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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Translation of EMS: Clinical Practice and System Oversight from Core Content Study Guide to Best Practices Implementation in an Urban EMS System.
Prehosp Emerg Care
PUBLISHED: 10-08-2014
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Abstract Since 2009, the seminal text in emergency medical services (EMS) medicine has been used to guide the academic development of the new subspecialty but direct application of the material into EMS oversight has not been previously described. The EMS/Disaster Medicine fellowship program at our institution scheduled a monthly meeting to systematically review the text and develop a study guide to assist the fellow and affiliated faculty in preparation for the board examination. In addition to the summary of chapter content, the review included an assessment of areas from each chapter subject where our EMS system did not exhibit recommended characteristics. A matrix was developed in the form of a gap analysis to include specific recommendations based on each perceived gap. Initial review and completion dates for each identified gap enable tracking and a responsible party. This matrix assisted the fellow with development of projects for EMS system improvement in addition to focusing and prioritizing the work of other interested physicians working in the system. By discussing expert recommendations in the setting of an actual EMS system, the faculty can teach the fellow how to approach system improvements based on prior experiences and current stakeholders. This collaborative environment facilitates system-based practice and practice-based learning, aligning with ACGME core competencies. Our educational model has demonstrated the success of translating the text into action items for EMS systems. This model may be useful in other systems and could contribute to the development of EMS system standards nationwide.
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Use of volume-targeted non-invasive bilevel positive airway pressure ventilation in a patient with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.
J Bras Pneumol
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2014
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Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease in which most patients die of respiratory failure. Although volume-targeted non-invasive bilevel positive airway pressure (BPAP) ventilation has been studied in patients with chronic respiratory failure of various etiologies, its use in ALS has not been reported. We present the case of a 66-year-old woman with ALS and respiratory failure treated with volume-targeted BPAP ventilation for 15 weeks. Weekly data downloads showed that disease progression was associated with increased respiratory muscle weakness, decreased spontaneous breathing, and increased use of non-invasive positive pressure ventilation, whereas tidal volume and minute ventilation remained relatively constant.
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The impact of recreational MDMA 'ecstasy' use on global form processing.
J. Psychopharmacol. (Oxford)
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2014
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The ability to integrate local orientation information into a global form percept was investigated in long-term ecstasy users. Evidence suggests that ecstasy disrupts the serotonin system, with the visual areas of the brain being particularly susceptible. Previous research has found altered orientation processing in the primary visual area (V1) of users, thought to be due to disrupted serotonin-mediated lateral inhibition. The current study aimed to investigate whether orientation deficits extend to higher visual areas involved in global form processing. Forty-five participants completed a psychophysical (Glass pattern) study allowing an investigation into the mechanisms underlying global form processing and sensitivity to changes in the offset of the stimuli (jitter). A subgroup of polydrug-ecstasy users (n=6) with high ecstasy use had significantly higher thresholds for the detection of Glass patterns than controls (n=21, p=0.039) after Bonferroni correction. There was also a significant interaction between jitter level and drug-group, with polydrug-ecstasy users showing reduced sensitivity to alterations in jitter level (p=0.003). These results extend previous research, suggesting disrupted global form processing and reduced sensitivity to orientation jitter with ecstasy use. Further research is needed to investigate this finding in a larger sample of heavy ecstasy users and to differentiate the effects of other drugs.
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EMS-STARS: Emergency Medical Services "Superuser" Transport Associations: An Adult Retrospective Study.
Prehosp Emerg Care
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2014
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Abstract Objective. Emergency medical services (EMS) "superusers" -those who use EMS services at extremely high rates -have not been well characterized. Recent interest in the small group of individuals who account for a disproportionate share of health-care expenditures has led to research on frequent users of emergency departments and other health services, but little research has been done regarding those who use EMS services. To inform policy and intervention implementation, we undertook a descriptive analysis of EMS superusers in a large urban community. In this paper we compare EMS superusers to low, moderate, and high users to characterize factors contributing to EMS use. We also estimate the financial impact of EMS superusers. Methods. We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional study based on 1 year of data from an urban EMS system. Data for all EMS encounters with patients age ?18 years were extracted from electronic records generated on scene by paramedics. We identified demographic and clinical variables associated with levels of EMS use. EMS users were characterized by the annual number of EMS encounters: low (1), moderate (2-4), high (5-14), and superusers (?15). In addition, we performed a financial analysis using San Francisco Fire Department (SFFD) 2009 charge and reimbursement data. Results. A total of 31,462 adults generated 43,559 EMS ambulance encounters, which resulted in 39,107 transports (a 90% transport rate). Encounters for general medical reasons were common among moderate and high users and less frequent among superusers and low users, while alcohol use was exponentially correlated with encounter frequency. Superusers were significantly younger than moderate EMS users, and more likely to be male. The superuser group created a significantly higher financial burden/person than any other group, comprising 0.3% of the study population, but over 6% of annual EMS charges and reimbursements. Conclusions. In this retrospective study, adult EMS "superusers" emerged as a distinct, predominantly male population and their EMS encounters were associated with alcohol use. Continued analysis of this unique, high-cost, and frequently transported population will likely illuminate specific intervention strategies.
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The safety and feasibility of robotic-assisted lymph node staging in early-stage ovarian cancer.
Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2014
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The purpose of this study was to report on the safety and feasibility of robotic-assisted systematic lymph node staging in the management of early-stage ovarian cancer.
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Enhancement of insecticides against codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) with L-aspartate in laboratory and field experiments.
J. Econ. Entomol.
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2014
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The idea of enhancing insecticide efficacy against phytophagous insects with feeding stimulators was proposed as early as the 1960s, and a number of insect feeding stimulators based on sugars, molasses, and cottonseed extracts, biologically active at relatively high (5% and higher) concentrations, have been advocated. Here, we show that an acidic amino acid, L-aspartate, stimulates feeding in codling moth neonates at much lower concentrations and acts as an effective tank-mixed additive for increasing efficacy of insecticides, reducing fruit damage, and increasing yield of the fruit. In laboratory experiments, 1 mg/ml L-aspartate increased foliage consumption by 40-60% and, when added to Assail 30 SG, Baythroid XL, Delegate WG, or Carbaryl 80S, maintained its feeding stimulatory properties and reduced LD50(s) by approximately 10 times. In a 3-yr field trial, addition of L-aspartate to the aforementioned insecticides at 395 g/ha reduced fruit damage from approximately 6%, on average to < 1% for first-generation codling moth, and from approximately 20 to approximately 5% for the second generation. Interestingly, addition of L-aspartate also increased the average weight of apples by 11-27%, as measured at the time of harvest.
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Improving patient safety in the radiation oncology setting through crew resource management.
Pract Radiat Oncol
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2014
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This paper demonstrates how the communication patterns and protocol rigors of a methodology called crew resource management (CRM) can be adapted to a radiation oncology environment to create a culture of patient safety. CRM training was introduced to our comprehensive radiation oncology department in the autumn of 2009. With 34 full-time equivalent staff, we see 100-125 patients daily on 2 hospital campuses. We were assisted by a consulting group with considerable experience in helping hospitals incorporate CRM principles and practices. Implementation steps included developing change initiative skills for key leaders, providing training in teamwork and communications, creating site-specific tools for safety and efficiency, and collecting data to document results.
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Growth hormone is secreted by normal breast epithelium upon progesterone stimulation and increases proliferation of stem/progenitor cells.
Stem Cell Reports
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2014
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Using in vitro and in vivo experimental systems and in situ analysis, we show that growth hormone (GH) is secreted locally by normal human mammary epithelial cells upon progesterone stimulation. GH increases proliferation of a subset of cells that express growth hormone receptor (GHR) and have functional properties of stem and early progenitor cells. In 72% of ductal carcinoma in situ lesions, an expansion of the cell population that expresses GHR was observed, suggesting that GH signaling may contribute to breast cancer development.
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Quinap and congeners: atropos PN ligands for asymmetric catalysis.
