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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Benign Triton Tumor: Multidisciplinary Approach to Diagnosis and Treatment.
Pediatr. Dev. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 07-14-2014
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Abstract Benign Triton tumor (neuromuscular choristoma) is a rare mass that most commonly occurs as a multinodular expansion of tissue in or around large nerves. Intracranial occurrence is uncommon. We report a 4-year-old girl presenting with a right-sided facial mass and trismus. Imaging revealed a large, complex mass extending from the ventral aspect of the pons, along the trigeminal nerve, through the foramen ovale, and into the right infratemporal fossa. The lesion was partially enhancing, invaded adjacent infratemporal musculature, was associated with marked overgrowth of the right coronoid process and also induced bony erosion of the middle cranial fossa. After needle biopsy, a multidisciplinary team, including plastic surgery, otolaryngology and neurosurgery, performed a combined, multi-step single-day surgical approach for resection. Unique to this case was the resection of the coronoid process, a modified middle fossa intra- and extra-dural approach, coupled with a transfacial infratemporal approach. Microscopically, the resected tissue showed skeletal muscle, fibrous tissue, and nerve in a disorganized arrangement characteristic of benign Triton tumor. We present this case to illustrate diagnostic clues and pitfalls in the preoperative evaluation of benign Triton tumor. We also highlight the pathologist's role as a partner in a multidisciplinary approach to diagnosis and treatment of this rare pediatric mass, potentially the largest Triton tumor in the head reported to date. Key Words: Benign Triton tumor; brain tumor; multidisciplinary; neuromuscular choristoma; rhabdomyoma; skull base.
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Cost-effectiveness of surgery and its policy implications for global health: a systematic review and analysis.
Lancet Glob Health
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2014
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The perception of surgery as expensive and complex might be a barrier to its widespread acceptance in global health efforts. We did a systematic review and analysis of cost-effectiveness studies that assess surgical interventions in low-income and middle-income countries to help quantify the potential value of surgery.
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Merging Medicare Parts A and B: potential effects on beneficiaries, surgeons, and other stakeholders.
Bull Am Coll Surg
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2014
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Describes the reasons Medicare Parts A and B are currently paid under different mechanisms Explains why the time is ripe to merge Parts A and B Examines the potential effects on delivery of patient care, the federal government, and providers
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Surgical outcomes and cultural perceptions in international hypospadias care.
J. Urol.
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2014
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This study was designed to assess perceptions of untreated hypospadias and quality of life in culturally disparate low or middle income countries, to highlight the demographic and care differences of patient groups treated for hypospadias in the surgical workshop context, and to evaluate the long-term outcomes achieved by these workshop groups.
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Assessment of the presence and quality of osteoporosis prevention education among at-risk internal medicine patients.
Consult Pharm
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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Appropriate calcium and vitamin D intake for the prevention of osteoporosis represents an important component of osteoporosis prevention education (OPE). We sought to assess the presence and quality of OPE among osteoporotic and at-risk inpatients.
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Health and economic benefits of improved injury prevention and trauma care worldwide.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Injury is a significant source of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and often disproportionately affects younger, more productive members of society. While many have made the case for improved injury prevention and trauma care, health system development in low- and middle-income countries is often limited by resources. This study aims to determine the economic benefit of improved injury prevention and trauma care in low- and middle-income countries.
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Increasing Value in Plagiocephaly Care: A Time-Driven Activity-Based Costing Pilot Study.
Ann Plast Surg
PUBLISHED: 12-10-2013
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Process management within a health care setting is poorly understood and often leads to an incomplete understanding of the true costs of patient care. Using time-driven activity-based costing methods, we evaluated the high-volume, low-complexity diagnosis of plagiocephaly to increase value within our clinic.
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Risk-adjusted hospital outcomes for childrens surgery.
Pediatrics
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2013
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BACKGROUND The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program-Pediatric was initiated in 2008 to drive quality improvement in childrens surgery. Low mortality and morbidity in previous analyses limited differentiation of hospital performance.
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Early neurodevelopment in infants with deformational plagiocephaly.
J Craniofac Surg
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2013
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The objective of this study was to characterize the early neurodevelopmental profile of Australian infants with deformational plagiocephaly (DP). Twenty-one infants with a confirmed diagnosis of DP (mean age, 7.9 months; SD, 2.0 months) were assessed on the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, Second Edition, before treatment. As a group, infants with DP showed significantly weaker motor skills compared with the normative population. Patients with DP did not significantly differ from normative population estimates with respect to cognitive abilities. Males with DP displayed significantly reduced motor abilities compared to females. These findings do not suggest that DP causes developmental problems, but DP could be a marker for risk of developmental problems. Screening for developmental concerns in infants with DP is therefore important.
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Urologic disease in a resource-poor country.
World J Surg
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2013
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Understanding the role that urologic disease plays within central Haiti could lead to the development of sustainable and regionally appropriate urologic care. We aim to document the prevalence of urologic surgical disease presenting for treatment in central Haiti.
