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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Effective diagnosis of genetic disease by computational phenotype analysis of the disease-associated genome.
Sci Transl Med
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2014
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Less than half of patients with suspected genetic disease receive a molecular diagnosis. We have therefore integrated next-generation sequencing (NGS), bioinformatics, and clinical data into an effective diagnostic workflow. We used variants in the 2741 established Mendelian disease genes [the disease-associated genome (DAG)] to develop a targeted enrichment DAG panel (7.1 Mb), which achieves a coverage of 20-fold or better for 98% of bases. Furthermore, we established a computational method [Phenotypic Interpretation of eXomes (PhenIX)] that evaluated and ranked variants based on pathogenicity and semantic similarity of patients' phenotype described by Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO) terms to those of 3991 Mendelian diseases. In computer simulations, ranking genes based on the variant score put the true gene in first place less than 5% of the time; PhenIX placed the correct gene in first place more than 86% of the time. In a retrospective test of PhenIX on 52 patients with previously identified mutations and known diagnoses, the correct gene achieved a mean rank of 2.1. In a prospective study on 40 individuals without a diagnosis, PhenIX analysis enabled a diagnosis in 11 cases (28%, at a mean rank of 2.4). Thus, the NGS of the DAG followed by phenotype-driven bioinformatic analysis allows quick and effective differential diagnostics in medical genetics.
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Screening for single nucleotide variants, small indels and exon deletions with a next-generation sequencing based gene panel approach for Usher syndrome.
Mol Genet Genomic Med
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2014
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Usher syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized both by deafness and blindness. For the three clinical subtypes of Usher syndrome causal mutations in altogether 12 genes and a modifier gene have been identified. Due to the genetic heterogeneity of Usher syndrome, the molecular analysis is predestined for a comprehensive and parallelized analysis of all known genes by next-generation sequencing (NGS) approaches. We describe here the targeted enrichment and deep sequencing for exons of Usher genes and compare the costs and workload of this approach compared to Sanger sequencing. We also present a bioinformatics analysis pipeline that allows us to detect single-nucleotide variants, short insertions and deletions, as well as copy number variations of one or more exons on the same sequence data. Additionally, we present a flexible in silico gene panel for the analysis of sequence variants, in which newly identified genes can easily be included. We applied this approach to a cohort of 44 Usher patients and detected biallelic pathogenic mutations in 35 individuals and monoallelic mutations in eight individuals of our cohort. Thirty-nine of the sequence variants, including two heterozygous deletions comprising several exons of USH2A, have not been reported so far. Our NGS-based approach allowed us to assess single-nucleotide variants, small indels, and whole exon deletions in a single test. The described diagnostic approach is fast and cost-effective with a high molecular diagnostic yield.
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First description of a patient with Vici syndrome due to a mutation affecting the penultimate exon of EPG5 and review of the literature.
Am. J. Med. Genet. A
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2014
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Vici syndrome is a rare autosomal recessively inherited multisystem disorder characterized by agenesis of the corpus callosum, cataracts, cardiomyopathy, combined immunodeficiency, psychomotor delay, and hypopigmentation. Cullup et al. recently identified mutations in the gene EPG5 as the cause of Vici syndrome. EPG5 is involved in autophagy, an evolutionarily conserved lysosomal degradation process that is essential for cell homeostasis. Following the first description in 1988 by Vici et al., 24 other cases of Vici syndrome have been published with variable expression of the defining features. Here, we report on a further case of Vici syndrome with a homozygous truncating mutation of EPG5, identified by whole-exome sequencing. The mutation in our patient is the first reported affecting the penultimate exon of EPG5 and presenting with typical clinical manifestations of Vici syndrome. Additionally, we present a detailed clinical analysis of Vici syndrome comprising all cases previously described in the literature. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Missense variant in CCDC22 causes X-linked recessive intellectual disability with features of Ritscher-Schinzel/3C syndrome.