J. Org. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2014
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Among the range of P,N-chelating ligands that have been employed in asymmetric catalysis, those relying on atropisomerism for the stability of individual enantiomers form a definable class. These APN (atropos P,N) ligands require a specific type of biaryl, with one component carrying a pendant phosphine unit, most commonly diaryl substituted, and the other bearing an sp(2)-nitrogen adjacent to the biaryl link. When substituents in the biaryl inhibit rotation about the linking bond, stable nonracemizing six-membered ring chelates can be formed. This Perspective relates the background to the initial synthesis in 1993 of Quinap, the original member of the series, and initial observations on its effectiveness in asymmetric catalysis. The current state of play in development of syntheses of this and other members of the APN ligand family is assessed, and their applications in asymmetric catalysis are presented. These include hydroboration and diboration of alkenes, 1,3-dipolar cycloadditions, alkynylation of iminium salts in a three-component (A(3)) condensation, and conjugate additions of Cu acetylides.
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Arabidopsis PTB1 and PTB2 proteins negatively regulate splicing of a mini-exon splicing reporter and affect alternative splicing of endogenous genes differentially.
New Phytol.
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2014
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This paper examines the function of Arabidopsis thaliana AtPTB1 and AtPTB2 as plant splicing factors. The effect on splicing of overexpression of AtPTB1 and AtPTB2 was analysed in an in vivo protoplast transient expression system with a novel mini-exon splicing reporter. A range of mutations in pyrimidine-rich sequences were compared with and without AtPTB and NpU2AF65 overexpression. Splicing analyses of constructs in protoplasts and RNA from overexpression lines used high-resolution reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). AtPTB1 and AtPTB2 reduced inclusion/splicing of the potato invertase mini-exon splicing reporter, indicating that these proteins can repress plant intron splicing. Mutation of the polypyrimidine tract and closely associated Cytosine and Uracil-rich (CU-rich) sequences, upstream of the mini-exon, altered repression by AtPTB1 and AtPTB2. Coexpression of a plant orthologue of U2AF65 alleviated the splicing repression of AtPTB1. Mutation of a second CU-rich upstream of the mini-exon 3' splice site led to a decline in mini-exon splicing, indicating the presence of a splicing enhancer sequence. Finally, RT-PCR of AtPTB overexpression lines with c. 90 known alternative splicing (AS) events showed that AtPTBs significantly altered AS of over half the events. AtPTB1 and AtPTB2 are splicing factors that influence alternative splicing. This occurs in the potato invertase mini-exon via the polypyrimidine tract and associated pyrimidine-rich sequence.
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A chloroplast retrograde signal regulates nuclear alternative splicing.
Science
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2014
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Light is a source of energy and also a regulator of plant physiological adaptations. We show here that light/dark conditions affect alternative splicing of a subset of Arabidopsis genes preferentially encoding proteins involved in RNA processing. The effect requires functional chloroplasts and is also observed in roots when the communication with the photosynthetic tissues is not interrupted, suggesting that a signaling molecule travels through the plant. Using photosynthetic electron transfer inhibitors with different mechanisms of action, we deduce that the reduced pool of plastoquinones initiates a chloroplast retrograde signaling that regulates nuclear alternative splicing and is necessary for proper plant responses to varying light conditions.
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Long noncoding RNA modulates alternative splicing regulators in Arabidopsis.
Dev. Cell
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2014
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Alternative splicing (AS) of pre-mRNA represents a major mechanism underlying increased transcriptome and proteome complexity. Here, we show that the nuclear speckle RNA-binding protein (NSR) and the AS competitor long noncoding RNA (or ASCO-lncRNA) constitute an AS regulatory module. AtNSR-GFP translational fusions are expressed in primary and lateral root (LR) meristems. Double Atnsr mutants and ASCO overexpressors exhibit an altered ability to form LRs after auxin treatment. Interestingly, auxin induces a major change in AS patterns of many genes, a response largely dependent on NSRs. RNA immunoprecipitation assays demonstrate that AtNSRs interact not only with their alternatively spliced mRNA targets but also with the ASCO-RNA in vivo. The ASCO-RNA displaces an AS target from an NSR-containing complex in vitro. Expression of ASCO-RNA in Arabidopsis affects the splicing patterns of several NSR-regulated mRNA targets. Hence, lncRNA can hijack nuclear AS regulators to modulate AS patterns during development.
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The incidence of postprandial nausea and nutritional regression in gynecologic cancer patients following intestinal surgery: a retrospective cohort study.
Int J Surg
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2014
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We sought to evaluate the impact of defined intestinal surgeries on postprandial nausea, nutritional regression (i.e., a soft diet that was altered to clear liquids) and hospital stay duration in a population of gynecologic cancer patients.
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The incidence of genitourinary and gastrointestinal complications in open and endoscopic gynecologic cancer surgery.
Oncology
PUBLISHED: 02-02-2014
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The purpose of this study was to examine the incidence of genitourinary and intestinal tract injuries in an effort to identify which factors might predispose a patient to developing one of these surgical complications.
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Comparison of fenestrated and nonfenestrated patients undergoing extracardiac Fontan.
Ann. Thorac. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 02-02-2014
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The purpose of this study is to compare morbidity and mortality between fenestrated (F, 61 patients) and nonfenestrated (NF, 54 patients) extracardiac Fontan patients during two eras from July 1995 to December 2010: era 1(1995 to 2004) and era 2 (2005 to 2010).
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cis-Specific hydrofluorination of alkenylarenes under palladium catalysis through an ionic pathway.
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2014
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This paper describes the hydrofluorination of alkenes through sequential H(-) and F(+) addition under palladium catalysis. The reaction is cis?specific, thus providing access to benzylic fluorides. The mechanism of this reaction involves an ionic pathway and is distinct from known hydrofluorinations involving radical intermediates. The first catalytic enantioselective hydrofluorination is also disclosed.
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Alterations to global but not local motion processing in long-term ecstasy (MDMA) users.
Psychopharmacology (Berl.)
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2014
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Growing evidence indicates that the main psychoactive ingredient in the illegal drug "ecstasy" (methylendioxymethamphetamine) causes reduced activity in the serotonin and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) systems in humans. On the basis of substantial serotonin input to the occipital lobe, recent research investigated visual processing in long-term users and found a larger magnitude of the tilt aftereffect, interpreted to reflect broadened orientation tuning bandwidths. Further research found higher orientation discrimination thresholds and reduced long-range interactions in the primary visual area of ecstasy users.
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A new genus of Grapholitini from Africa related to Thaumatotibia (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae).
Zookeys
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Thaumatovalva gen. n. is described and illustrated from the Afrotropical region. As currently defined the genus includes four species: T. deprinsorum sp. n. from the Democratic Republic of Congo; T. albolineana sp. n. (type species) from the Democratic Republic of Congo; T. spinai (Razowski & Trematerra), comb. n., from Ethiopia and Nigeria; and T. limbata (Diakonoff), comb. n., from the Seychelles and Kenya. Thaumatovalva limbata has been reared from the fruit of Cordia somaliensis Baker and C. monoica Roxb. (Boraginaceae) in Kenya. Although structures of the male and female genitalia are extremely similar among three of the four species, male secondary scales on the under surface of the hindwing easily distinguish them.
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Review of Apanteles sensu stricto (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Microgastrinae) from Area de Conservación Guanacaste, northwestern Costa Rica, with keys to all described species from Mesoamerica.
