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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Growth hormone receptor antagonist transgenic mice are protected from hyperinsulinemia and glucose intolerance despite obesity when placed on a HF diet.
Endocrinology
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2014
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Reduced growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) levels have been associated with improved glucose metabolism and increased longevity despite obesity in multiple mouse lines. However, one mouse line, the growth hormone receptor antagonist (GHA) transgenic mouse, defies this trend as it has reduced GH action and increased adiposity but glucose metabolism and lifespan are similar to controls. Slight differences in glucose metabolism and adiposity profiles can become exaggerated on a high fat (HF) diet. Thus, in this study, male and female GHA and WT mice in a C57Bl/6 background were placed on HF and low fat (LF) diets for 11 weeks starting at 10 weeks of age to assess how GHA mice respond to additional metabolic stress of HF-feeding. On a HF diet, all mice showed significant weight gain although GHA gained weight more dramatically than WT mice with males gaining more than females. Most of this weight gain was due to an increase in fat mass with WT mice increasing primarily in the white adipose tissue (WAT) perigonadal depots while GHA mice gained in both the subcutaneous and perigonadal WAT regions. Notably, GHA mice were somewhat protected from detrimental glucose metabolism changes on a HF diet as they had only modest increases in serum glucose levels, remained glucose tolerant and did not develop hyperinsulinemia. Sex differences were observed in many measures with males reacting more dramatically to both a reduction in GH action and HF diet. In conclusion, our findings show that GHA mice, which are already obese, are susceptible to further adipose tissue expansion with HF-feeding while remaining resilient to alterations in glucose homeostasis.
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Growth hormone signaling is necessary for lifespan extension by dietary methionine.
Aging Cell
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2014
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Growth hormone significantly impacts lifespan in mammals. Mouse longevity is extended when growth hormone (GH) signaling is interrupted but markedly shortened with high-plasma hormone levels. Methionine metabolism is enhanced in growth hormone deficiency, for example, in the Ames dwarf, but suppressed in GH transgenic mice. Methionine intake affects also lifespan, and thus, GH mutant mice and respective wild-type littermates were fed 0.16%, 0.43%, or 1.3% methionine to evaluate the interaction between hormone status and methionine. All wild-type and GH transgenic mice lived longer when fed 0.16% methionine but not when fed higher levels. In contrast, animals without growth hormone signaling due to hormone deficiency or resistance did not respond to altered levels of methionine in terms of lifespan, body weight, or food consumption. Taken together, our results suggest that the presence of growth hormone is necessary to sense dietary methionine changes, thus strongly linking growth and lifespan to amino acid availability.
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Growth hormone action predicts age-related white adipose tissue dysfunction and senescent cell burden in mice.
Aging (Albany NY)
PUBLISHED: 07-27-2014
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The aging process is associated with the development of several chronic diseases. White adipose tissue (WAT) may play a central role in age-related disease onset and progression due to declines in adipogenesis with advancing age. Recent reports indicate that the accumulation of senescent progenitor cells may be involved in age-related WAT dysfunction. Growth hormone (GH) action has profound effects on adiposity and metabolism and is known to influence lifespan. In the present study we tested the hypothesis that GH activity would predict age-related WAT dysfunction and accumulation of senescent cells. We found that long-lived GH-deficient and -resistant mice have reduced age-related lipid redistribution. Primary preadipocytes from GH-resistant mice also were found to have greater differentiation capacity at 20 months of age when compared to controls. GH activity was also found to be positively associated with senescent cell accumulation in WAT. Our results demonstrate an association between GH activity, age-related WAT dysfunction, and WAT senescent cell accumulation in mice. Further studies are needed to determine if GH is directly inducing cellular senescence in WAT or if GH actions on other target organs or alternative downstream alterations in insulin-like growth factor-1, insulin or glucose levels are responsible.
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Specific suppression of insulin sensitivity in growth hormone receptor gene-disrupted (GHR-KO) mice attenuates phenotypic features of slow aging.
Aging Cell
PUBLISHED: 07-19-2014
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In addition to their extended lifespans, slow-aging growth hormone receptor/binding protein gene-disrupted (knockout) (GHR-KO) mice are hypoinsulinemic and highly sensitive to the action of insulin. It has been proposed that this insulin sensitivity is important for their longevity and increased healthspan. We tested whether this insulin sensitivity of the GHR-KO mouse is necessary for its retarded aging by abrogating that sensitivity with a transgenic alteration that improves development and secretory function of pancreatic ?-cells by expressing Igf-1 under the rat insulin promoter 1 (RIP::IGF-1). The RIP::IGF-1 transgene increased circulating insulin content in GHR-KO mice, and thusly fully normalized their insulin sensitivity, without affecting the proliferation of any non-?-cell cell types. Multiple (nonsurvivorship) longevity-associated physiological and endocrinological characteristics of these mice (namely beneficial blood glucose regulatory control, altered metabolism, and preservation of memory capabilities) were partially or completely normalized, thus supporting the causal role of insulin sensitivity for the decelerated senescence of GHR-KO mice. We conclude that a delayed onset and/or decreased pace of aging can be hormonally regulated.
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Effects of insulin-like growth factor 1 on glutathione S-transferases and thioredoxin in growth hormone receptor knockout mice.
Age (Dordr)
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2014
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Growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) have been shown to affect processes involved in cellular stress defense, aging, and longevity. This study was designed to identify possible mechanisms of a disrupted GH signaling pathway on stress resistance using growth hormone receptor knockout (GHRKO) mice. GHRKO mice are GH resistant due to the targeted disruption of the GH receptor/binding protein gene, thus preventing GH from binding and exerting its downstream effects. These mice have very low circulating IGF-1 levels and high GH levels, are obese yet insulin sensitive, and live longer than their wild-type controls. Wild-type or GHRKO mice were treated with saline or IGF-1 (WT saline, GHRKO saline, GHRKO IGF-1) two times daily for 7 days. Glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities, proteins, and gene expression were determined. Liver mitochondrial GSTA1, GSTA3, and GSTZ1 proteins were significantly higher in GHRKO when compared to those of WT mice. The 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) GST activity was upregulated in GHRKO mice and was suppressed after IGF-1 administration. Interestingly, thioredoxin (Trx)1, Trx2, thioredoxin reductase (TrxR)1, and TrxR2 messenger RNA (mRNA) levels were significantly higher in the GHRKO as compared to WT mice, and IGF-1 treatment suppressed the expression of each. We also found that glutaredoxin (Grx)2 mRNA and cytosolic Grx activity were higher in GHRKO mice. These results suggest that the detoxification and stress response mechanisms in GHRKO mice are contributed in part by the circulating level of IGF-1.
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Effect of growth hormone receptor gene disruption and PMA treatment on the expression of genes involved in primordial follicle activation in mice ovaries.
Age (Dordr)
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2014
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The activation of the Pi3k-Akt1-FOXO pathway seems to be involved in the extended longevity observed in growth hormone receptor/growth hormone binding protein knockout (GHRKO) mice and is related to the growth of primordial ovarian follicles. The aim of this work was to measure the expression of genes in the ovaries of GHRKO and normal (N) mice treated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), an inhibitor of GH and IRS1 signaling. For this study, a group of N (n = 10) and GHRKO (n = 10) mice, N mice treated (n = 10) or not (n = 10) with PMA, and GHRKO mice treated (n = 10) or not (n = 10) with PMA were used. All were 6-month-old female mice. After the last PMA injection, the ovaries were collected for gene expression analysis. Expression of Amh, Gdf9, and Bmp15 was higher in GHRKO than N mice (P < 0.05), but was not different between PMA-treated N mice (P > 0.10). Expression of Amh and Gdf9 was higher (P < 0.05) for GHRKO PMA-treated mice. In addition, we observed a higher expression of Socs3 (P < 0.001) in GHRKO than N mice and a tendency for increased expression of Foxo3a (P = 0.07). For GHRKO PMA-treated mice, Foxo3a mRNA expression was higher (P = 0.02) and a tendency for higher expression of Mtor (P = 0.06) and Socs3 (P = 0.10) in GHRKO PMA-treated mice was observed. To summarize, the present data further confirm the previous histological observations that GHRKO mice have an ovarian phenotype characteristic of younger mice indicated by higher expression of Amh, Gdf9, and Bmp15 mRNA. In addition, we have shown a higher expression of Socs3 in GHRKO mice and higher Foxo3a expression in PMA-treated GHRKO mice, suggesting a role for these mediators in the process of ovarian aging.
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Prolonged fasting reduces IGF-1/PKA to promote hematopoietic-stem-cell-based regeneration and reverse immunosuppression.
Cell Stem Cell
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2014
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Immune system defects are at the center of aging and a range of diseases. Here, we show that prolonged fasting reduces circulating IGF-1 levels and PKA activity in various cell populations, leading to signal transduction changes in long-term hematopoietic stem cells (LT-HSCs) and niche cells that promote stress resistance, self-renewal, and lineage-balanced regeneration. Multiple cycles of fasting abated the immunosuppression and mortality caused by chemotherapy and reversed age-dependent myeloid-bias in mice, in agreement with preliminary data on the protection of lymphocytes from chemotoxicity in fasting patients. The proregenerative effects of fasting on stem cells were recapitulated by deficiencies in either IGF-1 or PKA and blunted by exogenous IGF-1. These findings link the reduced levels of IGF-1 caused by fasting to PKA signaling and establish their crucial role in regulating hematopoietic stem cell protection, self-renewal, and regeneration.
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Preservation of blood glucose homeostasis in slow-senescing somatotrophism-deficient mice subjected to intermittent fasting begun at middle or old age.
