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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Intensification of blood pressure treatment in Pasifika people with type 2 diabetes and renal disease: a cohort study in primary care.
N. Z. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2014
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Chronic kidney disease is common in Pasifika people with type 2 diabetes. Lowering blood pressure (BP) and reducing proteinuria may slow the rate of progression of renal disease.
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Accelerating the innovation cycle: a Boston model seeks solutions for lagging ingenuity in health care.
IEEE Pulse
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2014
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If ever an industry was in need of both incremental and disruptive innovation, it is today?s health care industry. Realizing the full potential of innovation across the spectrum of health care environments is critical to address the well-documented, emerging global crisis generated by the aging of the population, the obligation to increase access for all to the best standard of care, and the societal imperative to contain costs. In addition, as budgets at funders such as the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH), the U.K. National Health Service (NHS), and others are increasingly constrained, it is more important than ever to increase the efficiency and effectiveness with which investments in fundamental R&D translate into products, services, and procedures that improve the health and well-being of people around the world.
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A systematic literature review of the use and effectiveness of the computer assisted rehabilitation environment for research and rehabilitation as it relates to the wounded warrior.
Work
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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Several U.S. military treatment and research facilities employ a Computer Assisted Rehabilitation Environment (CAREN) [Motek Medical BV, Amsterdam, The Netherlands] for research and rehabilitation of complex injuries exhibited by Wounded Warriors. There has been little scientific evidence of the effectiveness of this type of system for rehabilitation.
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Proteomic analysis reveals age-related changes in tendon matrix composition, with age- and injury-specific matrix fragmentation.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2014
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Energy storing tendons, such as the human Achilles and equine superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT), are highly prone to injury, the incidence of which increases with aging. The cellular and molecular mechanisms that result in increased injury in aged tendons are not well established but are thought to result in altered matrix turnover. However, little attempt has been made to fully characterize the tendon proteome nor determine how the abundance of specific tendon proteins changes with aging and/or injury. The aim of this study was, therefore, to assess the protein profile of normal SDFTs from young and old horses using label-free relative quantification to identify differentially abundant proteins and peptide fragments between age groups. The protein profile of injured SDFTs from young and old horses was also assessed. The results demonstrate distinct proteomic profiles in young and old tendon, with alterations in the levels of proteins involved in matrix organization and regulation of cell tension. Furthermore, we identified several new peptide fragments (neopeptides) present in aged tendons, suggesting that there are age-specific cleavage patterns within the SDFT. Proteomic profile also differed between young and old injured tendon, with a greater number of neopeptides identified in young injured tendon. This study has increased the knowledge of molecular events associated with tendon aging and injury, suggesting that maintenance and repair of tendon tissue may be reduced in aged individuals and may help to explain why the risk of injury increases with aging.
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Characterization of particulate matter emissions from a current technology natural gas engine.
Environ. Sci. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2014
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Experiments were conducted to characterize the particulate matter (PM)-size distribution, number concentration, and chemical composition emitted from transit buses powered by a USEPA 2010 compliant, stoichiometric heavy-duty natural gas engine equipped with a three-way catalyst (TWC). Results of the particle-size distribution showed a predominant nucleation mode centered close to 10 nm. PM mass in the size range of 6.04 to 25.5 nm correlated strongly with mass of lubrication-oil-derived elemental species detected in the gravimetric PM sample. Results from oil analysis indicated an elemental composition that was similar to that detected in the PM samples. The source of elemental species in the oil sample can be attributed to additives and engine wear. Chemical speciation of particulate matter (PM) showed that lubrication-oil-based additives and wear metals were a major fraction of the PM mass emitted from the buses. The results of the study indicate the possible existence of nanoparticles below 25 nm formed as a result of lubrication oil passage through the combustion chamber. Furthermore, the results of oxidative stress (OS) analysis on the PM samples indicated strong correlations with both the PM mass calculated in the nanoparticle-size bin and the mass of elemental species that can be linked to lubrication oil as the source.
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Do patients with bone bridge amputations have improved gait compared with patients with traditional amputations?
Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2014
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Two surgical techniques for performing a transtibial amputation include a traditional approach and a bone bridge approach. To date, there is no conclusive evidence of superiority of either technique in terms of temporal-spatial, kinetic, and mechanical work parameters.
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CAPriCORN: Chicago Area Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Network.
J Am Med Inform Assoc
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2014
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The Chicago Area Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Network (CAPriCORN) represents an unprecedented collaboration across diverse healthcare institutions including private, county, and state hospitals and health systems, a consortium of Federally Qualified Health Centers, and two Department of Veterans Affairs hospitals. CAPriCORN builds on the strengths of our institutions to develop a cross-cutting infrastructure for sustainable and patient-centered comparative effectiveness research in Chicago. Unique aspects include collaboration with the University HealthSystem Consortium to aggregate data across sites, a centralized communication center to integrate patient recruitment with the data infrastructure, and a centralized institutional review board to ensure a strong and efficient human subject protection program. With coordination by the Chicago Community Trust and the Illinois Medical District Commission, CAPriCORN will model how healthcare institutions can overcome barriers of data integration, marketplace competition, and care fragmentation to develop, test, and implement strategies to improve care for diverse populations and reduce health disparities.
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Estimation of diagnostic test accuracy without full verification: a review of latent class methods.
Stat Med
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2014
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The performance of a diagnostic test is best evaluated against a reference test that is without error. For many diseases, this is not possible, and an imperfect reference test must be used. However, diagnostic accuracy estimates may be biased if inaccurately verified status is used as the truth. Statistical models have been developed to handle this situation by treating disease as a latent variable. In this paper, we conduct a systematized review of statistical methods using latent class models for estimating test accuracy and disease prevalence in the absence of complete verification.
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In Situ Sediment Treatment Using Activated Carbon: A Demonstrated Sediment Cleanup Technology.
Integr Environ Assess Manag
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2014
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This paper reviews general approaches for applying activated carbon (AC) amendments as an in situ sediment treatment remedy. In situ sediment treatment involves targeted placement of amendments using installation options that fall under two general approaches: 1) direct application of a thin layer of amendments (which potentially incorporate weighting and/or binding materials) to surface sediment, with or without initial mixing; and 2) incorporation of amendments into a pre-mixed blended cover material of clean sand or sediment that is also applied to the sediment surface. Over the past decade, pilot- or full-scale field sediment treatment projects using AC-globally recognized as one of the most effective sorbents for organic contaminants-were completed or are underway at more than 25 field sites in the United States, Norway, and the Netherlands. Collectively, these field projects (along with numerous laboratory experiments) have demonstrated the efficacy of AC for in situ treatment in a wide range of contaminated sediment conditions. Results from experimental studies and field applications indicate that in situ sequestration and immobilization treatment of hydrophobic organic compounds using either installation approach can significantly reduce porewater concentrations and biouptake, often becoming more effective over time due to progressive mass transfer. Certain conditions, such as use in unstable sediment environments, should be taken into account in order to maximize AC effectiveness over long time periods. In situ treatment is generally less disruptive and less expensive than traditional sediment cleanup technologies such as dredging and/or isolation capping. Proper site-specific balancing of the potential benefits, risks, ecological effects, and costs of in situ treatment technologies (in this case AC) relative to other sediment cleanup technologies is important to successful full-scale field application. It is evident from extensive experimental studies and field trials that, when applied correctly, in situ treatment via contaminant sequestration and immobilization using a sorbent material such as AC has progressed from an innovative sediment remediation approach to a proven, reliable technology. Integr Environ Assess Manag © 2014 SETAC.