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Better to light a candle: Arthur Barsky and global plastic surgery.
Ann Plast Surg
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2013
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Plastic and reconstructive surgery has had a long history with international humanitarian efforts. As the field of global surgery continues to gain momentum in academic centers throughout the world, the role of the surgical subspecialist in the public health infrastructure of low-resource communities has also begun to gain a new sense of wonder and importance. Arthur Barsky, Jr was arguably one of the most influential forefathers of global plastic surgery. Throughout his notable career spanning most of the 20th century, Barsky remained dedicated to delivering plastic and reconstructive surgical care to the disadvantaged worldwide, as well as educating others to do the same. Although he was not the first surgeon with an interest in global health, Barskys work was unique and influential in its originality, magnitude, and scope. An appreciation and understanding of Barskys groundbreaking work will help inform the future development of sustainable surgical systems in resource-poor settings.
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Ratio of cesarean deliveries to total operations and surgeon nationality are potential proxies for surgical capacity in central Haiti.
World J Surg
PUBLISHED: 06-08-2013
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The World Health Organization has a standardized tool to assess surgical capacity in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), but it is often resource- and time-intensive. There currently exists no simple, evidence-based measure of surgical capacity in these settings. The proportion of cesarean deliveries in regard to the total operations (C/O ratio) has been suggested as a way to assess quickly the capacity for emergency and essential surgery in LMICs. This ratio has been estimated to be between 23.3 and 41.5 % in LMICs, but the tools utility has not been replicated.
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Surgeon migration between developing countries and the United States: train, retain, and gain from brain drain.
World J Surg
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2013
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The critical shortage of surgeons in many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) prevents adequate responses to surgical needs, but the factors that affect surgeon migration have remained incompletely understood. The goal of this study was to examine the importance of personal, professional, and infrastructural factors on surgeon migration from LMICs to the United States. We hypothesized that the main drivers of surgeon migration can be addressed by providing adequate domestic surgical infrastructure, surgical training programs, and viable surgical career paths.
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Risk Factors for Excessive Anticoagulation Among Hospitalized Adults Receiving Warfarin Therapy Using a Pharmacist-Managed Dosing Protocol.
Pharmacotherapy
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2013
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STUDY OBJECTIVE: To identify specific risk factors for excessive anticoagulation, defined as an international normalized ratio (INR) higher than 5, in hospitalized adults receiving warfarin therapy using a pharmacist-managed dosing protocol. DESIGN: Retrospective nested case-control study. SETTING: Large academic tertiary care medical center. PATIENTS: Hospitalized nonsurgical patients 18 years or older who received at least one dose of warfarin according to the pharmacist-managed protocol from January 1, 2009, to January 31, 2012, were included. Patients who experienced an INR higher than 5 were designated as case patients; those who received warfarin for at least as many days as the case patients but who did not experience an INR more than 5 were deemed control patients. Controls were matched to cases in a 2:1 ratio by age, sex, INR goal, and type of warfarin therapy (new start or continuation). MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: A total of 87 case patients were matched to 174 controls. Ten different hypothesized risk factors were examined. Two variables, severity of illness score (odds ratio [OR] 4.89, p<0.001) and poor nutritional status (OR 4.27, p<0.001), demonstrated strong independent associations with risk of excessive anticoagulation. Administration of interacting drugs that highly potentiate warfarins effect (OR 2.26, p=0.011) and concurrent diarrheal illness (OR 4.75, p<0.001) also displayed a statistically significant risk for excessive anticoagulation. CONCLUSION: Even in a highly standardized system for warfarin dosing by a pharmacist-managed protocol, higher disease severity and poor nutritional status placed hospitalized patients at greater risk of experiencing excessive anticoagulation. In addition, administration of interacting drugs that highly potentiate warfarins effect or the occurrence of diarrheal illness may predict increased risk.
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The Haiti Breast Cancer Initiative: Initial Findings and Analysis of Barriers-to-Care Delaying Patient Presentation.
J Oncol
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2013
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Background. In Haiti, breast cancer patients present at such advanced stages that even modern therapies offer modest survival benefit. Identifying the personal, sociocultural, and economic barriers-to-care delaying patient presentation is crucial to controlling disease. Methods. Patients presenting to the Hôpital Bon Sauveur in Cange were prospectively accrued. Delay was defined as 12 weeks or longer from initial sign/symptom discovery to presentation, as durations greater than this cutoff correlate with reduced survival. A matched case-control analysis with multivariate logistic regression was used to identify factors predicting delay. Results. Of N = 123 patients accrued, 90 (73%) reported symptom-presentation duration and formed the basis of this study: 52 patients presented within 12 weeks of symptoms, while 38 patients waited longer than 12 weeks. On logistic regression, lower education status (OR = 5.6, P = 0.03), failure to initially recognize mass as important (OR = 13.0, P < 0.01), and fear of treatment cost (OR = 8.3, P = 0.03) were shown to independently predict delayed patient presentation. Conclusion. To reduce stage at presentation, future interventions must educate patients on the recognition of initial breast cancer signs and symptoms and address cost concerns by providing care free of charge and/or advertising that existing care is already free.