Zookeys
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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More than half a million specimens of wild-caught Lepidoptera caterpillars have been reared for their parasitoids, identified, and DNA barcoded over a period of 34 years (and ongoing) from Area de Conservación de Guanacaste (ACG), northwestern Costa Rica. This provides the world's best location-based dataset for studying the taxonomy and host relationships of caterpillar parasitoids. Among Hymenoptera, Microgastrinae (Braconidae) is the most diverse and commonly encountered parasitoid subfamily, with many hundreds of species delineated to date, almost all undescribed. Here, we reassess the limits of the genus Apanteles sensu stricto, describe 186 new species from 3,200+ parasitized caterpillars of hundreds of ACG Lepidoptera species, and provide keys to all 205 described Apanteles from Mesoamerica - including 19 previously described species in addition to the new species. The Mesoamerican Apanteles are assigned to 32 species-groups, all but two of which are newly defined. Taxonomic keys are presented in two formats: traditional dichotomous print versions and links to electronic interactive versions (software Lucid 3.5). Numerous illustrations, computer-generated descriptions, distributional information, wasp biology, and DNA barcodes (where available) are presented for every species. All morphological terms are detailed and linked to the Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology website. DNA barcodes (a standard fragment of the cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) mitochondrial gene), information on wasp biology (host records, solitary/gregariousness of wasp larvae), ratios of morphological features, and wasp microecological distributions were used to help clarify boundaries between morphologically cryptic species within species-complexes. Because of the high accuracy of host identification for about 80% of the wasp species studied, it was possible to analyze host relationships at a regional level. The ACG species of Apanteles attack mainly species of Hesperiidae, Elachistidae and Crambidae (Lepidoptera). About 90% of the wasp species with known host records seem to be monophagous or oligophagous at some level, parasitizing just one host family and commonly, just one species of caterpillar. Only 15 species (9%) parasitize species in more than one family, and some of these cases are likely to be found to be species complexes. We have used several information sources and techniques (traditional taxonomy, molecular, software-based, biology, and geography) to accelerate the process of finding and describing these new species in a hyperdiverse group such as Apanteles. The following new taxonomic and nomenclatural acts are proposed. Four species previously considered to be Apanteles are transferred to other microgastrine genera: Dolichogenidea hedyleptae (Muesebeck, 1958), comb. n., Dolichogenidea politiventris (Muesebeck, 1958), comb. n., Rhygoplitis sanctivincenti (Ashmead, 1900), comb. n., and Illidops scutellaris (Muesebeck, 1921), comb. rev. One European species that is a secondary homonym to a Mesoamerican species is removed from Apanteles and transferred to another genus: Iconella albinervis (Tobias, 1964), stat. rev. The name Apanteles albinervican Shenefelt, 1972, is an invalid replacement name for Apanteles albinervis (Cameron, 1904), stat. rev., and thus the later name is reinstated as valid. The following 186 species, all in Apanteles and all authored by Fernández-Triana, are described as species nova: adelinamoralesae, adrianachavarriae, adrianaguilarae, adrianguadamuzi, aichagirardae, aidalopezae, albanjimenezi, alejandromasisi, alejandromorai, minorcarmonai, alvarougaldei, federicomatarritai, anabellecordobae, rostermoragai, anamarencoae, anamartinesae, anapiedrae, anariasae, andreacalvoae, angelsolisi, arielopezi, bernardoespinozai, bernyapui, bettymarchenae, bienvenidachavarriae, calixtomoragai, carloscastilloi, carlosguadamuzi, eliethcantillanoae, carlosrodriguezi, carlosviquezi, carloszunigai, carolinacanoae, christianzunigai, cinthiabarrantesae, ciriloumanai, cristianalemani, cynthiacorderoae, deifiliadavilae, dickyui, didiguadamuzi, diegoalpizari, diegotorresi, diniamartinezae, duniagarciae, duvalierbricenoi, edgarjimenezi, edithlopezae, eduardoramirezi, edwinapui, eldarayae, erickduartei, esthercentenoae, eugeniaphilipsae, eulogiosequeira, felipechavarriai, felixcarmonai, fernandochavarriai, flormoralesae, franciscopizarroi, franciscoramirezi, freddyquesadai, freddysalazari, gabrielagutierrezae, garygibsoni, gerardobandoi, gerardosandovali, gladysrojasae, glenriverai, gloriasihezarae, guadaluperodriguezae, guillermopereirai, juanmatai, harryramirezi, hectorsolisi, humbertolopezi, inesolisae, irenecarrilloae, isaacbermudezi, isidrochaconi, isidrovillegasi, ivonnetranae, jairomoyai, javiercontrerasi, javierobandoi, javiersihezari, jesusbrenesi, jesusugaldei, jimmychevezi, johanvargasi, jorgecortesi, jorgehernandezi, josecalvoi, josecortesi, josediazi, josejaramilloi, josemonteroi, joseperezi, joserasi, juanapui, juancarrilloi, juangazoi, juanhernandezi, juanlopezi, juanvictori, juliodiazi, juniorlopezi, keineraragoni, laurahuberae, laurenmoralesae, leninguadamuzi, leonelgarayi, lilliammenae, lisabearssae, luciariosae, luisbrizuelai, luiscanalesi, luiscantillanoi, luisgarciai, luisgaritai, luishernandezi, luislopezi, luisvargasi, manuelarayai, manuelpereirai, manuelriosi, manuelzumbadoi, marcobustosi, marcogonzalezi, marcovenicioi, mariachavarriae mariaguevarae, marialuisariasae, mariamendezae, marianopereirai, mariatorrentesae, sigifredomarini, marisolarroyoae, marisolnavarroae, marvinmendozai, mauriciogurdiani, milenagutierrezae, monicachavarriae, oscarchavesi, osvaldoespinozai, pablotranai, pabloumanai, pablovasquezi, paulaixcamparijae, luzmariaromeroae, petronariosae, randallgarciai, randallmartinezi, raulacevedoi, raulsolorsanoi, wadyobandoi, ricardocaleroi, robertmontanoi, robertoespinozai, robertovargasi, rodrigogamezi, rogerblancoi, rolandoramosi, rolandovegai, ronaldcastroi, ronaldgutierrezi, ronaldmurilloi, ronaldnavarroi, ronaldquirosi, ronaldzunigai, rosibelelizondoae, ruthfrancoae, sergiocascantei, sergioriosi, tiboshartae, vannesabrenesae, minornavarroi, victorbarrantesi, waldymedinai, wilbertharayai, williamcamposi, yeissonchavesi, yilbertalvaradoi, yolandarojasae, hazelcambroneroae, zeneidabolanosae.
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The ross operation in adolescents.
World J Pediatr Congenit Heart Surg
PUBLISHED: 12-12-2013
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The pulmonary autograft aortic valve replacement (Ross AVR) is the AVR of choice for children below the teenage years. Recent literature has questioned the durability of the Ross AVR in older children and young adults that present predominantly with aortic regurgitation and a dilated aortic root. At our center, the Ross AVR has been an excellent choice for most children and young and middle-aged adults. The Ross AVR is an especially good choice in young females who plan on becoming pregnant. We reviewed our experience with the Ross AVR in older children and young adults (10-20 years old) and analyzed mortality, early and late complications, and the need for reoperation and compared it to non-Ross AVR patients of the same age group during the same time period.
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Alternative splicing at the intersection of biological timing, development, and stress responses.
Plant Cell
PUBLISHED: 10-31-2013
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High-throughput sequencing for transcript profiling in plants has revealed that alternative splicing (AS) affects a much higher proportion of the transcriptome than was previously assumed. AS is involved in most plant processes and is particularly prevalent in plants exposed to environmental stress. The identification of mutations in predicted splicing factors and spliceosomal proteins that affect cell fate, the circadian clock, plant defense, and tolerance/sensitivity to abiotic stress all point to a fundamental role of splicing/AS in plant growth, development, and responses to external cues. Splicing factors affect the AS of multiple downstream target genes, thereby transferring signals to alter gene expression via splicing factor/AS networks. The last two to three years have seen an ever-increasing number of examples of functional AS. At a time when the identification of AS in individual genes and at a global level is exploding, this review aims to bring together such examples to illustrate the extent and importance of AS, which are not always obvious from individual publications. It also aims to ensure that plant scientists are aware that AS is likely to occur in the genes that they study and that dynamic changes in AS and its consequences need to be considered routinely.
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The SERRATE protein is involved in alternative splicing in Arabidopsis thaliana.
Nucleic Acids Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-16-2013
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How alternative splicing (AS) is regulated in plants has not yet been elucidated. Previously, we have shown that the nuclear cap-binding protein complex (AtCBC) is involved in AS in Arabidopsis thaliana. Here we show that both subunits of AtCBC (AtCBP20 and AtCBP80) interact with SERRATE (AtSE), a protein involved in the microRNA biogenesis pathway. Moreover, using a high-resolution reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction AS system we have found that AtSE influences AS in a similar way to the cap-binding complex (CBC), preferentially affecting selection of 5 splice site of first introns. The AtSE protein acts in cooperation with AtCBC: many changes observed in the mutant lacking the correct SERRATE activity were common to those observed in the cbp mutants. Interestingly, significant changes in AS of some genes were also observed in other mutants of plant microRNA biogenesis pathway, hyl1-2 and dcl1-7, but a majority of them did not correspond to the changes observed in the se-1 mutant. Thus, the role of SERRATE in AS regulation is distinct from that of HYL1 and DCL1, and is similar to the regulation of AS in which CBC is involved.
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Accelerating the domestication of a bioenergy crop: identifying and modelling morphological targets for sustainable yield increase in Miscanthus.