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Determinants of Moloney murine leukemia virus Gag-Pol and genomic RNA proportions.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2014
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The Moloney murine leukemia virus (MoMLV) ribonucleoprotein complex is composed of an approximately 20:1 mixture of Gag and Gag-Pol polyproteins plus a single genomic RNA (gRNA) dimer. The mechanisms that regulate these proportions are unknown. Here, we examined whether virion proportions of Gag, Gag-Pol, and gRNA were determined by sampling (that is, if they reflected expression ratios or intracellular concentrations) or more specific recruitment. To this end, MoMLV Gag, Gag-Pol, and gRNA were expressed separately or together in various ratios. Varying the expression ratios of Gag and Gag-Pol revealed that Gag-Pol incorporation was stochastic and that the conserved 20:1 Gag/Gag-Pol ratio coincided with maximal particle production. When skewed expression ratios resulted in excess Gag-Pol, the released virions maintained the intracellular Gag/Gag-Pol ratios and the infectivity per virion was largely maintained, but virion production decreased sharply with high levels of Gag-Pol. The determinants of gRNA proportions were addressed by manipulating the amounts and contexts of functional nucleocapsid (NC) and the ratios of Gag to gRNA. The results showed that the NC domain of either Gag or Gag-Pol could provide gRNA packaging functions equally well. Unlike Gag-Pol, gRNA incorporation was saturable. An upper limit of gRNA incorporation was observed, and particle production was not disrupted by excess gRNA expression. These results indicate that the determinants of Gag/Gag-Pol proportions differ from those for Gag/gRNA. On the basis of the assumption that MoMLV evolved to produce virion components in optimal proportions, these data provide a means of estimating the proportion of unspliced MoMLV RNA that serves as genomic RNA.
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Exploratory study of sleeping patterns in children admitted to hospital.
J Paediatr Child Health
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2014
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Sleep is considered an important time of healing and restoration during illness. The primary aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of self-reported sleep disturbance in children admitted to a tertiary children's hospital with a variety of medical diagnoses.
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Association between GFR Estimated by Multiple Methods at Dialysis Commencement and Patient Survival.
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol
PUBLISHED: 10-31-2013
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The Initiating Dialysis Early and Late study showed that planned early or late initiation of dialysis, based on the Cockcroft and Gault estimation of GFR, was associated with identical clinical outcomes. This study examined the association of all-cause mortality with estimated GFR at dialysis commencement, which was determined using multiple formulas.
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Learning metrics for content-based medical image retrieval.
Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2013
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Application of content-based image retrieval (CBIR) to medical image analysis has recently become an active research field. While many previous studies have focused on the feature design, the metric design, another key CBIR component, has not been well investigated in this application context. This paper presents a medical CBIR that adapts its similaritymetric from data by using information theoretic metric learning. Also we systematically compare our SIFT bag-of-words-based system with various plug-in similarity measures available in literature. The proposed systems are evaluated with the ImageCLEF-2011 benchmarking dataset. Our experimental results demonstrate the advantage of the proposed metric learning approach and L1 distance-based measures.
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Emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nitro-PAHs from heavy-duty diesel vehicles with DPF and SCR.
J Air Waste Manag Assoc
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2013
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In total, 24 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in both gas and particle phases and 35 nitro-PAHs in particle phase were analyzed in the exhaust from heavy-duty diesel vehicles equipped with after-treatment for particulate matter (PM) and NO(x) control. The test vehicles were carried out using a chassis dynamometer under highway cruise, transient Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule (UDDS), and idle operation. The after-treatment efficiently abated more than 90% of the total PAHs. Indeed, the particle-bound PAHs were reduced by > 99%, and the gaseous PAHs were removed at various extents depending on the type of after-treatment and the test cycles. The PAHs in gas phase dominated the total PAH (gas + particle phases) emissions for all the test vehicles and for all cycles; that is, 99% of the two-ring and 98% of the three-ring and 97% of the four-ring and 95% of the carcinogenic PAHs were in the gas-phase after a diesel particle filter (DPF) and not bound to the very small amount of particulate matter left after a DPF. Consequently, an evaluation of the toxicity of DPF exhaust must include this volatile fraction and cannot be based on the particle fraction only. The selective catalytic reduction (SCR) did not appear to promote nitration of the PAHs in general, although there might be some selective nitration of phenanthrene. Importantly the after-treatment reduced the equivalent B[a]P (B[a]Peq) emissions by > 95%, suggesting a substantial health benefit. Implications: This study demonstrated that after-treatments, including diesel particulate filters (DPF), diesel oxidation catalysts (DOC), and selective catalytic reduction (SCR), significantly reduce the emissions of PAHs from heavy-duty diesel engines. The gas-phase PAHs dominate the total PAH (gas + particle phases) emissions from heavy-duty diesel vehicles retrofitted with various DPFs and not bound to the very small amount of particulate matter left after a DPF. Consequently, an evaluation of the toxicity of DPF exhaust must also include this volatile fraction and cannot be based on the particle fraction only.
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Criteria pollutant and greenhouse gas emissions from CNG transit buses equipped with three-way catalysts compared to lean-burn engines and oxidation catalyst technologies.
J Air Waste Manag Assoc
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2013
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Engine and exhaust control technologies applied to compressed natural gas (CNG) transit buses have advanced from lean-burn, to lean-burn with oxidation catalyst (OxC), to stoichiometric combustion with three-way catalyst (TWC). With this technology advancement, regulated gaseous and particulate matter emissions have been significantly reduced. Two CNG transit buses equipped with stoichiometric combustion engines and TWCs were tested on a chassis dynamometer, and their emissions were measured. Emissions from the stoichiometric engines with TWCs were then compared to the emissions from lean-burn CNG transit buses tested in previous studies. Stoichiometric combustion with TWC was effective in reducing emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NO(x)), particulate matter (PM), and nonmethane hydrocarbon (NMHC) by 87% to 98% depending on pollutants and test cycles, compared to lean combustion. The high removal efficiencies exceeded the emission reduction required from the certification standards, especially for NO(x) and PM. While the certification standards require 95% and 90% reductions for NO(x) and PM, respectively, from the engine model years 1998-2003 to the engine model year 2007, the measured NO(x) and PM emissions show 96% and 95% reductions, respectively, from the lean-burn engines to the stoichiometric engines with TWC over the transient Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule (UDDS) cycle. One drawback of stoichiometric combustion with TWC is that this technology produces higher carbon monoxide (CO) emissions than lean combustion. In regard to controlling CO emissions, lean combustion with OxC is more effective than stoichiometric combustion. Stoichiometric combustion with TWC produced higher greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions including carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) than lean combustion during the UDDS cycle, but lower GHG emissions during the steady-state cruise cycle. Implications: Stoichiometric combustion with three-way catalyst is currently the best emission control technology available for compressed natural gas (CNG) transit buses to meet the stringent U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) 2010 heavy-duty engine NO(x) emissions standard. For existing lean-burn CNG transit buses in the fleet, oxidation catalyst would be the most effective retrofit technology for the control of NMHC and CO emissions.
