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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Managing high-risk chronic lymphocytic leukemia during transition to a new treatment era: stem cell transplantation or novel agents?
Blood
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2014
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Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) has been considered as the treatment of choice for patients with high-risk chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) (i.e., refractory to purine analogues, short response (< 24 months) to chemoimmunotherapy, and/or presence of 17p-/TP53 mutations). Currently, treatment algorithms for HR-CLL are being challenged by the introduction of novel classes of drugs. Among them, BCR-signal inhibitors (BCRi) and BCL2 antagonists (BCL2a) appear particularly promising. As a result of the growing body of favourable outcome data reported for BCRi/BCL2a, uncertainty is emerging on how to advise patients with high-risk CLL about indication and timing of HSCT. This position paper provides an overview of currently available evidence and theoretical considerations to guide this difficult decision process. As long as the risks and benefits of different treatment strategies are not settled, all patients with high-risk CLL should be considered for treatment with BCRi/BCL2a. For those patients responding to these agents there are two treatment possibilities: (1) performing an HSCT, and (2) to continue on the novel drug. Individual disease-specific and transplant-related risk factors, along with patient's preferences, should be taken into account when advising one of these treatments over the other.
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Outcome of patients with abnl(17p) acute myeloid leukemia after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2014
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Patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and abnormalities of chromosome 17p (abnl(17p)) are at high-risk of treatment failure. Poor outcomes have been reported with conventional chemotherapy. To accurately define the outcome after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in patients with abnl(17p) AML, we analyzed the results of patients with this abnormality who received an allogeneic HSCT between January 2000 and December 2010 in 1 of 4 well-defined cohorts (Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Haemato Oncology Foundation for Adults in the Netherlands, Study Alliance Leukemia, German Cooperative Transplant Study Group). Data of 201 patients with a median age of 54 years were evaluable. At the time of analysis, 30 patients were alive with a median follow-up of 30 months. The 3-year probability of overall survival (OS) was 15% (95% confidence interval [CI], 10-20). The cumulative incidence of relapse at 3 years was 49% (95% CI, 42-56). Notably, almost 70% of all relapses occurred within the first 6 months after HSCT. Patients who were transplanted in first complete remission (CR1) had superior OS compared with those with advanced disease (22% vs 9%, P < .001). Our findings confirm the high-risk of treatment failure in abnl(17p) AML even after allogeneic HSCT in CR1. Although allogeneic HSCT remains a valid option in CR1, alternative treatment strategies are needed for the remaining patients.
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Toward panoramic in situ mapping of action potential propagation in transgenic hearts to investigate initiation and therapeutic control of arrhythmias.
Front Physiol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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To investigate the dynamics and propensity for arrhythmias in intact transgenic hearts comprehensively, optical strategies for panoramic fluorescence imaging of action potential (AP) propagation are essential. In particular, mechanism-oriented molecular studies usually depend on transgenic mouse hearts of only a few millimeters in size. Furthermore, the temporal scales of the mouse heart remain a challenge for panoramic fluorescence imaging with heart rates ranging from 200 min(-1) (e.g., depressed sinus node function) to over 1200 min(-1) during fast arrhythmias. To meet these challenging demands, we and others developed physiologically relevant mouse models and characterized their hearts with planar AP mapping. Here, we summarize the progress toward panoramic fluorescence imaging and its prospects for the mouse heart. In general, several high-resolution cameras are synchronized and geometrically arranged for panoramic voltage mapping and the surface and blood vessel anatomy documented through image segmentation and heart surface reconstruction. We expect that panoramic voltage imaging will lead to novel insights about molecular arrhythmia mechanisms through quantitative strategies and organ-representative analysis of intact mouse hearts.