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Improving ophthalmic outcomes in children with unilateral coronal synostosis by treatment with endoscopic strip craniectomy and helmet therapy rather than fronto-orbital advancement.
J AAPOS
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2013
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To compare long-term ophthalmic outcomes in infants treated for unilateral coronal synostosis (UCS) by endoscopic strip craniectomy (ESC) and helmet therapy with those treated by fronto-orbital advancement (FOA).
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Detection of pristine gas two billion years after the Big Bang.
Science
PUBLISHED: 11-10-2011
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In the current cosmological model, only the three lightest elements were created in the first few minutes after the Big Bang; all other elements were produced later in stars. To date, however, heavy elements have been observed in all astrophysical environments. We report the detection of two gas clouds with no discernible elements heavier than hydrogen. These systems exhibit the lowest heavy-element abundance in the early universe, and thus are potential fuel for the most metal-poor halo stars. The detection of deuterium in one system at the level predicted by primordial nucleosynthesis provides a direct confirmation of the standard cosmological model. The composition of these clouds further implies that the transport of heavy elements from galaxies to their surroundings is highly inhomogeneous.
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Costs and benefits of neurosurgical intervention for infant hydrocephalus in sub-Saharan Africa.
J Neurosurg Pediatr
PUBLISHED: 11-03-2011
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Evidence from the CURE Childrens Hospital of Uganda (CCHU) suggests that treatment for hydrocephalus in infants can be effective and sustainable in a developing country. This model has not been broadly supported or implemented due in part to the absence of data on the economic burden of disease or any assessment of the cost and benefit of treatment. The authors used economic modeling to estimate the annual cost and benefit of treating hydrocephalus in infants at CCHU. These results were then extrapolated to the potential economic impact of treating all cases of hydrocephalus in infants in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA).
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Timeliness of surgical care in children with special health care needs: delayed palate repair for publicly insured and minority children with cleft palate.
J. Pediatr. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 07-19-2011
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Disparities in access to health care are known to exist for the most vulnerable pediatric population, children with special health care needs. Timely access to surgical care in this population is critical, yet poorly studied.
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Audiologic findings in Saethre-Chotzen syndrome.
Plast. Reconstr. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2011
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Hearing loss has been described in Apert syndrome but is poorly documented in other craniosynostosis disorders.
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The value proposition: using a cost improvement map to improve value for patients with nonsyndromic, isolated cleft palate.
Plast. Reconstr. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2011
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As health care costs rise exponentially in the United States, increasing emphasis is being placed on measuring value, which incorporates both quality and costs. Although the concept of continuous quality improvement has taken a firm foothold in health care, techniques for measuring and continuously improving costs at the patient or system level are lacking.
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Potential economic benefit of cleft lip and palate repair in sub-Saharan Africa.
World J Surg
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2011
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Acceptance of basic surgical care as an essential element of any properly functioning health system is growing. To justify investment in surgical interventions, donors require estimates of the economic benefit of treating surgical disease. The present study aimed to establish a methodology for valuing the potential economic benefit of surgical intervention using cleft lip and palate (CLP) in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) as a model.
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Efficacy of tranexamic acid in pediatric craniosynostosis surgery: a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.
Anesthesiology
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2011
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Extensive blood loss is common in pediatric craniosynostosis reconstruction surgery. Tranexamic acid (TXA) is increasingly used to reduce perioperative blood loss in various settings, but data on its efficacy are limited in children. The purpose of this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel trial was to evaluate the efficacy of TXA in pediatric craniosynostosis correction surgery. The primary and secondary outcome variables were reduction in perioperative blood loss and reduction in blood transfusion, respectively.
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Cost differences between the anterior and posterior approaches to the iliac crest for alveolar bone grafting in patients with cleft lip/palate.
J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 03-02-2011
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There has been debate in the literature regarding the advantages of an anterior versus posterior approach to the iliac crest harvest for alveolar bone grafting (ABG) in patients with cleft lip and palate. The purpose of this study was to add a cost perspective to the discussion.
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Emergency surgical care delivery in post-earthquake Haiti: Partners in Health and Zanmi Lasante experience.
World J Surg
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2011
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The earthquake that struck Haiti on 12 January 2010 caused significant devastation to both the country and the existing healthcare infrastructure in both urban and rural areas. Most hospital and health care facilities in Port-au-Prince and the surrounding areas were significantly damaged or destroyed. Consequently, large groups of Haitians fled Port-au-Prince for rural areas to seek emergency medical and surgical care. In partnership with the Haitian Ministry of Health, Partners in Health (PIH) and Zanmi Lasante (ZL) have developed and maintained a network of regional and district hospitals in rural Haiti for over twenty-five years. This PIH/ZL system was ideally situated to accommodate the increased need for emergent surgical care in the immediate quake aftermath. The goal of the present study was to provide a cross-sectional assessment of surgical need and care delivery across PIH/ZL facilities after the earthquake in Haiti.