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A demonstration study comparing "role-emergent" versus "role-established" pharmacy clinical placement experiences in long-term care facilities.
BMC Med Educ
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2013
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Increasing challenges to recruit hospital sites with full-time on-site pharmacy preceptors for institutional-based Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experiences (APPE) has made it necessary to consider alternate experiential models. Sites with on-site discipline specific preceptors to supervise students have typically been referred to in the literature as "role-established" sites. In British Columbia, long-term care (LTC) facilities offered a unique opportunity to address placement capacity issues. However, since the majority of these facilities are serviced by off-site community pharmacists, this study was undertaken to explore the viability of supervising pharmacy students remotely - a model referred to in the literature as "role-emergent" placements. This papers objectives are to discuss pharmacy preceptors and LTC non-pharmacist staff experiences with this model.
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In-use NOx emissions from model year 2010 and 2011 heavy-duty diesel engines equipped with aftertreatment devices.
Environ. Sci. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2013
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The California Air Resources Board (ARB) undertook this study to characterize the in-use emissions of model year (MY) 2010 or newer diesel engines. Emissions from four trucks: one equipped with an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and three equipped with EGR and a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) device were measured on two different routes with three different payloads using a portable emissions measurement system (PEMS) in the Sacramento area. Results indicated that brake-specific NOx emissions for the truck equipped only with an EGR were independent of the driving conditions. Results also showed that for typical highway driving conditions, the SCR technology is proving to be effective in controlling NOx emissions. However, under operations where the SCRs do not reach minimum operating temperature, like cold starts and some low load/slow speed driving conditions, NOx emissions are still elevated. The study indicated that strategies used to maintain exhaust temperature above a certain threshold, which are used in some of the newer SCRs, have the potential to control NOx emissions during certain low-load/slow speed driving conditions.
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Derivation and validation of a renal risk score for people with type 2 diabetes.
Diabetes Care
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2013
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Diabetes has become the leading cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Renal risk stratification could assist in earlier identification and targeted prevention. This study aimed to derive risk models to predict ESRD events in type 2 diabetes in primary care.
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Assisted reproduction counseling in women aged 40 and above: a cohort study.
J. Assist. Reprod. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2013
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Fertility treatment in women aged ?40 year old remains difficult and controversial. All available studies in older women report results of one specific method of ART, i.e. IUI, IVF/ICSI or oocyte donation, and success rates are always published per attempt but never per patient. Randomized studies are not available because of the obvious heterogeneity in patient populations and treatment options. This prospective observational study aimed at analyzing the outcome in a consecutive cohort of patients above 40 undergoing various methods of ART.
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Plasmodium falciparum infection among neonates in the North Central region of Nigeria.
J Infect Dev Ctries
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2013
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This cross-sectional study investigated the rate of congenital and neonatal malaria infections in patients attending our hospital.
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Method for evoking a trip-like response using a treadmill-based perturbation during locomotion.
J Biomech
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2013
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Because trip-related falls account for a significant proportion of falls by patients with amputations and older adults, the ability to repeatedly and reliably simulate a trip or evoke a trip-like response in a laboratory setting has potential utility as a tool to assess trip-related fall risk and as a training tool to reduce fall risk. This paper describes a treadmill-based method for delivering postural perturbations during locomotion to evoke a trip-like response and serve as a surrogate for an overground trip. Subjects walked at a normalized velocity in a Computer Assisted Rehabilitation Environment (CAREN). During single-limb stance, the treadmill belt speed was rapidly changed, thereby requiring the subject to perform a compensatory stepping response to avoid falling. Peak trunk flexion angle and peak trunk flexion velocity during the initial compensatory step following the perturbation were smaller for responses associated with recoveries compared to those associated with falls. These key fall prediction variables were consistent with the outcomes observed for laboratory-induced trips of older adults. This perturbation technique also demonstrated that this method of repeated but randomly delivered perturbations can evoke consistent, within-subject responses.
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A cognitive-behavioral treatment for depression in rural American Indian middle school students.
Am Indian Alsk Native Ment Health Res
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2013
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Rural American Indian (AI) middle school students with depressive symptoms who participated in a culturally modified version of the Adolescent Coping with Depression (CWD-A) course (n = 8) reported significant improvement in depressive symptoms at post-intervention and at 3-month follow-up. There was also a nonsignificant but clinically relevant decrease in participants anxiety symptoms. Students reported satisfaction with the intervention, and it was potentially more cost-effective and less stigmatizing than the individualized treatment-as-usual interventions to which it was compared. These results suggest the CWD-A is a promising approach for reducing depressive and anxiety symptoms in rural AI students and should be further evaluated with a larger sample of students.
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The zebrafish reference genome sequence and its relationship to the human genome.