Age (Dordr)
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2014
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Poor blood glucose homeostatic regulation is common, consequential, and costly for older and elderly populations, resulting in pleiotrophically adverse clinical outcomes. Somatotrophic signaling deficiency and dietary restriction have each been shown to delay the rate of senescence, resulting in salubrious phenotypes such as increased survivorship. Using two growth hormone (GH) signaling-related, slow-aging mouse mutants we tested, via longitudinal analyses, whether genetic perturbations that increase survivorship also improve blood glucose homeostatic regulation in senescing mammals. Furthermore, we institute a dietary restriction paradigm that also decelerates aging, an intermittent fasting (IF) feeding schedule, as either a short-term or a sustained intervention beginning at either middle or old age, and assess its effects on blood glucose control. We find that either of the two genetic alterations in GH signaling ameliorates fasting hyperglycemia; additionally, both longevity-inducing somatotrophic mutations improve insulin sensitivity into old age. Strikingly, we observe major and broad improvements in blood glucose homeostatic control by IF: IF improves ad libitum-fed hyperglycemia, glucose tolerance, and insulin sensitivity, and reduces hepatic gluconeogenesis, in aging mutant and normal mice. These results on correction of aging-resultant blood glucose dysregulation have potentially important clinical and public health implications for our ever-graying global population, and are consistent with the Longevity Dividend concept.
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Proteomic analysis allows for early detection of potential markers of metabolic impairment in very young obese children.
Int J Pediatr Endocrinol
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2014
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Early diagnosis of initial metabolic derangements in young obese children could influence their management; however, this impairment is frequently not overt, but subtle and undetectable by routinely used clinical assays. Our aim was to evaluate the ability of serum proteomic analysis to detect these incipient metabolic alterations in comparison to standard clinical methods and to identify new candidate biomarkers.
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Expression of Apoptosis-Related Genes in Liver-Specific Growth Hormone Receptor Gene-Disrupted Mice Is Sex Dependent.
J. Gerontol. A Biol. Sci. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2014
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Apoptosis is a process that affects life span and health. Mice with liver-specific disruption of the growth hormone receptor (GHR) gene (ie, Ghr gene) liver-specific growth hormone receptor knockout [LiGHRKO] mice), as opposed to mice with global deletion of the Ghr gene (GHRKO; Ghr-/-), are characterized by severe hepatic steatosis and lack of improved insulin sensitivity. We have previously shown that levels of proapoptotic factors are decreased in long-lived and insulin-sensitive GHRKO mice. In the current study, expression of specific apoptosis-related genes was assessed in brains, kidneys, and livers of male and female LiGHRKO and wild-type mice using real-time PCR. In the brain, expression of Caspase 3, Caspase 9, Smac/DIABLO, and p53 was decreased in females compared with males. Renal expression of Caspase 3 and Noxa also decreased in female mice. In the liver, no differences were seen between males and females. Also, no significant genotype effects were detected in the examined organs. Lack of significant genotype effect in kidneys contrasts with previous observations in GHRKO mice. Apparently, global GHR deletion induces beneficial changes in apoptotic factors, whereas liver-specific GHR disruption does not. Furthermore, sexual dimorphism may play an important role in regulating apoptosis during liver-specific suppression of the somatotrophic signaling.
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Liver-specific GH receptor gene-disrupted (LiGHRKO) mice have decreased endocrine IGF-I, increased local IGF-I, and altered body size, body composition, and adipokine profiles.
Endocrinology
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2014
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GH is an important regulator of body growth and composition as well as numerous other metabolic processes. In particular, liver plays a key role in the GH/IGF-I axis, because the majority of circulating "endocrine" IGF-I results from GH-stimulated liver IGF-I production. To develop a better understanding of the role of liver in the overall function of GH, we generated a strain of mice with liver-specific GH receptor (GHR) gene knockout (LiGHRKO mice). LiGHRKO mice had a 90% decrease in circulating IGF-I levels, a 300% increase in circulating GH, and significant changes in IGF binding protein (IGFBP)-1, IGFBP-2, IGFBP-3, IGFBP-5, and IGFBP-7. LiGHRKO mice were smaller than controls, with body length and body weight being significantly decreased in both sexes. Analysis of body composition over time revealed a pattern similar to those found in GH transgenic mice; that is, LiGHRKO mice had a higher percentage of body fat at early ages followed by lower percentage of body fat in adulthood. Local IGF-I mRNA levels were significantly increased in skeletal muscle and select adipose tissue depots. Grip strength was increased in LiGHRKO mice. Finally, circulating levels of leptin, resistin, and adiponectin were increased in LiGHRKO mice. In conclusion, LiGHRKO mice are smaller despite increased local mRNA expression of IGF-I in several tissues, suggesting that liver-derived IGF-I is indeed important for normal body growth. Furthermore, our data suggest that novel GH-dependent cross talk between liver and adipose is important for regulation of adipokines in vivo.
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Elevated systolic blood pressure in male GH transgenic mice is age dependent.
Endocrinology
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2014
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Acromegaly is associated with an increased incidence of cardiovascular disease. Transgenic mice expressing bovine GH (bGH) gene have previously been used to examine the effects of chronic GH stimulation on cardiovascular function. Results concerning systolic blood pressure (SBP) in bGH mice are conflicting. We hypothesized that these discrepancies may be the result of the various ages of the mice used in previous studies. In the current study, SBP was assessed monthly in male bGH mice from 3-12 months of age. Factors known to alter blood pressure were assessed during this time and included: levels of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and glucose homeostasis markers, and renal levels of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 and endothelial nitric oxide synthase. Beginning at 6 months of age bGH had increased SBP compared with wild-type controls, which remained elevated through 12 months of age. Despite having increased blood pressure and cardiac BNP mRNA, bGH mice had decreased circulating levels of BNP. Additionally, bGH mice had an age-dependent decline in insulin levels. For example, they were hyperinsulinemic at 3 months, but by 11 months of age were hypoinsulinemic relative to wild-type controls. This decrease in insulin was accompanied by improved glucose tolerance at 11 months. Finally, both angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 and endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression were severely depressed in kidneys of 11-month-old bGH mice. These results indicate that elevated SBP in bGH mice is dependent on age, independent of insulin resistance, and related to alterations in both the natriuretic peptide and renin-angiotensin systems.
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Human metastatic melanoma cell lines express high levels of growth hormone receptor and respond to GH treatment.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2013
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Accumulating evidence implicates the growth hormone receptor (GHR) in carcinogenesis. While multiple studies show evidence for expression of growth hormone (GH) and GHR mRNA in human cancer tissue, there is a lack of quantification and only a few cancer types have been investigated. The National Cancer Institutes NCI60 panel includes 60 cancer cell lines from nine types of human cancer: breast, CNS, colon, leukemia, melanoma, non-small cell lung, ovarian, prostate and renal. We utilized this panel to quantify expression of GHR, GH, prolactin receptor (PRLR) and prolactin (PRL) mRNA with real-time RT qPCR. Both GHR and PRLR show a broad range of expression within and among most cancer types. Strikingly, GHR expression is nearly 50-fold higher in melanoma than in the panel as a whole. Analysis of human metastatic melanoma biopsies confirmed GHR gene expression in melanoma tissue. In these human biopsies, the level of GHR mRNA is elevated in advanced stage IV tumor samples compared to stage III. Due to the novel finding of high GHR in melanoma, we examined the effect of GH treatment on three NCI60 melanoma lines (MDA-MB-435, UACC-62 and SK-MEL-5). GH increased proliferation in two out of three cell lines tested. Further analysis revealed GH-induced activation of STAT5 and mTOR in a cell line dependent manner. In conclusion, we have identified cell lines and cancer types that are ideal to study the role of GH and PRL in cancer, yet have been largely overlooked. Furthermore, we found that human metastatic melanoma tumors express GHR and cell lines possess active GHRs that can modulate multiple signaling pathways and alter cell proliferation. Based on this data, GH could be a new therapeutic target in melanoma.
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Significance of the disulphide bonds of human growth hormone.
Endokrynol Pol
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2013
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Growth hormone (GH) structure is stabilised by two disulphide bonds, C53-C165 and C182-C189 in human GH. Researchers have investigatedthe role of these structural features since the late 1960s. Early studies implied that the disulphide bonds would not be importantfor biological activity of GH. However, more advanced techniques, as well as clues from patients carrying mutations in their GH1 gene,have demonstrated that the integrity of the disulphide bond between cysteines C53 and C165 is required for biological activity of GH.In contrast, disruption of the C-terminal disulphide bond (C182-C189) has only modest effects on the biological potency of GH, despitedecreased binding affinity to GH receptor and reduced stability as shown by a comprehensive in vitro study.To confirm these results, we generated transgenic mice that express a human GH analogue, C189A, and observed normal growth-promotingand lipolytic activities. In this article, we present new data and review old results concerning the disulphide bonds of GH. We also discussrelevant mutations found in patients with growth disorders.
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Direct and indirect effects of growth hormone receptor ablation on liver expression of xenobiotic metabolizing genes.
Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2013
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Detoxification of ingested xenobiotic chemicals, and of potentially toxic endogenous metabolites, is carried out largely through a series of enzymes synthesized in the liver, sometimes called "xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes" (XME). Expression of these XME is sexually dimorphic in rodents and humans, with many of the XME expressed at higher levels in females. This expression pattern is thought to be regulated, in part, by the sex differences in circadian growth hormone (GH) pulsatility. We have evaluated mRNA, in the liver, for 52 XME genes in male and female mice of four mutant stocks, with diminished levels of GH receptor (GHR) either globally (GKO), or in liver (LKO), fat (FKO), or muscle (MKO) tissue specifically. The data show complex, sex-specific changes. For some XME, the expression pattern is consistent with direct control of hepatic mRNA by GHR in the liver. In contrast, other XME show evidence for indirect pathways in which hepatic XME expression is altered by GH signals in fat or skeletal muscle. The effects of GHR-null mutations on glucose control, responses to dietary interventions, steroid metabolism, detoxification pathways, and lifespan may depend on a mixture of direct hepatic effects and cross talk between different GH-responsive tissues.