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The level of residual disease based on mutant NPM1 is an independent prognostic factor for relapse and survival in AML.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2013
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Mutations of the NPM1 gene (NPM1mut) are among the most common genetic alterations in acute myeloid leukemia and are suitable for minimal residual disease detection. We retrospectively investigated the prognostic impact of NPM1mut-based minimal residual disease detection from bone marrow for development of relapse by using a newly developed real-time polymerase chain reaction based on locked nucleic acid-containing primers in 174 patients, 155 of whom were treated within prospective protocols. The prognostic value of 5 cutoff values after completion of treatment or after allogeneic transplantation was studied by using cause-specific hazard models. Subsequent validation using cross-validated partial likelihood analysis revealed that an increase of more than 1% NPM1mut/ABL1 was most prognostic for relapse after chemotherapy, whereas an increase of more than 10% NPM1mut/ABL1 was most prognostic for relapse after allogeneic transplantation. Univariate and multivariate analysis of disease-free survival and overall survival revealed a significantly worse outcome in patients with >1% NPM1mut/ABL1 and >10% NPM1mut/ABL1, respectively, which remained significant after adjustment for FLT3-internal tandem duplication status. Our results in a large data set define and optimize cutoff values for early diagnosis of molecular relapse. These results may be especially important for defining triggers for early therapeutic intervention.
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Impact of allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation in patients with abnl(17p) acute myeloid leukaemia.
Br. J. Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2013
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The role of allogeneic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) as compared to chemotherapy in acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) patients with abnormalities of chromosome 17p [abnl(17p)] has not yet been defined. Therefore, we analysed 3530 AML patients treated in three randomized, prospective, controlled clinical trials and compared post-remission therapies using a multivariate Cox regression analysis to determine whether allogeneic HSCT is superior than chemotherapy in overcoming the detrimental impact of patients with abnl(17p) AML. One hundred and forty-three patients (4%) were identified with abnl(17p) AML. All patients had received intensive induction chemotherapy. Forty-seven patients with a median age of 54 years (18-69 years) proceeded to allogeneic HSCT in first or second remission. The 3-year overall survival (OS) rate for the entire cohort of patients was 4% [95% confidence interval (CI), 1-7%]. OS and event-free survival at 3 years, calculated from the day of HSCT, was 11% (95% CI, 2-20%) and 6% (95% CI, 0-13%), respectively. Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed no benefit of allogeneic HSCT compared to chemotherapy (Hazard Ratio 0·97, 95% CI 0·56-1·67, P = 0·9). In conclusion, allogeneic HSCT does not improve survival in patients with abnl(17p) AML as compared to other adverse cytogenetic risk abnormalities.
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Assessment of dysplastic hematopoiesis: lessons from healthy bone marrow donors.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 12-16-2011
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According to WHO 2008 guidelines, the required percentage of cells manifesting dysplasia in the bone marrow to qualify as significant is 10% or over in one or more hematopoietic cell lineages, but this threshold is controversial. No normal values have been established. Therefore, we investigated dyshematopoiesis in bone marrow aspirate squash preparations of 120 healthy bone marrow donors.
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Prophylactic transfer of BCR-ABL-, PR1-, and WT1-reactive donor T cells after T cell-depleted allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2011
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Donor lymphocyte infusions have been effective in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) relapsing after allogeneic stem cell transplantation, but their use is associated with the risk of graft-versus-host disease. We investigated the effects of prophylactic infusion of in vitro-generated donor T cells reactive against peptides derived from CML-associated antigens. Fourteen CML patients received conditioning therapy followed by CD34(+)-selected peripheral blood stem cells from matched siblings (n = 7) or unrelated (n = 7) donors. Donor-derived mature dendritic cells generated in vitro from CD14(+) monocytes were loaded with human leukocyte Ag-restricted peptides derived from PR1, WT1, and/or B-cell receptor-ABL and used to repetitively stimulate donor CD8(+) T cells in the presence of IL-2 and IL-7. Stimulated T cells were infused 28, 56, and 112 days after transplantation. Thirteen patients are alive and 7 remain in molecular remission (median follow-up, 45 months). Interestingly, all 4 patients receiving CD8(+) T cells displaying marked cytotoxic activity in vitro and detectable peptide-reactive CD8(+) T cells during follow-up have not experienced graft-versus-host disease or relapse. Our study reveals that prophylactic infusion of allogeneic CD8(+) T cells reactive against peptides derived from CML-associated antigens is a safe and promising therapeutic strategy. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00460629.