Kerstin Howe, Matthew D Clark, Carlos F Torroja, James Torrance, Camille Berthelot, Matthieu Muffato, John E Collins, Sean Humphray, Karen McLaren, Lucy Matthews, Stuart McLaren, Ian Sealy, Mario Caccamo, Carol Churcher, Carol Scott, Jeffrey C Barrett, Romke Koch, Gerd-Jörg Rauch, Simon White, William Chow, Britt Kilian, Leonor T Quintais, José A Guerra-Assunção, Yi Zhou, Yong Gu, Jennifer Yen, Jan-Hinnerk Vogel, Tina Eyre, Seth Redmond, Ruby Banerjee, Jianxiang Chi, Beiyuan Fu, Elizabeth Langley, Sean F Maguire, Gavin K Laird, David Lloyd, Emma Kenyon, Sarah Donaldson, Harminder Sehra, Jeff Almeida-King, Jane Loveland, Stephen Trevanion, Matt Jones, Mike Quail, Dave Willey, Adrienne Hunt, John Burton, Sarah Sims, Kirsten McLay, Bob Plumb, Joy Davis, Chris Clee, Karen Oliver, Richard Clark, Clare Riddle, David Elliot, David Eliott, Glen Threadgold, Glenn Harden, Darren Ware, Sharmin Begum, Beverley Mortimore, Beverly Mortimer, Giselle Kerry, Paul Heath, Benjamin Phillimore, Alan Tracey, Nicole Corby, Matthew Dunn, Christopher Johnson, Jonathan Wood, Susan Clark, Sarah Pelan, Guy Griffiths, Michelle Smith, Rebecca Glithero, Philip Howden, Nicholas Barker, Christine Lloyd, Christopher Stevens, Joanna Harley, Karen Holt, Georgios Panagiotidis, Jamieson Lovell, Helen Beasley, Carl Henderson, Daria Gordon, Katherine Auger, Deborah Wright, Joanna Collins, Claire Raisen, Lauren Dyer, Kenric Leung, Lauren Robertson, Kirsty Ambridge, Daniel Leongamornlert, Sarah McGuire, Ruth Gilderthorp, Coline Griffiths, Deepa Manthravadi, Sarah Nichol, Gary Barker, Siobhan Whitehead, Michael Kay, Jacqueline Brown, Clare Murnane, Emma Gray, Matthew Humphries, Neil Sycamore, Darren Barker, David Saunders, Justene Wallis, Anne Babbage, Sian Hammond, Maryam Mashreghi-Mohammadi, Lucy Barr, Sancha Martin, Paul Wray, Andrew Ellington, Nicholas Matthews, Matthew Ellwood, Rebecca Woodmansey, Graham Clark, James D Cooper, James Cooper, Anthony Tromans, Darren Grafham, Carl Skuce, Richard Pandian, Robert Andrews, Elliot Harrison, Andrew Kimberley, Jane Garnett, Nigel Fosker, Rebekah Hall, Patrick Garner, Daniel Kelly, Christine Bird, Sophie Palmer, Ines Gehring, Andrea Berger, Christopher M Dooley, Zübeyde Ersan-Ürün, Cigdem Eser, Horst Geiger, Maria Geisler, Lena Karotki, Anette Kirn, Judith Konantz, Martina Konantz, Martina Oberländer, Silke Rudolph-Geiger, Mathias Teucke, Christa Lanz, Günter Raddatz, Kazutoyo Osoegawa, Baoli Zhu, Amanda Rapp, Sara Widaa, Cordelia Langford, Fengtang Yang, Stephan C Schuster, Nigel P Carter, Jennifer Harrow, Zemin Ning, Javier Herrero, Steve M J Searle, Anton Enright, Robert Geisler, Ronald H A Plasterk, Charles Lee, Monte Westerfield, Pieter J de Jong, Leonard I Zon, John H Postlethwait, Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard, Tim J P Hubbard, Hugues Roest Crollius, Jane Rogers, Derek L Stemple.
Nature
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2013
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Zebrafish have become a popular organism for the study of vertebrate gene function. The virtually transparent embryos of this species, and the ability to accelerate genetic studies by gene knockdown or overexpression, have led to the widespread use of zebrafish in the detailed investigation of vertebrate gene function and increasingly, the study of human genetic disease. However, for effective modelling of human genetic disease it is important to understand the extent to which zebrafish genes and gene structures are related to orthologous human genes. To examine this, we generated a high-quality sequence assembly of the zebrafish genome, made up of an overlapping set of completely sequenced large-insert clones that were ordered and oriented using a high-resolution high-density meiotic map. Detailed automatic and manual annotation provides evidence of more than 26,000 protein-coding genes, the largest gene set of any vertebrate so far sequenced. Comparison to the human reference genome shows that approximately 70% of human genes have at least one obvious zebrafish orthologue. In addition, the high quality of this genome assembly provides a clearer understanding of key genomic features such as a unique repeat content, a scarcity of pseudogenes, an enrichment of zebrafish-specific genes on chromosome 4 and chromosomal regions that influence sex determination.
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Impact of automated contrast injector systems on contrast use and contrast-associated complications in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary interventions.
JACC Cardiovasc Interv
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2013
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The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of manual versus automated contrast injection on renal complications in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).
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The roots--a short history of industrial microbiology and biotechnology.
Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 02-09-2013
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Early biotechnology (BT) had its roots in fascinating discoveries, such as yeast as living matter being responsible for the fermentation of beer and wine. Serious controversies arose between vitalists and chemists, resulting in the reversal of theories and paradigms, but prompting continuing research and progress. Pasteurs work led to the establishment of the science of microbiology by developing pure monoculture in sterile medium, and together with the work of Robert Koch to the recognition that a single pathogenic organism is the causative agent for a particular disease. Pasteur also achieved innovations for industrial processes of high economic relevance, including beer, wine and alcohol. Several decades later Buchner, disproved the hypothesis that processes in living cells required a metaphysical vis vitalis in addition to pure chemical laws. Enzymes were shown to be the chemical basis of bioconversions. Studies on the formation of products in microbial fermentations, resulted in the manufacture of citric acid, and chemical components required for explosives particularly in war time, acetone and butanol, and further products through fermentation. The requirements for penicillin during the Second World War lead to the industrial manufacture of penicillin, and to the era of antibiotics with further antibiotics, like streptomycin, becoming available. This was followed by a new class of high value-added products, mainly secondary metabolites, e.g. steroids obtained by biotransformation. By the mid-twentieth century, biotechnology was becoming an accepted specialty with courses being established in the life sciences departments of several universities. Starting in the 1970s and 1980s, BT gained the attention of governmental agencies in Germany, the UK, Japan, the USA, and others as a field of innovative potential and economic growth, leading to expansion of the field. Basic research in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology dramatically widened the field of life sciences and at the same time unified them considerably by the study of genes and their relatedness throughout the evolutionary process. The scope of accessible products and services expanded significantly. Economic input accelerated research and development, by encouraging and financing the development of new methods, tools, machines and the foundation of new companies. The discipline of New Biotechnology became one of the lead sciences. Although biotechnology has historical roots, it continues to influence diverse industrial fields of activity, including food, feed and other commodities, for example polymer manufacture, biofuels and energy production, providing services such as environmental protection, and the development and production of many of the most effective drugs. The understanding of biology down to the molecular level opens the way to create novel products and efficient environmentally acceptable methods for their production.
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Assisted reproduction using donor spermatozoa in women aged 40 and above: the high road or the low road?
Reprod. Biomed. Online
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2013
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The effect of age on outcome is one of the most intriguing areas in the assisted reproduction field. In older patients using donor spermatozoa to reproduce, it remains undefined as to which is the treatment of choice: intrauterine insemination (IUI) or IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Since life-table analysis provides data that are easy to use for patient counselling, this study analysed cumulative delivery rates (CDR) in patients using donor spermatozoa undergoing either primarily IUI or IVF/ICSI and patients who eventually switched from IUI to IVF/ICSI. Crude and expected CDR after six IUI cycles and three primary ICSI cycles (no previous IUI) were similar in both groups (24% versus 26% and 29% versus 35%, respectively). Since time-to pregnancy is an important factor in these older patients, ICSI treatment is advised to be started immediately, since a single cycle of ICSI will achieve the same success rate as a much longer period with at least six IUI cycles. If patients switch to ICSI after failed IUI, this only adds marginal benefit in CDR. Nearly all deliveries in the primary ICSI group were achieved in the first cycle.
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Prevalence of overweight and obesity in adult Nigerians - a systematic review.
Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2013
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Obesity is a major health problem, and there is an increasing trend of overweight and obese individuals in developing countries. Being overweight or obese is known to contribute significantly to morbidity and mortality rates in various countries around the world. We therefore aimed to identify and discuss current epidemiological data on the prevalence of obesity in Nigeria.
