Our understanding of the role of protein O-GlcNAcylation in the regulation of the cardiovascular system has increased rapidly in recent years. Studies have linked increased O-GlcNAc levels to glucose toxicity and diabetic complications; conversely, acute activation of O-GlcNAcylation has been shown to be cardioprotective. However, it is also increasingly evident that O-GlcNAc turnover plays a central role in the delicate regulation of the cardiovascular system. Therefore the goals of this review are to summarize our current understanding of how changes in O-GlcNAcylation influence cardiovascular pathophysiology and to highlight the evidence that O-GlcNAc cycling is critical for normal function of the cardiovascular system.
Circadian clocks are cell autonomous, transcriptionally based, molecular mechanisms that confer the selective advantage of anticipation, enabling cells/organs to respond to environmental factors in a temporally appropriate manner. Critical to circadian clock function are 2 transcription factors, CLOCK and BMAL1. The purpose of the present study was to reveal novel physiologic functions of BMAL1 in the heart, as well as to determine the pathologic consequences of chronic disruption of this circadian clock component. To address this goal, we generated cardiomyocyte-specific Bmal1 knockout (CBK) mice. Following validation of the CBK model, combined microarray and in silico analyses were performed, identifying 19 putative direct BMAL1 target genes, which included a number of metabolic (e.g., ?-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase 1 [Bdh1]) and signaling (e.g., the p85? regulatory subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase [Pik3r1]) genes. Results from subsequent validation studies were consistent with regulation of Bdh1 and Pik3r1 by BMAL1, with predicted impairments in ketone body metabolism and signaling observed in CBK hearts. Furthermore, CBK hearts exhibited depressed glucose utilization, as well as a differential response to a physiologic metabolic stress (i.e., fasting). Consistent with BMAL1 influencing critical functions in the heart, echocardiographic, gravimetric, histologic, and molecular analyses revealed age-onset development of dilated cardiomyopathy in CBK mice, which was associated with a severe reduction in life span. Collectively, our studies reveal that BMAL1 influences metabolism, signaling, and contractile function of the heart.
Autophagy is a lysosome-mediated intracellular protein degradation process that involves about 38 autophagy-related genes as well as key signaling pathways that sense cellular metabolic and redox status, and has an important role in quality control of macromolecules and organelles. As with other major cellular pathways, autophagy proteins are subjected to regulatory post-translational modification. Phosphorylation is so far the most intensively studied post-translational modification in the autophagy process, followed by ubiquitination and acetylation. An interesting and new area is also now emerging, which appears to complement these more traditional mechanisms, and includes O-GlcNAcylation and redox regulation at thiol residues. Identification of the full spectrum of post-translational modifications of autophagy proteins, and determination of their impact on autophagy will be crucial for a better understanding of autophagy regulation, its deficits in diseases, and how to exploit this process for disease therapies.Laboratory Investigation advance online publication, 3 November 2014; doi:10.1038/labinvest.2014.131.
High-fat, low-carbohydrate diets (HFLCD) are often eaten by humans for a variety of reasons, but the effects of such diets on the heart are incompletely understood. We evaluated the impact of HFLCD on myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) using an in vivo model of left anterior descending coronary artery ligation. Sprague-Dawley rats (300 g) were fed HFLCD (60% calories fat, 30% protein, 10% carbohydrate) or control (CONT; 16% fat, 19% protein, 65% carbohydrate) diet for 2 wk and then underwent open chest I/R. At baseline (preischemia), diet did not affect left ventricular (LV) systolic and diastolic function. Oil red O staining revealed presence of lipid in the heart with HFLCD but not in CONT. Following I/R, recovery of LV function was decreased in HFLCD. HFLCD hearts exhibited decreased ATP synthase and increased uncoupling protein-3 gene and protein expression. HFLCD downregulated mitochondrial fusion proteins and upregulated fission proteins and store-operated Ca(2+) channel proteins. HFLCD led to increased death during I/R; 6 of 22 CONT rats and 16 of 26 HFLCD rats died due to ventricular arrhythmias and hemodynamic shock. In surviving rats, HFLCD led to larger infarct size. We concluded that in vivo HFLCD does not affect nonischemic LV function but leads to greater myocardial injury during I/R, with increased risk of death by pump failure and ventricular arrhythmias, which might be associated with altered cardiac energetics, mitochondrial fission/fusion dynamics, and store-operated Ca(2+) channel expression.