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The hematopoietic cell transplantation-specific comorbidity index fails to predict outcomes in high-risk AML patients undergoing allogeneic transplantation--investigation of potential limitations of the index.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2011
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In the context of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HSCT), comorbidities are an important risk factor. Use of the hematopoietic cell transplantation-specific comorbidity index (HSCT-CI), which was developed and validated in Seattle, Washington, has been proposed to predict the probability of nonrelapse mortality (NRM) and overall survival (OS) following allo-HSCT. We performed a single-center retrospective study to validate the prognostic impact of HSCT-CI on transplant outcomes in a cohort of high-risk acute myeloid leukemia patients undergoing allo-HSCT between January 2000 and December 2008. The median patient age at the time of transplantation was 53 years (range: 11-76 years). The median pretransplantation HSCT-CI score was 4 (range: 0-10). Among 340 patients, OS at 3 years was 29% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 17%-41%), 40% (33%-47%), and 44% (41%-47%) in the low-, intermediate-, and high-risk HSCT-CI groups (P = .7), respectively. The corresponding NRM at 3 years was 34% (10%-58%), 32% (20%-44%), and 26% (20%-32%; P = .6). In multivariate analysis, we found no predictive value of HSCT-CI for either OS or NRM. The use of HSCT-CI as a decision-making tool for transplantation eligibility should not be considered until its validity has been unequivocally shown in crossvalidation studies.
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Genetic variations of interleukin-23R (1143A>G) and BPI (A645G), but not of NOD2, are associated with acute graft-versus-host disease after allogeneic transplantation.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2010
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Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes of the immune system predict for aGVHD and mortality after allo-SCT. We investigated the effect of SNPs in the NOD2, BPI, and IL-23R genes on posttransplantation outcome in a cohort of 304 patients. NOD2 patient and donor genotype and BPI recipient genotype were not associated with the occurrence of aGVHD. However, IL-23R-SNP in the donor was correlated with less aGVHD. This association could be confirmed in multivariate analysis (odds ratio [OR], 0.39; P = .039), which identified in vivo T cell depletion (OR, 0.32; P < .001) and multiagent GVHD prophylaxis (OR, 0.51; P = .031) as other independent factors predicting for less-severe aGVHD. This multivariate model also revealed a trend toward less aGVHD in patients receiving a BPI G allele transplant (OR, 0.60; P = .067) and in those receiving a transplant from an HLA-matched donor (OR, 0.57; P = .058). In contrast, relapse was more frequent in patients with NOD2-SNPs (46.2% for SNP vs 33.2% for wild-type; P = .020). This association was found to be of borderline significance in multivariate analysis. Neither BPI nor IL-23R genotype predicted for relapse, and none of the investigated SNPs was correlated with 5-year overall survival. In our analysis, NOD2 SNPs did not predict aGVHD, but IL-23R(1142A>G) and BPI(A645G) SNPs appeared to be promising markers in this regard. The importance of these markers in prediction models for GVHD and relapse remain to be defined in large prospective clinical trials.
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188Re anti-CD66 radioimmunotherapy combined with reduced-intensity conditioning and in-vivo T cell depletion in elderly patients undergoing allogeneic haematopoietic cell transplantation.
Br. J. Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 12-07-2009
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The addition of radioimmunotherapy to conventional and reduced-intensity conditioning has been shown to be feasible and effective. Within an ongoing prospective phase II trial, 22 patients with advanced myeloid malignancies and a median age of 65 years (range 54-76) received anti-CD66 Rhenium radioimmunotherapy followed by fludarabine (150 mg/m(2)), busulfan (8 mg/kg) and alemtuzumab (75 mg) before allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation from matched sibling (n = 7) and unrelated donors (n = 15). The extramedullary toxicity in the first 100 d post-transplantation was limited and all patients engrafted with complete donor chimaerism. The incidence of non-relapse mortality at day 100 and after 2 years was 4.5% and 23%, respectively. The probability of overall survival at 2 years was 40%. A comparison with a younger historical cohort (median age 57 years) having received the same dose of fludarabine and busulfan but neither radioimmunotherapy nor alemtuzumab showed no difference in outcome. Although the use of alemtuzumab reduced the incidence of acute graft-versus-host-disease, it was associated with a relapse incidence of 40% despite the incorporation of radioimmmunotherapy. In summary, we confirmed the feasibility of combined radioimmunotherapy and reduced-intensity conditioning in elderly patients. Further optimisation, probably involving less T cell depletion, is necessary before a randomized comparison with standard conditioning can be planned.
