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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Identification of a common molecular pathway in hypertensive renal damage: comparison of rat and human gene expression profiles.
J. Hypertens.
PUBLISHED: 11-08-2014
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There is a common structural progression in hypertensive renal damage with early arterial damage and fibrosis in the juxtamedullary cortex.
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Predictive power of UKCAT and other pre-admission measures for performance in a medical school in Glasgow: a cohort study.
BMC Med Educ
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2014
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The UK Clinical Aptitude Test (UKCAT) and its four subtests are currently used by 24 Medical and Dental Schools in the UK for admissions. This longitudinal study examines the predictive validity of UKCAT for final performance in the undergraduate medical degree programme at one Medical School and compares this with the predictive validity of the selection measures available pre-UKCAT.
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Comprehensive dobutamine stress CMR versus echocardiography in LBBB and suspected coronary artery disease.
JACC Cardiovasc Imaging
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2014
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This study aimed to compare dobutamine stress cardiac magnetic resonance (DSCMR) with dobutamine stress echocardiography (DSE) in patients with left bundle branch block (LBBB) and suspected coronary artery disease (CAD).
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MicroRNA-214 Antagonism Protects against Renal Fibrosis.
J. Am. Soc. Nephrol.
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2013
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Renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis is the common end point of progressive renal disease. MicroRNA (miR)-214 and miR-21 are upregulated in models of renal injury, but the function of miR-214 in this setting and the effect of its manipulation remain unknown. We assessed the effect of inhibiting miR-214 in an animal model of renal fibrosis. In mice, genetic deletion of miR-214 significantly attenuated interstitial fibrosis induced by unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO). Treatment of wild-type mice with an anti-miR directed against miR-214 (anti-miR-214) before UUO resulted in similar antifibrotic effects, and in vivo biodistribution studies demonstrated that anti-miR-214 accumulated at the highest levels in the kidney. Notably, in vivo inhibition of canonical TGF-? signaling did not alter the regulation of endogenous miR-214 or miR-21. Whereas miR-21 antagonism blocked Smad 2/3 activation, miR-214 antagonism did not, suggesting that miR-214 induces antifibrotic effects independent of Smad 2/3. Furthermore, TGF-? blockade combined with miR-214 deletion afforded additional renal protection. These phenotypic effects of miR-214 depletion were mediated through broad regulation of the transcriptional response to injury, as evidenced by microarray analysis. In human kidney tissue, miR-214 was detected in cells of the glomerulus and tubules as well as in infiltrating immune cells in diseased tissue. These studies demonstrate that miR-214 functions to promote fibrosis in renal injury independent of TGF-? signaling in vivo and that antagonism of miR-214 may represent a novel antifibrotic treatment in the kidney.
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Vasodilatory capacity of the coronary microcirculation is preserved in selected patients with non-ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction.
Circ Cardiovasc Interv
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2013
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The use of fractional flow reserve in patients with non-ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) is a controversial issue. We undertook a study to assess the vasodilatory capacity of the coronary microcirculation in patients with NSTEMI when compared with a model of preserved microcirculation (stable angina [SA] cohort: culprit and nonculprit vessel) and acute microcirculatory dysfunction (ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction [STEMI] cohort). We hypothesized that the vasodilatory response of the microcirculation would be preserved in NSTEMI.
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Interaction between chromosome 2 and 3 regulates pulse pressure in the stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rat.
Hypertension
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2013
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In an F2 cross between stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive (SHRSP) and Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats, we previously identified blood pressure quantitative trait loci (QTL) on rat chromosome (RNO) 2 and a pulse pressure QTL on RNO3. The aims of this study were to confirm the QTL on RNO3 and to investigate interaction between RNO2 and RNO3 loci through the generation and phenotypic assessment of single RNO3 congenic (SP.WKY(Gla)3a) and bicongenic (SP.WKY(Gla)2a/3a) strains. Hemodynamic profiling, vascular function, and renal histology were examined in these newly generated strains along with the previously reported RNO2 congenic strain (SP.WKY(Gla)2a). Our results demonstrate significant equivalent reduction in systolic, diastolic, and pulse pressure phenotypes in SP.WKY(Gla)3a and SP.WKY(Gla)2a rats, whereas greater reductions were observed with the SP.WKY(Gla)2a/3a bicongenic strain achieving blood pressure levels similar to normotensive WKY rats. Epistasis was observed between pulse pressure QTL on RNO2 and 3 at baseline and during 1% salt challenge. Vascular function and renal pathology studies indicate that QTL on RNO3 are responsible for salt-induced kidney pathology, whereas QTL on RNO2 seem to have greater impact on vascular function. RNO3 congenic and bicongenic strains have confirmed the importance of SHRSP alleles in the RNO3 congenic interval on pulse pressure variability and end-organ damage. These strains will allow interrogation of complex gene-gene and gene-environment interactions contributing to salt-sensitive hypertension and renal pathology in the SHRSP rat.