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Age-related and depot-specific changes in white adipose tissue of growth hormone receptor-null mice.
J. Gerontol. A Biol. Sci. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 07-20-2013
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Growth hormone receptor-null (GHR(-/-)) mice are dwarf, insulin sensitive, and long-lived in spite of increased adiposity. However, their adiposity is not uniform, with select white adipose tissue (WAT) depots enlarged. To study WAT depot-specific effects on insulin sensitivity and life span, we analyzed individual WAT depots of 12- and 24-month-old GHR(-) (/-) and wild-type (WT) mice, as well as their plasma levels of selected hormones. Adipocyte sizes and plasma insulin, leptin, and adiponectin levels decreased with age in both GHR(-) (/-) and WT mice. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis proteomes of WAT depots were similar among groups, but several proteins involved in endocytosis and/or cytoskeletal organization (Ehd2, S100A10, actin), anticoagulation (S100A10, annexin A5), and age-related conditions (alpha2-macroglobulin, apolipoprotein A-I, transthyretin) showed significant differences between genotypes. Because Ehd2 may regulate endocytosis of Glut4, we measured Glut4 levels in the WAT depots of GHR(-) (/-) and WT mice. Inguinal WAT of 12-month-old GHR(-) (/-) mice displayed lower levels of Glut4 than WT. Overall, the protein changes detected in this study offer new insights into possible mechanisms contributing to enhanced insulin sensitivity and extended life span in GHR(-) (/-) mice.
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Evaluation of growth hormone (GH) action in mice: Discovery of GH receptor antagonists and clinical indications.
Mol. Cell. Endocrinol.
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2013
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The discovery of a growth hormone receptor antagonist (GHA) was initially established via expression of mutated GH genes in transgenic mice. Following this discovery, development of the compound resulted in a drug termed pegvisomant, which has been approved for use in patients with acromegaly. Pegvisomant treatment in a dose dependent manner results in normalization of IGF-1 levels in most patients. Thus, it is a very efficacious and safe drug. Since the GH/IGF-1 axis has been implicated in the progression of several types of cancers, many have suggested the use of pegvisomant as an anti-cancer therapeutic. In this manuscript, we will review the use of mouse strains that possess elevated or depressed levels of GH action for unraveling many of GH actions. Additionally, we will describe experiments in which the GHA was discovered, review results of pegvisomants preclinical and clinical trials, and provide data suggesting pegvisomants therapeutic value in selected types of cancer.
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Increased Metabolic Flexibility and Complexity in a Long-Lived Growth Hormone Insensitive Mouse Model.
J. Gerontol. A Biol. Sci. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2013
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The goal of this study was to test whether the "loss of the complexity" hypothesis can be applied to compare the metabolic patterns of mouse models with known differences in metabolic and endocrine function as well as life span. Here, we compare the complexity of locomotor activity and metabolic patterns (energy expenditure, VO2, and respiratory quotient) of the long-lived growth hormone receptor gene deleted mice (GHR(-)(/-)) and their wild-type littermates. Using approximate entropy as a measure of complexity, we observed greater metabolic complexity, as indicated by greater irregularity in the physiological fluctuations of the GHR(-)(/-) mice. Further analysis of the data also revealed lower energy costs of locomotor activity and a stronger relationship between locomotor activity and respiratory quotient in the GHR(-)(/-) mice relative to controls. These findings suggest underlying differences in metabolic modulation in the GHR(-)(/-) mice revealed especially through measures of complexity of their time-dependent fluctuations.
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The effect of calorie restriction on the presence of apoptotic ovarian cells in normal wild type mice and low-plasma-IGF-1 Laron dwarf mice.
J Ovarian Res
PUBLISHED: 06-09-2013
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It is known that caloric restriction extends lifespan and can minimize age-related dysfunction of the reproductive system. We became interested in how caloric restriction influences apoptosis, which is a crucial process that maintains ovarian cell homeostasis.
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The slow-aging growth hormone receptor/binding protein gene-disrupted (GHR-KO) mouse is protected from aging-resultant neuromusculoskeletal frailty.
Age (Dordr)
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2013
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Neuromusculoskeletal (physical) frailty is an aging-attributable biomedical issue of extremely high import, from both public health and individual perspectives. Yet, it is rarely studied in nonhuman research subjects and very rarely studied in animals with extended longevity. In an effort to address this relatively neglected area, we have conducted a longitudinal investigation of the neuromusculoskeletal healthspan in mice with two senescence-slowing interventions: growth hormone (GH) resistance, produced by GH receptor "knockout" (GHR-KO), and caloric restriction (CR). We report marked improvements in the retention of strength, balance, and motor coordination by the longevity-conferring GHR/BP gene disruption, CR regimen, or a combination of the two. Specifically, GHR-KO mice exhibit superior grip strength, balance, and motor coordination at middle age, and CR mice display superior grip strength at middle age. The advantageous effects established by middle-age are more pronounced in old-age, and these robust alterations are, generally, not gender-specific. Thus, we show that genetic and/or dietary interventions that engender longevity are also beneficial for the retention of neuromusculoskeletal health and functionality. The translational knowledge to be gained from subsequent molecular or histological investigations of these models of preserved functionality and decelerated senescence is potentially relevant to the efforts to reduce the specter of fear, falls, fracture, and frailty in the elderly.
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A Dwarf Mouse Model With Decreased GH/IGF-1 Activity That Does Not Experience Life-Span Extension: Potential Impact of Increased Adiposity, Leptin, and Insulin With Advancing Age.
J. Gerontol. A Biol. Sci. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2013
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Reduced growth hormone (GH) action is associated with extended longevity in many vertebrate species. GH receptor (GHR) null (GHR(-)(/-)) mice, which have a disruption in the GHR gene, are a well-studied example of mice that are insulin sensitive and long lived yet obese. However, unlike other mouse lines with reduced GH action, GH receptor antagonist (GHA) transgenic mice have reduced GH action yet exhibit a normal, not extended, life span. Understanding why GHA mice do not have extended life span though they share many physiological attributes with GHR(-)(/-) mice will help provide clues about how GH influences aging. For this study, we examined age- and sex-related changes in body composition, glucose homeostasis, circulating adipokines, and tissue weights in GHA mice and littermate controls. Compared with previous studies with GHR(-)(/-) mice, GHA mice had more significant increases in fat mass with advancing age. The increased obesity resulted in significant adipokine changes. Euglycemia was maintained in GHA mice; however, hyperinsulinemia developed in older male GHA mice. Overall, GHA mice experience a more substantial, generalized obesity accompanied by altered adipokine levels and glucose homeostasis than GHR(-)(/-) mice, which becomes more exaggerated with advancing age and which likely contributes to the lack of life-span extension in these mice.
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The effect of low and high plasma levels of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) on the morphology of major organs: studies of Laron dwarf and bovine growth hormone transgenic (bGHTg) mice.
Histol. Histopathol.
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2013
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It is well known that somatotrophic/insulin signaling affects lifespan in experimental animals. To study the effects of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) plasma level on the morphology of major organs, we analyzed lung, heart, liver, kidney, bone marrow, and spleen isolated from 2-year-old growth hormone receptor knockout (GHR-KO) Laron dwarf mice (with low circulating plasma levels of IGF-1) and 6-month-old bovine growth hormone transgenic (bGHTg) mice (with high circulating plasma levels of IGF-1). The ages of the two mutant strains employed in our studies were selected based on their overall ~50% survival (Laron dwarf mice live up to ~4 years and bGHTg mice up to ~1 year). Morphological analysis of the organs of long-living 2-year-old Laron dwarf mice revealed a lower biological age for their organs compared with normal littermates, with more brown adipose tissue (BAT) surrounding the main body organs, lower levels of steatosis in liver, and a lower incidence of leukocyte infiltration in different organs. By contrast, the organs of 6-month-old, short-living bGHTg mice displayed several abnormalities in liver and kidney and a reduced content of BAT around vital organs.
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The GH/IGF-1 axis in ageing and longevity.
Nat Rev Endocrinol
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2013
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Secretion of growth hormone (GH), and consequently that of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), declines over time until only low levels can be detected in individuals aged ?60 years. This phenomenon, which is known as the somatopause, has led to recombinant human GH being widely promoted and abused as an antiageing drug, despite lack of evidence of efficacy. By contrast, several mutations that decrease the tone of the GH/IGF-1 axis are associated with extended longevity in mice. In humans, corresponding or similar mutations have been identified, but whether these mutations alter longevity has yet to be established. The powerful effect of reduced GH activity on lifespan extension in mice has generated the hypothesis that pharmaceutically inhibiting, rather than increasing, GH action might delay ageing. Moreover, mice as well as humans with reduced activity of the GH/IGF-1 axis are protected from cancer and diabetes mellitus, two major ageing-related morbidities. Here, we review data on mouse strains with alterations in the GH/IGF-1 axis and their effects on lifespan. The outcome of corresponding or similar mutations in humans is described, as well as the potential mechanisms underlying increased longevity and the therapeutic benefits and risks of medical disruption of the GH/IGF-1 axis in humans.
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The role of GH in adipose tissue: lessons from adipose-specific GH receptor gene-disrupted mice.
Mol. Endocrinol.