Eur. J. Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2014
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Ritscher-Schinzel syndrome (RSS)/3C (cranio-cerebro-cardiac) syndrome (OMIM#220210) is a rare and clinically heterogeneous developmental disorder characterized by intellectual disability, cerebellar brain malformations, congenital heart defects, and craniofacial abnormalities. A recent study of a Canadian cohort identified homozygous sequence variants in the KIAA0196 gene, which encodes the WASH complex subunit strumpellin, as a cause for a form of RSS/3C syndrome. We have searched for genetic causes of a phenotype similar to RSS/3C syndrome in an Austrian family with two affected sons. To search for disease-causing variants, whole-exome sequencing (WES) was performed on samples from two affected male children and their parents. Before WES, CGH array comparative genomic hybridization was applied. Validation of WES and segregation studies was done using routine Sanger sequencing. Exome sequencing detected a missense variant (c.1670A>G; p.(Tyr557Cys)) in exon 15 of the CCDC22 gene, which maps to chromosome Xp11.23. Western blots of immortalized lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) from the affected individual showed decreased expression of CCDC22 and an increased expression of WASH1 but a normal expression of strumpellin and FAM21 in the patients cells. We identified a variant in CCDC22 gene as the cause of an X-linked phenotype similar to RSS/3C syndrome in the family described here. A hypomorphic variant in CCDC22 was previously reported in association with a familial case of syndromic X-linked intellectual disability, which shows phenotypic overlap with RSS/3C syndrome. Thus, different inactivating variants affecting CCDC22 are associated with a phenotype similar to RSS/3C syndrome.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 11 June 2014; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2014.109.
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Sensory neuropathy with bone destruction due to a mutation in the membrane-shaping atlastin GTPase 3.
Brain
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2014
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Many neurodegenerative disorders present with sensory loss. In the group of hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies loss of nociception is one of the disease hallmarks. To determine underlying factors of sensory neurodegeneration we performed whole-exome sequencing in affected individuals with the disorder. In a family with sensory neuropathy with loss of pain perception and destruction of the pedal skeleton we report a missense mutation in a highly conserved amino acid residue of atlastin GTPase 3 (ATL3), an endoplasmic reticulum-shaping GTPase. The same mutation (p.Tyr192Cys) was identified in a second family with similar clinical outcome by screening a large cohort of 115 patients with hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies. Both families show an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance and the mutation segregates with complete penetrance. ATL3 is a paralogue of ATL1, a membrane curvature-generating molecule that is involved in spastic paraplegia and hereditary sensory neuropathy. ATL3 proteins are enriched in three-way junctions, branch points of the endoplasmic reticulum that connect membranous tubules to a continuous network. Mutant ATL3 p.Tyr192Cys fails to localize to branch points, but instead disrupts the structure of the tubular endoplasmic reticulum, suggesting that the mutation exerts a dominant-negative effect. Identification of ATL3 as novel disease-associated gene exemplifies that long-term sensory neuronal maintenance critically depends on the structural organisation of the endoplasmic reticulum. It emphasizes that alterations in membrane shaping-proteins are one of the major emerging pathways in axonal degeneration and suggests that this group of molecules should be considered in neuroprotective strategies.
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Mutations in PGAP3 impair GPI-anchor maturation, causing a subtype of hyperphosphatasia with mental retardation.
Am. J. Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2014
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Glycosylphophatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins play important roles in many biological processes, and mutations affecting proteins involved in the synthesis of the GPI anchor are reported to cause a wide spectrum of intellectual disabilities (IDs) with characteristic additional phenotypic features. Here, we describe a total of five individuals (from three unrelated families) in whom we identified mutations in PGAP3, encoding a protein that is involved in GPI-anchor maturation. Three siblings in a consanguineous Pakistani family presented with profound developmental delay, severe ID, no speech, psychomotor delay, and postnatal microcephaly. A combination of autozygosity mapping and exome sequencing identified a 13.8 Mb region harboring a homozygous c.275G>A (p.Gly92Asp) variant in PGAP3 region 17q11.2-q21.32. Subsequent testing showed elevated serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), a GPI-anchored enzyme, in all three affected children. In two unrelated individuals in a cohort with developmental delay, ID, and elevated ALP, we identified compound-heterozygous variants c.439dupC (p.Leu147Profs(?)16) and c.914A>G (p.Asp305Gly) and homozygous variant c.314C>G (p.Pro105Arg). The 1 bp duplication causes a frameshift and nonsense-mediated decay. Further evidence supporting pathogenicity of the missense mutations c.275G>A, c.314C>G, and c.914A>G was provided by the absence of the variants from ethnically matched controls, phylogenetic conservation, and functional studies on Chinese hamster ovary cell lines. Taken together with recent data on PGAP2, these results confirm the importance of the later GPI-anchor remodelling steps for normal neuronal development. Impairment of PGAP3 causes a subtype of hyperphosphatasia with ID, a congenital disorder of glycosylation that is also referred to as Mabry syndrome.
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Somatic neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) inactivation events in cutaneous neurofibromas of a single NF1 patient.