J. Exp. Bot.
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2013
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To accelerate domestication of Miscanthus, an important energy crop, 244 replicated genotypes, including two different species and their hybrids, were analysed for morphological traits and biomass yield over three growing seasons following an establishment phase of 2 years in the largest Miscanthus diversity trial described to date. Stem and leaf traits were selected that contributed both directly and indirectly to total harvested biomass yield, and there was variation in all traits measured. Morphological diversity within the population was correlated with dry matter yield (DMY) both as individual traits and in combination, in order to determine the respective contributions of the traits to biomass accumulation and to identify breeding targets for yield improvement. Predictive morphometric analysis was possible at year 3 within Miscanthus sinensis genotypes but not between M. sinensis, Miscanthus sacchariflorus, and interspecific hybrids. Yield is a complex trait, and no single simple trait explained more than 33% of DMY, which varied from 1 to 5297 g among genotypes within this trial. Associating simple traits increased the power of the morphological data to predict yield to 60%. Trait variety, in combination, enabled multiple ideotypes, thereby increasing the potential diversity of the crop for multiple growth locations and end uses. Both triploids and interspecific hybrids produced the highest mature yields, indicating that there is significant heterosis to be exploited within Miscanthus that might be overlooked in early selection screens within years 1-3. The potential for optimizing biomass yield by selecting on the basis of morphology is discussed.
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Which emergency medical dispatch codes predict high prehospital nontransport rates in an urban community?
Prehosp Emerg Care
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2013
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Abstract Background. The Medical Priority Dispatch System (MPDS) is a commonly used computer-based emergency medical dispatch (EMD) system that is widely used to prioritize 9-1-1 calls and optimize resource allocation. There are five major priority classes used to dispatch 9-1-1 calls in the San Francisco System; Alpha codes are the lowest priority (lowest expected acuity) and Echo are the highest priority. Objective. We sought to determine which MPDS dispatch codes are associated with high prehospital nontransport rates (NTRs). Methods. All unique MPDS call categories from 2009 in a highly urbanized, two-tier advanced life support (ALS) system were sorted according to highest NTRs. There are many reasons for nontransport, such as "gone on arrival," and "patient denied transport." Those categories with greater than 100 annual calls were further evaluated. MPDS groups that included multiple categories with NTRs exceeding 25% were then identified and each category was analyzed. Results. EMS responded to a total of 81,437 calls in 2009, of which 18,851 were not transported by EMS. The majority of the NTRs were found among "cardiac/ respiratory arrest/death," "assault/sexual assaults," "unknown problem/man down," "traffic/transportation accidents," and "unconscious/fainting." "Cardiac or respiratory arrest/death -obvious death" (9B1) had the highest overall nontransport rate, 99.25% (1/134), most likely due to declaration of death. "Unknown problem -man down -medical alert notification" had the second highest NTR, 67.22% (138/421). However, Echo priority codes had the highest overall nontransport rates (45.45%) and Charlie had the lowest (13.84%). Conclusions. The nontransport rates of individual MPDS categories vary considerably and should be considered in any system design. We identified 52 unique call categories to have a 25% or greater NTR, 18 of which exceeded 40%. The majority of NTRs occurred among the "cardiac/respiratory arrest/death," "assault/sexual assaults," "unknown problem/man down," "traffic/transportation accidents," and "unconscious/fainting" categories. The higher the priority code within each subset (AB vs. CDE), the less likely the patient was to be transported. Charlie priority codes had a lower NTR than Delta, and Delta was lower than Echo. Charlie codes were therefore the strongest predictors of hospital transport, while Echo codes (highest priority) were those with the highest nontransport rates and were the worst predictors of hospital transport in the emergent subset.
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Long Term Acute Care Patients Weaning From Prolonged Mechanical Ventilation Maintain Circadian Rhythm.
Respir Care
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2013
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Circadian rhythm regulates many physiologic and immunologic processes. Disruption of these processes has been demonstrated in acutely ill, mechanically ventilated patients in the ICU setting. Light has not been studied as an entraining stimulus in the chronically mechanically ventilated patient. The purpose of this study was to determine the association of naturally occurring ambient light levels in a long term acute care (LTAC) hospital with circadian rhythm in patients recovering from critical illness and requiring prolonged mechanical ventilation (PMV).
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Reactive intermediates in catalytic alkenylation; pathways for Mizoroki-Heck, oxidative Heck and Fujiwara-Moritani reactions.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 08-17-2013
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Several closely related palladium-catalysed reactions involve the addition of Pd-C across an alkene, and subsequent ?-elimination of Pd-H to give a more substituted alkene. The Pd-C precursor, normally possessing an sp(2) carbon bound to palladium, can be formed in several different ways, leading to sub-classes of reaction based on a common principle and convergent outcomes. The reaction pathway can vary from simple to highly subtle depending on the nature of the reactants and the ligation of the catalyst. Mechanistic analysis provides results that elucidate the pathway and link the different reaction types. The identification of reactive intermediates by NMR, ES-MS and other spectroscopic techniques, or by less direct methods, is an integral part of the process. This Feature Article covers ligand-free palladium catalysis, including the contributions of the authors, and separates catalysis where ligands are involved into cationic and neutral pathways.
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Genome-wide association studies and prediction of 17 traits related to phenology, biomass and cell wall composition in the energy grass Miscanthus sinensis.
New Phytol.
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2013
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Increasing demands for food and energy require a step change in the effectiveness, speed and flexibility of crop breeding. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the potential of genome-wide association studies (GWASs) and genomic selection (i.e. phenotype prediction from a genome-wide set of markers) to guide fundamental plant science and to accelerate breeding in the energy grass Miscanthus. We generated over 100 000 single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) by sequencing restriction site-associated DNA (RAD) tags in 138 Micanthus sinensis genotypes, and related SNVs to phenotypic data for 17 traits measured in a field trial. Confounding by population structure and relatedness was severe in naïve GWAS analyses, but mixed-linear models robustly controlled for these effects and allowed us to detect multiple associations that reached genome-wide significance. Genome-wide prediction accuracies tended to be moderate to high (average of 0.57), but varied dramatically across traits. As expected, predictive abilities increased linearly with the size of the mapping population, but reached a plateau when the number of markers used for prediction exceeded 10 000-20 000, and tended to decline, but remain significant, when cross-validations were performed across subpopulations. Our results suggest that the immediate implementation of genomic selection in Miscanthus breeding programs may be feasible.
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Dynamic Analysis of Gene Expression and Genome-wide Transcription Factor Binding during Lineage Specification of Multipotent Progenitors.
Cell Stem Cell
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2013
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We used the paradigmatic GATA-PU.1 axis to explore, at the systems level, dynamic relationships between transcription factor (TF) binding and global gene expression programs as multipotent cells differentiate. We combined global ChIP-seq of GATA1, GATA2, and PU.1 with expression profiling during differentiation to erythroid and neutrophil lineages. Our analysis reveals (1) differential complexity of sequence motifs bound by GATA1, GATA2, and PU.1; (2) the scope and interplay of GATA1 and GATA2 programs within, and during transitions between, different cell compartments, and the extent of their hard-wiring by DNA motifs; (3) the potential to predict gene expression trajectories based on global associations between TF-binding data and target gene expression; and (4) how dynamic modeling of DNA-binding and gene expression data can be used to infer regulatory logic of TF circuitry. This rubric exemplifies the utility of this cross-platform resource for deconvoluting the complexity of transcriptional programs controlling stem/progenitor cell fate in hematopoiesis.
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Oxidative Addition to Palladium(0) Diphosphine Complexes: Observations of Mechanistic Complexity with Iodobenzene as Reactant.