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Promoting direct patient care services at community pharmacies through advanced pharmacy practice experiences.
Int J Pharm Pract
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2013
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To determine the relative benefits of three different models of advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) in successfully integrating the delivery of direct patient care into students final year community pharmacy clerkships.
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Transgenes of the mouse immunoglobulin heavy chain locus, lacking distal elements in the 3 regulatory region, are impaired for class switch recombination.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2013
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The immunoglobulin heavy (H) chain class switch is mediated by a deletional recombination event between µ and ?, ?, or ? constant region genes. This recombination event is upregulated during immune responses by a regulatory region that lies 3 of the constant region genes. We study switch recombination using a transgene of the entire murine H chain constant region locus. We isolated two lines of mice in which the H chain transgenes were truncated at their 3 ends. The truncation in both transgenic lines results in deletion of the 3-most enhancer (HS4) and a region with insulator-like structure and activities. Even though both truncated transgenes express the µ H chain gene well, they undergo very low or undetectable switch recombination to transgenic ? and ? constant region genes. For both transgenic lines, germline transcription of some H chain constant regions genes is severely impaired. However, the germline transcription of the ?1 and ?2a genes is at wild type levels for the transgenic line with the larger truncation, but at reduced levels for the transgenic line with the smaller truncation. The dramatic reduction in class switch recombination for all H chain genes and the varied reduction in germline transcription for some H chain genes could be caused by (i) insertion site effects or (ii) deletion of enhancer elements for class switch recombination and transcription, or (iii) a combination of both effects.
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Sustaining the surgical educator workforce in Australia and New Zealand.
ANZ J Surg
PUBLISHED: 10-31-2011
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The education and training of tomorrow’s surgeons are predicated upon the involvement of a broad spectrum of surgical educators. Identification of the factors that influence their ongoing participation is crucial for its continuity.
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The education effect on population health: a reassessment.
Popul Dev Rev
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2011
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Demographic research frequently reports consistent and significant associations between formal educational attainment and a range of health risks such as smoking, drug abuse, and accidents, as well as the contraction of many diseases, and health outcomes such as mortality—almost all indicating the same conclusion: better-educated individuals are healthier and live longer. Despite the substantial reporting of a robust education effect, there is inadequate appreciation of its independent influence and role as a causal agent. To address the effect of education on health in general, three contributions are provided: 1) a macro-level summary of the dimensions of the worldwide educational revolution and a reassessment of its causal role in the health of individuals and in the demographic health transition are carried out; 2) a meta-analysis of methodologically sophisticated studies of the effect of educational attainment on all-cause mortality is conducted to establish the independence and robustness of the education effect on health; and 3) a schooling-cognition hypothesis about the influence of education as a powerful determinant of health is developed in light of new multidisciplinary cognitive research.
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Enhancement of antibody class-switch recombination by the cumulative activity of four separate elements.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2011
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Class-switch recombination of Ab isotype is mediated by a recombinational DNA deletion event and must be robustly upregulated during Ag-driven differentiation of B cells. The enhancer region 3 of the C? gene is important for the upregulation of switch recombination. Using a transgene of the entire H chain C region locus, we demonstrate in this study that it is the four 3 enhancer elements themselves (a total of 4.7 kb) that are responsible for the upregulation rather than the 24 kb of DNA in between them. Neither allelic exclusion nor transgenic ? expression is reduced by deletion of the four 3 enhancers. We also test deletions of two or three of the 3 enhancers and show that deletion of more 3 enhancers results in a progressive reduction in both switch recombination and germline transcription of all H chain genes. Nevertheless, we find evidence for special roles for some 3 enhancers; different H chain genes are affected by different 3 enhancer deletions. Thus, we find that the dramatic induction of class-switch recombination during Ag-driven differentiation is the result of an interaction among four separated regulatory elements.
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Increased prevalence of albuminuria among non-European peoples with type 2 diabetes.
Nephrol. Dial. Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 09-13-2011
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A high incidence of albuminuria, varying by ethnicity, has been found in a number of populations worldwide. There have been few opportunities to explore the prevalence of albuminuria as a marker of chronic kidney disease while adjusting for other risk factors in the different ethnic groups in New Zealand.
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Polar body array CGH for prediction of the status of the corresponding oocyte. Part II: technical aspects.
Hum. Reprod.
PUBLISHED: 09-09-2011
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The purpose of this study was to assess the technical aspects related to polar body (PB) biopsy, which might have an influence on the results of the microarray comparative genomic hybridization analysis. Furthermore, a comparison was made between two biopsy methods (mechanical and laser).
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Polar body array CGH for prediction of the status of the corresponding oocyte. Part I: clinical results.
Hum. Reprod.
PUBLISHED: 09-09-2011
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Several randomized controlled trials have not shown a benefit from preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) biopsy of cleavage-stage embryos and assessment of up to 10 chromosomes for aneuploidy. Therefore, a proof-of-principle study was planned to determine the reliability of alternative form of PGS, i.e. PGS by polar body (PB) biopsy, with whole genome amplification and microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH) analysis.
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"Teaching as a Competency": competencies for medical educators.
Acad Med
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2011
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Most medical faculty receive little or no training about how to be effective teachers, even when they assume major educational leadership roles. To identify the competencies required of an effective teacher in medical education, the authors developed a comprehensive conceptual model. After conducting a literature search, the authors met at a two-day conference (2006) with 16 medical and nonmedical educators from 10 different U.S. and Canadian organizations and developed an initial draft of the "Teaching as a Competency" conceptual model. Conference participants used the physician competencies (from the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education [ACGME]) and the roles (from the Royal Colleges Canadian Medical Education Directives for Specialists [CanMEDS]) to define critical skills for medical educators. The authors then refined this initial framework through national/regional conference presentations (2007, 2008), an additional literature review, and expert input. Four core values grounded this framework: learner engagement, learner-centeredness, adaptability, and self-reflection. The authors identified six core competencies, based on the ACGME competencies framework: medical (or content) knowledge; learner- centeredness; interpersonal and communication skills; professionalism and role modeling; practice-based reflection; and systems-based practice. They also included four specialized competencies for educators with additional programmatic roles: program design/implementation, evaluation/scholarship, leadership, and mentorship. The authors then cross-referenced the competencies with educator roles, drawing from CanMEDS, to recognize role-specific skills. The authors have explored their frameworks strengths, limitations, and applications, which include targeted faculty development, evaluation, and resource allocation. The Teaching as a Competency framework promotes a culture of effective teaching and learning.
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Guided autobiographys developmental exchange: whats in it for me?
Int J Aging Hum Dev
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2011
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The developmental exchange is a central feature of social development, interpersonal dynamics, situated learning, and personal transformation. It is the enabling process in Guided Autobiography (GAB) settings that promotes the achievement of personal goals and group accomplishments. Nevertheless, these exchanges are embedded in the GAB structures of time, events, participants, themes, perspectives, medium, and quest for relevance. Ongoing research studies are gradually clarifying the actual, ideal, and social image of self as well as the processes, outcomes, and specific learning topics achieved during the GAB experience as they unfold through the listening, participating, and diversifying structures of the developmental exchange.