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2013
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GH receptor (GHR) gene-disrupted mice (GHR-/-) have provided countless discoveries as to the numerous actions of GH. Many of these discoveries highlight the importance of GH in adipose tissue. For example GHR-/- mice are insulin sensitive yet obese with preferential enlargement of the sc adipose depot. GHR-/- mice also have elevated levels of leptin, resistin, and adiponectin, compared with controls leading some to suggest that GH may negatively regulate certain adipokines. To help clarify the role that GH exerts specifically on adipose tissue in vivo, we selectively disrupted GHR in adipose tissue to produce Fat GHR Knockout (FaGHRKO) mice. Surprisingly, FaGHRKOs shared only a few characteristics with global GHR-/- mice. Like the GHR-/- mice, FaGHRKO mice are obese with increased total body fat and increased adipocyte size. However, FaGHRKO mice have increases in all adipose depots with no improvements in measures of glucose homeostasis. Furthermore, resistin and adiponectin levels in FaGHRKO mice are similar to controls (or slightly decreased) unlike the increased levels found in GHR-/- mice, suggesting that GH does not regulate these adipokines directly in adipose tissue in vivo. Other features of FaGHRKO mice include decreased levels of adipsin, a near-normal GH/IGF-1 axis, and minimal changes to a large assortment of circulating factors that were measured such as IGF-binding proteins. In conclusion, specific removal of GHR in adipose tissue is sufficient to increase adipose tissue and decrease circulating adipsin. However, removal of GHR in adipose tissue alone is not sufficient to increase levels of resistin or adiponectin and does not alter glucose metabolism.
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Adiponectin in mice with altered GH action: links to insulin sensitivity and longevity?
J. Endocrinol.
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Adiponectin is positively correlated with longevity and negatively correlated with many obesity-related diseases. While there are several circulating forms of adiponectin, the high-molecular-weight (HMW) version has been suggested to have the predominant bioactivity. Adiponectin gene expression and cognate serum protein levels are of particular interest in mice with altered GH signaling as these mice exhibit extremes in obesity that are positively associated with insulin sensitivity and lifespan as opposed to the typical negative association of these factors. While a few studies have reported total adiponectin levels in young adult mice with altered GH signaling, much remains unresolved, including changes in adiponectin levels with advancing age, proportion of total adiponectin in the HMW form, adipose depot of origin, and differential effects of GH vs IGF1. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to address these issues using assorted mouse lines with altered GH signaling. Our results show that adiponectin is generally negatively associated with GH activity, regardless of age. Further, the amount of HMW adiponectin is consistently linked with the level of total adiponectin and not necessarily with previously reported lifespan or insulin sensitivity of these mice. Interestingly, circulating adiponectin levels correlated strongly with inguinal fat mass, implying that the effects of GH on adiponectin are depot specific. Interestingly, rbGH, but not IGF1, decreased circulating total and HMW adiponectin levels. Taken together, these results fill important gaps in the literature related to GH and adiponectin and question the frequently reported associations of total and HMW adiponectin with insulin sensitivity and longevity.
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Age- and sex-associated plasma proteomic changes in growth hormone receptor gene-disrupted mice.
J. Gerontol. A Biol. Sci. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 12-07-2011
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Growth hormone receptor gene-disrupted (GHR-/-) mice are dwarf, insulin sensitive, and long lived despite being obese. In order to identify characteristics associated with their increased longevity, we studied age-related plasma proteomic changes in these mice. Male and female GHR-/- mice and their littermate controls were followed longitudinally at 8, 16, and 24 months of ages for plasma proteomic analysis. Relative to control littermates, GHR-/- mice had increased levels of apolipoprotein A-4 and retinol-binding protein-4 and decreased levels of apolipoprotein E, haptoglobin, and mannose-binding protein-C. Female GHR-/- mice showed decreased inflammatory cytokines including interleukin-1? and monocyte chemotactic protein-1. Additionally, sex differences were found in specific isoforms of apolipoprotein E, RBP-4, haptoglobin, albumin, and hemoglobin subunit beta. In conclusion, we find plasma proteomic changes in GHR-/- mice that favor a longer life span as well as sex differences indicative of an improved health span in female mice.
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Metabolic effects of intra-abdominal fat in GHRKO mice.
Aging Cell
PUBLISHED: 11-28-2011
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Mice with targeted deletion of the growth hormone receptor (GHRKO mice) are growth hormone (GH) resistant, small, obese, hypoinsulinemic, highly insulin sensitive and remarkably long-lived. To elucidate the unexpected coexistence of adiposity with improved insulin sensitivity and extended longevity, we examined effects of surgical removal of visceral (epididymal and perinephric) fat on metabolic traits related to insulin signaling and longevity. Comparison of results obtained in GHRKO mice and in normal animals from the same strain revealed disparate effects of visceral fat removal (VFR) on insulin and glucose tolerance, adiponectin levels, accumulation of ectopic fat, phosphorylation of insulin signaling intermediates, body temperature, and respiratory quotient (RQ). Overall, VFR produced the expected improvements in insulin sensitivity and reduced body temperature and RQ in normal mice and had opposite effects in GHRKO mice. Some of the examined parameters were altered by VFR in opposite directions in GHRKO and normal mice, and others were affected in only one genotype or exhibited significant genotype × treatment interactions. Functional differences between visceral fat of GHRKO and normal mice were confirmed by measurements of adipokine secretion, lipolysis, and expression of genes related to fat metabolism. We conclude that in the absence of GH signaling, the secretory activity of visceral fat is profoundly altered and unexpectedly promotes enhanced insulin sensitivity. The apparent beneficial effects of visceral fat in GHRKO mice may also explain why reducing adiposity by calorie restriction fails to improve insulin signaling or further extend longevity in these animals.
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Post-transcriptional regulation of IGF1R by key microRNAs in long-lived mutant mice.
Aging Cell
PUBLISHED: 10-05-2011
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Long-lived mutant mice, both Ames dwarf and growth hormone receptor gene-disrupted or knockout strains, exhibit heightened cognitive robustness and altered IGF1 signaling in the brain. Here, we report, in both these long-lived mice, that three up-regulated lead microRNAs, miR-470, miR-669b, and miR-681, are involved in posttranscriptional regulation of genes pertinent to growth hormone/IGF1 signaling. All three are most prominently localized in the hippocampus and correspond to reduced expression of key IGF1 signaling genes: IGF1, IGF1R, and PI3 kinase. The decline in these genes expression translates into decreased phosphorylation of downstream molecules AKT and FoxO3a. Cultures transfected with either miR-470, miR-669b, or miR-681 show repressed endogenous expression of all three genes of the IGF1 signaling axis, most significantly IGF1R, while other similarly up-regulated microRNAs, including let-7g and miR-509, do not induce the same levels of repression. Transduction study in IGF1-responsive cell cultures shows significantly reduced IGF1R expression, and AKT to some extent, most notably by miR-681. This is accompanied by decreased levels of downstream phosphorylated forms of AKT and FoxO3a upon IGF1 stimulation. Suppression of IGF1R by the three microRNAs is further validated by IGF1R 3UTR reporter assays. Taken together, our results suggest that miR-470, miR-669b, and miR-681 are all functionally able to suppress IGF1R and AKT, two upstream genes controlling FoxO3a phosphorylation status. Their up-regulation in growth hormone signaling-deficient mutant mouse brain suggests reduced IGF1 signaling at the posttranscriptional level, for numerous gains of neuronal function in these long-lived mice.
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Differential effects of growth hormone versus insulin-like growth factor-I on the mouse plasma proteome.
Endocrinology
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2011
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The GH/IGF-I axis has both pre- and postpubertal metabolic effects. However, the differential effects of GH and/or IGF-I on animal physiology or the plasma proteome are still being unraveled. In this report, we analyzed several physiological effects along with the plasma proteome after treatment of mice with recombinant bovine GH or recombinant human IGF-I. GH and IGF-I showed similar effects in increasing body length, body weight, lean and fluid masses, and organ weights including muscle, kidney, and spleen. However, GH significantly increased serum total cholesterol, whereas IGF-I had no effect on it. Both acute and longer-term effects on the plasma proteome were determined. Proteins found to be significantly changed by recombinant bovine GH and/or recombinant human IGF-I injections were identified by mass spectrometry (MS) and MS/MS. The identities of these proteins were further confirmed by Western blotting analysis. Isoforms of apolipoprotein A4, apolipoprotein E, serum amyloid protein A-1, clusterin, transthyretin, and several albumin fragments were found to be differentially regulated by GH vs. IGF-I in mouse plasma. Thus, we have identified several plasma protein biomarkers that respond specifically and differentially to GH or IGF-I and may represent new physiological targets of these hormones. These findings may lead to better understanding of the independent biological effects of GH vs. IGF-I. In addition, these novel biomarkers may be useful for the development of tests to detect illicit use of GH or IGF-I.
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Heterogeneity among white adipose tissue depots in male C57BL/6J mice.
Obesity (Silver Spring)
PUBLISHED: 07-21-2011
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The widespread prevalence of obesity has lead to extensive research on white adipose tissue (WAT), which frequently uses the C57BL/6J mouse strain as a model. In many studies, results obtained in one WAT depot are often extrapolated to all WAT. However, functional differences among WAT depots are now becoming apparent. Thus, to identify the molecular mechanisms responsible for WAT depot-specific differences under "normal" conditions, four C57BL/6J mouse WAT depots (inguinal, mesenteric, epididymal, and retroperitoneal) were analyzed. Depot proteomic profiles, along with weights, protein contents, adipocyte sizes and oxidative stress were determined. Mesenteric WAT had almost twice the protein content of the other depots analyzed. Mean adipocyte size was highest in epididymal and lowest in mesenteric and inguinal depots. The proteome of inguinal WAT displayed low levels of enzymes involved in ATP generation, glucose and lipid metabolism, and antioxidant proteins. Higher levels of these proteins were observed in mesenteric and epididymal WAT, with variable levels in the retroperitoneal depot. Some of these proteins showed depot-specific correlations with plasma levels of insulin, leptin, and adiponectin. In agreement with the proteomic data, levels of the antioxidant protein heat shock protein ?1 (HSP?1) also were lower in inguinal WAT when analyzed by western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Also, lipid peroxidation products showed similar trends. Our results are consistent with lower triglyceride turnover and lower oxidative stress in inguinal than mesenteric and epididymal WAT. The observed WAT depot-specific differences provide clues as to the mechanisms leading to these depots respective diverse functions.
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Pharmacologic inhibition of ghrelin receptor signaling is insulin sparing and promotes insulin sensitivity.