Chemistry
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2013
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Using a combination of electrochemical and NMR techniques, the oxidative addition of PhX to three closely related bis-diphosphine P2 Pd(0) complexes, where the steric bulk of just one substituent was varied, has been analysed quantitatively. For the complex derived from MetBu2 P, a rapid reaction ensued with PhI following an associative mechanism, and data was also obtained by cyclic voltammetry for PhOTs, PhBr and PhCl, revealing distinct relative reactivities from the related (PCx3 )2 Pd complex (Cx=cyclohexyl) previously studied. The corresponding EttBu2 P complex reacted more slowly with PhI and was studied by NMR spectroscopy. The reaction course indicated a mixture of pathways, with contribution from a component that was [PhI] independent. For the CxtBu2 P complex, reaction was again monitored by NMR spectroscopy, and was even slower. At high PhI concentrations reaction was predominantly linear in [PhI], but at lower concentrations the [PhI] independent pathway was again observed, and an accelerating influence of the reaction product was observed over the concentration range. The NMR spectra of the EttBu2 P and CxtBu2 P complexes conducted in C6 D6 shows some line broadening that was augmented on addition of PhI. NMR experiments carried out in parallel show that there is rapid ligand exchange between free phosphine and the Pd2 Pd complex and also a slow ligand crossover between different P2 Pd complexes. DFT calculations were carried out to further test the feasibility of C6 D6 involvement in the oxidative addition process, and located Van der Waals complexes for association of the P2 Pd(0) complexes with either PhI or benzene. PhI or solvent-assisted pathways for ligand loss are both lower in energy than direct ligand dissociation. Taken all together, these results provide a consistent explanation for the surprising complexity of an apparently simple reaction step. The clear dividing line between reactions that give a di- or monophosphine palladium complex after oxidative addition clarifies the participation of the ligand in coupling catalysis.
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Small changes in ambient temperature affect alternative splicing in Arabidopsis thaliana.
Plant Signal Behav
PUBLISHED: 05-10-2013
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Alternative splicing (AS) gives rise to multiple mRNA isoforms from the same gene, providing possibilities to regulate gene expression beyond the level of transcription. In a recent paper in Nucleic Acids Research we used a high resolution RT-PCR based panel to study changes in AS patterns in plants with altered levels of an hnRNP-like RNA-binding protein in Arabidopsis thaliana. Furthermore, we detected significant changes in AS patterns between different Arabidopsis ecotypes. Here we investigated how small changes in ambient temperature affect AS. We found significant changes in AS for 12 of 28 investigated events (43%) upon transfer of Arabidopsis plants from 20°C to 16°C and for 6 of the 28 investigated events (21%) upon transfer from 20°C to 24°C.
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Meta-analysis in asymmetric catalysis. Influence of chelate geometry on the roles of PN chelating ligands.
Org. Biomol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2013
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All X-ray structures of PN ligands forming 6-ring metal complex chelates have been retrieved from the CDS database, and those lacking chelate chirality filtered out. Many of the remainder fit naturally into four main families (PPFA, FcPhox, Phox and Quinap), which have been widely applied to asymmetric catalysis in diverse ways. It is known through experimental observation that certain of these ligand structures are more effective for specific classes of reaction but there has been little by way of explanation for their divergent behaviour. In this paper we examine the wide variation of conformations within individual families of PN complexes in the solid state, establish common features, and make cross-correlations with their effectiveness in specific catalytic asymmetric reactions. The extent of rigidity in the chelate varies widely and yet flexible complexes may be extremely effective in asymmetric catalysis. These observations emphasise the importance of induced fit between reactants and catalyst and militate against over-reliance on rigid lock-and-key models.
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A phase II study of modified dose-dense paclitaxel and every 4-week carboplatin for the treatment of advanced-stage primary epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube, or peritoneal carcinoma.
Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2013
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Traditional dose-dense chemotherapy regimens for advanced stage ovarian cancer incorporate weekly paclitaxel on a 21-day cycle and are associated with favorable efficacy but high rates of neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, and anemia. The purpose of this phase II study was to assess the response rate and toxicity of modified dose-dense paclitaxel and every 4-week carboplatin for the treatment of advanced-stage ovarian, fallopian tube, and primary peritoneal carcinoma.
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Variation in canopy duration in the perennial biofuel crop Miscanthus reveals complex associations with yield.
J. Exp. Bot.
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2013
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Energy crops can provide a sustainable source of power and fuels, and mitigate the negative effects of CO2 emissions associated with fossil fuel use. Miscanthus is a perennial C4 energy crop capable of producing large biomass yields whilst requiring low levels of input. Miscanthus is largely unimproved and therefore there could be significant opportunities to increase yield. Further increases in yield will improve the economics, energy balance, and carbon mitigation of the crop, as well as reducing land-take. One strategy to increase yield in Miscanthus is to maximize the light captured through an extension of canopy duration. In this study, canopy duration was compared among a diverse collection of 244 Miscanthus genotypes. Canopy duration was determined by calculating the number of days between canopy establishment and senescence. Yield was positively correlated with canopy duration. Earlier establishment and later senescence were also both separately correlated with higher yield. However, although genotypes with short canopy durations were low yielding, not all genotypes with long canopy durations were high yielding. Differences of yield between genotypes with long canopy durations were associated with variation in stem and leaf traits. Different methodologies to assess canopy duration traits were investigated, including visual assessment, image analysis, light interception, and different trait thresholds. The highest correlation coefficients were associated with later assessments of traits and the use of quantum sensors for canopy establishment. A model for trait optimization to enable yield improvement in Miscanthus and other bioenergy crops is discussed.
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Altered visual perception in long-term ecstasy (MDMA) users.
Psychopharmacology (Berl.)
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2013
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The present study investigated the long-term consequences of ecstasy use on visual processes thought to reflect serotonergic functions in the occipital lobe. Evidence indicates that the main psychoactive ingredient in ecstasy (methylendioxymethamphetamine) causes long-term changes to the serotonin system in human users. Previous research has found that amphetamine-abstinent ecstasy users have disrupted visual processing in the occipital lobe which relies on serotonin, with researchers concluding that ecstasy broadens orientation tuning bandwidths. However, other processes may have accounted for these results.
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Characterization of chilling-shock responses in four genotypes of Miscanthus reveals the superior tolerance of M. x giganteus compared with M. sinensis and M. sacchariflorus.
Ann. Bot.
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2013
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The bioenergy grass Miscanthus is native to eastern Asia. As Miscanthus uses C4 photosynthesis, the cooler temperatures experienced in much of northern Europe are expected to limit productivity. Identification of genetic diversity in chilling tolerance will enable breeders to generate more productive varieties for these cooler regions. Characterizing the temporal relationships between photosynthesis, carbohydrate and molecular expression of relevant genes is key to understanding genotypic differences in tolerance or sensitivity.
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Effects of ?-lipoic acid on mtDNA damage after isolated muscle contractions.
Med Sci Sports Exerc
PUBLISHED: 03-09-2013
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Although pharmacological antioxidants have previously been investigated for a prophylactic effect against exercise oxidative stress, it is not known if ?-lipoic acid supplementation can protect against DNA damage after high-intensity isolated quadriceps exercise. This randomized controlled investigation was designed to test the hypothesis that 14 d of ?-lipoic acid supplementation can attenuate exercise-induced oxidative stress.
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Valgus bracing affords short-term treatment solution across walking and sit-to-stand activities.
J Arthroplasty
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2013
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Since activities of daily living do not exist in isolation this prospective study examined biomechanical function during level walking and sit-to-stand activities over two months of brace use by subjects with varying grades of knee osteoarthritis. Kinematic and kinetic data were collected using infrared cameras and force platforms; clinical scores compared perceived and measured functional effects. There was no significant change in pain for any grades of OA but activity levels were significantly higher at one month in the moderate OA grades and at two months for the low OA grades. Mechanical constraints and changes in movement strategies were consistent across tasks and OA grade. This study provides valuable data for further studies aimed at refining the use and optimization of valgus bracing efficacy.
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Total hip arthroplasty following an ipsilateral above knee amputation.
Hip Int
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2013
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Total hip arthroplasty in patients with previous above knee amputations is rare. We present a unique case where the patient had only 130 mm of proximal femur remaining following a previous traumatic above knee amputation. The short segment of femur meaning a conventional femoral stem could not be used. We describe the technique of total hip arthoplasty for this patient using a mini hip prosthesis and report a successful clinical and radiological outcome at 2 years post-op.
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Visual scoring of non cavitated caries lesions and clinical trial efficiency, testing xylitol in caries-active adults.
Community Dent Oral Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2013
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To better understand the effectiveness of xylitol in caries prevention in adults and to attempt improved clinical trial efficiency.
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Comparison of basal-like triple-negative breast cancer defined by morphology, immunohistochemistry and transcriptional profiles.