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Combined antiapoptotic and antioxidant approach to acute neuroprotection for stroke in hypertensive rats.
J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab.
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2013
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We hypothesized that targeting key points in the ischemic cascade with combined neuroglobin (Ngb) overexpression and c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibition (SP600125) would offer greater neuroprotection than single treatment after in vitro hypoxia/reoxygenation and in a randomized, blinded in vivo experimental stroke study using a clinically relevant rat strain. Male spontaneously hypertensive stroke-prone rats underwent transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) and were divided into the following groups: tMCAO; tMCAO+control GFP-expressing canine adenovirus-2, CAVGFP; tMCAO+Ngb-expressing CAV-2, CAVNgb; tMCAO+SP600125; tMCAO+CAVNgb+SP600125; or sham procedure. Rats were assessed till day 14 for neurologic outcome before infarct determination. In vitro, combined lentivirus-mediated Ngb overexpression+SP600125 significantly reduced oxidative stress and apoptosis compared with single treatment(s) after hypoxia/reoxygenation in B50 cells. In vivo, infarct volume was significantly reduced by CAVNgb, SP600125, and further by CAVNgb+SP600125. The number of Ngb-positive cells in the peri-infarct cortex and striatum was significantly increased 14 days after tMCAO in animals receiving CAVNgb. Neurologic outcome, measured using a 32-point neurologic score, significantly improved with CAVNgb+SP600125 compared with single treatments at 14 days after tMCAO. Combined Ngb overexpression with JNK inhibition reduced hypoxia/reoxygenation-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in cultured neurons and reduced infarct and improved neurologic outcome more than single therapy after in vivo experimental stroke in hypertensive rats.
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miRNA-21 is dysregulated in response to vein grafting in multiple models and genetic ablation in mice attenuates neointima formation.
Eur. Heart J.
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2013
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The long-term failure of autologous saphenous vein bypass grafts due to neointimal thickening is a major clinical burden. Identifying novel strategies to prevent neointimal thickening is important. Thus, this study aimed to identify microRNAs (miRNAs) that are dysregulated during neointimal formation and determine their pathophysiological relevance following miRNA manipulation.
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Attributions about persons with brain injury: the effects of knowledge and familiarity about brain injury.
Brain Inj
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2013
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To determine how visible markers of brain injury interact with peoples knowledge about brain injury to influence peoples attributions for undesirable behaviours of a person with brain injury. RESEARCH DESIGN, METHOD AND PROCEDURES: Scenarios in Experiment 1 (n?=?98) and Experiment 2 (n?=?148) described an adolescent pictured with or without a head scar, who showed four behavioural changes. Participants rated two causal attributions for each behaviour: brain injury and adolescence. Experiment 1 varied information that the adolescent had a brain injury and Experiment 2 assessed participants familiarity with brain injury.
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Profiling of transcriptional and epigenetic changes during directed endothelial differentiation of human embryonic stem cells identifies FOXA2 as a marker of early mesoderm commitment.