Eur. J. Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) (MIM#162200) is a relatively frequent genetic condition that predisposes to tumor formation. The main types of tumors occurring in NF1 patients are cutaneous and subcutaneous neurofibromas, plexiform neurofibromas, optic pathway gliomas, and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors. To search for somatic mutations in cutaneous (dermal) neurofibromas, whole-exome sequencing (WES) was performed on seven spatially separated tumors and two reference tissues (blood and unaffected skin) from a single NF1 patient. Validation of WES findings was done using routine Sanger sequencing or Sequenom IPlex SNP genotyping. Exome sequencing confirmed the existence of a known familial splice-site mutation NM_000267.3:c.3113+1G>A in exon 23 of NF1 gene (HGMD ID CS951480) in blood, unaffected skin, and all tumor samples. In five out of seven analyzed tumors, we additionally detected second-hit mutations in the NF1 gene. Four of them were novel and one was previously observed. Each mutation was distinct, demonstrating the independent origin of each tumor. Only in two of seven tumors we detected an additional somatic mutation that was not associated with NF1. Our study demonstrated that somatic mutations of NF1 are likely the main drivers of cutaneous tumor formation. The study provides evidence for the rareness of single base pair level alterations in the exomes of benign NF1 cutaneous tumors.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 8 October 2014; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2014.210.
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Efficient CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing with low off-target effects in zebrafish.
Development
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2013
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Gene modifications in animal models have been greatly facilitated through the application of targeted genome editing tools. The prokaryotic CRISPR/Cas9 type II genome editing system has recently been applied in cell lines and vertebrates. However, we still have very limited information about the efficiency of mutagenesis, germline transmission rates and off-target effects in genomes of model organisms. We now demonstrate that CRISPR/Cas9 mutagenesis in zebrafish is highly efficient, reaching up to 86.0%, and is heritable. The efficiency of the CRISPR/Cas9 system further facilitated the targeted knock-in of a protein tag provided by a donor oligonucleotide with knock-in efficiencies of 3.5-15.6%. Mutation rates at potential off-target sites are only 1.1-2.5%, demonstrating the specificity of the CRISPR/Cas9 system. The ease and efficiency of the CRISPR/Cas9 system with limited off-target effects make it a powerful genome engineering tool for in vivo studies.
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Generation and Analysis of Draft Sequences of Stolbur Phytoplasma from Multiple Displacement Amplification Templates.
J. Mol. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2013
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Phytoplasma-associated diseases are reported for more than 1,000 plant species worldwide. Only a few genome sequences are available in contrast to the economical importance of these bacterial pathogens. A new strategy was used to retrieve phytoplasma strain-specific genome data. Multiple displacement amplification was performed on DNA obtained from <3 g of plant tissue from tobacco and parsley samples infected with stolbur strains. Random hexamers and Phi29 polymerase were evaluated with and without supplementation by group-assigned oligonucleotides providing templates for Illuminas sequencing approach. Metagenomic drafts derived from individual and pooled strain-specific de novo assemblies were analyzed. Supplementation of the Phi29 reaction with the group-assigned oligonucleotides resulted in an about 2-fold enrichment of the percentage of phytoplasma-assigned reads and thereby improved assembly results. The obtained genomic drafts represent the largest datasets available from stolbur phytoplasmas. Sequences of the two strains (558 kb, 448 proteins and 516 kb, 346 proteins, respectively) were annotated allowing the identification of prominent membrane proteins and reconstruction of core pathways. Analysis of a putative truncated sucrose phosphorylase provides hints on sugar degradation. Furthermore, it is shown that drafts obtained from repetitive-rich genomes allow only limited analysis on multicopy regions and genome completeness. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.
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Distinct global shifts in genomic binding profiles of limb malformation-associated HOXD13 mutations.
Genome Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2013
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Gene regulation by transcription factors (TFs) determines developmental programs and cell identity. Consequently, mutations in TFs can lead to dramatic phenotypes in humans by disrupting gene regulation. To date, the molecular mechanisms that actually cause these phenotypes have been difficult to address experimentally. ChIP-seq, which couples chromatin immunoprecipitation with high-throughput sequencing, allows TF function to be investigated on a genome-wide scale, enabling new approaches for the investigation of gene regulation. Here, we present the application of ChIP-seq to explore the effect of missense mutations in TFs on their genome-wide binding profile. Using a retroviral expression system in chicken mesenchymal stem cells, we elucidated the mechanism underlying a novel missense mutation in HOXD13 (Q317K) associated with a complex hand and foot malformation phenotype. The mutated glutamine (Q) is conserved in most homeodomains, a notable exception being bicoid-type homeodomains that have lysine (K) at this position. Our results show that the mutation results in a shift in the binding profile of the mutant toward a bicoid/PITX1 motif. Gene expression analysis and functional assays using in vivo overexpression studies confirm that the mutation results in a partial conversion of HOXD13 into a TF with bicoid/PITX1 properties. A similar shift was not observed with another mutation, Q317R, which is associated with brachysyndactyly, suggesting that the bicoid/PITX1-shift observed for Q317K might be related to the severe clinical phenotype. The methodology described can be used to investigate a wide spectrum of TFs and mutations that have not previously been amenable to ChIP-seq experiments.