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Unilateral cleft lip and nasal repair: techniques and principles.
Iran J Pediatr
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2011
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The Mashhad University of Medical Sciences and the Sheikh Hospital in Mashhad sponsored a Cleft Lip and Palate Workshop 30 April - 1 May 2009. During the Workshop, 6 surgical cases were performed and televised live to the audience attending the conference. Two of those cases were unilateral cleft lip repairs. The surgical technique used to repair these patients by the primary author (JGM) is a hybrid technique. It has evolved over the last decade as a result of prior surgical literature as well as first hand observation of various surgical colleagues. The following manuscript describes the surgical technique used at the Cleft Workshop in a step-wise or atlas-like fashion. The technique portion of the paper describes the repair of the unilateral cleft lip and nasal deformity in roughly the order the first author typically performs the procedure. More importantly, the final section of the paper details the principles that form the foundation for the techniques described.
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Nasal glioma: prenatal diagnosis and multidisciplinary surgical approach.
Skull Base Rep
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2011
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Nasal gliomas are congenital, nonmalignant rests of neuroglial tissue that typically present as a craniofacial mass. The differential diagnosis of such masses includes lesions that often require the involvement of various surgical subspecialties, including otolaryngology, neurosurgery, plastic surgery, and ophthalmology. Early surgical excision of these masses is advised to minimize nasal and craniofacial distortion. Accordingly, early diagnosis and management planning are paramount, and advances in prenatal imaging are creating a new role for obstetricians and radiologists in the initiation of diagnostic and therapeutic interventions. We describe the case history of a young patient found to have a craniofacial mass on routine prenatal ultrasound and subsequently managed with a multidisciplinary team approach.
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A microcosting approach for isolated, unilateral cleft lip care in the first year of life.
Plast. Reconstr. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2011
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The concept of value-based health care underlies many new improvement initiatives in U.S. health care. To determine value, accurate measures of both outcomes and costs are essential, which may then be compared for the same provider or system over time or between providers, to foster improvement. Although outcomes measurement has received a great deal of attention since the quality movement began in the United States, costing methodologies are lacking.
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Essential surgery: Integral to the right to health.
Health Hum Rights
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2010
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In a rights-based approach to health, the provision of essential surgical services is not a luxury, but a critical component of the "highest attainable standard of health." Yet while access to select basic health care interventions has increasingly been discussed as part of the human right to health, essential surgical services have generally not been part of this discussion. This is despite the substantial global burden of surgical conditions in low- and middle-income countries, extreme global disparities in access to surgical care, and the fact that relatively simple, cost-effective, and curative surgical procedures can avert disability and premature death from many life-threatening emergencies and other conditions. Many barriers, both supply and demand-related, such as constraints in human resources, infrastructure, and access to care, have limited the ability of health systems to deliver surgical services. In this paper, the authors share their experience - as a group of surgeons, anesthesiologists, emergency physicians, and public health experts working with colleagues in varied resource-constrained settings to provide basic surgical care - in addressing the challenge of realizing the right to surgery in resource-poor settings. We argue that essential surgical care should be included in the basic human right to health, and that the current emphasis on "vertical" disease-specific models of health service delivery should be broadened to include systems needed to provide surgical services. We outline the global burden of surgical conditions, discuss the public health importance of surgery, identify the most significant global disparities in access to surgical care, and provide economic arguments for surgical delivery.
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Audiologic findings in Pfeiffer syndrome.
J Craniofac Surg
PUBLISHED: 09-22-2010
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Hearing loss has been described in patients with certain craniosynostotic syndromes but is poorly defined in Pfeiffer syndrome (PS). Our objective was to characterize the otologic and audiologic findings in PS. The records of PS patients evaluated at our craniofacial center over a 30-year period were culled. Only patients with a confirmed diagnosis and formal audiologic examination were included. Diagnostic criteria were characteristic mutations in fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 or 2 (FGFR1, FGFR2) or, in the absence of genetic testing, typical clinical findings of PS as determined by a clinical geneticist or the most senior author. Twenty patients met the inclusion criteria, and all had hearing loss. Twenty patients had traditional audiologic testing: 14 (70%) had pure conductive loss (minor to severe), and 3 (15%) had a mixed conductive/sensorineural loss (minor to severe). Two additional patients had hearing loss by Behavioral Observational Audiometry (sound fields method). One patient with early conductive hearing loss was subsequently determined to have a pure sensorineural deficit. Nine patients (45%) had permanent hearing loss significant enough to require audiologic amplification. All patients with PS demonstrated hearing loss, although the severity and the anatomic basis (ie., neural vs conductive) were variable. Conductive hearing loss, possibly caused by structural abnormalities, was most common. Sensorineural hearing loss was less common and may be related to the effect of FGFR mutations on cranial nerve and/or inner-ear development.
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Value-based cleft lip-cleft palate care: a progress report.