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca(2+) sensor stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1) has been implicated as a key mediator of store-dependent and store-independent Ca(2+) entry pathways and maintenance of ER structure. STIM1 is present in embryonic, neonatal, and adult cardiomyocytes and has been strongly implicated in hypertrophic signaling; however, the physiological role of STIM1 in the adult heart remains unknown. We, therefore, developed a novel cardiomyocyte-restricted STIM1 knockout ((cr)STIM1-KO) mouse. In cardiomyocytes isolated from (cr)STIM1-KO mice, STIM1 expression was reduced by ?92% with no change in the expression of related store-operated Ca(2+) entry proteins, STIM2, and Orai1. Immunoblot analyses revealed that (cr)STIM1-KO hearts exhibited increased ER stress from 12 wk, as indicated by increased levels of the transcription factor C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), one of the terminal markers of ER stress. Transmission electron microscopy revealed ER dilatation, mitochondrial disorganization, and increased numbers of smaller mitochondria in (cr)STIM1-KO hearts, which was associated with increased mitochondrial fission. Using serial echocardiography and histological analyses, we observed a progressive decline in cardiac function in (cr)STIM1-KO mice, starting at 20 wk of age, which was associated with marked left ventricular dilatation by 36 wk. In addition, we observed the presence of an inflammatory infiltrate and evidence of cardiac fibrosis from 20 wk in (cr)STIM1-KO mice, which progressively worsened by 36 wk. These data demonstrate for the first time that STIM1 plays an essential role in normal cardiac function in the adult heart, which may be important for the regulation of ER and mitochondrial function.
Vascular calcification is a serious cardiovascular complication that contributes to the increased morbidity and mortality of patients with diabetes mellitus. Hyperglycemia, a hallmark of diabetes mellitus, is associated with increased vascular calcification and increased modification of proteins by O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAcylation).
Serine phosphorylation of AMPA receptor (AMPAR) subunits GluA1 and GluA2 modulates AMPAR trafficking during long-term changes in strength of hippocampal excitatory transmission required for normal learning and memory. The post-translational addition and removal of O-linked ?-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) also occurs on serine residues. This, together with the high expression of the enzymes O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) and ?-N-acetylglucosamindase (O-GlcNAcase), suggests a potential role for O-GlcNAcylation in modifying synaptic efficacy and cognition. Furthermore, because key synaptic proteins are O-GlcNAcylated, this modification may be as important to brain function as phosphorylation, yet its physiological significance remains unknown. We report that acutely increasing O-GlcNAcylation in Sprague Dawley rat hippocampal slices induces an NMDA receptor and protein kinase C-independent long-term depression (LTD) at hippocampal CA3-CA1 synapses (O-GcNAc LTD). This LTD requires AMPAR GluA2 subunits, which we demonstrate are O-GlcNAcylated. Increasing O-GlcNAcylation interferes with long-term potentiation, and in hippocampal behavioral assays, it prevents novel object recognition and placement without affecting contextual fear conditioning. Our findings provide evidence that O-GlcNAcylation dynamically modulates hippocampal synaptic function and learning and memory, and suggest that altered O-GlcNAc levels could underlie cognitive dysfunction in neurological diseases.
Store-operated Ca²? entry (SOCE) is critical for Ca²? signaling in nonexcitable cells; however, its role in the regulation of cardiomyocyte Ca²? homeostasis has only recently been investigated. The increased understanding of the role of stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1) in regulating SOCE combined with recent studies demonstrating the presence of STIM1 in cardiomyocytes provides support that this pathway co-exists in the heart with the more widely recognized Ca²? handling pathways associated with excitation-contraction coupling. There is now substantial evidence that STIM1-mediated SOCE plays a key role in mediating cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, both in vitro and in vivo, and there is growing support for the contribution of SOCE to Ca²? overload associated with ischemia/reperfusion injury. Here, we provide an overview of our current understanding of the molecular regulation of SOCE and discuss the evidence supporting the role of STIM1/Orai1-mediated SOCE in regulating cardiomyocyte function.
The cardiomyocyte circadian clock directly regulates multiple myocardial functions in a time-of-day-dependent manner, including gene expression, metabolism, contractility, and ischemic tolerance. These same biological processes are also directly influenced by modification of proteins by monosaccharides of O-linked ?-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc). Because the circadian clock and protein O-GlcNAcylation have common regulatory roles in the heart, we hypothesized that a relationship exists between the two. We report that total cardiac protein O-GlcNAc levels exhibit a diurnal variation in mouse hearts, peaking during the active/awake phase. Genetic ablation of the circadian clock specifically in cardiomyocytes in vivo abolishes diurnal variations in cardiac O-GlcNAc levels. These time-of-day-dependent variations appear to be mediated by clock-dependent regulation of O-GlcNAc transferase and O-GlcNAcase protein levels, glucose metabolism/uptake, and glutamine synthesis in an NAD-independent manner. We also identify the clock component Bmal1 as an O-GlcNAc-modified protein. Increasing protein O-GlcNAcylation (through pharmacological inhibition of O-GlcNAcase) results in diminished Per2 protein levels, time-of-day-dependent induction of bmal1 gene expression, and phase advances in the suprachiasmatic nucleus clock. Collectively, these data suggest that the cardiomyocyte circadian clock increases protein O-GlcNAcylation in the heart during the active/awake phase through coordinated regulation of the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway and that protein O-GlcNAcylation in turn influences the timing of the circadian clock.