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Analysis of the Intestinal Microbiome of a Recovered Clostridium difficile Patient after Fecal Transplantation.
Digestion
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2013
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Background: Clostridium difficile infections upon antibiotic disruption of the gut microbiota are potentially lethal. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a promising treatment option for recurrent C. difficile-associated disease (CDAD). Here, we present a patient with recurrent CDAD that received FMT, leading to full recovery for what has now been 3 years. We performed metagenomic sequencing on stool samples to assess if there are indications for recolonization with C. difficile and changes in the gut microbiota after FMT. Methods: DNA from the stool of the donor and recipient was subjected to illumina sequencing. Obtained read sets were assembled to contiguous sequences and open reading frames were predicted. Deduced proteins were taxonomically assigned. Results: We detected complex and apparently healthy microbiomes in the donors and recipients intestines after FMT, but no indications for C. difficile colonization. Conclusions: Metagenomic analysis proved suitable to analyze the intestinal microbiome after FMT. Discussion of our evaluation procedure and data management may be helpful for future studies. We demonstrated restoration of a healthy and diverse gut microbiome with chimeric composition from donor and recipient, and long-lasting clearance of C. difficile. The procedure is simple, cheap, caused no side effects, and was stable over 3 years. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.
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A case of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria caused by a germline mutation and a somatic mutation in PIGT.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2013
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To ascertain the genetic basis of a paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) case without somatic mutations in PIGA, we performed deep next-generation sequencing on all exons of known genes of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor synthesis pathway. We identified a heterozygous germline splice site mutation in PIGT and a somatic 8-MB deletion in granulocytes affecting the other copy of PIGT. PIGA is essential for GPI anchor synthesis, whereas PIGT is essential for attachment of the preassembled GPI anchor to proteins. Although a single mutation event in the X-chromosomal gene PIGA is known to cause GPI-anchored protein deficiency, 2 such hits are required in the autosomal gene PIGT. Our data indicate that PNH can occur even in the presence of fully assembled GPI if its transfer to proteins is defective in hematopoietic stem cells.
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Whole exome sequencing identifies FGF16 nonsense mutations as the cause of X-linked recessive metacarpal 4/5 fusion.
J. Med. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2013
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Metacarpal 4-5 fusion (MF4; MIM %309630) is a rare congenital malformation of the hand characterised by the partial or complete fusion of the fourth and fifth metacarpals. The anomaly occurs as an isolated trait or part of a genetic syndrome.
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Whole-exome sequencing in adult ETP-ALL reveals a high rate of DNMT3A mutations.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2013
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Early T-cell precursor (ETP) acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a high-risk subgroup of T-lineage ALL characterized by specific stem cell and myeloid features. In adult ETP-ALL, no comprehensive studies on the genetic background have been performed to elucidate molecular lesions of this distinct subgroup. We performed whole-exome sequencing of 5 paired ETP-ALL samples. In addition to mutations in genes known to be involved in leukemogenesis (ETV6, NOTCH1, JAK1, and NF1), we identified novel recurrent mutations in FAT1 (25%), FAT3 (20%), DNM2 (35%), and genes associated with epigenetic regulation (MLL2, BMI1, and DNMT3A). Importantly, we verified the high rate of DNMT3A mutations (16%) in a larger cohort of adult patients with ETP-ALL (10/68). Mutations in epigenetic regulators support clinical trials, including epigenetic-orientated therapies, for this high-risk subgroup. Interestingly, more than 60% of adult patients with ETP-ALL harbor at least a single genetic lesion in DNMT3A, FLT3, or NOTCH1 that may allow use of targeted therapies.
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Loss-of-function mutations in the IL-21 receptor gene cause a primary immunodeficiency syndrome.