Plast. Reconstr. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2010
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The health care debate in the United States centers on a concept that is fundamental to any service-based profession yet minimally integrated into the health care community: value creation. Value in health care has been defined as outcome achieved per dollar spent, and focuses on the patient. Many of the new strategies proposed to restructure health care delivery in the United States aim to study and improve both components of this equation. Indeed, it is a near guarantee that providers will soon be responsible for reporting their outcomes and resource use and will be benchmarked by these metrics. In addition, patients have a right to understand the value they receive from their care providers.
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Magnetic resonance imaging for detection of brain abnormalities in fetuses with cleft lip and/or cleft palate.
Cleft Palate Craniofac. J.
PUBLISHED: 08-17-2010
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To determine the prevalence of brain abnormalities identified by prenatal imaging of fetuses with cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL/P) or cleft palate only (CP) and to compare with postnatal imaging and neurologic evaluation.
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Quantitative morphometric outcomes following the Melbourne method of total vault remodeling for scaphocephaly.
J Craniofac Surg
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2010
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The Melbourne method of total vault remodeling was developed at The Royal Childrens Hospital (Melbourne) to address all phenotypic aspects of scaphocephaly. To quantitatively evaluate this technique, a retrospective analysis was performed on 33 consecutive patients who underwent the Melbourne procedure between October 2004 and June 2007. To monitor outcomes, three-dimensional digital surface photography was used, obtaining 4 anthropometric measurements (cranial length, cranial width, head circumference, auricular head height) preoperatively and postoperatively. To assess the effect on continuing cranial vault development, cranial volume was calculated with computed tomography. Anthropometric measurements were obtained in 27 patients (81.8%), with a mean postoperative follow-up of 8.9 months. Cranial index (width/length) demonstrated an 11.1% improvement. The mean head circumference in the scaphocephaly group preoperatively remained larger than the normative population postoperatively, although the magnitude of difference was decreased, whereas the mean auricular head height demonstrated a 10.5% increase postoperatively, remaining higher than the normative population. Cranial volume was calculated in 30 patients (91%), with a mean postoperative follow-up of 7.9 months. This demonstrated that the mean intracranial volume was significantly higher in the scaphocephaly group preoperatively, and this difference was maintained postoperatively. These results support our belief that the Melbourne procedure is a technique that may be used to correct all phenotypic aspects of scaphocephaly, with no apparent evidence for a detrimental effect on cranial growth.
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Nasal reconstruction for maxillonasal dysplasia.
J Craniofac Surg
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2010
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Maxillonasal dysplasia, Binder type (Binder syndrome and nasomaxillary hypoplasia), is a spectrum of deficient nasomaxillary osteocartilaginous framework, deficient nasal soft tissues, and a short columella. The correction of these deformities is challenging, and results are often disappointing. Tissue expansion with multiple bone grafts for nasal augmentation from childhood has been advocated as a means to address the constricted soft tissues. However, bone grafts in children have been associated with unpredictable growth and resorption. Agreeing with the principle of serial nasal augmentation that commences in childhood, we used alloplastic material for tissue expansion followed by definitive reconstructive rhinoplasty at the completion of growth and orthognathic surgery as required. Definitive rhinoplasty mainly used a 1-piece costochondral graft cantilevered to the frontal bone.
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Autologous cranial particulate bone grafting reduces the frequency of osseous defects after cranial expansion.
J Craniofac Surg
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2010
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Primary autologous particulate bone grafting has been demonstrated to heal osseous defects after fronto-orbital advancement. We sought to determine if this technique was equally effective for larger defects resulting from major cranial expansion procedures. We studied children who underwent cranial expansion (other than fronto-orbital advancement) between 1989 and 2008. Defects either were left to heal spontaneously (group 1) or had autologous cranial particulate bone graft placed over dura at the time of cranial expansion (group 2). Particulate bone graft was harvested from the endocortical or ectocortical surface using a hand-driven brace and bit. Outcome variables were ossification and need for revision cranioplasty. The study included 53 children. Mean (SD) age at procedure was 12.2 (8.1) months (range, 1.0-36.0 months) for group 1 (n = 15) and 20.2 (15.1) months (range, 3.3-78.6 months) for group 2 (n = 38) (P = 0.06). There were palpable bony defects in 33.0% (n = 5) of group 1 patients versus 7.9% (n = 3) of group 2 patients (P = 0.03). Corrective cranioplasty was needed in 26.7% of group 1 patients and only 5.3% of those in group 2 (P = 0.04). Primary cranial particulate bone grafting significantly reduced the frequency of osseous defects and secondary cranioplasty following cranial remodeling.
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Perioperative corticosteroid reduces hospital stay after fronto-orbital advancement.