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Subcellular scaled multiplexed protein patterns for single cell cocultures.
Anal. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2011
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Tip-based direct protein printing is a relatively new technique that is useful for controlling the cellular microenvironment with subcellular resolution. Coculture studies have been useful for mimicking the in vivo environment and studying effects on stem or progenitor cell function. However, there are many experimental variables that cannot be properly controlled and may lead to confounding results. Here we demonstrate a technique that allows spatial control of multiple cell types at single cell levels on a substrate. Specifically, 3T3 fibroblasts and C2C12 myoblasts and their respective binding dynamics with fibronectin and laminin demonstrate the single cell coculture concept.
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Outcomes of screening-detected ductal carcinoma in situ treated with wide excision alone.
Ann. Surg. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2011
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Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is commonly identified on screening mammography. Standard treatment for localized DCIS is wide local excision (WLE) and adjuvant radiotherapy. This approach represents overtreatment in many cases, where the DCIS would never have become clinically significant, or where less intensive treatment would have been satisfactory. We reviewed the medium-term outcome of a cohort of screen detected DCIS patients treated mainly with WLE without radiotherapy.
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Comparative transcriptome analyses indicate molecular homology of zebrafish swimbladder and mammalian lung.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2011
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The fish swimbladder is a unique organ in vertebrate evolution and it functions for regulating buoyancy in most teleost species. It has long been postulated as a homolog of the tetrapod lung, but the molecular evidence is scarce. In order to understand the molecular function of swimbladder as well as its relationship with lungs in tetrapods, transcriptomic analyses of zebrafish swimbladder were carried out by RNA-seq. Gene ontology classification showed that genes in cytoskeleton and endoplasmic reticulum were enriched in the swimbladder. Further analyses depicted gene sets and pathways closely related to cytoskeleton constitution and regulation, cell adhesion, and extracellular matrix. Several prominent transcription factor genes in the swimbladder including hoxc4a, hoxc6a, hoxc8a and foxf1 were identified and their expressions in developing swimbladder during embryogenesis were confirmed. By comparison of enriched transcripts in the swimbladder with those in human and mouse lungs, we established the resemblance of transcriptome of the zebrafish swimbladder and mammalian lungs. Based on the transcriptomic data of zebrafish swimbladder, the predominant functions of swimbladder are in its epithelial and muscular tissues. Our comparative analyses also provide molecular evidence of the relatedness of the fish swimbladder and mammalian lung.
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Outcomes of patients with planned initiation of hemodialysis in the IDEAL trial.
Contrib Nephrol
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2011
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In clinical practice there is considerable variation in the timing of initiation of dialysis. The IDEAL trial (Initiating Dialysis Early and Late study) showed that planned early initiation of dialysis in patients with stage 5 chronic kidney disease (CKD) was not associated with an improvement in clinical outcome, but was associated with increased costs. The predominant dialysis modality worldwide is hemodialysis (HD). This subanalysis of the IDEAL trial examined whether the timing of the initiation of dialysis in those who had chosen HD influenced survival and the occurrence of complications.
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International consensus statement on surgical education and training in an era of reduced working hours.
Surgeon
PUBLISHED: 05-10-2011
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An international consensus statement has been developed as a reference on the key principles to be considered during discussions on surgical education and training and the delivery of surgical care in an era of restricted hours.
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Cost-effectiveness of initiating dialysis early: a randomized controlled trial.
Am. J. Kidney Dis.
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2011
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Planned early initiation of dialysis therapy based on estimated kidney function does not influence mortality and major comorbid conditions, but amelioration of symptoms may improve quality of life and decrease costs.
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Birth prevalence of autism spectrum disorders in the San Francisco Bay area by demographic and ascertainment source characteristics.
J Autism Dev Disord
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2011
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Using standardized methods for multi-source surveillance, we calculated the prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) among children born in a racially diverse region in 1994 or 1996 as 4.7/1000 live births. Children with ASD before age 9 were identified through chart abstraction at health-related sources; three-quarters were being served by the state-wide Department of Developmental Services. In adjusted models, we found a male:female ratio of 6:1, a doubling of ASD prevalence among children of older mothers (40+), and lower prevalence with lower paternal education. Children of Black or Hispanic mothers had lower prevalence than those of White, non-Hispanic mothers, but these differences were attenuated after adjustment. Prevalence in children of Asian mothers was similar to Whites. Potential under-counting is discussed.
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Biosynthesis of iron and silver nanoparticles at room temperature using aqueous sorghum bran extracts.
Langmuir
PUBLISHED: 12-06-2010
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Iron and silver nanoparticles were synthesized using a rapid, single step, and completely green biosynthetic method employing aqueous sorghum extracts as both the reducing and capping agent. Silver ions were rapidly reduced by the aqueous sorghum bran extracts, leading to the formation of highly crystalline silver nanoparticles with an average diameter of 10 nm. The diffraction peaks were indexed to the face-centered cubic (fcc) phase of silver. The absorption spectra of colloidal silver nanoparticles showed a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) peak centered at a wavelength of 390 nm. Amorphous iron nanoparticles with an average diameter of 50 nm were formed instantaneously under ambient conditions. The reactivity of iron nanoparticles was tested by the H(2)O(2)-catalyzed degradation of bromothymol blue as a model organic contaminant.
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The role of germline promoters and I exons in cytokine-induced gene-specific class switch recombination.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 12-03-2010
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Germline transcription precedes class switch recombination (CSR). The promoter regions and I exons of these germline transcripts include binding sites for activation- and cytokine-induced transcription factors, and the promoter regions/I exons are essential for CSR. Therefore, it is a strong hypothesis that the promoter/I exons regions are responsible for much of cytokine-regulated, gene-specific CSR. We tested this hypothesis by swapping the germline promoter and I exons for the murine ?1 and ?2a H chain genes in a transgene of the entire H chain C-region locus. We found that the promoter/I exon for ?1 germline transcripts can direct robust IL-4-induced recombination to the ?2a gene. In contrast, the promoter/I exon for the ?2a germline transcripts works poorly in the context of the ?1 H chain gene, resulting in expression of ?1 H chains that is <1% the wild-type level. Nevertheless, the small amount of recombination to the chimeric ?1 gene is induced by IFN-?. These results suggest that cytokine regulation of CSR, but not the magnitude of CSR, is regulated by the promoter/I exons.
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A mandatory intercalated degree programme: revitalising and enhancing academic and evidence-based medicine.
Med Teach
PUBLISHED: 11-25-2010
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Recruitment of medical graduates to research careers is declining. Expansion of medical knowledge necessitates all graduates be equipped to critically evaluate new information. To address these challenges, a mandatory intercalated degree programme was introduced as part of curriculum reform.
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Risk factors for invasive breast cancer when core needle biopsy shows ductal carcinoma in situ.