Stem Cell Res Ther
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2013
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INTRODUCTION: Differentiation of vascular endothelial cells (ECs) in clinically relevant numbers for injection into ischaemic areas could offer therapeutic potential in the treatment of cardiovascular conditions, including myocardial infarction, peripheral vascular disease and stroke. While we and others have demonstrated successful generation of functional endothelial-like cells from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), little is understood regarding the complex transcriptional and epigenetic changes that occur during differentiation, in particular during early commitment to a mesodermal lineage. METHODS: We performed the first gene expression microarray study of hESCs undergoing directed differentiation to ECs using a monolayer-based, feeder-free and serum-free protocol. Microarray results were confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR and immunocytochemistry, and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP)-PCR analysis was utilised to determine the bivalent status of differentially expressed genes. RESULTS: We identified 22 transcription factors specific to early mesoderm commitment. Among these factors, FOXA2 was observed to be the most significantly differentially expressed at the hESC-EC day 2 timepoint. ChIP-PCR analysis revealed that the FOXA2 transcription start site is bivalently marked with histone modifications for both gene activation (H3K4me3) and repression (H3K27me3) in hESCs, suggesting the transcription factor may be a key regulator of hESC differentiation. CONCLUSION: This enhanced knowledge of the lineage commitment process will help improve the design of directed differentiation protocols, increasing the yield of endothelial-like cells for regenerative medicine therapies in cardiovascular disease.
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VERIFY (VERification of Instantaneous Wave-Free Ratio and Fractional Flow Reserve for the Assessment of Coronary Artery Stenosis Severity in EverydaY Practice): a multicenter study in consecutive patients.
J. Am. Coll. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2013
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This study sought to compare fractional flow reserve (FFR) with the instantaneous wave-free ratio (iFR) in patients with coronary artery disease and also to determine whether the iFR is independent of hyperemia.
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Haemoglobin mass and running time trial performance after recombinant human erythropoietin administration in trained men.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2013
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Recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEpo) increases haemoglobin mass (Hb(mass)) and maximal oxygen uptake (v O(2 max)).
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Functional duality of astrocytes in myelination.
J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2011
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Astrocytes undergo major phenotypic changes in response to injury and disease that directly influence repair in the CNS, but the mechanisms involved are poorly understood. Previously, we have shown that neurosphere-derived rat astrocytes plated on poly-L-lysine (PLL-astrocytes) support myelination in dissociated rat spinal cord cultures (myelinating cultures). It is hypothesized that astrocyte reactivity can affect myelination, so we have exploited this culture system to ascertain how two distinct astrocyte phenotypes influence myelination. Astrocytes plated on tenascin C (TnC-astrocytes), a method to induce quiescence, resulted in less myelinated fibers in the myelinating cultures when compared with PLL-astrocytes. In contrast, treatment of myelinating cultures plated on PLL-astrocytes with ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), a cytokine known to induce an activated astrocyte phenotype, promoted myelination. CNTF could also reverse the effect of quiescent astrocytes on myelination. A combination of microarray gene expression analysis and quantitative real-time PCR identified CXCL10 as a potential candidate for the reduction in myelination in cultures on TnC-astrocytes. The effect of TnC-astrocytes on myelination was eliminated by neutralizing CXCL10 antibodies. Conversely, CXCL10 protein inhibited myelination on PLL-astrocytes. Furthermore, CXCL10 treatment of purified oligodendrocyte precursor cells did not affect proliferation, differentiation, or process extension compared with untreated controls, suggesting a role in glial/axonal ensheathment. These data demonstrate a direct correlation of astrocyte phenotypes with their ability to support myelination. This observation has important implications with respect to the development of therapeutic strategies to promote CNS remyelination in demyelinating diseases.
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Attributions and expectations for the behavior of persons with brain injury: the effect of visibility of injury.
J Head Trauma Rehabil
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2011
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To determine whether visible markers of brain injury shape peoples causal attributions for the behaviors of the person with the injury and their expectations that those behaviors will persist for 5 years.
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The role of causal attributions in public misconceptions about brain injury.
Rehabil Psychol
PUBLISHED: 05-18-2011
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Social psychological theories such as attribution theory have been applied to conditions such as depression and physical disability, but not to traumatic brain injury (TBI). The goal of this paper is to show that that attribution theory and related concepts help to explain the publics misconceptions about TBI and other challenges faced by clinicians and families of persons with TBI.
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miR-21 and miR-214 are consistently modulated during renal injury in rodent models.