The post-translational modification of serine and threonine residues of nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins by the O-linked attachment of the monosaccharide ?-N-acetyl-glucosamine (O-GlcNAc) is emerging as an important mechanism for the regulation of numerous biological processes critical for normal cell function. Active synthesis of O-GlcNAc is essential for cell viability and acute activation of pathways resulting in increased protein O-GlcNAc levels improves the tolerance of cells to a wide range of stress stimuli. Conversely sustained increases in O-GlcNAc levels have been implicated in numerous chronic disease states, especially as a pathogenic contributor to diabetic complications. There has been increasing interest in the role of O-GlcNAc in the heart and vascular system and acute activation of O-GlcNAc levels have been shown to reduce ischemia/reperfusion injury, attenuate vascular injury responses as well mediate some of the detrimental effects of diabetes and hypertension on cardiac and vascular function. Here we provide an overview of our current understanding of pathways regulating protein O-GlcNAcylation, summarize the different methodologies for identifying and characterizing O-GlcNAcylated proteins and subsequently focus on two emerging areas: 1) the role of O-GlcNAc as a potential regulator of cardiac metabolism and 2) the cross talk between O-GlcNAc and reactive oxygen species. This article is part of a Special Section entitled "Post-translational Modification."
We have shown that glucosamine (GlcN) or O-(2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-glucopyranosylidene)amino-N-phenylcarbamate (PUGNAc) treatment augments O-linked-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) protein modification and attenuates inflammatory mediator expression, leukocyte infiltration and neointima formation in balloon injured rat carotid arteries and have identified the arterial smooth muscle cell (SMC) as the target cell in the injury response. NF?B signaling has been shown to mediate the expression of inflammatory genes and neointima formation in injured arteries. Phosphorylation of the p65 subunit of NF?B is required for the transcriptional activation of NF?B. This study tested the hypothesis that GlcN or PUGNAc treatment protects vascular SMCs against tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? induced inflammatory stress by enhancing O-GlcNAcylation and inhibiting TNF-? induced phosphorylation of NF?B p65, thus inhibiting NF?B signaling.
It is now clear that mitochondria are an important target for oxidative stress in a broad range of pathologies, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, neurodegeneration, and cancer. Methods for assessing the impact of reactive species on isolated mitochondria are well established but constrained by the need for large amounts of material to prepare intact mitochondria for polarographic measurements. With the availability of high-resolution polarography and fluorescence techniques for the measurement of oxygen concentration in solution, measurements of mitochondrial function in intact cells can be made. Recently, the development of extracellular flux methods to monitor changes in oxygen concentration and pH in cultures of adherent cells in multiple-sample wells simultaneously has greatly enhanced the ability to measure bioenergetic function in response to oxidative stress. Here we describe these methods in detail using representative cell types from renal, cardiovascular, nervous, and tumorigenic model systems while illustrating the application of three protocols to analyze the bioenergetic response of cells to oxidative stress.
There has been a resurgence of interest for the field of cardiac metabolism catalysed by the increased need for new therapeutic targets for patients with heart failure. The primary focus of research in this area to date has been on the impact of substrate selection for oxidative energy metabolism; however, anaplerotic metabolism also has significant interest for its potential cardioprotective role. Anaplerosis refers to metabolic pathways that replenish the citric acid cycle intermediates, which are essential to energy metabolism; however, our understanding of the role and regulation of this process in the heart, particularly under pathophysiological conditions, is very limited. Therefore, the goal of this article is to provide a foundation for future directions of research on cardiac anaplerosis and heart disease. We include an overview of anaplerotic metabolism, a critical evaluation of current methods available for its quantitation in the intact heart, and a discussion of its role and regulation both in health and disease as it is currently understood based mostly on animal studies. We also consider genetic diseases affecting anaplerotic pathways in humans and acute intervention studies with anaplerotic substrates in the clinics. Finally, as future perspectives, we will share our thoughts about potential benefits and practical considerations on modalities of interventions targeting anaplerosis in heart disease, including heart failure.
The hexosamine biosynthesis pathway (HBP) flux and protein O-linked N-acetyl-glucosamine (O-GlcNAc) levels have been implicated in mediating the adverse effects of diabetes in the cardiovascular system. Activation of these pathways with glucosamine has been shown to mimic some of the diabetes-induced functional and structural changes in the heart; however, the effect on cardiac metabolism is not known. Therefore, the primary goal of this study was to determine the effects of glucosamine on cardiac substrate utilization.
Cardiac dysfunction and mortality associated with trauma and sepsis increase with age. Mitochondria play a critical role in the energy demand of cardiac muscles, and thereby on the function of the heart. Specific molecular pathways responsible for mitochondrial functional alterations after injury in relation to aging are largely unknown. To further investigate this, 6- and 22-month-old rats were subjected to trauma-hemorrhage (T-H) or sham operation and euthanized following resuscitation. Left ventricular tissue was profiled using our custom rodent mitochondrial gene chip (RoMitochip). Our experiments demonstrated a declined left ventricular performance and decreased alteration in mitochondrial gene expression with age following T-H and we have identified c-Myc, a pleotropic transcription factor, to be the most upregulated gene in 6- and 22-month-old rats after T-H. Following T-H, while 142 probe sets were altered significantly (39 up and 103 down) in 6-month-old rats, only 66 were altered (30 up and 36 down) in 22-month-old rats; 36 probe sets (11 up and 25 down) showed the same trend in both groups. The expression of c-Myc and cardiac death promoting gene Bnip3 were increased, and Pgc1-? and Ppar-? a decreased following T-H. Eleven tRNA transcripts on mtDNA were upregulated following T-H in the aged animals, compared with the sham group. Our observations suggest a c-myc-regulated mitochondrial dysfunction following T-H injury and marked decrease in age-dependent changes in the transcriptional profile of mitochondrial genes following T-H, possibly indicating cellular senescence. To our knowledge, this is the first report on mitochondrial gene expression profile following T-H in relation to aging.