Arch Surg
PUBLISHED: 11-17-2010
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A core needle biopsy (CNB) diagnosis of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) may be associated with a final diagnosis of invasive cancer. Preoperative radiologic, clinical, and pathological features may identify patients at high risk of diagnostic upstaging, who may be appropriate candidates for sentinel node biopsy at initial surgery.
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Comparison of patients expectations and experiences at traditional pharmacies and pharmacies offering enhanced advanced pharmacy practice experiences.
Am J Pharm Educ
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2010
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To compare patients expectations and experiences at pharmacies offering traditional APPE learning opportunities with those offering enhanced APPEs that incorporate pharmaceutical care activities.
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Explaining the effect of education on health: a field study in Ghana.
Psychol Sci
PUBLISHED: 08-25-2010
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Higher education (or more years of formal schooling) is widely associated with better health, but the underlying causes of this association are unclear. In this study, we tested our schooling-decision-making model, which posits that formal education fosters intellectual ability, which in turn provides individuals with enduring competencies to support better health-related behaviors. Using data from a field study on formal education in 181 adults in rural Ghana, we examined health-protective behaviors related to HIV/AIDS infection, a critical health issue in Ghana. As expected, individuals with more education practiced more protective health behaviors. Our structural equation modeling analysis showed that cognitive abilities, numeracy, and decision-making abilities increased with exposure to schooling, and that these enhanced abilities (and not HIV/AIDS knowledge) mediated the effects of education on health-protective behavior. Research and policy implications for HIV prevention efforts in sub-Saharan Africa are discussed.
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A randomized, controlled trial of early versus late initiation of dialysis.
N. Engl. J. Med.
PUBLISHED: 06-29-2010
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In clinical practice, there is considerable variation in the timing of the initiation of maintenance dialysis for patients with stage V chronic kidney disease, with a worldwide trend toward early initiation. In this study, conducted at 32 centers in Australia and New Zealand, we examined whether the timing of the initiation of maintenance dialysis influenced survival among patients with chronic kidney disease.
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An academy of surgical educators: sustaining education--enhancing innovation and scholarship.
ANZ J Surg
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2010
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The aims of surgical education, training and professional development programmes are to ensure surgeons will provide high quality health care throughout their professional lives. Development and delivery of these programmes requires a mixture of surgeons with a different but complimentary range of competencies in medical education, all eager to facilitate learning and support educational scholarship.
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Copper, endoproteolytic processing of the prion protein and cell signalling.
Front Biosci (Landmark Ed)
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2010
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Recently, understanding of many molecular interactions has progressed appreciably and cellular events once thought to be by-products of more important reactions or to be detrimental to cellular function are now known to be part of complex interactions of the cell with its environment. Numerous proteins can elicit differing effects depending upon post-translational modification events such as complex glycosylation and endoproteolytic cleavage or through binding co-factors including metal ions; the prion protein (PrP) is likely one such example. Its absolute requirement for pathogenesis has made the function of PrP an area of intense study but with apparently inconsistent results. This may, in part, stem from the ability of PrP to undergo different modifications to varying extents depending upon precise cellular circumstances. Specific modifications may promote altered association with binding partners resulting in apparent promiscuity of PrP interactions and activation of different signalling pathways, producing the diversity of functions suggested for this protein. This review discusses how modification of PrP by internal cleavage and metal ion co-ordination might influence, or be influenced by, signal transduction cascades. 2.
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Migration and proliferation of human mesenchymal stem cells is stimulated by different regions of the mechano-growth factor prohormone.
J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2010
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Stem cell function is thought to be tightly regulated by growth factor concentration in the confines of the microenvironmental niche. Therefore, the response of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) was studied in culture with mechano-growth factor (MGF), an isoform of IGF-1 known to be expressed in the heart following injury. Chemotactic migration of hMSCs increased in response to a peptide analog corresponding to the E-domain region of the MGF prohormone, which was greater than the IGF-1 polypeptide after 20 h of culture. Compared to control without growth factor, migration was significantly less with a scrambled peptide (p=0.025) or a peptide harboring a serine to alanine substitution near the carboxy end (p=0.002). The IGF-1 polypeptide increased proliferation of small (5-9 ?m) but not large (>13 ?m) hMSCs, whereas the E-domain peptide (MGF-E) had no effect on proliferation. Thus, there are complex biological responses of hMSCs to the prehormone of IGF with respect to migration and proliferation. Since neonatal myocytes but not hMSCs express MGF when strained cyclically at 20%, overloading of the heart may trigger immigration of stem cells. It seems possible that regions of the IGF prohormone may act differentially, or in a combinatorial manner, to benefit cardiac tissue recovery after injury.
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A community-based model of care improves blood pressure control and delays progression of proteinuria, left ventricular hypertrophy and diastolic dysfunction in Maori and Pacific patients with type 2 diabetes and chronic kidney disease: a randomized contr
Nephrol. Dial. Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 04-06-2010
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In this study, our main goal was to determine whether an integrated, community-based model of care using culturally appropriate health-care assistants to manage hypertension in M?ori and Pacific patients with diabetes and chronic kidney disease (CKD) is more effective than conventional care in achieving blood pressure (BP) targets and delaying progression of cardiac and renal end-organ damage.
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Prognostic factors for delivery in patients undergoing repeated preimplantation genetic aneuploidy screening.
Fertil. Steril.
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2010
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We performed a retrospective analysis of patients who had a first failed preimplantation genetic aneuploidy screening (PGS) cycle. At least one euploid embryo was found in 64% of the patients who had no euploid embryos available on their first PGS cycle. A previous failed treatment because of lack of euploid embryos does not contraindicate a further assisted reproductive cycle.
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Cross-border reproductive care: now and into the future.
Fertil. Steril.
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2010
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To introduce the key discussion points from the first International Forum on Cross-Border Reproductive Care (CBRC).
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Clomiphene citrate for unexplained subfertility in women.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2010
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The effectiveness of clomiphene citrate has been demonstrated in the treatment of subfertility associated with infrequent or irregular ovulation. The physiologic effects and clinical benefits in ovulatory women with unexplained subfertility are less clear. The drug is associated with an increased risk of multiple pregnancy and a suggestion of potentially increased ovarian cancer risks. In light of these concerns, defining the effectiveness of clomiphene citrate for ovulatory women with unexplained subfertility is extremely important.
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FRT-seq: amplification-free, strand-specific transcriptome sequencing.
Nat. Methods
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2010
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We report an alternative approach to transcriptome sequencing for the Illumina Genome Analyzer, in which the reverse transcription reaction takes place on the flowcell. No amplification is performed during the library preparation, so PCR biases and duplicates are avoided, and because the template is poly(A)(+) RNA rather than cDNA, the resulting sequences are necessarily strand-specific. The method is compatible with paired- or single-end sequencing.
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What next for preimplantation genetic screening? A polar body approach!
Hum. Reprod.