Am. J. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2011
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Transforming growth factor (TGF)-? is one of the main fibrogenic cytokines that drives the pathophysiology of progressive renal scarring. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous non-coding RNAs that post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression. We examined the role of TGF-?-induced expression of miR-21, miRNAs in cell culture models and miRNA expression in relevant models of renal disease. In vitro, TGF-? changed expression of miR-21, miR-214, and miR-145 in rat mesangial cells (CRL-2753) and miR-214, miR-21, miR-30c, miR-200b, and miR-200c during induction of epithelial-mesenchymal transition in rat tubular epithelial cells (NRK52E). miR-214 expression was robustly modulated in both cell types, whereas in tubular epithelial cells miR-21 was increased and miR-200b and miR-200c were decreased by 58% and 48%, respectively, in response to TGF-?. TGF-? receptor-1 was found to be a target of miR-200b/c and was down-regulated after overexpression of miR-200c. To assess the differential expression of these miRNAs in vivo, we used the anti-Thy1.1 mesangial glomerulonephritis model and the unilateral ureteral obstruction model in which TGF-? plays a role and also a genetic model of hypertension, the stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rat with and without salt loading. The expressions of miR-214 and miR-21 were significantly increased in all in vivo models, showing a possible miRNA signature of renal damage despite differing causes.
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Bright-blood T2-weighted MRI has higher diagnostic accuracy than dark-blood short tau inversion recovery MRI for detection of acute myocardial infarction and for assessment of the ischemic area at risk and myocardial salvage.
Circ Cardiovasc Imaging
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2011
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T2-Weighted MRI reveals myocardial edema and enables estimation of the ischemic area at risk and myocardial salvage in patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI). We compared the diagnostic accuracy of a new bright-blood T2-weighted with a standard black blood T2-weighted MRI in patients with acute MI.
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Saving Mothers Lives: Reviewing maternal deaths to make motherhood safer: 2006-2008. The Eighth Report of the Confidential Enquiries into Maternal Deaths in the United Kingdom.
BJOG
PUBLISHED: 03-02-2011
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In the triennium 2006-2008, 261 women in the UK died directly or indirectly related to pregnancy. The overall maternal mortality rate was 11.39 per 100,000 maternities. Direct deaths decreased from 6.24 per 100,000 maternities in 2003-2005 to 4.67 per 100,000 maternities in 2006–2008 (p = 0.02). This decline is predominantly due to the reduction in deaths from thromboembolism and, to a lesser extent, haemorrhage. For the first time there has been a reduction in the inequalities gap, with a significant decrease in maternal mortality rates among those living in the most deprived areas and those in the lowest socio-economic group. Despite a decline in the overall UK maternal mortality rate, there has been an increase in deaths related to genital tract sepsis, particularly from community acquired Group A streptococcal disease. The mortality rate related to sepsis increased from 0.85 deaths per 100,000 maternities in 2003-2005 to 1.13 deaths in 2006-2008, and sepsis is now the most common cause of Direct maternal death. Cardiac disease is the most common cause of Indirect death; the Indirect maternal mortality rate has not changed significantly since 2003-2005. This Confidential Enquiry identified substandard care in 70% of Direct deaths and 55% of Indirect deaths. Many of the identified avoidable factors remain the same as those identified in previous Enquiries. Recommendations for improving care have been developed and are highlighted in this report. Implementing the Top ten recommendations should be prioritised in order to ensure the overall UK maternal mortality rate continues to decline.
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Deceased donor transplantation in the elderly--are we creating false hope?
Nephrol. Dial. Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2011
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Increasing numbers of older patients are developing established renal failure and considering kidney transplant as a renal replacement therapy (RRT) option. The probability of older patients actually receiving a deceased donor kidney transplant is unclear, preventing informed choice about pursuing the option of transplantation. We sought to analyse our RRT population to determine the probability of receiving a deceased donor kidney transplant in patients commencing RRT categorized by age and for whom there was no suitable living kidney donor.
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Serotonin transporter, sex, and hypoxia: microarray analysis in the pulmonary arteries of mice identifies genes with relevance to human PAH.