J. Exp. Med.
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2013
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Primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) represent exquisite models for studying mechanisms of human host defense. In this study, we report on two unrelated kindreds, with two patients each, who had cryptosporidial infections associated with chronic cholangitis and liver disease. Using exome and candidate gene sequencing, we identified two distinct homozygous loss-of-function mutations in the interleukin-21 receptor gene (IL21R; c.G602T, p.Arg201Leu and c.240_245delCTGCCA, p.C81_H82del). The IL-21R(Arg201Leu) mutation causes aberrant trafficking of the IL-21R to the plasma membrane, abrogates IL-21 ligand binding, and leads to defective phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1), STAT3, and STAT5. We observed impaired IL-21-induced proliferation and immunoglobulin class-switching in B cells, cytokine production in T cells, and NK cell cytotoxicity. Our study indicates that human IL-21R deficiency causes an immunodeficiency and highlights the need for early diagnosis and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in affected children.
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MRSA transmission on a neonatal intensive care unit: epidemiological and genome-based phylogenetic analyses.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2013
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Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) may cause prolonged outbreaks of infections in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). While the specific factors favouring MRSA spread on neonatal wards are not well understood, colonized infants, their relatives, or health-care workers may all be sources for MRSA transmission. Whole-genome sequencing may provide a new tool for elucidating transmission pathways of MRSA at a local scale.
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PGAP2 mutations, affecting the GPI-anchor-synthesis pathway, cause hyperphosphatasia with mental retardation syndrome.
Am. J. Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2013
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Recently, mutations in genes involved in the biosynthesis of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor have been identified in a new subclass of congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDGs) with a distinct spectrum of clinical features. To date, mutations have been identified in six genes (PIGA, PIGL, PIGM, PIGN, PIGO, and PIGV) encoding proteins in the GPI-anchor-synthesis pathway in individuals with severe neurological features, including seizures, muscular hypotonia, and intellectual disability. We developed a diagnostic gene panel for targeting all known genes encoding proteins in the GPI-anchor-synthesis pathway to screen individuals matching these features, and we detected three missense mutations in PGAP2, c.46C>T, c.380T>C, and c.479C>T, in two unrelated individuals with hyperphosphatasia with mental retardation syndrome (HPMRS). The mutations cosegregated in the investigated families. PGAP2 is involved in fatty-acid GPI-anchor remodeling, which occurs in the Golgi apparatus and is required for stable association between GPI-anchored proteins and the cell-surface membrane rafts. Transfection of the altered protein constructs, p.Arg16Trp (NP_001243169.1), p.Leu127Ser, and p.Thr160Ile, into PGAP2-null cells showed only partial restoration of GPI-anchored marker proteins, CD55 and CD59, on the cell surface. In this work, we show that an impairment of GPI-anchor remodeling also causes HPMRS and conclude that targeted sequencing of the genes encoding proteins in the GPI-anchor-synthesis pathway is an effective diagnostic approach for this subclass of CDGs.
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Mutations in WNT1 cause different forms of bone fragility.
Am. J. Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2013
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We report that hypofunctional alleles of WNT1 cause autosomal-recessive osteogenesis imperfecta, a congenital disorder characterized by reduced bone mass and recurrent fractures. In consanguineous families, we identified five homozygous mutations in WNT1: one frameshift mutation, two missense mutations, one splice-site mutation, and one nonsense mutation. In addition, in a family affected by dominantly inherited early-onset osteoporosis, a heterozygous WNT1 missense mutation was identified in affected individuals. Initial functional analysis revealed that altered WNT1 proteins fail to activate canonical LRP5-mediated WNT-regulated ?-catenin signaling. Furthermore, osteoblasts cultured in vitro showed enhanced Wnt1 expression with advancing differentiation, indicating a role of WNT1 in osteoblast function and bone development. Our finding that homozygous and heterozygous variants in WNT1 predispose to low-bone-mass phenotypes might advance the development of more effective therapeutic strategies for congenital forms of bone fragility, as well as for common forms of age-related osteoporosis.
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Estimating exome genotyping accuracy by comparing to data from large scale sequencing projects.
Genome Med
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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With exome sequencing becoming a tool for mutation detection in routine diagnostics there is an increasing need for platform-independent methods of quality control. We present a genotype-weighted metric that allows comparison of all the variant calls of an exome to a high-quality reference dataset of an ethnically matched population. The exome-wide genotyping accuracy is estimated from the distance to this reference set, and does not require any further knowledge about data generation or the bioinformatics involved. The distances of our metric are visualized by non-metric multidimensional scaling and serve as an intuitive, standardizable score for the quality assessment of exome data.