Acute increases in O-linked ?-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) levels of cardiac proteins exert protective effects against ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. One strategy to rapidly increase cellular O-GlcNAc levels is inhibition of O-GlcNAcase (OGA), which catalyzes O-GlcNAc removal. Here we tested the cardioprotective efficacy of two novel and highly selective OGA inhibitors, the NAG-thiazoline derivatives NAG-Bt and NAG-Ae. Isolated perfused rat hearts were subjected to 20 min global ischemia followed by 60 min reperfusion. At the time of reperfusion, hearts were assigned to the following four groups: 1) untreated control; 2) 50 ?M NAG-Bt; 3) 100 ?M NAG-Bt; or 4) 50 ?M NAG-Ae. All treatment groups significantly increased total O-GlcNAc levels (P < 0.05 vs. control), and this was significantly correlated with improved contractile function and reduced cardiac troponin I release (P < 0.05). Immunohistochemistry of normoxic hearts showed intense nuclear O-GlcNAc staining and higher intensity at Z-lines with colocalization of O-GlcNAc and the Z-line proteins desmin and vinculin. After I/R, there was a marked loss of both cytosolic and nuclear O-GlcNAcylation and disruption of normal striated Z-line structures. OGA inhibition largely preserved structural integrity and attenuated the loss of O-GlcNAcylation; however, nuclear O-GlcNAc levels remained low. Immunoblot analysis confirmed ?50% loss in both nuclear and cytosolic O-GlcNAcylation following I/R, which was significantly attenuated by OGA inhibition (P < 0.05). These data provide further support for the notion that increasing cardiac O-GlcNAc levels by inhibiting OGA may be a clinically relevant approach for ischemic cardioprotection, in part, by preserving the integrity of O-GlcNAc-associated Z-line protein structures.
Patients with diabetes have a much greater risk of developing heart failure than non-diabetic patients, particularly in response to an additional hemodynamic stress such as hypertension or infarction. Previous studies have shown that increased glucose metabolism via the hexosamine biosynthesis pathway (HBP) and associated increase in O-linked-?-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) levels on proteins contributed to the adverse effects of diabetes on the heart. Therefore, in this study we tested the hypothesis that diabetes leads to impaired cardiomyocyte hypertrophic and cell signaling pathways due to increased HBP flux and O-GlcNAc modification on proteins. Cardiomyocytes isolated from type 2 diabetic db/db mice and non-diabetic controls were treated with 1 ?M ANG angiotensin II (ANG) and 10 ?M phenylephrine (PE) for 24 h. Activation of hypertrophic and cell signaling pathways was determined by assessing protein expression levels of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), ?-sarcomeric actin, p53, Bax and Bcl-2 and phosphorylation of p38, ERK and Akt. ANG II and PE significantly increased levels of ANP and ?-actin and phosphorylation of p38 and ERK in the non-diabetic but not in the diabetic group; phosphorylation of Akt was unchanged irrespective of group or treatment. Constitutive Bcl-2 levels were lower in diabetic hearts, while there was no difference in p53 and Bax. Activation of the HBP and increased protein O-GlcNAcylation in non-diabetic cardiomyocytes exhibited a significantly decreased hypertrophic signaling response to ANG or PE compared to control cells. Inhibition of the HBP partially restored the hypertrophic signaling response of diabetic cardiomyocytes. These results suggest that activation of the HBP and protein O-GlcNAcylation modulates hypertrophic and cell signaling pathways in type 2 diabetes.
Studies of post-translational modification by beta-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (O-GlcNAc) are hampered by a lack of efficient tools such as O-GlcNAc-specific antibodies that can be used for detection, isolation and site localization. We have obtained a large panel of O-GlcNAc-specific IgG monoclonal antibodies having a broad spectrum of binding partners by combining three-component immunogen methodology with hybridoma technology. Immunoprecipitation followed by large-scale shotgun proteomics led to the identification of more than 200 mammalian O-GlcNAc-modified proteins, including a large number of new glycoproteins. A substantial number of the glycoproteins were enriched by only one of the antibodies. This observation, combined with the results of inhibition ELISAs, suggests that the antibodies, in addition to their O-GlcNAc dependence, also appear to have different but overlapping local peptide determinants. The monoclonal antibodies made it possible to delineate differentially modified proteins of liver in response to trauma-hemorrhage and resuscitation in a rat model.