J Craniofac Surg
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2010
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Facial swelling is common after fronto-orbital advancement. Edema and closure of the palpebral fissures can lead to prolonged hospitalization. The purpose of this study was to determine if perioperative corticosteroid shortens hospital stay after this procedure.We retrospectively studied consecutive children younger than 2 years who underwent primary fronto-orbital advancement between 1990 and 2008. Patients were categorized into 2 groups: group 1 patients were not given corticosteroid; group 2 patients received tapered perioperative dexamethasone. Primary outcome variables included length of hospital stay and infection rate.A total of 161 patients were included in the study. Hospitalization was significantly shorter (P = 0.008) for group 2 (n = 65; median duration, 3.0 d) than group 1 (n = 96; median duration, 5.0 d). Infection rates did not differ between groups (group 1, 2.1%; group 2, 1.5%; P = 0.8).Perioperative corticosteroid shortens hospitalization after fronto-orbital advancement without increasing the incidence of postoperative infection. The cost of postoperative hospital care was reduced by 27.2%.
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Case cancellations on the day of surgery: an investigation in an Australian paediatric hospital.
ANZ J Surg
PUBLISHED: 11-10-2009
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This study investigates case cancellations on the intended day of surgery (DOS) at a paediatric hospital in Melbourne, Australia. The hospital in Melbourne treats over 32 000 inpatients annually and handles both elective and emergency cases.
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Lack of insurance negatively affects trauma mortality in US children.
J. Pediatr. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 10-27-2009
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Uninsured children face health-related disparities in screening, treatment, and outcomes. To ensure payer status would not influence the decision to provide emergency care, the Emergency Medical Treatment and Active Labor Act (EMTALA) was passed in 1986, which states patients cannot be refused treatment or transferred from one hospital to another when medically unstable. Given findings indicating the widespread nature of disparities based on insurance, we hypothesized that a disparity in patient outcome (death) after trauma among the uninsured may exist, despite the EMTALA.
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Cleft palate in Pfeiffer syndrome.
J Craniofac Surg
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2009
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The frequency of associated cleft palate is known to be high in some fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2)-mediated craniosynostosis syndromes, such as Apert syndrome. However, there is little information on the frequency of palatal clefts in the FGFR2-mediated disorder, that is, Pfeiffer syndrome. The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of palatal clefts in patients with Pfeiffer syndrome. The records of patients with Pfeiffer syndrome managed in our craniofacial unit were reviewed. Only patients with a confirmed diagnosis of Pfeiffer syndrome were included. Diagnostic criteria were as follows: characteristic mutations in FGFR1 or FGFR2 or, in the absence of genetic testing, clinical findings consistent with Pfeiffer syndrome as determined by a clinical geneticist or our most experienced surgeon (J.B.M.). Only 2 clefts were noted in 25 patients (8%), including 1 with a submucous cleft and 1 with an overt palatal cleft. Many patients (87%) were described as having a high-arched and narrow palate, and 1 had a low, broad palate. Nine patients were noted to have choanal atresia or stenosis. Clefting of the palate does occur in Pfeiffer syndrome but at a low frequency.
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Management of nevus sebaceous and the risk of Basal cell carcinoma: an 18-year review.
Pediatr Dermatol
PUBLISHED: 07-20-2009
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Nevus sebaceous (NS) is a common congenital hamartoma of the skin, usually found on the head and neck. It may undergo malignant transformation to basal cell carcinoma (BCC). However the incidence and lifetime risk of malignant transformation is unknown. We performed an 18-year review of all NS excisions at our institution, to report the number of cases of BCC and other neoplasms within excised NS. The aim is to inform physicians who must weigh the risks in recommending excision of a NS in a pediatric patient population with the risk of malignancy. After a database query for years 1990-2008, charts were reviewed and data were extracted on demographics and surgical history relating to NS. Thirty-one NS with abnormal findings were reviewed microscopically by a dermatopathologist. There were 651 NS distinct lesions among 631 patients and 690 excisions. Twenty-one intralesional diagnoses were found in 18 patients. Five patients (0.8%) had BCC (mean age 12.5 yrs, range 9.7-17.4 yrs). Seven (1.1%) had syringocystadenoma papilliferum (SP) (mean age 8.8 yrs, range 1.7-16.9 yrs), a lesion that may undergo malignant transformation. Malignant transformation of NS can occur in childhood or adolescence. We believe all NS should be excised, however timing of excision can be flexible. Our data do not support age cutoffs or morphologic changes to determine optimal excision time. In conjunction with the treating physician, the parent and patient may weigh the small risk of malignant transformation of NS against the morbidity associated with excision and anesthesia.
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Plastic surgery and global health: how plastic surgery impacts the global burden of surgical disease.
J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg
PUBLISHED: 03-16-2009
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The global burden of surgical disease is estimated as being 11% of the total global burden of disease. In this article we discuss the portion of this burden which could be ameliorated with plastic surgical expertise. Although not necessarily seen as a major player in issues related to global health, plastic surgeons are uniquely qualified to decrease the burden of surgical disease afflicting people in the developing world. Burns, traumatic injuries, and congenital anomalies are some of the areas where the presence of plastic surgical expertise can make a significant difference in patient outcomes and thereby decrease the years of life lost due to disability due to these highly treatable conditions. In light of the severe shortage of plastic surgeons throughout the developing world, it falls to those concentrated in the developed world to harness their skills and address the vast unmet needs of the developing world so as to enhance global health.
