teresa Viscomi, Olga V Voitsekhovskaja, Clarissa von Haefen, Marcela Votruba, Keiji Wada, Richard Wade-Martins, Cheryl L Walker, Craig M Walsh, Jochen Walter, Xiang-Bo Wan, Aimin Wang, Chenguang Wang, Dawei Wang, Fan Wang, Fen Wang, Guanghui Wang, Haichao Wang, Hong-Gang Wang, Horng-Dar Wang, Jin Wang, Ke Wang, Mei Wang, Richard C Wang, Xinglong Wang, Xuejun Wang, Ying-Jan Wang, Yipeng Wang, Zhen Wang, Zhigang Charles Wang, Zhinong Wang, Derick G Wansink, Diane M Ward, Hirotaka Watada, Sarah L Waters, Paul Webster, Lixin Wei, Conrad C Weihl, William A Weiss, Scott M Welford, Long-Ping Wen, Caroline A Whitehouse, J Lindsay Whitton, Alexander J Whitworth, Tom Wileman, John W Wiley, Simon Wilkinson, Dieter Willbold, Roger L Williams, Peter R Williamson, Bradly G Wouters, Chenghan Wu, Dao-Cheng Wu, William K K Wu, Andreas Wyttenbach, Ramnik J Xavier, Zhijun Xi, Pu Xia, Gengfu Xiao, Zhiping Xie, Zhonglin Xie, Da-zhi Xu, Jianzhen Xu, Liang Xu, Xiaolei Xu, Ai Yamamoto, Akitsugu Yamamoto, Shunhei Yamashina, Michiaki Yamashita, Xianghua Yan, Mitsuhiro Yanagida, Dun-Sheng Yang, Elizabeth Yang, Jin-Ming Yang, Shi Yu Yang, Wannian Yang, Wei Yuan Yang, Zhifen Yang, Meng-Chao Yao, Tso-Pang Yao, Behzad Yeganeh, Wei-Lien Yen, Jia-Jing Yin, Xiao-Ming Yin, Ook-Joon Yoo, Gyesoon Yoon, Seung-Yong Yoon, Tomohiro Yorimitsu, Yuko Yoshikawa, Tamotsu Yoshimori, Kohki Yoshimoto, Ho Jin You, Richard J Youle, Anas Younes, Li Yu, Long Yu, Seong-Woon Yu, Wai Haung Yu, Zhi-Min Yuan, Zhenyu Yue, Cheol-Heui Yun, Michisuke Yuzaki, Olga Zabirnyk, Elaine Silva-Zacarin, David Zacks, Eldad Zacksenhaus, Nadia Zaffaroni, Zahra Zakeri, Herbert J Zeh, Scott O Zeitlin, Hong Zhang, Hui-Ling Zhang, Jianhua Zhang, Jing-Pu Zhang, Lin Zhang, Long Zhang, Ming-Yong Zhang, Xu Dong Zhang, Mantong Zhao, Yi-Fang Zhao, Ying Zhao, Zhizhuang J Zhao, Xiaoxiang Zheng, Boris Zhivotovsky, Qing Zhong, Cong-Zhao Zhou, Changlian Zhu, Wei-Guo Zhu, Xiao-feng Zhu, Xiongwei Zhu, Yuangang Zhu, Teresa Zoladek, Wei-Xing Zong, Antonio Zorzano, Jürgen Zschocke, Brian Zuckerbraun.
Autophagy
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In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Accordingly, it is important to update these guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Various reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose. Nevertheless, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to measure autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. A key point that needs to be emphasized is that there is a difference between measurements that monitor the numbers or volume of autophagic elements (e.g., autophagosomes or autolysosomes) at any stage of the autophagic process vs. those that measure flux through the autophagy pathway (i.e., the complete process); thus, a block in macroautophagy that results in autophagosome accumulation needs to be differentiated from stimuli that result in increased autophagic activity, defined as increased autophagy induction coupled with increased delivery to, and degradation within, lysosomes (in most higher eukaryotes and some protists such as Dictyostelium) or the vacuole (in plants and fungi). In other words, it is especially important that investigators new to the field understand that the appearance of more autophagosomes does not necessarily equate with more autophagy. In fact, in many cases, autophagosomes accumulate because of a block in trafficking to lysosomes without a concomitant change in autophagosome biogenesis, whereas an increase in autolysosomes may reflect a reduction in degradative activity. Here, we present a set of guidelines for the selection and interpretation of methods for use by investigators who aim to examine macroautophagy and related processes, as well as for reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a formulaic set of rules, because the appropriate assays depend in part on the question being asked and the system being used. In addition, we emphasize that no individual assay is guaranteed to be the most appropriate one in every situation, and we strongly recommend the use of multiple assays to monitor autophagy. In these guidelines, we consider these various methods of assessing autophagy and what information can, or cannot, be obtained from them. Finally, by discussing the merits and limits of particular autophagy assays, we hope to encourage technical innovation in the field.