PUBLISHED: 12-23-2009
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Screening of human preimplantation embryos for numerical chromosome abnormalities has been conducted mostly at the preimplantation stage using fluorescence in situ hybridization. However, it is clear that preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) as it is currently practiced does not improve live birth rates. Therefore the ESHRE PGS Task Force has decided to start a proof of principle study with the aim of determining whether biopsy of the first and second polar body followed by subsequent analysis of the complete chromosome complement of these polar bodies using an array based technique enables a timely identification of the chromosomal status of an oocyte. If the principle of this approach can be proven, it is obvious that a multicentre randomized controlled trial should then be started to determine the clinical value of this technique. In this way the ESHRE PGS Task Force hopes to redirect preimplantation screening from the blind alley to the main road of assisted reproduction.
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Opioids for the management of severe chronic nonmalignant pain in children: a retrospective 1-year practice survey in a childrens hospital.
Pain Med
PUBLISHED: 12-09-2009
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This study reviewed opioid prescription for chronic severe nonmalignant pain in a multidisciplinary pediatric pain clinic. We looked at benefits and side effects of therapy, and compared our process of opioid prescription with the practice guidelines defined in adult literature.
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Mantle shear-wave velocity structure beneath the Hawaiian hot spot.
Science
PUBLISHED: 12-08-2009
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Defining the mantle structure that lies beneath hot spots is important for revealing their depth of origin. Three-dimensional images of shear-wave velocity beneath the Hawaiian Islands, obtained from a network of sea-floor and land seismometers, show an upper-mantle low-velocity anomaly that is elongated in the direction of the island chain and surrounded by a parabola-shaped high-velocity anomaly. Low velocities continue downward to the mantle transition zone between 410 and 660 kilometers depth, a result that is in agreement with prior observations of transition-zone thinning. The inclusion of SKS observations extends the resolution downward to a depth of 1500 kilometers and reveals a several-hundred-kilometer-wide region of low velocities beneath and southeast of Hawaii. These images suggest that the Hawaiian hot spot is the result of an upwelling high-temperature plume from the lower mantle.
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Fatal human herpesvirus-6 infection after renal transplantation.
Transplantation
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2009
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Human herpesvirus (HHV)-6 infection is common after organ transplantation; however, most cases are associated with a mild clinical course. Donor-derived infection is rare, and there are no reports of HHV-6 infection in more than one recipient from a common donor.
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Validation of a survey instrument to evaluate students learning during community-based advanced pharmacy practice experiences.
Am J Pharm Educ
PUBLISHED: 11-04-2009
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To develop and validate a preceptor/student self-report survey instrument to distinguish between different advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) models based on pharmaceutical care competencies.
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Developing anchored measures of patient satisfaction with pharmaceutical care delivery: Experiences versus expectations.
Patient Prefer Adherence
PUBLISHED: 11-03-2009
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A pilot study was undertaken to evaluate patients satisfaction with pharmaceutical care (PC) activities delivered at community pharmacies. The objectives of the study were to: (1) operationalize patient satisfaction in terms of the advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) PC activities, (2) conduct psychometric analysis of the satisfaction instrument, and (3) assess the sensitivity of the instrument to detect any differences that may exist between what patients expect to receive versus what is actually experienced.
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Switch recombination and somatic hypermutation are controlled by the heavy chain 3 enhancer region.
J. Exp. Med.
PUBLISHED: 11-02-2009
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Both class switch recombination (CSR) and somatic hypermutation (SHM) require transcription and the trans-acting factor activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), and must be up-regulated during antigen-dependent differentiation of B lymphocytes. To test the role of the heavy chain 3 enhancers in both CSR and SHM, we used a BAC transgene of the entire heavy chain constant region locus. Using Cre-loxP recombination to delete a 28-kb region that contains the four known 3 heavy chain enhancers, we isolated lines of BAC transgenic mice with an intact heavy chain locus and paired lines in the same chromosomal insertion site lacking the 3 enhancers. Intact heavy chain transgenes undergo CSR to all heavy chain genes and mutate their transgenic VDJ exon. In paired transgenes lacking the 3 enhancer region, CSR to most heavy chain genes is reduced to approximately 1% of the levels for intact heavy chain loci; SHM is also reduced. Finally, we find that in B cells with a transgene lacking the 3 enhancers, interchromosomal recombination between the transgenic VDJ exon and the endogenous heavy chain C genes is more easily detected than CSR within the transgene.
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Is adjuvant chemotherapy of benefit for postmenopausal women who receive endocrine treatment for highly endocrine-responsive, node-positive breast cancer? International Breast Cancer Study Group Trials VII and 12-93.
Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2009
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To compare the efficacy of chemoendocrine treatment with that of endocrine treatment (ET) alone for postmenopausal women with highly endocrine responsive breast cancer. In the International Breast Cancer Study Group (IBCSG) Trials VII and 12-93, postmenopausal women with node-positive, estrogen receptor (ER)-positive or ER-negative, operable breast cancer were randomized to receive either chemotherapy or endocrine therapy or combined chemoendocrine treatment. Results were analyzed overall in the cohort of 893 patients with endocrine-responsive disease, and according to prospectively defined categories of ER, age and nodal status. STEPP analyses assessed chemotherapy effect. The median follow-up was 13 years. Adding chemotherapy reduced the relative risk of a disease-free survival event by 19% (P = 0.02) compared with ET alone. STEPP analyses showed little effect of chemotherapy for tumors with high levels of ER expression (P = 0.07), or for the cohort with one positive node (P = 0.03). Chemotherapy significantly improves disease-free survival for postmenopausal women with endocrine-responsive breast cancer, but the magnitude of the effect is substantially attenuated if ER levels are high.
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Effect of advanced aftertreatment for PM and NO(x) control on heavy-duty diesel truck emissions.
Environ. Sci. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 09-08-2009
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Emissions from four heavy-duty and medium-duty diesel vehicles were tested in six different aftertreatment configurations using a chassis dynamometer. The aftertreatment included four different diesel particle filters (DPF) and two prototype selective catalytic reduction (SCR) devices for NO(x) control. The goal of the project was to fully characterize emissions from various in-use vehicles meeting the 2007 particulate matter (PM) standard for the United States and California and to provide a snapshot of emissions from 2010 compliant vehicles. The aftertreatment devices all worked as designed, realizing significant reductions of PM and NO(x). The DPF realized > 95% PM reductions irrespective of cycle and the SCRs > 75% NO(x) reductions during cruise and transient modes, but no NO(x) reductions during idle. Because of the large test matrix of vehicles and aftertreatment devices, we were able to characterize effects on additional emission species (CO, organics, and nucleation mode particles) from these devices as a function of their individual characteristics. The two predicting parameters were found to be exhaust temperature and available catalytic surface in the aftertreatment, which combine to create varying degrees of oxidizing conditions. The aftertreatments were not found to incur a fuel penalty.
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Cumulative delivery rates in different age groups after artificial insemination with donor sperm.
Hum. Reprod.
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2009
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Although the age-effect on in vitro fertilization outcomes has been well documented, data on donor insemination are scarce hampering accurate patient counseling. This cohort study therefore aims at analyzing cumulative delivery rates after donor insemination for various indications.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.