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An opportunity for diagonal development in global surgery: cleft lip and palate care in resource-limited settings.
Plast Surg Int
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Global cleft surgery missions have provided much-needed care to millions of poor patients worldwide. Still, surgical capacity in low- and middle-income countries is generally inadequate. Through surgical missions, global cleft care has largely ascribed to a vertical model of healthcare delivery, which is disease specific, and tends to deliver services parallel to, but not necessarily within, the local healthcare system. The vertical model has been used to address infectious diseases as well as humanitarian emergencies. By contrast, a horizontal model for healthcare delivery tends to focus on long-term investments in public health infrastructure and human capital and has less often been implemented by humanitarian groups for a variety of reasons. As surgical care is an integral component of basic healthcare, the plastic surgery community must challenge itself to address the burden of specific disease entities, such as cleft lip and palate, in a way that sustainably expands and enriches global surgical care as a whole. In this paper, we describe a diagonal care delivery model, whereby cleft missions can enrich surgical capacity through integration into sustainable, local care delivery systems. Furthermore, we examine the applications of diagonal development to cleft care specifically and global surgical care more broadly.
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Measuring Value at the Provider Level in the Management of Cleft Lip and Palate Patients.
Ann Plast Surg
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ABSTRACT: "Value" has become a buzzword in current health-care discussions. This study demonstrates a provider-led strategy to measuring costs, an understudied component of the value equation, for a complex diagnosis for the purposes of improvement. A retrospective, microcosting methodology was used to measure costs for all hospital and physician services and costs to the patient over 18 months of multidisciplinary care for patients with cleft lip and palate. Short-term outcomes were also recorded. Overall costs to all parts of the system ranged from $35,826 to $56,611 for different subtypes, and insight was gained into major cost drivers and variations in care that will drive internal improvement efforts. It is critical that providers learn to work together and become familiar with their own costs in conjunction with outcomes as insurers increase pressure to reduce payments or accept alternative payments so that well-informed decisions can be made.
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A systematic review of barriers to breast cancer care in developing countries resulting in delayed patient presentation.
J Oncol
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Background. Within the developing world, many personal, sociocultural, and economic factors cause delayed patient presentation, a prolonged interval from initial symptom discovery to provider presentation. Understanding these barriers to care is crucial to optimizing interventions that pre-empt patient delay. Methods. A systematic review was conducted querying: PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, J East, CAB, African Index Medicus, and LiLACS. Of 763 unique abstracts, 122 were extracted for full review and 13 included in final analysis. Results. Studies posed variable risks of bias and produced mixed results. There is strong evidence that lower education level and lesser income status contribute to patient delay. There is weaker and, sometimes, contradictory evidence that other factors may also contribute. Discussion. Poverty emerges as the underlying common denominator preventing earlier presentation in these settings. The evidence for sociocultural variables is less strong, but may reflect current paucity of high-quality research. Conflicting results may be due to heterogeneity of the developing world itself. Conclusion. Future research is required that includes patients with and without delay, utilizes a validated questionnaire, and controls for potential confounders. Current evidence suggests that interventions should primarily increase proximal and affordable healthcare access and secondarily enhance breast cancer awareness, to productively reduce patient delay.
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Distance to hospital and utilization of surgical services in Haiti: do children, delivering mothers, and patients with emergent surgical conditions experience greater geographical barriers to surgical care?
Int J Health Plann Manage
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An inverse relationship between healthcare utilization and distance to care has been previously described. The purpose of this study was to evaluate this effect related to emergency and essential surgical care in central Haiti.
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Nasoalveolar molding in cleft care: is it efficacious?
Plast. Reconstr. Surg.
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In the era of evidence-based medicine, new treatment protocols and interventions should be routinely evaluated for their efficacy by reviewing the available evidence. In the cleft literature, nasoalveolar molding has garnered attention over the last decade as a new option for improving nasal form and symmetry before primary surgical repair. Systematic review of the evidence is, however, currently lacking. This review evaluates whether nasoalveolar molding can improve nasal symmetry and form toward the norm, as well as whether nasoalveolar molding demonstrates advantages over other protocols in achieving this goal. A literature search of five databases plus relevant reference lists retrieved 98 articles regarding nasoalveolar molding, 21 of which reported objective outcome measures of nasal symmetry and form, and six of which were able to be given evidence level ratings, all in the unilateral cleft population. Statistical analysis was not possible given the range of techniques and outcomes. Studies of bilateral cleft were not given evidence level ratings, given the inability to separate the effects of nasoalveolar molding from other primary nasal interventions in studies that would have otherwise been rated. In unilateral cleft lip-cleft palate, there was some evidence that nasoalveolar molding may improve nasal outcomes, though comparison with other techniques was limited. Despite a relative paucity of high-level evidence, nasoalveolar molding appears to be a promising technique that deserves further study.