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) (alpha, gamma, and delta/beta) are nuclear hormone receptors and ligand-activated transcription factors that serve as key determinants of myocardial fatty acid metabolism. Long-term cardiomyocyte-restricted PPARdelta deficiency in mice leads to depressed myocardial fatty acid oxidation, bioenergetics, and premature death with lipotoxic cardiomyopathy.
Mitochondria play a critical role in mediating the cellular response to oxidants formed during acute and chronic cardiac dysfunction. It is widely assumed that, as cells are subjected to stress, mitochondria are capable of drawing upon a reserve capacity which is available to serve the increased energy demands for maintenance of organ function, cellular repair or detoxification of reactive species. This hypothesis further implies that impairment or depletion of this putative reserve capacity ultimately leads to excessive protein damage and cell death. However, it has been difficult to fully evaluate this hypothesis since much of our information about the response of the mitochondrion to oxidative stress derives from studies on mitochondria isolated from their cellular context. Therefore the goal of the present study was to determine whether bioenergetic reserve capacity does indeed exist in the intact myocyte and whether it is utilized in response to stress induced by the pathologically relevant reactive lipid species HNE (4-hydroxynonenal). We found that intact rat neonatal ventricular myocytes exhibit a substantial bioenergetic reserve capacity under basal conditions; however, on exposure to pathologically relevant concentrations of HNE, oxygen consumption was increased until this reserve capacity was depleted. Exhaustion of the reserve capacity by HNE treatment resulted in inhibition of respiration concomitant with protein modification and cell death. These data suggest that oxidized lipids could contribute to myocyte injury by decreasing the bioenergetic reserve capacity. Furthermore, these studies demonstrate the utility of measuring the bioenergetic reserve capacity for assessing or predicting the response of cells to stress.
Systemic inflammation induces a multiple organ dysfunction syndrome that contributes to morbidity and mortality in septic patients. Since increasing plasma apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) and HDL may reduce the complications of sepsis, we tested the hypothesis that the apoA-I mimetic peptide 4F confers similar protective effects in rats undergoing cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) injury. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to undergo CLP or sham surgery. IL-6 levels were significantly elevated in plasma by 6 h after CLP surgery compared with shams. In subsequent studies, CLP rats were further subdivided to receive vehicle or 4F (10 mg/kg) by intraperitoneal injection, 6 h after sepsis induction. Sham-operated rats received saline. Echocardiographic studies showed a reduction in left ventricular end-diastolic volume, stroke volume, and cardiac output (CO) 24 h after CLP surgery. These changes were associated with reduced blood volume and left ventricular filling pressure. 4F treatment improved blood volume status, increased CO, and reduced plasma IL-6 in CLP rats. Total cholesterol (TC) and HDL were 79 +/- 5 and 61 +/- 4 mg/dl, respectively, in sham rats. TC was significantly reduced in CLP rats (54 +/- 3 mg/dl) due to a reduction in HDL (26 +/- 3 mg/dl). 4F administration to CLP rats attenuated the reduction in TC (69 +/- 4 mg/dl) and HDL (41 +/- 3 mg/dl) and prevented sepsis-induced changes in HDL protein composition. Increased plasma HDL in 4F-treated CLP rats was associated with an improvement in CO and reduced mortality. It is proposed that protective effects of 4F are related to its ability to prevent the sepsis-induced reduction in plasma HDL.
The modification of serine and threonine residues of nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins by O-linked beta-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) has emerged as a highly dynamic post-translational modification that plays a critical role in regulating numerous biological processes. Much of our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the role of O-GlcNAc on cellular function has been in the context of its adverse effects in mediating a range of chronic disease processes, including diabetes, cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. However, at the cellular level it has been shown that O-GlcNAc levels are increased in response to stress; augmentation of this response improved cell survival while attenuation decreased cell viability. Thus, it has become apparent that strategies that augment O-GlcNAc levels are pro-survival, whereas those that reduce O-GlcNAc levels decrease cell survival. There is a long history demonstrating the effectiveness of acute glucose-insulin-potassium (GIK) treatment and to a lesser extent glutamine in protecting against a range of stresses, including myocardial ischemia. A common feature of these approaches for metabolic cardioprotection is that they both have the potential to stimulate O-GlcNAc synthesis. Consequently, here we examine the links between metabolic cardioprotection with the ischemic cardioprotection associated with acute increases in O-GlcNAc levels. Some of the protective mechanisms associated with activation of O-GlcNAcylation appear to be transcriptionally mediated; however, there is also strong evidence to suggest that transcriptionally independent mechanisms also play a critical role. In this context we discuss the potential link between O-GlcNAcylation and cardiomyocyte calcium homeostasis including the role of non-voltage gated, capacitative calcium entry as a potential mechanism contributing to this protection.