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The allele distribution in next-generation sequencing data sets is accurately described as the result of a stochastic branching process.
Nucleic Acids Res.
PUBLISHED: 11-29-2011
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With the availability of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology, it is expected that sequence variants may be called on a genomic scale. Here, we demonstrate that a deeper understanding of the distribution of the variant call frequencies at heterozygous loci in NGS data sets is a prerequisite for sensitive variant detection. We model the crucial steps in an NGS protocol as a stochastic branching process and derive a mathematical framework for the expected distribution of alleles at heterozygous loci before measurement that is sequencing. We confirm our theoretical results by analyzing technical replicates of human exome data and demonstrate that the variance of allele frequencies at heterozygous loci is higher than expected by a simple binomial distribution. Due to this high variance, mutation callers relying on binomial distributed priors are less sensitive for heterozygous variants that deviate strongly from the expected mean frequency. Our results also indicate that error rates can be reduced to a greater degree by technical replicates than by increasing sequencing depth.
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Deep sequencing of MYC DNA-binding sites in Burkitt lymphoma.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2011
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MYC is a key transcription factor involved in central cellular processes such as regulation of the cell cycle, histone acetylation and ribosomal biogenesis. It is overexpressed in the majority of human tumors including aggressive B-cell lymphoma. Especially Burkitt lymphoma (BL) is a highlight example for MYC overexpression due to a chromosomal translocation involving the c-MYC gene. However, no genome-wide analysis of MYC-binding sites by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) followed by next generation sequencing (ChIP-Seq) has been conducted in BL so far.
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Composite transcriptome assembly of RNA-seq data in a sheep model for delayed bone healing.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2011
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The sheep is an important model organism for many types of medically relevant research, but molecular genetic experiments in the sheep have been limited by the lack of knowledge about ovine gene sequences.
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Identity-by-descent filtering of exome sequence data for disease-gene identification in autosomal recessive disorders.
Bioinformatics
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2011
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Next-generation sequencing and exome-capture technologies are currently revolutionizing the way geneticists screen for disease-causing mutations in rare Mendelian disorders. However, the identification of causal mutations is challenging due to the sheer number of variants that are identified in individual exomes. Although databases such as dbSNP or HapMap can be used to reduce the plethora of candidate genes by filtering out common variants, the remaining set of genes still remains on the order of dozens.
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FGFR3 is a target of the homeobox transcription factor SHOX in limb development.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2011
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The short stature homeobox gene SHOX encodes a transcription factor which is important for normal limb development. In humans, SHOX deficiency has been associated with various short stature syndromes including Leri-Weill dyschondrosteosis (LWD), Langer mesomelic dysplasia and Turner syndrome as well as non-syndromic idiopathic short stature. A common feature of these syndromes is disproportionate short stature with a particular shortening of the forearms and lower legs. In our studies employing microarray analyses and cell culture experiments, we revealed a strong positive effect of SHOX on the expression of the fibroblast growth factor receptor gene FGFR3, another well-known factor for limb development. Luciferase reporter gene assays show that SHOX activates the extended FGFR3 promoter, and results from chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP)-sequencing, ChIP and electrophoretic mobility shift assay experiments suggest a direct binding of SHOX to multiple upstream sequences of FGFR3. To further investigate these regulations in a cellular system for limb development, the effect of viral overexpression of Shox in limb bud derived chicken micromass cultures was tested. We found that Fgfr3 was negatively regulated by Shox, as demonstrated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and in situ hybridization. This repressive effect might explain the almost mutually exclusive expression patterns of Fgfr3 and Shox in embryonic chicken limbs. A negative regulation that occurs mainly in the mesomelic segments, a region where SHOX is known to be strongly expressed, offers a possible explanation for the phenotypes seen in patients with FGFR3 (e.g. achondroplasia) and SHOX defects (e.g. LWD). In summary, these data present a link between two frequent short stature phenotypes.
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Copy-number variations involving the IHH locus are associated with syndactyly and craniosynostosis.
Am. J. Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2010
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Indian hedgehog (IHH) is a secreted signaling molecule of the hedgehog family known to play important roles in the regulation of chondrocyte differentiation, cortical bone formation, and the development of joints. Here, we describe that copy-number variations of the IHH locus involving conserved noncoding elements (CNEs) are associated with syndactyly and craniosynostosis. These CNEs are able to drive reporter gene expression in a pattern highly similar to wild-type Ihh expression. We postulate that the observed duplications lead to a misexpression and/or overexpression of IHH and by this affect the complex regulatory signaling network during digit and skull development.