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Survey of surgery and anesthesia infrastructure in Ethiopia.
World J Surg
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Information regarding surgical capacity in the developing world is limited by the paucity of available data regarding surgical care, infrastructure, and human resources in the literature. The purpose of this study was to assess surgical and anesthesia infrastructure and human resources in Ethiopia as part of a larger study by the Harvard Humanitarian Initiative examining surgical and anesthesia capacity in ten low-income countries in Africa.
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The clinical and economic impact of a sustained program in global plastic surgery: valuing cleft care in resource-poor settings.
Plast. Reconstr. Surg.
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The development of surgery in low- and middle-income countries has been limited by a belief that it is too expensive to be sustainable. However, subspecialist surgical care can provide substantial clinical and economic benefits in low-resource settings. The goal of this study is to describe the clinical and economic impact of recurrent short-term plastic surgical trips in low- and middle-income countries.
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The impact of natural disaster on pediatric surgical delivery: a review of Haiti six months before and after the 2010 earthquake.
J Health Care Poor Underserved
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Little is known about pediatric surgical disease in resource-poor countries. This study documents the surgical care of children in central Haiti and demonstrates the influence of the 2010 earthquake on pediatric surgical delivery.
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Obstructed labor and caesarean delivery: the cost and benefit of surgical intervention.
PLoS ONE
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Although advances in the reduction of maternal mortality have been made, up to 273,000 women will die this year from obstetric etiologies. Obstructed labor (OL), most commonly treated with Caesarean delivery, has been identified as a major contributor to global maternal morbidity and mortality. We used economic and epidemiological modeling to estimate the cost per disability-adjusted life-year (DALY) averted and benefit-cost ratio of treating OL with Caesarean delivery for 49 countries identified as providing an insufficient number of Caesarean deliveries to meet demand.
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Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act: implications for pediatric plastic surgery.
J Craniofac Surg
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Passage of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA) has stimulated wide debate in the medical and surgical community. Endorsed by the American Medical Association and a number of primary care-focused organizations, the American College of Surgeons (ACS) and nearly all other surgical associations opposed the bill. This divergence stems not from direct disagreement over provisions in the bill but from opposition to or support of certain provisions with direct implications for the physicians represented by a given organization, as well as the relative importance of provisions for which these organizations share a common opinion. Regarding the field of pediatric plastic surgery, the surgical perspective of the ACS and the American Society of Plastic Surgeons and the medical perspective of the American Academy of Pediatrics align on many issues. Given the lack of specificity of any of the provisions for a field as specialized as pediatric plastic surgery, this review will focus on broader implications of the PPACA both for medical and surgical needs of pediatric patients and for the surgeons providing their care. The provisions of the PPACA are distributed along an implementation timeline, with some major changes having already occurred. The popularity of some of the early provisions, many pertaining to the pediatric population, has implications for any attempt at repeal of the law as a whole in coming years. Despite its daunting length, the PPACA can be approached by considering its provisions in 4 major categories: increased consumer protections, increased accountability for insurers, increased access to affordable care, and quality and cost improvement.
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Cost of treating sagittal synostosis in the first year of life.
J Craniofac Surg
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Endoscopically assisted suturectomy (EAS) has been reported to reduce the morbidity and cost of treating sagittal synostosis when compared with traditional open cranial vault remodeling (CVR) procedures. Whereas the former claim is well substantiated and intuitive, the latter has not been validated by rigorous cost analysis.
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The Philtrum in Cleft Lip: Review of Anatomy and Techniques for Construction.
J Craniofac Surg
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The philtrum is imperfectly formed in both unilateral and bilateral cleft lip. Surgical construction of this exquisite feature in the upper lip is challenging and often takes a back seat to construction of Cupids bow and the nose. However, the philtrum is one of the defining features of a normal lip. The purpose of this review is to compile information on philtral anatomy and techniques for construction to guide the reader on his or her own quest to optimize cleft lip repair.In this article, we review the normal anatomy of the philtral dimple and ridges, with particular attention to pars peripheralis configuration. We also review methods for philtral construction during primary labial repair and secondary labial revision. For unilateral cleft lip, eversion of orbicularis oris muscle is necessary to build a philtral ridge. For bilateral cleft lip, emphasis is on proper design of the philtral flap and efforts to simulate a dimple and ridges. For secondary philtral correction, techniques include complete labial revision with various types of muscular re-repair and autologous philtral ridge augmentation. Objective methods are needed to document the efficacy of the many techniques for philtral construction and reconstruction.
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Shortage of Doctors, Shortage of Data: A Review of the Global Surgery, Obstetrics, and Anesthesia Workforce Literature.
World J Surg
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The global surgery workforce is in crisis in many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The shortage of surgery, obstetrics, and anesthesia providers is an important cause of the unmet need for surgical care in LMICs. The goal of this paper is to summarize the available literature about surgical physicians in LMICs and to describe ongoing initiatives to supplement the existing surgical workforce data.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.