The posttranslational modification of serine and threonine residues of nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins by the O-linked attachment of the monosaccharide beta-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) is a highly dynamic and ubiquitous protein modification. Protein O-GlcNAcylation is rapidly emerging as a key regulator of critical biological processes including nuclear transport, translation and transcription, signal transduction, cytoskeletal reorganization, proteasomal degradation, and apoptosis. Increased levels of O-GlcNAc have been implicated as a pathogenic contributor to glucose toxicity and insulin resistance, which are both major hallmarks of diabetes mellitus and diabetes-related cardiovascular complications. Conversely, there is a growing body of data demonstrating that the acute activation of O-GlcNAc levels is an endogenous stress response designed to enhance cell survival. Reports on the effect of altered O-GlcNAc levels on the heart and cardiovascular system have been growing rapidly over the past few years and have implicated a role for O-GlcNAc in contributing to the adverse effects of diabetes on cardiovascular function as well as mediating the response to ischemic injury. Here, we summarize our present understanding of protein O-GlcNAcylation and its effect on the regulation of cardiovascular function. We examine the pathways regulating protein O-GlcNAcylation and discuss, in more detail, our understanding of the role of O-GlcNAc in both mediating the adverse effects of diabetes as well as its role in mediating cellular protective mechanisms in the cardiovascular system. In addition, we also explore the parallels between O-GlcNAc signaling and redox signaling, as an alternative paradigm for understanding the role of O-GlcNAcylation in regulating cell function.
We have previously demonstrated that in a rat model of trauma-hemorrhage (T-H), glucosamine administration during resuscitation improved cardiac function, reduced circulating levels of inflammatory cytokines, and increased tissue levels of O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) on proteins. The mechanism(s) by which glucosamine mediated its protective effect were not determined; therefore, the goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that glucosamine treatment attenuated the activation of the nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) signaling pathway in the heart via an increase in protein O-GlcNAc levels. Fasted male rats were subjected to T-H by bleeding to a mean arterial blood pressure of 40 mmHg for 90 min followed by resuscitation. Glucosamine treatment during resuscitation significantly attenuated the T-H-induced increase in cardiac levels of TNF-alpha and IL-6 mRNA, IkappaB-alpha phosphorylation, NF-kappaB, NF-kappaB DNA binding activity, ICAM-1, and MPO activity. LPS (2 microg/ml) increased the levels of IkappaB-alpha phosphorylation, TNF-alpha, ICAM-1, and NF-kappaB in primary cultured cardiomyocytes, which was significantly attenuated by glucosamine treatment and overexpression of O-GlcNAc transferase; both interventions also significantly increased O-GlcNAc levels. In contrast, the transfection of neonatal rat ventricular myocytes with OGT small-interfering RNA decreased O-GlcNAc transferase and O-GlcNAc levels and enhanced the LPS-induced increase in IkappaB-alpha phosphorylation. Glucosamine treatment of macrophage cell line RAW 264.7 also increased O-GlcNAc levels and attenuated the LPS-induced activation of NF-kappaB. These results demonstrate that the modulation of O-GlcNAc levels alters the response of cardiomyocytes to the activation of the NF-kappaB pathway, which may contribute to the glucosamine-mediated improvement in cardiac function following hemorrhagic shock.
Genetic rodent models of type 2 diabetes are routinely utilized in studies of diabetes-related cardiovascular disease; however, these models frequently exhibit abnormalities that are not consistent with diabetic complications. The aim of this study was to develop a model of type 2 diabetes that exhibits evidence of cardiovascular dysfunction commonly seen in patients with diabetes with minimal nondiabetes-related pathologies. Young male rats received either control (Con), high-fat (HF; 60%), or Western (Wes; 40% fat, 45% carbohydrate) diets for 2 wk after which streptozotocin (2 x 35 mg/kg ip 24 h apart) was administered to induce diabetes (Dia). Blood glucose levels were higher in Con + Dia and Wes + Dia groups compared with the HF + Dia group (25 +/- 1, 25 +/- 2, and 15 +/- 1 mmol/l, respectively; P < 0.05) group. Liver, kidney, and pancreatic dysfunction and cardiomyocyte lipid accumulation were found in all diabetic animals. Despite lower heart rates in Con + Dia and HF + Dia groups, arterial and left ventricular pressures were not different between any of the experimental groups. All three diabetic groups had diastolic dysfunction, but only HF + Dia and Wes + Dia groups exhibited elevated diastolic wall stress, arterial stiffness (augmentation index), and systolic dysfunction (velocity of circumferential shortening, systolic wall stress). Surprisingly, we found that left ventricular dysfunction and arterial stiffness were more pronounced in the HF + Dia than the Con + Dia group and was similar to the Wes + Dia group despite significantly lower levels of hyperglycemia compared with either group. In conclusion, the HF + Dia group exhibited a stable, modest level of hyperglycemia, which was associated with cardiac dysfunction comparable with that seen in moderate to advanced stages of human type 2 diabetes.
There is increasing evidence that O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) plays an important role in cell signaling pathways. It has also been reported that increases in O-GlcNAc contribute to the development of diabetes and diabetic complications; however, little is known about O-GlcNAc levels in diabetic nephropathy (DNP). Therefore the goal of this study was to determine whether O-GlcNAc could be detected in human kidney biopsy specimens, and if so to examine whether O-GlcNAc levels were increased in the kidneys of patients with DNP compared to the non-diabetic individuals.