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Identity-by-descent filtering of exome sequence data identifies PIGV mutations in hyperphosphatasia mental retardation syndrome.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2010
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Hyperphosphatasia mental retardation (HPMR) syndrome is an autosomal recessive form of mental retardation with distinct facial features and elevated serum alkaline phosphatase. We performed whole-exome sequencing in three siblings of a nonconsanguineous union with HPMR and performed computational inference of regions identical by descent in all siblings to establish PIGV, encoding a member of the GPI-anchor biosynthesis pathway, as the gene mutated in HPMR. We identified homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations in PIGV in three additional families.
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Homeobox genes d11-d13 and a13 control mouse autopod cortical bone and joint formation.
J. Clin. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2010
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The molecular mechanisms that govern bone and joint formation are complex, involving an integrated network of signaling pathways and gene regulators. We investigated the role of Hox genes, which are known to specify individual segments of the skeleton, in the formation of autopod limb bones (i.e., the hands and feet) using the mouse mutant synpolydactyly homolog (spdh), which encodes a polyalanine expansion in Hoxd13. We found that no cortical bone was formed in the autopod in spdh/spdh mice; instead, these bones underwent trabecular ossification after birth. Spdh/spdh metacarpals acquired an ovoid shape and developed ectopic joints, indicating a loss of long bone characteristics and thus a transformation of metacarpals into carpal bones. The perichondrium of spdh/spdh mice showed abnormal morphology and decreased expression of Runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), which was identified as a direct Hoxd13 transcriptional target. Hoxd11-/-Hoxd12-/-Hoxd13-/- triple-knockout mice and Hoxd13-/-Hoxa13+/- mice exhibited similar but less severe defects, suggesting that these Hox genes have similar and complementary functions and that the spdh allele acts as a dominant negative. This effect was shown to be due to sequestration of other polyalanine-containing transcription factors by the mutant Hoxd13 in the cytoplasm, leading to their degradation. These data indicate that Hox genes not only regulate patterning but also directly influence bone formation and the ossification pattern of bones, in part via Runx2.
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Analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms in three chromosomes of European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax.
Comp. Biochem. Physiol. Part D Genomics Proteomics
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2010
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Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are believed to contain relevant information and have been therefore extensively used as genetic markers in population and conservation genetics, and molecular ecology studies. This study reports on the identification of potential SNPs in a diploid European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax genome by using reference sequences from three assembled chromosomes and mapping all WGS datasets onto them (3× Sanger, 3× 454 and 20× SOLEXA). A total of 20,779 SNPs were identified over the 1469 gene loci and intergenic space analysed. Within chromosomes the occurrence of SNPs was the lowest in exons and higher in introns and intergenic regions, which may be explained by the fact, that coding regions are under strong selective pressure to maintain their biological function. The ratio of nonsynonymous to synonymous mutations was smaller than one for all the chromosomes, suggesting that most of deleterious nonsynonymous mutations were eliminated by negative selection. SNPs were not uniformly distributed over the chromosomes. Two chromosomes exhibited large regions with extremely low SNP density, which might represent homozygous regions in the diploid genome. The results of this study show how SNP detection can take profit from sequencing a single diploid individual, but also uncover the limits of such an approach. SNPs that have been identified will support marker development for genetic linkage mapping, population genetics and aquaculture related questions in general.
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Mutant Hoxd13 induces extra digits in a mouse model of synpolydactyly directly and by decreasing retinoic acid synthesis.
J. Clin. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2009
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Individuals with the birth defect synpolydactyly (SPD) have 1 or more digit duplicated and 2 or more digits fused together. One form of SPD is caused by polyalanine expansions in homeobox d13 (Hoxd13). Here we have used the naturally occurring mouse mutant that has the same mutation, the SPD homolog (Spdh) allele, and a similar phenotype, to investigate the molecular pathogenesis of SPD. A transgenic approach and crossing experiments showed that the Spdh allele is a combination of loss and gain of function. Here we identify retinaldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (Raldh2), the rate-limiting enzyme for retinoic acid (RA) synthesis in the limb, as a direct Hoxd13 target and show decreased RA production in limbs from Spdh/Spdh mice. Intrauterine treatment with RA restored pentadactyly in Spdh/Spdh mice. We further show that RA and WT Hoxd13 suppress chondrogenesis in mesenchymal progenitor cells, whereas Hoxd13 encoded by Spdh promotes cartilage formation in primary cells isolated from Spdh/Spdh limbs, and that this was associated with increased expression of Sox6/9. Increased Sox9 expression and ectopic cartilage formation in the interdigital mesenchyme of limbs from Spdh/Spdh mice suggest uncontrolled differentiation of these cells into the chondrocytic lineage. Thus, we propose that mutated Hoxd13 causes polydactyly in SPD by inducing extraneous interdigital chondrogenesis, both directly and indirectly, via a reduction in RA levels.