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Monitoring of donor chimerism in sorted CD34+ peripheral blood cells allows the sensitive detection of imminent relapse after allogeneic stem cell transplantation.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 11-03-2009
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Analysis of donor chimerism is an important diagnostic tool to assess the risk of relapse after allogeneic stem cell transplantation, especially in patients lacking a specific marker suitable for monitoring of minimal residual disease. We prospectively investigated the predictive value of donor chimerism analyses in sorted CD34(+) peripheral blood cells in 90 patients with acute leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome. The cumulative incidence of relapse after four years was significantly increased in cases with decreasing or incomplete CD34(+) donor chimerism (57% vs. 18%, p=0.0001). Multivariate analysis confirmed decreasing CD34(+) donor chimerism as an independent predictor of relapse and inferior survival. The interval between a decrease of CD34(+) chimerism of less than 80% and hematologic relapse was 61 days (range 0-567). Monitoring of CD34(+) donor chimerism in the peripheral blood allows prediction of imminent relapse after allogeneic stem cell transplantation even when a disease-specific marker is lacking.
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Graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis with everolimus and tacrolimus is associated with a high incidence of sinusoidal obstruction syndrome and microangiopathy: results of the EVTAC trial.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2009
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A calcineurin inhibitor combined with methotrexate is the standard prophylaxis for graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Everolimus, a derivative of sirolimus, seems to mediate antileukemia effects. We report on a combination of everolimus and tacrolimus in 24 patients (median age, 62 years) with either myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS; n = 17) or acute myeloid leukemia (AML; n = 7) undergoing intensive conditioning followed by HSCT from related (n = 4) or unrelated (n = 20) donors. All patients engrafted, and only 1 patient experienced grade IV mucositis. Nine patients (37%) developed acute grade II-IV GVHD, and 11 of 17 evaluable patients (64%) developed chronic extensive GVHD. Transplantation-associated microangiopathy (TMA) occurred in 7 patients (29%), with 2 cases of acute renal failure. The study was terminated prematurely because an additional 6 patients (25%) developed sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS), which was fatal in 2 cases. With a median follow-up of 26 months, the 2-year overall survival rate was 47%. Although this new combination appears to be effective as a prophylactic regimen for acute GVHD, the incidence of TMA and SOS is considerably higher than seen with other regimens.
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Reconstitution of interleukin-17-producing T helper cells after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
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Interleukin 17A (IL-17)-producing CD4(+) T helper type 17 (Th17) cells have recently drawn attention as possible effector cells of acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) in murine models. Their role after allogeneic HCT in humans is unknown. In this prospective study, Th17, Th1/17, and Th1 cells were quantified in the peripheral blood of 80 patients within the first 3 months after allogeneic HCT using intracellular cytokine staining and flow cytometry. Within the observation period, Th1, Th1/17, and Th17 cells did not reconstitute to levels of healthy control subjects. In contrast to Th1 cells, no further expansion of Th1/17 and Th17 cells was observed during the first month after HCT. Antithymocyte globulin during conditioning significantly reduced the frequency of Th1/17 and Th17 cells but not of Th1 cells. Acute GVHD was not associated with significant changes in the size of the Th1, Th1/17, or Th17 cell subsets. Cytomegalovirus reactivation triggered the expansion of all T helper subsets, and Th1 cells showed the strongest increase. In contrast, no significant changes were found in the T helper cell compartment of patients with bacterial infections compared with time-matched control subjects. In conclusion, quantitative reconstitution of Th1, Th1/17, and Th17 cells is impaired within the first 3 months after HCT, especially when antithymocyte globulin is administered during conditioning. Cytomegalovirus reactivation, but not acute GVHD or bacterial infection, triggered the absolute expansion of these T cell subsets.