Glutamine, the most abundant amino acid in plasma, has attracted considerable interest for its cardioprotective properties. The primary effect of glutamine in the heart is commonly believed to be mediated via its anaplerotic metabolism to citric acid cycle (CAC) intermediates; however, there is little direct evidence to support this concept. Another potential candidate is the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway (HBP), which has recently been shown to modulate cardiomyocyte function and metabolism. Therefore, the goal of this study was to evaluate the contribution of anaplerosis and the HBP to the acute metabolic effects of glutamine in the heart. Normoxic ex vivo working rat hearts were perfused with (13)C-labeled substrates to assess relevant metabolic fluxes either with a physiological mixture of carbohydrates and a fatty acid (control) or under conditions of restricted pyruvate anaplerosis. Addition of a physiological concentration of glutamine (0.5mM) had no effect on contractile function of hearts perfused under the control condition, but improved that of hearts perfused under restricted pyruvate anaplerosis. Changes in CAC intermediate concentrations as well as (13)C-enrichment from [U-(13)C]glutamine did not support a major role of glutamine anaplerosis under any conditions. Under the control condition, however, glutamine significantly increased the contribution of exogenous oleate to ?-oxidation, 1.6-fold, and triglyceride formation, 2.8-fold. Glutamine had no effect on malonyl-CoA or AMP kinase activity levels; however, it resulted in a higher plasma membrane level of the fatty acid transporter CD36. These metabolic effects of glutamine were reversed by azaserine, which inhibits glucose entry into the HPB. Our results reveal a metabolic role of physiological concentration of glutamine in the healthy working heart beyond anaplerosis. This role appears to involve the HBP and regulation of fatty acid entry and metabolism via CD36. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Focus on Cardiac Metabolism".
Store-operated calcium entry (SOCE) is a major Ca(2+) signaling pathway responsible for regulating numerous transcriptional events. In cardiomyocytes SOCE has been shown to play an important role in regulating hypertrophic signaling pathways, including nuclear translocation of NFAT. Acute activation of pathways leading to O-GlcNAc synthesis have been shown to impair SOCE-mediated transcription and in diabetes, where O-GlcNAc levels are chronically elevated, cardiac hypertrophic signaling is also impaired. Therefore the goal of this study was to determine whether changes in cardiomyocyte O-GlcNAc levels impaired the function of STIM1, a widely recognized mediator of SOCE. We demonstrated that acute activation of SOCE in neonatal cardiomyocytes resulted in STIM1 puncta formation, which was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by increasing O-GlcNAc synthesis with glucosamine or inhibiting O-GlcNAcase with thiamet-G. Glucosamine and thiamet-G also inhibited SOCE and were associated with increased O-GlcNAc modification of STIM1. These results suggest that activation of cardiomyocyte O-GlcNAcylation attenuates SOCE via STIM1 O-GlcNAcylation and that this may represent a new mechanism by which increased O-GlcNAc levels regulate Ca(2+)-mediated events in cardiomyocytes. Further, since SOCE is a fundamental mechanism underlying Ca(2+) signaling in most cells and tissues, it is possible that STIM1 represents a nexus linking protein O-GlcNAcylation with Ca(2+)-mediated transcription.
The post-translation attachment of O-linked N-acetylglucosamine, or O-GlcNAc, to serine and threonine residues of nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins is increasingly recognized as a key regulator of diverse cellular processes. O-GlcNAc synthesis is essential for cell survival and it has been shown that acute activation of pathways, which increase cellular O-GlcNAc levels is cytoprotective; however, prolonged increases in O-GlcNAcylation have been implicated in a number of chronic diseases. Glucose metabolism via the hexosamine biosynthesis pathway plays a central role in regulating O-GlcNAc synthesis; consequently, sustained increases in O-GlcNAc levels have been implicated in glucose toxicity and insulin resistance. Studies on the role of O-GlcNAc in regulating cardiomyocyte function have grown rapidly over the past decade and there is growing evidence that increased O-GlcNAc levels contribute to the adverse effects of diabetes on the heart, including impaired contractility, calcium handling, and abnormal stress responses. Recent evidence also suggests that O-GlcNAc plays a role in epigenetic control of gene transcription. The goal of this review is to provide an overview of our current knowledge about the regulation of protein O-GlcNAcylation and to explore in more detail O-GlcNAc-mediated responses in the diabetic heart.