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Samaritan myopathy, an ultimately benign congenital myopathy, is caused by a RYR1 mutation.
Acta Neuropathol.
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Congenital myopathies describe a group of inherited muscle disorders with neonatal or infantile onset typically associated with muscle weakness, respiratory involvement and delayed motor milestones. We previously reported a novel congenital myopathy in an inbred Samaritan family. All patients displayed severe neonatal hypotonia and respiratory distress, and unlike other congenital myopathies, a constantly improving health status. As clinical and pathological data did not point to preferential candidate genes, we performed exome sequencing complemented by linkage analysis to identify the mutation causing the benign Samaritan congenital myopathy. We identified the homozygous p.Tyr1088Cys mutation in RYR1, encoding the skeletal muscle ryanodine receptor. This sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium channel is a key regulator of excitation-contraction coupling (ECC). Western blot and immunohistofluorescence revealed a significant decrease of the RYR1 protein level and an abnormal organization of skeletal muscle triad markers as caveolin-3, dysferlin and amphiphysin 2. RYR1 mutations are associated with different myopathies and malignant hyperthermia susceptibility. The index patient had mild hyperthermia following anesthesia, indicating that the inbred Samaritan population might be a risk group for this disorder. Our results suggest an aberrant ECC as the primary cause of this disease, and broaden the clinical consequences of RYR1 defects.
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Myotubularin phosphoinositide phosphatases: cellular functions and disease pathophysiology.
Trends Mol Med
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The myotubularin family of phosphoinositide phosphatases includes several members mutated in neuromuscular diseases or associated with metabolic syndrome, obesity, and cancer. Catalytically dead phosphatases regulate their active homologs by heterodimerization and potentially represent key players in the phosphatase-kinase balance. Although the enzymatic specificity for phosphoinositides indicates a role for myotubularins in endocytosis and membrane trafficking, recent findings in cellular and animal models suggest that myotubularins regulate additional processes including cell proliferation and differentiation, autophagy, cytokinesis, and cytoskeletal and cell junction dynamics. In this review, we discuss how myotubularins regulate such diverse processes, emphasizing newly identified functions in a physiological and pathological context. A better understanding of myotubularin pathophysiology will pave the way towards therapeutic strategies.
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Next generation sequencing for molecular diagnosis of neuromuscular diseases.
Acta Neuropathol.
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Inherited neuromuscular disorders (NMD) are chronic genetic diseases posing a significant burden on patients and the health care system. Despite tremendous research and clinical efforts, the molecular causes remain unknown for nearly half of the patients, due to genetic heterogeneity and conventional molecular diagnosis based on a gene-by-gene approach. We aimed to test next generation sequencing (NGS) as an efficient and cost-effective strategy to accelerate patient diagnosis. We designed a capture library to target the coding and splice site sequences of all known NMD genes and used NGS and DNA multiplexing to retrieve the pathogenic mutations in patients with heterogeneous NMD with or without known mutations. We retrieved all known mutations, including point mutations and small indels, intronic and exonic mutations, and a large deletion in a patient with Duchenne muscular dystrophy, validating the sensitivity and reproducibility of this strategy on a heterogeneous subset of NMD with different genetic inheritance. Most pathogenic mutations were ranked on top in our blind bioinformatic pipeline. Following the same strategy, we characterized probable TTN, RYR1 and COL6A3 mutations in several patients without previous molecular diagnosis. The cost was less than conventional testing for a single large gene. With appropriate adaptations, this strategy could be implemented into a routine genetic diagnosis set-up as a first screening approach to detect most kind of mutations, potentially before the need of more invasive and specific clinical investigations. An earlier genetic diagnosis should provide improved disease management and higher quality genetic counseling, and ease access to therapy or inclusion into therapeutic trials.