J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 07-20-2011
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Ghrelin influences a variety of metabolic functions through a direct action at its receptor, the GhrR (GhrR-1a). Ghrelin knockout (KO) and GhrR KO mice are resistant to the negative effects of high-fat diet (HFD) feeding. We have generated several classes of small-molecule GhrR antagonists and evaluated whether pharmacologic blockade of ghrelin signaling can recapitulate the phenotype of ghrelin/GhrR KO mice. Antagonist treatment blocked ghrelin-induced and spontaneous food intake; however, the effects on spontaneous feeding were absent in GhrR KO mice, suggesting target-specific effects of the antagonists. Oral administration of antagonists to HFD-fed mice improved insulin sensitivity in both glucose tolerance and glycemic clamp tests. The insulin sensitivity observed was characterized by improved glucose disposal with dramatically decreased insulin secretion. It is noteworthy that these results mimic those obtained in similar tests of HFD-fed GhrR KO mice. HFD-fed mice treated for 56 days with antagonist experienced a transient decrease in food intake but a sustained body weight decrease resulting from decreased white adipose, but not lean tissue. They also had improved glucose disposal and a striking reduction in the amount of insulin needed to achieve this. These mice had reduced hepatic steatosis, improved liver function, and no evidence of systemic toxicity relative to controls. Furthermore, GhrR KO mice placed on low- or high-fat diets had lifespans similar to the wild type, emphasizing the long-term safety of ghrelin receptor blockade. We have therefore demonstrated that chronic pharmacologic blockade of the GhrR is an effective and safe strategy for treating metabolic syndrome.
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Selective inner retinal dysfunction in growth hormone transgenic mice.
Growth Horm. IGF Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2011
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The discovery of locally produced growth hormone (GH) and its receptor in the retina of rodents raises the possibility that GH might modulate retinal function. To test this hypothesis, we determined the retinal electroretinogram (ERG) of bovine GH (bGH) transgenic mice.
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Identification of new biomarkers of low-dose GH replacement therapy in GH-deficient patients.
J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 05-04-2011
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GH secretion peaks at puberty and continues to be secreted in adulthood, albeit at a declining rate. Profound GH deficiency (GHD) in adults with pituitary disease is associated with symptoms that improve with GH substitution, but it is important to tailor the GH dose to avoid overtreatment. Measurement of serum IGF-I levels is an important clinical tool in this regard, but it is well recognized that some patients receiving GH treatment do not show an increase in IGF-I.
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GH receptor plays a major role in liver regeneration through the control of EGFR and ERK1/2 activation.
Endocrinology
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2011
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GH is a pleiotropic hormone that plays a major role in proliferation, differentiation, and metabolism via its specific receptor. It has been previously suggested that GH signaling pathways are required for normal liver regeneration but the molecular mechanisms involved have yet to be determined. The aim of this study was to identify the mechanisms by which GH controls liver regeneration. We performed two thirds partial hepatectomies in GH receptor (GHR)-deficient mice and wild-type littermates and showed a blunted progression in the G(1)/S transition phase of the mutant hepatocytes. This impaired liver regeneration was not corrected by reestablishing IGF-1 expression. Although the initial response to partial hepatectomy at the priming phase appeared to be similar between mutant and wild-type mice, cell cycle progression was significantly blunted in mutant mice. The main defect in GHR-deficient mice was the deficiency of the epidermal growth factor receptor activation during the process of liver regeneration. Finally, among the pathways activated downstream of GHR during G(1) phase progression, namely Erk1/2, Akt, and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3, we only found a reduced Erk1/2 phosphorylation in mutant mice. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that GH signaling plays a major role in liver regeneration and strongly suggest that it acts through the activation of both epidermal growth factor receptor and Erk1/2 pathways.
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Growth hormone and adipose tissue: beyond the adipocyte.
Growth Horm. IGF Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2011
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The last two decades have seen resurgence in research focused on adipose tissue. In part, the enhanced interest stems from an alarming increase in obesity rates worldwide. However, an understanding that this once simple tissue is significantly more intricate and interactive than previously realized has fostered additional attention. While few would argue that growth hormone (GH) radically alters fat mass, newer findings revealing the complexity of adipose tissue requires that GHs influence on this tissue be reexamined. Therefore, the objective of this review is to describe the more recent understanding of adipose tissue and to summarize our current knowledge of how GH may influence and contribute to these newer complexities of this tissue with special focus on the available data from mice with altered GH action.
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Decreased insulin sensitivity and increased oxidative damage in wasting adipose tissue depots of wild-type mice.
Age (Dordr)
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2011
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Unintentional weight loss (wasting) in the elderly is a major health concern as it leads to increased mortality. Several studies have focused on muscle loss, but little is known about the mechanisms giving rise to loss of fat mass at old ages. To investigate potential mechanisms, white adipose tissue (WAT) characteristics and proteomic profiles were compared between adult (10-12-month-old) and aged (22-24-month-old) wild-type mice. Four individual WAT depots were analyzed to account for possible depot-specific differences. Proteomic profiles of WAT depots, along with body weights and compositions, plasma levels of insulin, leptin and adiponectin, insulin tolerance, adipocyte sizes, and products of oxidative damage in each WAT depot were determined. We found that lean mass remained constant while fat mass and insulin tolerance were decreased in old age, as were adipocyte sizes in the WAT depots. Proteomic results showed increased levels of enolase, pyruvate dehydrogenase E1?, NAD(+)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase ?, and ATP synthase subunit ?, and decreased levels of carbonic anhydrase 3 in WAT of aged mice. These data suggest increased aerobic glucose oxidation in wasting WAT, consistent with decreased insulin signaling. Also, Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase and two chaperones were increased in aged WAT depots, indicating higher stress resistance. In agreement, lipid peroxidation (HNE-His adducts) increased in old age, although protein oxidation (carbonyl groups) showed no increase. In conclusion, features of wasting WAT were similar in the four depots, including decreased adipocyte sizes and alterations in protein expression profiles that indicated decreased insulin sensitivity and increased lipid peroxidation.
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Plasma proteomic profiles of bovine growth hormone transgenic mice as they age.
Transgenic Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2011
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Attenuation of the growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) axis results in extended lifespan in many organisms including mice. Conversely, GH transgenic mice have excess GH action and die prematurely. We have studied bovine (b) GH transgenic mice (n = 9) and their wild type (WT) littermates (n = 8) longitudinally and have determined several age-related changes. Compared to WT mice, bGH mice lost fat mass, became hypoglycemic and had lower insulin levels at older ages despite being hyperinsulinemic when young. To examine plasma protein differences in bGH mice relative to controls, samples at 2, 4, 8, 12 and 16 months of age were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by identification using mass spectrometry. We found several differences in plasma proteins of bGH mice compared to controls, including increased apolipoprotein E (five isoforms), haptoglobin (four isoforms) and mannose-binding protein-C (one out of three isoforms), and decreased transthyretin (six isoforms). In addition, clusterin (two out of six isoforms) and haptoglobin (four isoforms) were up-regulated in bGH mice as a function of age. Finally, alpha-2 macroglobulin (seven isoforms) was altered in an isoform-specific manner with two isoforms increased and two decreased in bGH mouse plasma compared to controls. In conclusion, identification of these proteins suggests that bGH mice exhibit an increased inflammatory state with an adverse lipid profile, possibly contributing to their diminished life expectancy. Also, these newly discovered plasma proteins may be indicative or biomarkers of a shortened lifespan.
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Proteomic changes in the heart of diet-induced pre-diabetic mice.
J Proteomics
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2011
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The development of type 2 diabetes (T2D) is strongly associated with obesity. In humans, T2D increases the risk for end organ complications. Among these, heart disease has been ranked as the leading cause of death. We used a proteomic methodology to test the hypothesis that a pre-diabetic state generated by high-fat diet leads to changes in proteins related to heart function and structure. Over 300 protein spots were resolved by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). Fifteen protein spots were found to be altered (7 decreased and 8 increased) in pre-diabetic hearts. The protein spots were then identified by mass spectrometry and immunoblots. Among the decreased proteins, 3 are involved in heart structure (one isoform of desmin, troponin T2 and ?-cardiac actin), 3 are involved in energy metabolism (mitochondrial ATP synthase ? subunit, adenylate kinase and creatine kinase) and one is a component of the citric acid cycle (isocitrate dehydrogenase 3). In contrast, proteins involved in fatty acid oxidation (two isoforms of peroxisomal enoyl-CoA hydratase) and the citric acid cycle (three isoforms of malate dehydrogenase) were increased in pre-diabetic hearts. The results suggest that changes in the levels of several heart proteins may have implications in the development of the cardiac phenotype associated to T2D.
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Novel serum protein biomarkers indicative of growth hormone doping in healthy human subjects.
Proteomics
PUBLISHED: 02-09-2011
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The detection of recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) is difficult due to its short half-life; therefore, novel and robust biomarkers of rhGH abuse are needed. In this study, serum samples derived from subjects treated with rhGH in a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled crossover study were analyzed by 2-DE coupled with MS. Eight healthy male subjects aged 23.2±0.6 years were injected with rhGH (2?mg/day) or saline for 7 days with serum samples drawn at days 0, 3, and 8. Protein intensities were quantified and analyzed for differences between rhGH and placebo treatments. Proteins that showed significant changes were identified and confirmed by Western blotting. These included specific isoforms of ?-1 antitrypsin and transthyretin that increased; and inter-?-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain H4, apolipoprotein A-1, and hemoglobin ? chain that decreased. These proteins represent novel biomarkers of short-term rhGH exposure and may lead to a new method for detecting rhGH doping.