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MRI-based liver iron content predicts for nonrelapse mortality in MDS and AML patients undergoing allogeneic stem cell transplantation.
Clin. Cancer Res.
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Retrospective, surrogate marker-based studies have found inconsistent associations between systemic iron overload (SIO) and adverse outcome in patients undergoing allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT). As a consequence, the impact of SIO in this context remains under debate. The aim of this study was to test whether the objective pretransplant quantification of liver-iron content (LIC) by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) could circumvent these limitations and conclusively define the prognostic relevance of SIO.
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Reduced-intensity conditioning versus standard conditioning before allogeneic haemopoietic cell transplantation in patients with acute myeloid leukaemia in first complete remission: a prospective, open-label randomised phase 3 trial.
Lancet Oncol.
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Reduced-intensity conditioning regimens have been developed to minimise early toxic effects and deaths after allogeneic haemopoietic cell transplantation. However, the efficacy of these regimens before this procedure has not been investigated in a randomised trial. In this prospective, open-label randomised phase 3 trial we compared a reduced-intensity fludarabine-based conditioning regimen with a standard regimen in patients with acute myeloid leukaemia in first complete remission.
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Outcome of high-risk acute myeloid leukemia after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation: negative impact of abnl(17p) and -5/5q-.
Blood
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The European LeukemiaNet classification combines a heterogeneous group of aberrations as adverse-risk abnormalities. Our goal was to investigate the outcomes associated with distinct high-risk chromosomal abnormalities in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). We performed a retrospective cohort analysis in patients with high-risk AML who received first, HLA-compatible, allogeneic HSCT between January 2005 and December 2008. Data from 236 patients with a median age of 55 years were included. Because complex karyotype (CK), -5/5q-, and abnl(17p) are overlapping categories, a hierarchical classification system based on the presence or absence of abnl(17p) and -5/5q- was developed. Patients with abnl(17p) had a 2-year event-free survival (EFS) of 11% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0%-25%), patients with -5/5q- but no abnl(17p) a 2-year EFS of 29% (95% CI, 14%-44%), and patients with adverse-risk AML but neither of the 2 marker lesions a 2-year EFS of 49% (95% CI, 39%-59%). Notably, complex and monosomal karyotypes lost their prognostic value when these marker lesions were excluded. In conclusion, hierarchical classification of adverse-risk karyotypes by 2 marker lesions, abnl(17p) and -5/5q-, is effective in prognostication of the outcome of allogeneic HSCT in AML.
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Reconstitution of 6-sulfo LacNAc dendritic cells after allogeneic stem-cell transplantation.
Transplantation
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Infections and acute graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) represent major complications of allogeneic stem-cell transplantation (SCT). Dendritic cells (DCs) display an extraordinary capacity to induce innate and adaptive immune responses. Therefore, they play a crucial role in the elimination of pathogens and in the pathogenesis of acute GvHD. 6-Sulfo LacNAc DCs (slanDCs) are a major subpopulation of human blood DCs with a high proinflammatory capacity. We investigated for the first time the reconstitution of slanDCs in the blood of patients after SCT and the modulation of their frequency by bacterial infection, cytomegalovirus (CMV) reactivation, and acute GvHD.