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Defective membrane remodeling in neuromuscular diseases: insights from animal models.
PLoS Genet.
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Proteins involved in membrane remodeling play an essential role in a plethora of cell functions including endocytosis and intracellular transport. Defects in several of them lead to human diseases. Myotubularins, amphiphysins, and dynamins are all proteins implicated in membrane trafficking and/or remodeling. Mutations in myotubularin, amphiphysin 2 (BIN1), and dynamin 2 lead to different forms of centronuclear myopathy, while mutations in myotubularin-related proteins cause Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathies. In addition to centronuclear myopathy, dynamin 2 is also mutated in a dominant form of Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy. While several proteins from these different families are implicated in similar diseases, mutations in close homologues or in the same protein in the case of dynamin 2 lead to diseases affecting different tissues. This suggests (1) a common molecular pathway underlying these different neuromuscular diseases, and (2) tissue-specific regulation of these proteins. This review discusses the pathophysiology of the related neuromuscular diseases on the basis of animal models developed for proteins of the myotubularin, amphiphysin, and dynamin families. A better understanding of the common mechanisms between these neuromuscular disorders will lead to more specific health care and therapeutic approaches.
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Mutation spectrum in the large GTPase dynamin 2, and genotype-phenotype correlation in autosomal dominant centronuclear myopathy.
Hum. Mutat.
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Centronuclear myopathy (CNM) is a genetically heterogeneous disorder associated with general skeletal muscle weakness, type I fiber predominance and atrophy, and abnormally centralized nuclei. Autosomal dominant CNM is due to mutations in the large GTPase dynamin 2 (DNM2), a mechanochemical enzyme regulating cytoskeleton and membrane trafficking in cells. To date, 40 families with CNM-related DNM2 mutations have been described, and here we report 60 additional families encompassing a broad genotypic and phenotypic spectrum. In total, 18 different mutations are reported in 100 families and our cohort harbors nine known and four new mutations, including the first splice-site mutation. Genotype-phenotype correlation hypotheses are drawn from the published and new data, and allow an efficient screening strategy for molecular diagnosis. In addition to CNM, dissimilar DNM2 mutations are associated with Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) peripheral neuropathy (CMTD1B and CMT2M), suggesting a tissue-specific impact of the mutations. In this study, we discuss the possible clinical overlap of CNM and CMT, and the biological significance of the respective mutations based on the known functions of dynamin 2 and its protein structure. Defects in membrane trafficking due to DNM2 mutations potentially represent a common pathological mechanism in CNM and CMT.
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Myotubular myopathy caused by multiple abnormal splicing variants in the MTM1 RNA in a patient with a mild phenotype.
Eur. J. Hum. Genet.
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Mutations impacting on the splicing of pre-mRNA are one important cause of genetically inherited diseases. However, detection of splice mutations, that are mainly due to intronic variations, and characterization of their effects are usually not performed as a first approach during genetic diagnosis. X-linked recessive myotubular myopathy is a severe congenital myopathy due to mutations in the MTM1 gene encoding myotubularin. Here, we screened a male patient showing an unusually mild phenotype without respiratory distress by western blot with specific myotubularin antibodies and detected a strong reduction of the protein level.The disease was subsequently linked to a hemizygous point mutation affecting the acceptor splice site of exon 8 of MTM1, proven by protein, transcript and genomic DNA analysis. Detailed analysis of the MTM1 mRNA by RT-PCR, sequencing and quantitative PCR revealed multiple abnormal transcripts with retention of a truncated exon 8, and neighboring exons 7 and 9 but exclusion of several other exons, suggesting a complex effect of this mutation on the splicing of non-adjacent exons. We conclude that the analysis of RNA by RT-PCR and sequencing is an important step to characterize the precise impact of detected splice variants. It is likely that complex splice aberrations due to a single mutation also account for unsolved cases in other diseases.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.