The posttranslational modification of nuclear and cytosolic proteins by O-linked ?-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) has been shown to play an important role in cellular response to stress. Although increases in O-GlcNAc levels have typically been thought to be substrate-driven, studies in several transformed cell lines reported that glucose deprivation increased O-GlcNAc levels by a number of different mechanisms. A major goal of this study therefore was to determine whether in primary cells, such as neonatal cardiomyocytes, glucose deprivation increases O-GlcNAc levels and if so by what mechanism. Glucose deprivation significantly increased cardiomyocyte O-GlcNAc levels in a time-dependent manner and was associated with decreased O-GlcNAcase (OGA) but not O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) protein. This response was unaffected by either the addition of pyruvate as an alternative energy source or by the p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580. However, the response to glucose deprivation was blocked completely by glucosamine, but not by inhibition of OGA with 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-d-glucopyranosylidene)amino-N-phenylcarbamate. Interestingly, the CaMKII inhibitor KN93 also significantly reduced the response to glucose deprivation. Lowering extracellular Ca(2+) with EGTA or blocking store operated Ca(2+) entry with SKF96365 also attenuated the glucose deprivation-induced increase in O-GlcNAc. In C2C12 and HEK293 cells both glucose deprivation and heat shock increased O-GlcNAc levels, and CaMKII inhibitor KN93 attenuated the response to both stresses. These results suggest that increased intracellular calcium and subsequent activation of CaMKII play a key role in regulating the stress-induced increase in cellular O-GlcNAc levels.
Acute increases in cellular protein O-linked N-acetyl-glucosamine (O-GlcNAc) modification (O-GlcNAcylation) have been shown to have protective effects in the heart and vasculature. We hypothesized that d-glucosamine (d-GlcN) and Thiamet-G, two agents that increase protein O-GlcNAcylation via different mechanisms, inhibit TNF-?-induced oxidative stress and vascular dysfunction by suppressing inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase (iNOS) expression. Rat aortic rings were incubated for 3h at 37°C with d-GlcN or its osmotic control l-glucose (l-Glc) or with Thiamet-G or its vehicle control (H(2)O) followed by the addition of TNF-? or vehicle (H(2)O) for 21 h. After incubation, rings were mounted in a myograph to assess arterial reactivity. Twenty-four hours of incubation of aortic rings with TNF-? resulted in 1) a hypocontractility to 60 mM K(+) solution and phenylephrine, 2) blunted endothelium-dependent relaxation responses to ACh and substance P, and 3) unaltered relaxing response to the Ca(2+) ionophore A-23187 and the NO donor sodium nitroprusside compared with aortic rings cultured in the absence of TNF-?. d-GlcN and Thiamet-G pretreatment suppressed the TNF-?-induced hypocontractility and endothelial dysfunction. Total protein O-GlcNAc levels were significantly higher in aortic segments treated with d-GlcN or Thiamet-G compared with controls. Expression of iNOS protein was increased in TNF-?-treated rings, and this was attenuated by pretreatment with either d-GlcN or Thiamet-G. Dense immunostaining for nitrotyrosylated proteins was detected in the endothelium and media of the aortic wall, suggesting enhanced peroxynitrite production by iNOS. These findings demonstrate that acute increases in protein O-GlcNAcylation prevent TNF-?-induced vascular dysfunction, at least in part, via suppression of iNOS expression.
On a daily basis, the heart is subjected to dramatic fluctuations in energetic demand and neurohumoral influences, many of which occur in a temporally predictable manner. In order to preserve cardiac performance, the heart must therefore maintain metabolic flexibility, even within the confines of a single day. Recent studies have established mechanistic links between time-of-day-dependent oscillations in myocardial metabolism and the cardiomyocyte circadian clock. More specifically, evidence suggests that this cell autonomous molecular mechanism regulates myocardial glucose uptake, flux through both glycolysis and the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway, and pyruvate oxidation, as well as glycogen, triglyceride, and protein turnover. These observations have led to the hypothesis that the cardiomyocyte circadian clock confers the selective advantage of anticipation of increased energetic demand during the awake period. Here, we review the accumulative evidence in support of this hypothesis thus far, and discuss the possibility that attenuation of these metabolic rhythms, through disruption of the cardiomyocyte circadian clock, contributes towards the etiology of cardiac dysfunction in various disease states. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Focus on Cardiac Metabolism".
First-generation calcium channel blockers such as verapamil are a widely used class of antihypertensive drugs that block L-type calcium channels. We recently discovered that they also reduce cardiac expression of proapoptotic thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP), suggesting that they may have unappreciated transcriptional effects. By use of TXNIP promoter deletion and mutation studies, we found that a CCAAT element was mediating verapamil-induced transcriptional repression and identified nuclear factor Y (NFY) to be the responsible transcription factor as assessed by overexpression/knockdown and luciferase and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays in cardiomyocytes and in vivo in diabetic mice receiving oral verapamil. We further discovered that increased NFY-DNA binding was associated with histone H4 deacetylation and transcriptional repression and mediated by inhibition of calcineurin signaling. It is noteworthy that the transcriptional control conferred by this newly identified verapamil-calcineurin-NFY signaling cascade was not limited to TXNIP, suggesting that it may modulate the expression of other NFY targets. Thus, verapamil induces a calcineurin-NFY signaling pathway that controls cardiac gene transcription and apoptosis and thereby may affect cardiac biology in previously unrecognized ways.
Increased O-linked attachment of ?-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) to proteins has been implicated in the adverse effects of diabetes on the heart, although this has typically been based on models of severe hyperglycemia. Diabetes has also been associated with dysregulation of autophagy, a critical cell survival process; however, little is known regarding autophagy in the diabetic heart or whether this is influenced by O-GlcNAcylation or hemodynamic stress.
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