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Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation in patients age 60-70 years with de novo high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome or secondary acute myelogenous leukemia: comparison with patients lacking donors who received azacitidine.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
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Standard first-line therapy for older patients with high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) includes hypomethylating agents, such as azacitidine (AZA). However, the only approach with curative potential remains allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). To date, no direct comparison of both strategies has been reported. The outcomes of 2 well-balanced cohorts of patients with high-risk MDS defined by age (60-70 years), performance status (Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group score ?2), and donor availability (yes/no) were compared, including 103 patients undergoing HCT and 75 patients without this option who received AZA. The estimated 2-year overall survival after the start of treatment was 39% (95% confidence interval, 30%-50%) for the patients undergoing HCT and 23% (95% confidence interval, 14%-40%) for the patients receiving AZA therapy. In a multivariate Cox regression analysis of all patients (n = 178), Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group score (0 versus 1 versus 2; hazard ratio [HR], 2.9/3.9; P <  .001), cytogenetics (good versus intermediate versus poor; HR, 1.2/1.7; P = .026), and treatment (HCT versus AZA; HR, 0.3; P = .007) were associated with overall survival. This retrospective cohort analysis suggests a survival advantage for allogeneic HCT compared with AZA therapy in medically fit patients with high-risk MDS age 60-70 years. Prospective controlled studies are warranted.
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Early autologous stem cell transplantation for chronic lymphocytic leukemia: long-term follow-up of the German CLL Study Group CLL3 trial.
Blood
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The CLL3 trial was designed to study intensive treatment including autologous stem cell transplantation (autoSCT) as part of first-line therapy in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Here, we present the long-term outcome of the trial with particular focus on the impact of genomic risk factors, and we provide a retrospective comparison with patients from the fludarabine-cyclophosphamide-rituximab (FCR) arm of the German CLL Study Group (GCLLSG) CLL8 trial. After a median observation time of 8.7 years (0.3-12.3 years), median progression-free survival (PFS), time to retreatment, and overall survival (OS) of 169 evaluable patients, including 38 patients who did not proceed to autoSCT, was 5.7, 7.3, and 11.3 years, respectively. PFS and OS were significantly reduced in the presence of 17p- and of an unfavorable immunoglobulin heavy variable chain mutational status, but not of 11q-. Five-year nonrelapse mortality was 6.5%. When 110 CLL3 patients were compared with 126 matched patients from the FCR arm of the CLL8 trial, 4-year time to retreatment (75% vs 77%) and OS (86% vs 90%) was similar despite a significant benefit for autoSCT in terms of PFS. In summary, early treatment intensification including autoSCT can provide very effective disease control in poor-risk CLL, although its clinical benefit in the FCR era remains uncertain. The trial has been registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00275015.
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Clonal evolution including partial loss of human leukocyte antigen genes favoring extramedullary acute myeloid leukemia relapse after matched related allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
Transplantation
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Relapse of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) leaves few therapeutic options, and mechanisms of immune escape of recurring leukemic cells remain poorly understood. Recently, acquired loss of mismatched human leukocyte antigen (HLA) was demonstrated in patients with AML undergoing haploidentical allogeneic HSCT and was suggested not to occur in HLA-matched HSCT. We hypothesized that this mechanism applies to extramedullary AML relapse which occurs frequently after allogeneic HSCT and might also not be restricted to haploidentical HSCT.
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Improved PFS after autologous stem cell transplantion does not translate into better Quality of Life in CLL: lessons from the randomized EBMT-Intergroup study.
Am. J. Hematol.
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In chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) medical progress is driven by clinical studies with relapse-free survival (RFS) as the primary endpoint. The randomized EBMT-Intergroup trial compared high-dose therapy and autologous stem cell transplantion (ASCT) to observation and demonstrated a substantial improvement of RFS without showing improved overall survival for the transplant arm. Here we report quality of life (QoL) information of the first three years following randomization from that study. The main objective was to assess the impact of treatment on QoL over time. Two secondary analyses were performed to further investigate the impact of ASCT and relapse on QoL. In the primary analysis, we demonstrate an adverse impact of ASCT on QoL which was largest at 4 months and continued throughout the first year after randomization. Further, we demonstrated a sustained adverse impact of relapse on QoL which worsened over time. Despite better disease control by ASCT the side effects thus turned the net effect towards inferior QoL in the first year and comparable QoL in the following two years after randomization. This study emphasizes the importance of information concerning QoL impacts when patients are counseled about treatments aimed at improving RFS in the absence of a survival benefit.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.