Mod. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2013
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Basal-like invasive breast cancer is an important clinical group because of its association with a triple-negative phenotype defined by the lack of expression of estrogen, progesterone and human epidermal growth factor receptors 2, relative lack of therapeutic options and poor prognosis. However, depending on the method used to define these lesions, morphological assessment, immunohistochemical markers or gene expression, a different set of tumors is captured. The aim of this study was to investigate the consequences of using different methodological approaches to define basal-like lesions among triple-negative breast carcinomas with regard to their clinicopathological features and patient outcome. The cohort consisted of 142 invasive breast cancers with a triple-negative receptor status. First, each was reviewed histologically and those with morphological basal-like features were characterized as Path-Basal. Second, the Core Basal immunohistochemical lesions, defined as cytokeratin 5/6 and/or epidermal growth factor receptor 1 positive, within the triple-negative breast cancers were identified, and third their classification based on gene expression profiling was retrieved and those in the molecular PAM50 basal-like subtype recorded. A total of 116 basal-like breast cancers were identified among the 142 triple-negative breast cancers by at least one of these three classifications (80%), but only 13 samples were defined as basal-like with all three methods. None of these 13 tumors were associated with lymphovascular invasion. The 34 morphological Path-Basal lesions were significantly associated with a lack of nodal metastases. Comparing the estimates of death in the three classifications, the highest risk of death was seen for the Core Basal group. In this study, we highlight that the definition of basal-like breast cancer based on different methodologies varies significantly and does not identify the same lesions. This incomplete overlap of cases emphasizes the need for consistent or new approaches to improve precise identification.
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Increased incidence of severe gastrointestinal events with first-line paclitaxel, carboplatin, and vorinostat chemotherapy for advanced-stage epithelial ovarian, primary peritoneal, and fallopian tube cancer.
Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2013
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We sought to assess the response rate and toxicity of paclitaxel, carboplatin, andvorinostat primary induction therapy for the treatment of advanced-stage ovarian carcinoma.
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A large-scale, higher-level, molecular phylogenetic study of the insect order Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies).
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2013
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Higher-level relationships within the Lepidoptera, and particularly within the species-rich subclade Ditrysia, are generally not well understood, although recent studies have yielded progress. We present the most comprehensive molecular analysis of lepidopteran phylogeny to date, focusing on relationships among superfamilies.
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Association of pulmonary conduit type and size with durability in infants and young children.
Ann. Thorac. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2013
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Treatment of congenital heart disease may include placement of a right ventricle to pulmonary artery conduit that requires future surgical replacement. We sought to identify surgeon-modifiable factors associated with durability (defined as freedom from surgical replacement or explantation) of the initial conduit in children less than 2 years of age at initial insertion.
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Soil carbon stocks and carbon sequestration rates in seminatural grassland in Aso region, Kumamoto, Southern Japan.
Glob Chang Biol
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2013
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Global soil carbon (C) stocks account for approximately three times that found in the atmosphere. In the Aso mountain region of Southern Japan, seminatural grasslands have been maintained by annual harvests and/or burning for more than 1000 years. Quantification of soil C stocks and C sequestration rates in Aso mountain ecosystem is needed to make well-informed, land-use decisions to maximize C sinks while minimizing C emissions. Soil cores were collected from six sites within 200 km(2) (767-937 m asl.) from the surface down to the k-Ah layer established 7300 years ago by a volcanic eruption. The biological sources of the C stored in the Aso mountain ecosystem were investigated by combining C content at a number of sampling depths with age (using (14) C dating) and ?(13) C isotopic fractionation. Quantification of plant phytoliths at several depths was used to make basic reconstructions of past vegetation and was linked with C-sequestration rates. The mean total C stock of all six sites was 232 Mg C ha(-1) (28-417 Mg C ha(-1) ), which equates to a soil C sequestration rate of 32 kg C ha(-1)  yr(-1) over 7300 years. Mean soil C sequestration rates over 34, 50 and 100 years were estimated by an equation regressing soil C sequestration rate against soil C accumulation interval, which was modeled to be 618, 483 and 332 kg C ha(-1)  yr(-1) , respectively. Such data allows for a deeper understanding in how much C could be sequestered in Miscanthus grasslands at different time scales. In Aso, tribe Andropogoneae (especially Miscanthus and Schizoachyrium genera) and tribe Paniceae contributed between 64% and 100% of soil C based on ?(13) C abundance. We conclude that the seminatural, C4 -dominated grassland system serves as an important C sink, and worthy of future conservation.
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Overexpression of a key regulator of lipid homeostasis, Scap, promotes respiration in prostate cancer cells.
FEBS Lett.
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2013
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Prostate metabolism is unique, characterised by cholesterol accumulation and reduced respiration. Are these related? We modulated cholesterol levels and despite changes in mitochondrial cholesterol content, we saw no effects on lactate production or respiration. Instead, these features may be related via sterol regulatory element-binding protein 2 (SREBP-2), the master transcriptional regulator of cholesterol synthesis. SREBP-2 diverts acetyl-CoA into cholesterol synthesis and may thus reduce respiration. We examined LNCaP cells overexpressing the SREBP-2 regulator, Scap: although having higher SREBP-2 activity, these cells displayed higher respiration. This striking observation warrants further investigation. Given that SREBP-2 and Scap are regulated by factors driving prostate growth, exploring this observation further could shed light on prostate carcinogenesis.
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Cholesterol accumulation in prostate cancer: a classic observation from a modern perspective.
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2013
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Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most common cancer in men in developed countries. Epidemiological studies have associated high blood-cholesterol levels with an increased risk of PCa, whilst cholesterol-lowering drugs (statins) reduce the risk of advanced PCa. Furthermore, normal prostate epithelial cells have an abnormally high cholesterol content, with cholesterol levels increasing further during progression to PCa. In this review, we explore why and how this occurs. Concurrent to this observation, intense efforts have been expended in cardiovascular research to better understand the regulators of cholesterol homeostasis. Here, we apply this knowledge to elucidate the molecular mechanisms driving the accumulation of cholesterol in PCa. For instance, recent evidence from our group and others shows that major signalling players in prostate growth and differentiation, such as androgens and Akt, modulate the key transcriptional regulators of cholesterol homeostasis to enhance cholesterol levels. This includes adjusting central carbon metabolism to sustain greater lipid synthesis. Perturbations in cholesterol homeostasis appear to be maintained even when PCa approaches the advanced, castration-resistant state. Overall, this provides a link between cholesterol accumulation and PCa cell growth. Given there is currently no cure for castration-resistant PCa, could cholesterol metabolism be a novel target for PCa therapy? Overall, this review presents a picture that cholesterol metabolism is important for PCa development: growth-promoting factors stimulate cholesterol accumulation, which in turn presents a possible target for chemotherapy. Consequently, we recommend future investigations, both to better elucidate the mechanisms driving this accumulation and applying it in novel chemotherapeutic strategies.
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Early experiences and in-hospital results with a novel off-pump apico-aortic conduit.
Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2013
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To offer surgical treatment in patients with aortic valve stenosis and contraindications for aortic valve replacement (e.g. ostial encroachment and previous mitral valve replacement). The aim of this study was to prove the feasibility and efficacy of this novel innovative off-pump apico-aortic conduit technique.
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Does changing androgen receptor status during prostate cancer development impact upon cholesterol homeostasis?
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2013
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Recent evidence associates prostate cancer with high cholesterol levels, with cholesterol being an important raw material for cell-growth. Within the cell, cholesterol homeostasis is maintained by two master transcription factors: sterol-regulatory element-binding protein 2 (SREBP-2) and liver X receptor (LXR). We previously showed that the androgen receptor, a major player in prostate cell physiology, toggles these transcription factors to promote cholesterol accumulation. Given that prostate cancer therapy targets the androgen receptor, selecting for cells with altered androgen receptor activity, how would this affect SREBP-2 and LXR activity? Using a novel prostate cancer progression model, we explored how this crosstalk between the androgen receptor and cholesterol homeostasis changes during prostate cancer development.
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Results from the Xylitol for Adult Caries Trial (X-ACT).
J Am Dent Assoc
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2013
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Although caries is prevalent in adults, investigators have tested few preventive therapies in adult populations. In a randomized controlled trial, the authors evaluated the effectiveness of xylitol lozenges in preventing caries in adults at elevated risk of developing caries.