Physiol. Genomics
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2011
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Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is up to threefold more prevalent in women than men. Female mice overexpressing the serotonin transporter (SERT; SERT+ mice) exhibit PAH and exaggerated hypoxia-induced PAH, whereas male SERT+ mice remain unaffected. To further investigate these sex differences, microarray analysis was performed in the pulmonary arteries of normoxic and chronically hypoxic female and male SERT+ mice. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis was employed for validation of the microarray data. In relevant groups, immunoblotting was performed for genes of interest (CEBP?, CYP1B1, and FOS). To translate clinical relevance to our findings, CEBP?, CYP1B1, and FOS mRNA and protein expression was assessed in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) derived from idiopathic PAH (IPAH) patients and controls. In female SERT+ mice, multiple pathways with relevance to PAH were altered. This was also observed in chronically hypoxic female SERT+ mice. We selected 10 genes of interest for qRT-PCR analysis (FOS, CEBP?, CYP1B1, MYL3, HAMP2, LTF, PLN, NPPA, UCP1, and C1S), and 100% concordance was reported. Protein expression of three selected genes, CEBP?, CYP1B1, FOS, was also upregulated in female SERT+ mice. Serotonin and 17?-estradiol increased CEBP?, CYP1B1, and FOS protein expression in PASMCs. In addition, CEBP?, CYP1B1, and FOS mRNA and protein expression was also increased in PASMCs derived from IPAH patients. Here, we have identified a number of genes that may predispose female SERT+ mice to PAH, and these findings may also be relevant to human PAH.
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Predictive response-relevant clustering of expression data provides insights into disease processes.
Nucleic Acids Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-22-2010
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This article describes and illustrates a novel method of microarray data analysis that couples model-based clustering and binary classification to form clusters of `response-relevant genes; that is, genes that are informative when discriminating between the different values of the response. Predictions are subsequently made using an appropriate statistical summary of each gene cluster, which we call the `meta-covariate representation of the cluster, in a probit regression model. We first illustrate this method by analysing a leukaemia expression dataset, before focusing closely on the meta-covariate analysis of a renal gene expression dataset in a rat model of salt-sensitive hypertension. We explore the biological insights provided by our analysis of these data. In particular, we identify a highly influential cluster of 13 genes--including three transcription factors (Arntl, Bhlhe41 and Npas2)-that is implicated as being protective against hypertension in response to increased dietary sodium. Functional and canonical pathway analysis of this cluster using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis implicated transcriptional activation and circadian rhythm signalling, respectively. Although we illustrate our method using only expression data, the method is applicable to any high-dimensional datasets. Expression data are available at ArrayExpress (accession number E-MEXP-2514) and code is available at http://www.dcs.gla.ac.uk/inference/metacovariateanalysis/.
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Special issues in injury prevention research: developing the science of program implementation.
Injury
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2010
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Despite widespread application of the public health approach to injury prevention, there is an acknowledged limitation in the extent to which it facilitates translation of research evidence to injury prevention practice.
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Gene expression profiling in whole blood of patients with coronary artery disease.
Clin. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2010
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Owing to the dynamic nature of the transcriptome, gene expression profiling is a promising tool for discovery of disease-related genes and biological pathways. In the present study, we examined gene expression in whole blood of 12 patients with CAD (coronary artery disease) and 12 healthy control subjects. Furthermore, ten patients with CAD underwent whole-blood gene expression analysis before and after the completion of a cardiac rehabilitation programme following surgical coronary revascularization. mRNA and miRNA (microRNA) were isolated for expression profiling. Gene expression analysis identified 365 differentially expressed genes in patients with CAD compared with healthy controls (175 up- and 190 down-regulated in CAD), and 645 in CAD rehabilitation patients (196 up- and 449 down-regulated post-rehabilitation). Biological pathway analysis identified a number of canonical pathways, including oxidative phosphorylation and mitochondrial function, as being significantly and consistently modulated across the groups. Analysis of miRNA expression revealed a number of differentially expressed miRNAs, including hsa-miR-140-3p (control compared with CAD, P=0.017), hsa-miR-182 (control compared with CAD, P=0.093), hsa-miR-92a and hsa-miR-92b (post- compared with pre-exercise, P<0.01). Global analysis of predicted miRNA targets found significantly reduced expression of genes with target regions compared with those without: hsa-miR-140-3p (P=0.002), hsa-miR-182 (P=0.001), hsa-miR-92a and hsa-miR-92b (P=2.2x10-16). In conclusion, using whole blood as a surrogate tissue in patients with CAD, we have identified differentially expressed miRNAs, differentially regulated genes and modulated pathways which warrant further investigation in the setting of cardiovascular function. This approach may represent a novel non-invasive strategy to unravel potentially modifiable pathways and possible therapeutic targets in cardiovascular disease.
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Identification of alcohol involvement in injury-related hospitalisations using routine data compared to medical record review.