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Insulin receptor substrates form high-molecular-mass complexes that modulate their availability to insulin/insulin-like growth factor-I receptor tyrosine kinases.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 12-07-2010
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Insulin receptor substrates (IRSs) are phosphorylated by activated insulin/insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I receptor tyrosine kinases. Phosphotyrosyl IRSs are recognized by signaling molecules possessing src homology region 2 (SH2) domains, which mediate various insulin/IGF bioactivities. However, we have shown that IRSs are also associated with other proteins by a phosphotyrosine-independent mechanism. Here, we demonstrated that IRSs form high-molecular-mass complexes (we named these complexes IRSomes) with various proteins and we elucidated their possible roles. Blue native-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of cell lysates revealed IRSome formation. Some proteins associated with IRSs in IRS-isoform-, cell-type-, or stimulus-specific manners. Results of the in vitro tyrosine phosphorylation assay indicated that tyrosine phosphorylation of IRS-1 by insulin receptor was decreased when IRS-1 was contained in IRSomes prepared from 3T3-L1 adipocytes treated with TNF-?. Also, tyrosine phosphorylation of IRS-2 by IGF-I receptor was increased when IRS-2 was contained in IRSomes prepared from FRTL-5 thyrocytes treated with dibutyryl cAMP. These results demonstrated that cytokine/hormone-induced formation of IRSomes modulates availability of IRSs to receptor tyrosine kinases.
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Endocrine parameters and phenotypes of the growth hormone receptor gene disrupted (GHR-/-) mouse.
Endocr. Rev.
PUBLISHED: 12-01-2010
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Disruption of the GH receptor (GHR) gene eliminates GH-induced intracellular signaling and, thus, its biological actions. Therefore, the GHR gene disrupted mouse (GHR-/-) has been and is a valuable tool for helping to define various parameters of GH physiology. Since its creation in 1995, this mouse strain has been used by our laboratory and others for numerous studies ranging from growth to aging. Some of the most notable discoveries are their extreme insulin sensitivity in the presence of obesity. Also, the animals have an extended lifespan, which has generated a large number of investigations into the roles of GH and IGF-I in the aging process. This review summarizes the many results derived from the GHR-/- mice. We have attempted to present the findings in the context of current knowledge regarding GH action and, where applicable, to discuss how these mice compare to GH insensitivity syndrome in humans.
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Serum proteome changes in acromegalic patients following transsphenoidal surgery: novel biomarkers of disease activity.
Eur. J. Endocrinol.
PUBLISHED: 11-08-2010
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Transsphenoidal adenomectomy is the primary treatment for acromegaly. However, assessment of the therapeutical outcome remains problematic since the existing biomarkers of disease activity frequently show discordant results.
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Hypothesis: Extra-hepatic acromegaly: a new paradigm?
Eur. J. Endocrinol.
PUBLISHED: 11-02-2010
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Medical treatment of acromegaly with long-acting somatostatin analogs (LA-SMSA) and the GH receptor antagonist, pegvisomant (PEGV), has made it possible to achieve normal serum IGF1 concentrations in a majority of patients with acromegaly. These two compounds, however, impact the GH-IGF1 axis differently, which challenges the traditional biochemical assessment of the therapeutic response. We postulate that LA-SMSA in certain patients normalizes serum IGF1 levels in the presence of elevated GH actions in extra-hepatic tissues. This may result in persistent disease activity for which we propose the term extra-hepatic acromegaly. PEGV, on the other hand, blocks systemic GH actions, which are not necessarily reliably reflected by serum IGF1 levels, and this treatment causes a further elevation of serum GH levels. Medical treatment is therefore difficult to monitor with the traditional biomarkers. Moreover, the different modes of actions of LA-SMSA and PEGV make it attractive to use the two drugs in combination. We believe that it is time to challenge the existing concepts of treatment and monitoring of patients with acromegaly.
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Novel serum biomarkers for erythropoietin use in humans: a proteomic approach.
J. Appl. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2010
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Erythropoietin (Epo) is produced primarily in the kidneys upon low blood oxygen availability and stimulates erythropoiesis in the bone marrow. Recombinant human Epo (rHuEpo), a drug developed to increase arterial oxygen content in patients, is also illicitly used by athletes to improve their endurance performance. Therefore, a robust and sensitive test to detect its abuse is needed. The aim of the present study was to investigate potential human serum biomarkers of Epo abuse employing a proteomic approach. Eight healthy male subjects were injected subcutaneously with rHuEpo (5,000 IU) every second day for a 16-day period. Serum was collected before starting the treatment regime and again at days 8 and 16 during the treatment period. Samples were homogenized and proteins separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE). Spots that changed significantly in response to rHuEpo treatment were identified by mass spectrometry. Both the number of reticulocytes and erythrocytes increased throughout the study, leading to a significant increase in hematocrit and hemoglobin content. In addition, transferrin levels increased but the percentage of iron bound to transferrin and ferritin levels decreased. Out of 97 serum proteins, seven were found to decrease significantly at day 16 compared with pre-Epo administration, and were identified as four isoforms of haptoglobin, two isoforms of transferrin, and a mixture of hemopexin and albumin. In support, total serum haptoglobin levels were found to be significantly decreased at both days 8 and 16. Thus a 2DE proteomic approach for discovery of novel markers of Epo action appears feasible.
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Local prolactin is a target to prevent expansion of basal/stem cells in prostate tumors.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2010
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Androgen-independent recurrence is the major limit of androgen ablation therapy for prostate cancer. Identification of alternative pathways promoting prostate tumor growth is thus needed. Stat5 has been recently shown to promote human prostate cancer cell survival/proliferation and to be associated with early prostate cancer recurrence. Stat5 is the main signaling pathway triggered by prolactin (PRL), a growth factor whose local production is also increased in high-grade prostate cancers. The first aim of this study was to use prostate-specific PRL transgenic mice to address the mechanisms by which local PRL induces prostate tumorogenesis. We report that (i) Stat5 is the major signaling cascade triggered by local PRL in the mouse dorsal prostate, (ii) this model recapitulates prostate tumorogenesis from precancer lesions to invasive carcinoma, and (iii) tumorogenesis involves dramatic accumulation and abnormal spreading of p63-positive basal cells, and of stem cell antigen-1-positive cells identified as a stem/progenitor-like subpopulation. Because basal epithelial stem cells are proposed to serve as tumor-initiating cells, we challenged the relevance of local PRL as a previously unexplored therapeutic target. Using a double-transgenic approach, we show that Delta1-9-G129R-hPRL, a competitive PRL-receptor antagonist, prevented early stages of prostate tumorogenesis by reducing or inhibiting Stat5 activation, cell proliferation, abnormal basal-cell pattern, and frequency or grade of intraepithelial neoplasia. This study identifies PRL receptor/Stat5 as a unique pathway, initiating prostate tumorogenesis by altering basal-/stem-like cell subpopulations, and strongly supports the importance of further developing strategies to target locally overexpressed PRL in human prostate cancer.
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Plasma Protein Biomarkers Correlated with the Development of Diet-Induced Type 2 Diabetes in Mice.
Clin Proteomics
PUBLISHED: 07-14-2010
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INTRODUCTION: Early detection, assessment of disease progression, and application of an appropriate therapeutic intervention are all important for the care of patients with type 2 diabetes. Currently, however, there is no simple test for early detection of type 2 diabetes. Established diagnostic tests for the disease including oral glucose tolerance, fasting blood glucose, and hemoglobin A1c are relatively late markers where the disease has already progressed. Since blood is in direct contact with many tissues, we hypothesized that pathological tissue changes are likely to be reflected in proteomic profiles of plasma. METHODS: Mice were reared either on regular chow or a high-fat diet at weaning and several physiological responses (i.e., weight, fasting plasma glucose and insulin, and glucose tolerance) were monitored at regular time intervals. Plasma was collected at regular intervals for proteomic analysis by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and subsequent mass spectrometry. RESULTS: Onset of hyperinsulinemia with corresponding glucose intolerance was observed in 2 weeks and fasting blood glucose levels rose significantly after 4 weeks on the high-fat diet. Many proteins were found to exist in multiple forms (isoforms). Levels of some isoforms including plasma retinol binding protein, transthyretin, Apolipoprotein A1, and kininogen showed significant changes as early as 4 weeks which coincided with the very early development of glucose intolerance. CONCLUSIONS: These results show that a proteomic approach to study the development of type 2 diabetes may uncover unknown early post-translationally modified diagnostic and/or therapeutic protein targets.
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Increased class A scavenger receptor and glomerular lipid precede mesangial matrix expansion in the bGH mouse model.
Growth Horm. IGF Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-18-2010
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Elevated neutral lipid content and mRNA expression of class A scavenger receptor (SRA) have been found in the renal cortex of the bovine growth hormone (bGH) mouse model of progressive glomerulosclerosis (GS). We hypothesize that the increased expression of SRA precedes glomerular scarring in this model.
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Plasma biomarkers of mouse aging.
Age (Dordr)
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2010
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Normal aging is accompanied by a series of physiological changes such as gray hair, cataracts, reduced immunity, and increased susceptibility to disease. To identify novel biomarkers of normal aging, we analyzed plasma proteins of male mice longitudinally from 2 to 19 months of age. Plasma proteins were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and identified using mass spectrometry (MS), MS/MS and liquid chromatography MS/MS. We found that many plasma proteins exist as multiple isoforms with different masses and/or charges. Thirty-nine protein spots (corresponding to six distinct proteins) have been identified, 13 of which exhibited significant changes with age. For example, several proteins increased significantly during aging including one isoform of transthyretin, two isoforms of haptoglobin, and three isoforms of immunoglobulin kappa chain. Conversely, several proteins decreased significantly during aging including peroxiredoxin-2, serum amyloid protein A-1, and five isoforms of albumin. Identification of these proteins provides new biomarkers of normal aging in mice. If validated in humans, these biomarkers may facilitate therapeutic interventions to identify premature aging, delay aging, and/or improve healthspan of the elderly.
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Human growth hormone expressed in tobacco cells as an arabinogalactan-protein fusion glycoprotein has a prolonged serum life.