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Plant SILAC: stable-isotope labelling with amino acids of arabidopsis seedlings for quantitative proteomics.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Stable Isotope Labelling by Amino acids in Cell culture (SILAC) is a powerful technique for comparative quantitative proteomics, which has recently been applied to a number of different eukaryotic organisms. Inefficient incorporation of labelled amino acids in cell cultures of Arabidopsis thaliana has led to very limited use of SILAC in plant systems. We present a method allowing, for the first time, efficient labelling with stable isotope-containing arginine and lysine of whole Arabidopsis seedlings. To illustrate the utility of this method, we have combined the high labelling efficiency (>95%) with quantitative proteomics analyses of seedlings exposed to increased salt concentration. In plants treated for 7 days with 80 mM NaCl, a relatively mild salt stress, 215 proteins were identified whose expression levels changed significantly compared to untreated seedling controls. The 92 up-regulated proteins included proteins involved in abiotic stress responses and photosynthesis, while the 123 down-regulated proteins were enriched in proteins involved in reduction of oxidative stress and other stress responses, respectively. Efficient labelling of whole Arabidopsis seedlings by this modified SILAC method opens new opportunities to exploit the genetic resources of Arabidopsis and analyse the impact of mutations on quantitative protein dynamics in vivo.
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A food plant specialist in Sparganothini: A new genus and species from Costa Rica (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae).
Zookeys
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Sparganocosma docsturnerorum Brown, new genus and new species, is described and illustrated from Área de Conservación (ACG) in northwestern Costa Rica. The new genus shares a long, crescent- or ribbon-shaped signum in the corpus bursae of the female genitalia with Aesiocopa Zeller, 1877, Amorbia Clemens, 1860, Amorbimorpha Kruse, 2011, Coelostathma Clemens, 1860, Lambertiodes Diakonoff, 1959, Paramorbia Powell & Lambert, 1986, Rhynchophyllus Meyrick, 1932, Sparganopseustis Powell & Lambert, 1986, Sparganothina Powell, 1986, and Sparganothoides Lambert & Powell, 1986. Putative autapomorphies for Sparganocosma include the extremely short uncus; the smooth (unspined) transtilla; and the upturned, free, distal rod of the sacculus. Adults of Sparganocosma docsturnerorum have been reared numerous times (>50) from larvae collected feeding on rain forest Asplundia utilis (Oerst.) Harling and Asplundia microphylla (Oerst.) Harling (Cyclanthaceae) at intermediate elevations (375-500 m) in ACG. Whereas most Sparganothini are generalists, typically feeding on two or more plant families, Sparganocosma docsturnerorum appears to be a specialist on Asplundia, at least in ACG. The solitary parasitoid wasp Sphelodon wardae Godoy & Gauld (Ichneumonidae; Banchinae) has been reared only from the larvae of Sparganocosma docsturnerorum.
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Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase II study of AMG 386 combined with weekly paclitaxel in patients with recurrent ovarian cancer.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 12-19-2011
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To estimate the efficacy and toxicity of AMG 386, an investigational peptide-Fc fusion protein that neutralizes the interaction between the Tie2 receptor and angiopoietin-1/2, plus weekly paclitaxel in patients with recurrent ovarian cancer.
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Alternative splicing and nonsense-mediated decay modulate expression of important regulatory genes in Arabidopsis.
Nucleic Acids Res.
PUBLISHED: 11-29-2011
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Alternative splicing (AS) coupled to nonsense-mediated decay (NMD) is a post-transcriptional mechanism for regulating gene expression. We have used a high-resolution AS RT-PCR panel to identify endogenous AS isoforms which increase in abundance when NMD is impaired in the Arabidopsis NMD factor mutants, upf1-5 and upf3-1. Of 270 AS genes (950 transcripts) on the panel, 102 transcripts from 97 genes (32%) were identified as NMD targets. Extrapolating from these data around 13% of intron-containing genes in the Arabidopsis genome are potentially regulated by AS/NMD. This cohort of naturally occurring NMD-sensitive AS transcripts also allowed the analysis of the signals for NMD in plants. We show the importance of AS in introns in 5 or 3UTRs in modulating NMD-sensitivity of mRNA transcripts. In particular, we identified upstream open reading frames overlapping the main start codon as a new trigger for NMD in plants and determined that NMD is induced if 3-UTRs were >350?nt. Unexpectedly, although many intron retention transcripts possess NMD features, they are not sensitive to NMD. Finally, we have shown that AS/NMD regulates the abundance of transcripts of many genes important for plant development and adaptation including transcription factors, RNA processing factors and stress response genes.
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Contegra versus pulmonary homografts for right ventricular outflow tract reconstruction: a ten-year single-institution comparison.
World J Pediatr Congenit Heart Surg
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2011
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Objective: Repair of congenital heart defects involving the right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) may require pulmonary valve replacement at the time of primary repair or reoperation. This study compares the outcomes of bovine jugular vein grafts (BJV, Contegra, Medtronic Inc.) with cryopreserved pulmonary homografts (PHs) in patients with RVOT obstruction at a single institution. Methods: We reviewed the outcomes of all BJVs and PHs implanted for RVOT reconstruction from 1999 to 2010. Echocardiographic data were reviewed to evaluate valve performance. Graft dysfunction is defined as RVOT obstruction with peak echo-Doppler gradient >40 mm Hg and/or grade III/IV conduit valve regurgitation. Graft failure is defined as need for conduit replacement or need for catheter or surgical reintervention. Results: A total of 216 patients who received BJVs (n = 153) and PHs (n = 63) were studied. There was no significant difference between the groups with respect to mean age, body surface area, conduit indication, or conduit diameter, though mean follow-up duration was longer in patients that received homografts. Conduit dysfunction and conduit failure and need for explantation were worse for homografts, albeit at longer follow-up interval. Distal stenosis and actuarial survival were similar. Conclusions: In the first ten years after pulmonary implantation of BJVs and PHs, survival and freedom from distal stenosis are statistically similar, but freedom from failure, dysfunction, and explantation are significantly better for BJV conduits. The BJV conduit is a good alternative in patients who require RVOT reconstruction.
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Spinal epidural metastasis in an endometrial carcinoma patient.
Gynecol Oncol Case Rep
PUBLISHED: 09-28-2011
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? The incidence of CNS metastases from endometrial cancer is quite uncommon. ? We report on an endometrial cancer patient who developed a metastatic epidural mass. ? Oncology physicians should remain vigilant in order to effectuate prompt treatment and potentially benefit the patients outcome.
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Effects of Ginkgo biloba constituents on fruit-infesting behavior of codling moth (Cydia pomonella) in apples.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 09-27-2011
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Codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), is a cosmopolitan pest of apple, potentially causing severe damage to the fruit. Currently used methods of combating this insect do not warrant full success or are harmful to the environment. The use of plant-derived semiochemicals for manipulation with fruit-infesting behavior is one of the new avenues for controlling this pest. Here, we explore the potential of Ginkgo biloba and its synthetic metabolites for preventing apple feeding and infestation by neonate larvae of C. pomonella. Experiments with crude extracts indicated that deterrent constituents of ginkgo are present among alkylphenols, terpene trilactones, and flavonol glycosides. Further experiments with ginkgo synthetic metabolites of medical importance, ginkgolic acids, kaempferol, quercetin, isorhamnetin, ginkgolides, and bilobalide, indicated that three out of these chemicals have feeding deterrent properties. Ginkgolic acid 15:0 prevented fruit infestation at concentrations as low as 1 mg/mL, bilobalide had deterrent effects at 0.1 mg/mL and higher concentrations, and ginkgolide B at 10 mg/mL. On the other hand, kaempferol and quercetin promoted fruit infestation by codling moth neonates. Ginkgolic acids 13:0, 15:1, and 17:1, isorhamnetin, and ginkgolides A and C had no effects on fruit infestation-related behavior. Our research is the first report showing that ginkgo constituents influence fruit infestation behavior and have potential applications in fruit protection.
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New insights into p53 based therapy.
Discov Med
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2011
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A common step in human cancer is the inactivation of the p53 tumor suppressor pathway. This occurs either by mutations in the coding region of the p53 gene itself, or equally commonly, by inactivation of pathways that are required for p53 to exert its cellular function. Dramatic new results from animal models and the widespread availability of p53 activating small molecules are yielding important new insights into the therapeutic and toxic effects of p53 and how these can be exploited for improving therapy of cancer and other diseases.
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Evolution of mitral valve replacement in children: a 40-year experience.
Ann. Thorac. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2011
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This report reviews our 40-year experience with pediatric mitral valve replacement (MVR) with respect to mortality, valve-related morbidity, and reoperation risk factors.