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PBX1 is dispensable for neural commitment of RA-treated murine ES cells.
In Vitro Cell. Dev. Biol. Anim.
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2009
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Experimentation with PBX1 knockout mice has shown that PBX1 is necessary for early embryogenesis. Despite broad insight into PBX1 function, little is known about the underlying target gene regulation. Utilizing the Cre-loxP system, we targeted a functionally important part of the homeodomain of PBX1 through homozygous deletion of exon-6 and flanking intronic regions leading to exon 7 skipping in embryonic stem (ES) cells. We induced in vitro differentiation of wild-type and PBX1 mutant ES cells by aggregation and retinoic acid (RA) treatment and compared their profiles of gene expression at the ninth day post-reattachment to adhesive media. Our results indicate that PBX1 interactions with HOX proteins and DNA are dispensable for RA-induced ability of ES to express neural genes and point to a possible involvement of PBX1 in the regulation of imprinted genes.
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Whole exome sequencing identified a novel zinc-finger gene ZNF141 associated with autosomal recessive postaxial polydactyly type A.
J. Med. Genet.
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Postaxial polydactyly (PAP) type A is characterised by well-formed functionally developed 5th digit duplication in hands and/or feet. It is genetically heterogeneous condition, inherited both in autosomal recessive and dominant manners. To date one autosomal recessive and four autosomal dominant loci have been mapped on human chromosomes. In the present study we have investigated a consanguineous Pakistani family segregating autosomal recessive PAP type A to identify the gene responsible for this phenotype.
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Homeotic arm-to-leg transformation associated with genomic rearrangements at the PITX1 locus.
Am. J. Hum. Genet.
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The study of homeotic-transformation mutants in model organisms such as Drosophila revolutionized the field of developmental biology, but how these mutants relate to human developmental defects remains to be elucidated. Here, we show that Liebenberg syndrome, an autosomal-dominant upper-limb malformation, shows features of a homeotic limb transformation in which the arms have acquired morphological characteristics of a leg. Using high-resolution array comparative genomic hybridization and paired-end whole-genome sequencing, we identified two deletions and a translocation 5 of PITX1. The structural changes are likely to remove active PITX1 forelimb suppressor and/or insulator elements and thereby move active enhancer elements in the vicinity of the PITX1 regulatory landscape. We generated transgenic mice in which PITX1 was misexpressed under the control of a nearby enhancer and were able to recapitulate the Liebenberg phenotype.
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High-throughput polymorphism detection and genotyping in Brassica napus using next-generation RAD sequencing.
BMC Genomics
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The complex genome of rapeseed (Brassica napus) is not well understood despite the economic importance of the species. Good knowledge of sequence variation is needed for genetics approaches and breeding purposes. We used a diversity set of B. napus representing eight different germplasm types to sequence genome-wide distributed restriction-site associated DNA (RAD) fragments for polymorphism detection and genotyping.
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Mutations in PIGO, a member of the GPI-anchor-synthesis pathway, cause hyperphosphatasia with mental retardation.
Am. J. Hum. Genet.
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Hyperphosphatasia with mental retardation syndrome (HPMRS), an autosomal-recessive form of intellectual disability characterized by facial dysmorphism, seizures, brachytelephalangy, and persistent elevated serum alkaline phosphatase (hyperphosphatasia), was recently shown to be caused by mutations in PIGV, a member of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchor-synthesis pathway. However, not all individuals with HPMRS harbor mutations in this gene. By exome sequencing, we detected compound-heterozygous mutations in PIGO, a gene coding for a membrane protein of the same molecular pathway, in two siblings with HPMRS, and we then found by Sanger sequencing further mutations in another affected individual; these mutations cosegregated in the investigated families. The mutant transcripts are aberrantly spliced, decrease the membrane stability of the protein, or impair enzyme function such that GPI-anchor synthesis is affected and the level of GPI-anchored substrates localized at the cell surface is reduced. Our data identify PIGO as the second gene associated with HPMRS and suggest that a deficiency in GPI-anchor synthesis is the underlying molecular pathomechanism of HPMRS.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.