Transgenic Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2010
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Therapeutic proteins with molecular weights lower than 40 kDa often have short serum half-lives due to their susceptibility to serum proteases and rapid renal clearance. Chemical derivatization, such as PEGylation, or expression as serum albumin fusions increases molecular mass and overcome these problems but at the expense of decreased bioactivity. Here we applied a new method that yields biologically potent recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) with increased serum half-life when expressed as an arabinogalactan-protein (AGP) in tobacco BY-2 cells. Thus, rhGH was expressed with 10 repeats of the AGP glycomodule Ser-Hyp (SO) at the C-terminus (rhGH-(SO)(10)). We also expressed rhGH as an AGP-enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) fusion, designated rhGH-(SO)(10)-EGFP, to assess the cellular distribution of the glycoprotein, which was mainly extracellular. Recombinant hGH-(SO)(10) bound the hGH receptor with an affinity similar to that of a rhGH standard, stimulated the same intracellular signaling pathway as hGH, but possessed an in vivo serum half-life more than sixfold that of the hGH control. Furthermore, rhGH-(SO)(10) gave a 500 fold greater secreted yield than the non-glycosylated control rhGH that was also targeted for secretion. Detailed analysis of the rhGH-(SO)(10) glycans indicated a conserved structure with relatively little microheterogeneity and an average size of 25 monosaccharide residues. These results were consistent with earlier work expressing interferon alpha 2b as an AGP chimera and further demonstrate the feasibility of this approach to the production of long-acting, biologically potent therapeutic proteins by plant cells.
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Two-year body composition analyses of long-lived GHR null mice.
J. Gerontol. A Biol. Sci. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 11-09-2009
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Growth hormone receptor gene-disrupted (GHR-/-) mice exhibit increased life span and adipose tissue mass. Although this obese phenotype has been reported extensively for young adult male GHR-/- mice, data for females and for other ages in either gender are lacking. Thus, the purpose of this study was to evaluate body composition longitudinally in both male and female GHR-/- mice. Results show that GHR-/- mice have a greater percent fat mass with no significant difference in absolute fat mass throughout life. Lean mass shows an opposite trend with percent lean mass not significantly different between genotypes but absolute mass reduced in GHR-/- mice. Differences in body composition are more pronounced in male than in female mice, and both genders of GHR-/- mice show specific enlargement of the subcutaneous adipose depot. Along with previously published data, these results suggest a consistent and intriguing protective effect of excess fat mass in the subcutaneous region.
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Effect of circulating growth hormone on muscle IGF-I protein concentration in female mice with growth hormone receptor gene disruption.
Growth Horm. IGF Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2009
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Growth hormone (GH) is a potent secretague for circulating insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I). The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of circulating GH on muscle IGF-I protein expression using GH transgenic animal models. Three different models were used: mice that overexpress bovine GH (bGH; n=10), mice without a functional GH receptor (GHR-/-; n=10), and wildtype mice (n=10). All mice were 16-week old females and each group differed in their basic phenotypic characteristics. Immediately after euthanization the triceps surae muscle group (soleus, plantaris, and gastrocnemius muscles) was removed. IGF-I was extracted from the muscle with an acid-ethanol solution (12.5% 2N hydrochloric acid and 87.5% ethanol, pH 1.5) followed by neutralization with Tris-base and subsequently quantified using a radioimmunoassay. Analysis revealed that bGH mice had significantly greater muscle IGF-I protein expression compared to GHR-/- and wildtype mice. No difference in IGF-I protein concentration was found between GHR-/- and wildtype animals. This study found that overexpression of GH leading to high circulating GH concentrations increase muscle IGF-I protein expression. However, the absence of a functional GHR did not affect muscle IGF-I protein expression compared to wildtype despite high circulating levels of GH and low circulating levels of IGF-I. In conclusion, it appears that at rest high circulating levels of GH augment muscle IGF-I protein expression only in the presence of an intact GHR but that the absence of a functional GH receptor does not affect basal levels of muscle IGF-I protein in female mice.
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The aging population--is there a role for endocrine interventions?
Growth Horm. IGF Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-21-2009
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The expected increase in the aging population will have a significant impact on society and the health system in the coming years and decades. Enhancing healthspan, "healthy aging", and thus extending the time that the elderly are able to function independently is a significant task and is imperative. Age-dependent changes such as weight loss, sarcopenia and anorexia, which contribute to the development of frailty in the elderly are discussed. The role of the age-dependent decrease in growth hormone secretion in this process and the potential benefits and risks of hormonal interventions to delay, prevent or reverse frailty in the elderly are reviewed.
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Liver-specific deletion of the growth hormone receptor reveals essential role of growth hormone signaling in hepatic lipid metabolism.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2009
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Growth hormone (GH) plays a pivotal role in growth and metabolism, with growth promotion mostly attributed to generation of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) in liver or at local sites of GH action, whereas the metabolic effects of GH are considered to be intrinsic to GH itself. To distinguish the effects of GH from those of IGF-I, we developed a Cre-lox-mediated model of tissue-specific deletion of the growth hormone receptor (GHR). Near total deletion of the GHR in liver (GHRLD) had no effect on total body or bone linear growth despite a >90% suppression of circulating IGF-I; however, total bone density was significantly reduced. Circulating GH was increased 4-fold, and GHRLD displayed insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, and increased circulating free fatty acids. Livers displayed marked steatosis, the result of increased triglyceride synthesis and decreased efflux; reconstitution of hepatic GHR signaling via adenoviral expression of GHR restored triglyceride output to normal, whereas IGF-I infusion did not correct steatosis despite restoration of circulating GH to normal. Thus, with near total absence of circulating IGF-I, GH action at the growth plate, directly and via locally generated IGF-I, can regulate bone growth, but at the expense of diabetogenic, lipolytic, and hepatosteatotic consequences. Our results indicate that IGF-I is essential for bone mineral density, whereas hepatic GH signaling is essential to regulate intrahepatic lipid metabolism. We propose that circulating IGF-I serves to amplify the growth-promoting effects of GH, while simultaneously dampening the catabolic effects of GH.
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Daily energy balance in growth hormone receptor/binding protein (GHR -/-) gene-disrupted mice is achieved through an increase in dark-phase energy efficiency.
Growth Horm. IGF Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2009
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The goal of this study was to examine factors that contribute to energy balance in female GHR -/- mice. We measured energy intake, energy expenditure (EE), fuel utilization, body mass (M(b)) changes and physical activity in 17month-old female GHR -/- mice and their age-matched wild type littermates. The GHR -/- mice were smaller, consumed more food per unit M(b), had greater EE per unit M(b) and had an increase in 24-h EE/M(b) that was similar to the increase in their surface-area-to-volume ratio. Locomotor activity (LMA) was reduced in the GHR -/- mice, but the energetic cost associated with their LMA was greater than in wild type controls. Furthermore, M(b) and LMA were independent explanatory covariates of most of the variance in EE, and when adjusted for M(b) and LMA, the GHR -/- mice had higher EE during both the light and dark phases of the daily cycle. Respiratory quotient was lower in GHR -/- mice during the light phase, which indicated a greater utilization of lipid relative to carbohydrate in these mice. Additionally, GHR -/- mice had higher ratios of caloric intake to EE at several intervals during the dark phase, and this effect was greater and more sustained in the final 3h of the dark phase. Therefore, we conclude that GHR -/- mice are able to overcome the substantial energetic challenges of dwarfism through several mechanisms that promote stable M(b). Relative to wild type mice, the GHR -/- mice consumed more calories per unit M(b), which offset the disproportionate increase in their daily energy expenditure. While GHR -/- mice oxidized a greater proportion of lipid during the light phase in order to meet their energy requirements, they achieved greater energy efficiency and storage during the dark phase through a combination of higher energy consumption and lower LMA.
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Perspective: proteomic approach to detect biomarkers of human growth hormone.
Growth Horm. IGF Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2009
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Several serum biomarkers for recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) have been established, however, none alone or in combination have generate a specific, sensitive, and reproducible kit for the detection of rhGH abuse. Thus, the search for additional GH specific biomarkers continues. In this review, we focus on the use of proteomics in general and two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) in particular for the discovery of new GH induced serum biomarkers. Also, we review some of the protocols involved in 2-DE. Finally, the possibility of tissues other than blood for biomarker discovery is discussed.
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Age-related changes in body composition of bovine growth hormone transgenic mice.
Endocrinology
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2009
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GH has a significant impact on body composition due to distinct anabolic and catabolic effects on lean and fat mass, respectively. Several studies have assessed body composition in mice expressing a GH transgene. Whereas all studies report enhanced growth of transgenic mice as compared with littermate controls, there are inconsistencies in terms of the relative proportion of lean mass to fat mass in these animals. The purpose of this study was to characterize the accumulation of adipose and lean mass with age and according to gender in a bovine (b) GH transgenic mouse line. Weight and body composition measurements were assessed in male and female bGH mice with corresponding littermate controls in the C57BL/6J genetic background. Body composition measurements began at 6 wk and continued through 1 yr of age. At the conclusion of the study, tissue weights were determined and triglyceride content was quantified in liver and kidney. Although body weights for bGH mice were significantly greater than their corresponding littermate controls at all time points, body composition measurements revealed an unexpected transition midway through analyses. That is, younger bGH mice had relatively more fat mass than nontransgenic littermates, whereas bGH mice became significantly leaner than controls by 4 months in males and 6 months in females. These results reveal the importance in timing and gender when conducting studies related to body composition or lean and fat tissue in GH transgenic mice or in other genetically manipulated mouse strains in which body composition may be impacted.
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The cardiovascular phenotype of a mouse model of acromegaly.
Growth Horm. IGF Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-09-2009
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Although, it is accepted that there is an excess of cardiovascular mortality in acromegaly, it is uncertain whether this is due to the direct effects of growth hormone-induced-cardiomyopathy or is a consequence of atherosclerosis secondary to the metabolic syndrome often observed in this condition. Direct comparison of a mouse model of acromegaly to a mouse model of Larons syndrome allowed us to carry out detailed phenotyping and better understand the role GH plays in the circulatory system.