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VA integrated post-combat care: a systemic approach to caring for returning combat veterans.
Soc Work Health Care
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2011
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The Department of Veterans Affairs (VAs) mission is to care for those who have borne the battle. As medical technology has advanced, more and more of our returning combat Veterans survive what would have been fatal wounds in previous conflicts ( Gawande, 2004 ). But survival is only the immediate goal-our job is to restore Veterans to the greatest level of health, independence, and quality of life that is medically possible. The VA is achieving this goal through close collaboration with the Department of Defense (DoD) to facilitate a smooth transition and continuum of care that ensures Veterans and Service Members receive the care they deserve. This article describes VAs system of Veteran-centered, post-combat care programs that rely on significant involvement of social workers to support Service Members, Veterans and their families through recovery, rehabilitation, and re-integration into their home communities.
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Can deliberately incomplete gene sample augmentation improve a phylogeny estimate for the advanced moths and butterflies (Hexapoda: Lepidoptera)?
Syst. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2011
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This paper addresses the question of whether one can economically improve the robustness of a molecular phylogeny estimate by increasing gene sampling in only a subset of taxa, without having the analysis invalidated by artifacts arising from large blocks of missing data. Our case study stems from an ongoing effort to resolve poorly understood deeper relationships in the large clade Ditrysia ( > 150,000 species) of the insect order Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths). Seeking to remedy the overall weak support for deeper divergences in an initial study based on five nuclear genes (6.6 kb) in 123 exemplars, we nearly tripled the total gene sample (to 26 genes, 18.4 kb) but only in a third (41) of the taxa. The resulting partially augmented data matrix (45% intentionally missing data) consistently increased bootstrap support for groupings previously identified in the five-gene (nearly) complete matrix, while introducing no contradictory groupings of the kind that missing data have been predicted to produce. Our results add to growing evidence that data sets differing substantially in gene and taxon sampling can often be safely and profitably combined. The strongest overall support for nodes above the family level came from including all nucleotide changes, while partitioning sites into sets undergoing mostly nonsynonymous versus mostly synonymous change. In contrast, support for the deepest node for which any persuasive molecular evidence has yet emerged (78-85% bootstrap) was weak or nonexistent unless synonymous change was entirely excluded, a result plausibly attributed to compositional heterogeneity. This node (Gelechioidea + Apoditrysia), tentatively proposed by previous authors on the basis of four morphological synapomorphies, is the first major subset of ditrysian superfamilies to receive strong statistical support in any phylogenetic study. A "more-genes-only" data set (41 taxa×26 genes) also gave strong signal for a second deep grouping (Macrolepidoptera) that was obscured, but not strongly contradicted, in more taxon-rich analyses.
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Sleep-disordered breathing may be under-recognized in patients who wean from prolonged mechanical ventilation.
Respir Care
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2011
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The prevalence of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) in patients with prolonged mechanical ventilation (PMV) is unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the frequency of SDB in patients admitted to a long-term acute care (LTAC) hospital who weaned from PMV.
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Acute and delayed complications from surgery and adjuvant radiotherapy in the treatment of high-risk endometrial cancer.
Oncology
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2011
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This retrospective study assessed the number and type of complications following surgery and adjuvant radiotherapy in the treatment of high-risk endometrial cancer.
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The Ross full root replacement in adults with bicuspid aortic valve disease.
J. Heart Valve Dis.
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2011
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Bicuspid aortic valve disease (BAVD) is the most common congenital cardiac lesion causing aortic stenosis in adults. This lesion can be associated with a histological abnormality of the aortic wall and dilated or aneurysmal ascending aorta. In younger patients, the Ross operation offers several advantages over conventional aortic valve replacement (AVR); however, the rationale of performing this procedure on adults in the face of BAVD have been questioned.
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Pagets disease of the vulva: a clinicopathologic institutional review.
Int. J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2011
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The aim of this study was to assess the clinicopathologic characteristics of patients with Pagets disease of the vulva who were treated by our gynecologic oncology service between 1985 and 2010.
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Outcomes of treatment for hepatitis C virus infection by primary care providers.
N. Engl. J. Med.
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2011
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The Extension for Community Healthcare Outcomes (ECHO) model was developed to improve access to care for underserved populations with complex health problems such as hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. With the use of video-conferencing technology, the ECHO program trains primary care providers to treat complex diseases.
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Spatial distribution of the risk of dengue fever in southeast Brazil, 2006-2007.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2011
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Many factors have been associated with circulation of the dengue fever virus and vector, although the dynamics of transmission are not yet fully understood. The aim of this work is to estimate the spatial distribution of the risk of dengue fever in an area of continuous dengue occurrence.
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Tortricid moths reared from the invasive weed Mexican palo verde, Parkinsonia aculeata, with comments on their host specificity, biology, geographic distribution, and systematics.
J. Insect Sci.
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2011
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As part of efforts to identify native herbivores of Mexican palo verde, Parkinsonia aculeata L. (Leguminosae: Caesalpinioideae), as potential biological control agents against this invasive weed in Australia, ten species of Tortricidae (Lepidoptera) were reared from Guatemala, Mexico, Nicaragua, and Venezuela: Amorbia concavana (Zeller), Platynota rostrana (Walker), Platynota helianthes (Meyrick), Platynota stultana Walsingham (all Tortricinae: Sparganothini), Rudenia leguminana (Busck), Cochylis sp. (both Tortricinae: Cochylini), Ofatulena duodecemstriata (Walsingham), O. luminosa Heinrich, Ofatulena sp. (all Olethreutinae: Grapholitini), and Crocidosema lantana Busck (Olethreutinae: Eucosmini). Significant geographic range extensions are provided for O. duodecemstriata and R. leguminana. These are the first documented records of P. aculeata as a host plant for all but O. luminosa. The four species of Sparganothini are polyphagous; in contrast, the two Cochylini and three Grapholitini likely are specialists on Leguminosae. Ofatulena luminosa is possibly host specific on P. aculeata. Host trials with Rudenia leguminana also provide some evidence of specificity, in contrast to historical rearing records. To examine the possibility that R. leguminana is a complex of species, two data sets of molecular markers were examined: (1) a combined data set of two mitochondrial markers (a 781-basepair region of cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) and a 685-basepair region of cytochrome c oxidase II) and one nuclear marker (a 531-basepair region of the 28S domain 2); and (2) the 650-basepair "barcode" region of COI. Analyses of both data sets strongly suggest that individuals examined in this study belong to more than one species.
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Cross-talk between the androgen receptor and the liver X receptor: implications for cholesterol homeostasis.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 04-13-2011
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High cholesterol levels are associated with prostate cancer development. Androgens promote cholesterol accumulation by activating the sterol-regulatory element-binding protein isoform 2 (SREBP-2) transcription factor. However, SREBP-2 is in balance with the liver X receptor (LXR; NR1H2/NR1H3), a transcription factor that prevents cholesterol accumulation. Here, we show that LXR activity is down-regulated by the androgen receptor (AR; NR3C4). In turn, this reduces LXR target gene expression. This antagonism on LXR is also exerted by other steroid hormone receptors, including the estrogen, glucocorticoid, and progesterone receptors. This suggests a generalizable mechanism, but the AR does not affect LXR mRNA levels, protein degradation, or DNA binding. We also found that the AR does not require protein synthesis to influence LXR, suggesting a direct antagonism. However, the AR does not directly bind LXR. The AR N-terminal domain (involved in transactivation), but not its DNA-binding domain, is required to suppress LXR activity, suggesting coactivator competition. Overall, this androgen-mediated antagonism of LXR complements SREBP-2 activation, providing a more complete picture as to how androgens increase cellular cholesterol levels in a prostate cancer setting. Given the cross-talk between other steroid hormone receptors and LXR, hormonal regulation of cholesterol via LXR may occur in a variety of cellular contexts.
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Survival after resection for metastatic testicular nonseminomatous germ cell cancer to the lung or mediastinum.
Ann. Thorac. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2011
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Since the advent of cisplatin-based chemotherapy, nonseminomatous germ cell tumors (NSGCT) have been considered one of the most curable solid neoplasms and a model for multimodality cancer therapy. We undertook an institutional review of testicular NSGCT patients who underwent operations to remove lung or mediastinal metastases after chemotherapy in the cisplatin era to determine outcomes.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.