Aust N Z J Public Health
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2010
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To quantify the extent that alcohol related injuries are adequately identified in hospitalisation data using ICD-10-AM codes indicative of alcohol involvement.
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Dynamic changes in lung microRNA profiles during the development of pulmonary hypertension due to chronic hypoxia and monocrotaline.
Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2010
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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that have the capacity to control protein production through binding "seed" sequences within a target mRNA. Each miRNA is capable of potentially controlling hundreds of genes. The regulation of miRNAs in the lung during the development of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is unknown.
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The reliability of information on work-related injuries available from hospitalisation data in Australia.
Aust N Z J Public Health
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2009
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To examine the reliability of work-related activity coding for injury-related hospitalisations in Australia.
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Secondary student motivation orientations and standards-based achievement outcomes.
Br J Educ Psychol
PUBLISHED: 07-14-2009
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Individual student characteristics such as competence motivation, achievement values, and goal orientations have been related in meaningful ways to task attainment. The standards-based National Certificate of Educational Achievement (NCEA) was developed in New Zealand with the intention of strengthening connections between student learning behaviours and achievement outcomes.
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Appraisals of intentional actions from three perspectives: Do they relate to paranoia.
Cogn Neuropsychiatry
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2009
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People often show a bias of attributing their own actions to more positive causes (e.g., generosity) than other persons actions. Models of paranoia suggest links between paranoia and negative construals of others intentions. Research on these biases has focused on causal attributions from two explainer perspectives, the agent (the person performing the action) and the object (the person being acted on), and has omitted the observer (third person) perspective.
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The use of narrative text for injury surveillance research: a systematic review.
Accid Anal Prev
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2009
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To summarise the extent to which narrative text fields in administrative health data are used to gather information about the event resulting in presentation to a health care provider for treatment of an injury, and to highlight best practise approaches to conducting narrative text interrogation for injury surveillance purposes.
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B-type natriuretic peptide predicts postoperative cardiac events and mortality after elective open abdominal aortic aneurysm repair.
J. Vasc. Surg.
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The aim of this study was to determine if a single preoperative B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) level correlated with perioperative cardiac events, cardiac death, and all-cause mortality in elective open abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair in the short term, intermediate term, and long term.
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Demonstration of blood pressure-independent noninfarct myocardial fibrosis in primary aldosteronism: a cardiac magnetic resonance imaging study.
Circ Cardiovasc Imaging
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Primary aldosteronism (PA) is common and associates with excess cardiovascular morbidity independent of blood pressure. Exposure to aldosterone and sodium leads to cardiac fibrosis and hypertrophy in humans and animals possibly mediated by inflammation and oxidative stress. We aimed to clarify the effects of aldosterone excess on myocardial structure and composition in human subjects with PA and essential hypertension using contrast-enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance imaging as well as explore the mechanistic basis for any observed differences.
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Positive impact of pre-stroke surgery on survival following transient focal ischemia in hypertensive rats.
J. Neurosci. Methods
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We describe a positive influence of pre-stroke surgery on recovery and survival in a commonly used experimental stroke model. Two groups of male, stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSPs) underwent transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO). Group 1 underwent the procedure without any prior intervention whilst group 2 had an additional general anaesthetic 6 days prior to tMCAO for a cranial burrhole and durotomy. Post-stroke recovery was assessed using a 32 point neurological deficit score and tapered beam walk and infarct volume determined from haematoxylin-eosin stained sections. In group 2 survival was 92% (n=12) versus 67% in group 1 (n=18). In addition, post-tMCAO associated weight loss was significantly reduced in group 2. There was no significant difference between the two groups in experimental outcomes: infarct volume (Group 1 317±18.6 mm³ versus Group 2 332±20.4 mm³), and serial (day 0-14 post-tMCAO) neurological deficit scores and tapered-beam walk test. Drilling a cranial burrhole under general anaesthesia prior to tMCAO in SHRSP reduced mortality and gave rise to infarct volumes and neurological deficits similar to those recorded in surviving Group 1 animals. This methodological refinement has significant implications for animal welfare and group sizes required for intervention studies.
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Activity of the estrogen-metabolizing enzyme cytochrome P450 1B1 influences the development of pulmonary arterial hypertension.