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Disruption of growth hormone receptor prevents calorie restriction from improving insulin action and longevity.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2009
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Most mutations that delay aging and prolong lifespan in the mouse are related to somatotropic and/or insulin signaling. Calorie restriction (CR) is the only intervention that reliably increases mouse longevity. There is considerable phenotypic overlap between long-lived mutant mice and normal mice on chronic CR. Therefore, we investigated the interactive effects of CR and targeted disruption or knock out of the growth hormone receptor (GHRKO) in mice on longevity and the insulin signaling cascade. Every other day feeding corresponds to a mild (i.e. 15%) CR which increased median lifespan in normal mice but not in GHRKO mice corroborating our previous findings on the effects of moderate (30%) CR on the longevity of these animals. To determine why insulin sensitivity improves in normal but not GHRKO mice in response to 30% CR, we conducted insulin stimulation experiments after one year of CR. In normal mice, CR increased the insulin stimulated activation of the insulin signaling cascade (IR/IRS/PI3K/AKT) in liver and muscle. Livers of GHRKO mice responded to insulin by increased activation of the early steps of insulin signaling, which was dissipated by altered PI3K subunit abundance which putatively inhibited AKT activation. In the muscle of GHRKO mice, there was elevated downstream activation of the insulin signaling cascade (IRS/PI3K/AKT) in the absence of elevated IR activation. Further, we found a major reduction of inhibitory Ser phosphorylation of IRS-1 seen exclusively in GHRKO muscle which may underpin their elevated insulin sensitivity. Chronic CR failed to further modify the alterations in insulin signaling in GHRKO mice as compared to normal mice, likely explaining or contributing to the absence of CR effects on insulin sensitivity and longevity in these long-lived mice.
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Reduced incidence and delayed occurrence of fatal neoplastic diseases in growth hormone receptor/binding protein knockout mice.
J. Gerontol. A Biol. Sci. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2009
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Although studies of Ames and Snell dwarf mice have suggested possible important roles of the growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) axis in aging and age-related diseases, the results cannot rule out the possibility of other hormonal changes playing an important role in the life extension exhibited by these dwarf mice. Therefore, growth hormone receptor/binding protein (GHR/BP) knockout (KO) mice would be valuable animals to directly assess the roles of somatotropic axis in aging and age-related diseases because the primary hormonal change is due to GH/IGF-1 deficiency. Our pathological findings showed GHR/BP KO mice to have a lower incidence and delayed occurrence of fatal neoplastic lesions compared with their wild-type littermates. These changes of fatal neoplasms are similar to the effects observed with calorie restriction and therefore could possibly be a major contributing factor to the extended life span observed in the GHR/BP KO mice.
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Endocrine regulation of heat shock protein mRNA levels in long-lived dwarf mice.
Mech. Ageing Dev.
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2009
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Heat shock proteins (HSPs) maintain proteostasis and may protect against age-associated pathology caused by protein malfolding. In Caenorhabditis elegans, the lifespan extension and thermotolerance in mutants with impaired insulin/IGF signals depend partly on HSP elevation. Less is known about the role of HSPs in the increased lifespan of mice with defects in GH/IGF-I pathways. We measured HSP mRNAs in liver, kidney, heart, lung, muscle and cerebral cortex from long-lived Pit1(dw/dw) Snell dwarf mice. We found many significant differences in HSP mRNA levels between dwarf and control mice, but these effects were complex and organ-specific. We noted 15 instances where HSP mRNAs were lower in Pit1(dw/dw) liver, kidney, or heart tissues, and 14/15 of these were also seen in Ghr(-/-) mice, which lack GH receptor. In contrast, of 12 examples where HSP mRNAs were higher in Snell liver, kidney, or heart, none were altered in Ghr(-/-) mice. Four liver mRNAs were depressed in both Pit1(dw/dw) and Ghr(-/-) mice, and each of these was elevated by GH injection in Ames (Prop1(df/df)) dwarf mice, consistent with the hypothesis that these declines depended on GH and/or IGF-I. Contributions of chaperones to longevity in mice may be more complex than those inferred from C. elegans.
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Activation of the GH/IGF-1 axis by CJC-1295, a long-acting GHRH analog, results in serum protein profile changes in normal adult subjects.
Growth Horm. IGF Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2009
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To identify biomarkers of growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) action in human serum.
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Decreased levels of proapoptotic factors and increased key regulators of mitochondrial biogenesis constitute new potential beneficial features of long-lived growth hormone receptor gene-disrupted mice.
J. Gerontol. A Biol. Sci. Med. Sci.
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Decreased somatotrophic signaling is among the most important mechanisms associated with extended longevity. Mice homozygous for the targeted disruption of the growth hormone (GH) receptor gene (GH receptor knockout; GHRKO) are obese and dwarf, are characterized by a reduced weight and body size, undetectable levels of GH receptor, high concentration of serum GH, and greatly reduced plasma levels of insulin and insulin-like growth factor-I, and are remarkably long lived. Recent results suggest new features of GHRKO mice that may positively affect longevity-decreased levels of proapoptotic factors and increased levels of key regulators of mitochondrial biogenesis. The alterations in levels of the proapoptotic factors and key regulators of mitochondrial biogenesis were not further improved by two other potential life-extending interventions-calorie restriction and visceral fat removal. This may attribute the primary role to GH resistance in the regulation of apoptosis and mitochondrial biogenesis in GHRKO mice in terms of increased life span.
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Mouse models of growth hormone action and aging: a proteomic perspective.
Proteomics
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Growth hormone (GH) is a protein secreted by the anterior pituitary and circulates throughout the body to exert important actions on growth and metabolism. GH stimulates the secretion of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) that mediates some of the growth promoting actions of GH. The GH/IGF-I axis has recently been recognized as important in terms of longevity in organisms ranging from Caenorhabditis elegans to mice. For example, GH transgenic mice possess short lifespans while GH receptor null (GHR-/-) mice have extended longevity. Thus, the actions of GH (or IGF-I) or lack thereof impact the aging process. In this review, we summarize the proteomic analyses of plasma and white adipose tissue in these two mouse models of GH action, i.e. GH transgenic and GHR-/- mice. At the protein level, we wanted to establish novel plasma biomarkers of GH action as a function of age and to determine differences in adipose tissue depots. We have shown that these proteomic approaches have not only confirmed several known physiological actions of GH, but also resulted in novel protein biomarkers and targets that may be indicative of the aging process and/or new functions of GH. These results may generate new directions for GH and/or aging research.
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Reversal of experimental Laron Syndrome by xenotransplantation of microencapsulated porcine Sertoli cells.
J Control Release
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Recombinant human IGF-1 currently represents the only available treatment option for the Laron Syndrome, a rare human disorder caused by defects in the gene encoding growth hormone receptor, resulting in irreversibly retarded growth. Unfortunately, this treatment therapy, poorly impacts longitudinal growth (13% in females and 19% in males), while burdening the patients with severe side effects, including hypoglycemia, in association with the unfair chore of taking multiple daily injections that cause local intense pain. In this study, we have demonstrated that a single intraperitoneal graft of microencapsulated pig Sertoli cells, producing pig insulin-like growth factor-1, successfully promoted significant proportional growth in the Laron mouse, a unique animal model of the human Laron Syndrome. These findings indicate a novel, simply, safe and successful method for the cell therapy-based cure of the Laron Syndrome, potentially applicable to humans.
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Upregulation of the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2/angiotensin-(1-7)/Mas receptor axis in the heart and the kidney of growth hormone receptor knock-out mice.
Growth Horm. IGF Res.
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Growth hormone (GH) resistance leads to enhanced insulin sensitivity, decreased systolic blood pressure and increased lifespan. The aim of this study was to determine if there is a shift in the balance of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) towards the ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas receptor axis in the heart and the kidney of a model of GH resistance and retarded aging, the GH receptor knockout (GHR-/-) mouse.
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Central leptin and insulin administration modulates serum cytokine- and lipoprotein-related markers.
Metab. Clin. Exp.
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In most obese patients there is an inflammatory state characterized by lipid abnormalities, hyperleptinemia and hyperinsulinemia.
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Evaluation of functional erythropoietin receptor status in skeletal muscle in vivo: acute and prolonged studies in healthy human subjects.
PLoS ONE
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Erythropoietin receptors have been identified in human skeletal muscle tissue, but downstream signal transduction has not been investigated. We therefore studied in vivo effects of systemic erythropoietin exposure in human skeletal muscle.
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The negative effect of prolonged somatotrophic/insulin signaling on an adult bone marrow-residing population of pluripotent very small embryonic-like stem cells (VSELs).
Age (Dordr)
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It is well known that attenuated insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling (IIS) has a positive effect on longevity in several animal species, including mice. Here, we demonstrate that a population of murine pluripotent very small embryonic-like stem cells (VSELs) that reside in bone marrow (BM) is protected from premature depletion during aging by intrinsic parental gene imprinting mechanisms and the level of circulating insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I). Accordingly, an increase in the circulating level of IGF-I, as seen in short-lived bovine growth hormone (bGH)-expressing transgenic mice, which age prematurely, as well as in wild-type animals injected for 2 months with bGH, leads to accelerated depletion of VSELs from bone marrow (BM). In contrast, long-living GHR-null or Ames dwarf mice, which have very low levels of circulating IGF-I, exhibit a significantly higher number of VSELs in BM than their littermates at the same age. However, the number of VSELs in these animals decreases after GH or IGF-I treatment. These changes in the level of plasma-circulating IGF-I corroborate with changes in the genomic imprinting status of crucial genes involved in IIS, such as Igf-2-H19, RasGRF1, and Ig2R. Thus, we propose that a chronic increase in IIS contributes to aging by premature depletion of pluripotent VSELs in adult tissues.
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