Circulation
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Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a hyperproliferative vascular disorder observed predominantly in women. Estrogen is a potent mitogen in human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells and contributes to PAH in vivo; however, the mechanisms attributed to this causation remain obscure. Curiously, heightened expression of the estrogen-metabolizing enzyme cytochrome P450 1B1 (CYP1B1) is reported in idiopathic PAH and murine models of PAH.
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Hematocrit predicts long-term mortality in a nonlinear and sex-specific manner in hypertensive adults.
Hypertension
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Hematocrit has been inconsistently reported to be a risk marker of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The Glasgow Blood Pressure Clinic Study cohort included 10951 hypertensive patients, who had hematocrit measured at their initial clinic visit and followed for ?35 years. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios for all-cause, cardiovascular, ischemic heart disease, stroke, and noncardiovascular mortality. There were 3484 deaths over a follow-up period of 173245 person-years. Hematocrit was higher in men (median, 0.44; interquartile range, 0.42-0.47) than in women (median, 0.41; interquartile range, 0.38-0.43). The lowest risk for all-cause mortality was seen in quartile 2 for men (range, 0.421-0.440) and women (range, 0.381-0.400). Compared with quartile 2, the adjusted hazard ratios for quartiles 1, 3, and 4 were, respectively, 1.11 (range, 0.97-1.28), 1.19 (range, 1.04-1.37), and 1.22 (range, 1.06-1.39) in men and 1.17 (range, 1.01-1.36), 0.97 (range, 0.83-1.13), and 1.19 (range, 1.04-1.37) in women. Men showed a J-shaped pattern for cardiovascular mortality and a linear pattern for noncardiovascular mortality in cause-specific analysis, whereas in women a U-shaped pattern was observed for noncardiovascular mortality only. Higher baseline hematocrit was associated with higher on-treatment blood pressure during follow-up. Baseline hematocrit did not affect the time to reach target blood pressure. The increased risk of death attributed to higher hematocrit was seen in men and women irrespective of their achievement of target blood pressure, indicating that the risk is independent of the effect of hematocrit on blood pressure. Hypertensive patients with hematocrit levels outside of the sex-specific reference ranges identified in this study should be targeted for more aggressive blood pressure and cardiovascular risk reduction treatment.
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A role for miR-145 in pulmonary arterial hypertension: evidence from mouse models and patient samples.
Circ. Res.
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Despite improved understanding of the underlying genetics, pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) remains a severe disease. Extensive remodeling of small pulmonary arteries, including proliferation of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs), characterizes PAH. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are noncoding RNAs that have been shown to play a role in vascular remodeling. Objective: We assessed the role of miR-145 in PAH.
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Entrapped intralesional marrow: a hitherto undescribed imaging feature of benign notochordal cell tumour.
Skeletal Radiol.
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We report two cases of histologically proven benign notochordal cell tumour (BNCT) with imaging evidence of entrapped intralesional marrow and discuss the relevance of previously undescribed imaging feature.
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Role of microRNAs 99b, 181a, and 181b in the differentiation of human embryonic stem cells to vascular endothelial cells.
Stem Cells
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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short noncoding RNAs, which post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression. miRNAs are transcribed as precursors and matured to active forms by a series of enzymes, including Dicer. miRNAs are important in governing cell differentiation, development, and disease. We have recently developed a feeder- and serum-free protocol for direct derivation of endothelial cells (ECs) from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and provided evidence of increases in angiogenesis-associated miRNAs (miR-126 and -210) during the process. However, the functional role of miRNAs in hESC differentiation to vascular EC remains to be fully interrogated. Here, we show that the reduction of miRNA maturation induced by Dicer knockdown suppressed hES-EC differentiation. A miRNA microarray was performed to quantify hES-EC miRNA profiles during defined stages of endothelial differentiation. miR-99b, -181a, and -181b were identified as increasing in a time- and differentiation-dependent manner to peak in mature hESC-ECs and adult ECs. Augmentation of miR-99b, -181a, and -181b levels by lentiviral-mediated transfer potentiated the mRNA and protein expression of EC-specific markers, Pecam1 and VE Cadherin, increased nitric oxide production, and improved hES-EC-induced therapeutic neovascularization in vivo. Conversely, knockdown did not impact endothelial differentiation. Our results suggest that miR-99b, -181a, and -181b comprise a component of an endothelial-miRNA signature and are capable of potentiating EC differentiation from pluripotent hESCs.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.