Salt sensitivity of arterial pressure (salt-sensitive hypertension) is a serious global health issue. The causes of salt-sensitive hypertension are extremely complex and mathematical models can elucidate potential mechanisms that are experimentally inaccessible. Until recently, the only mathematical model for long-term control of arterial pressure was the model of Guyton and Coleman; referred to as the G-C model. The core of this model is the assumption that sodium excretion is driven by renal perfusion pressure, the so-called 'renal function curve'. Thus, the G-C model dictates that all forms of hypertension are due to a primary shift of the renal function curve to a higher operating pressure. However, several recent experimental studies in a model of hypertension produced by the combination of a high salt intake and administration of angiotensin II, the AngII-salt model, are inconsistent with the G-C model. We developed a new mathematical model that does not limit the cause of salt-sensitive hypertension solely to primary renal dysfunction. The model is the first known mathematical counterexample to the assumption that all salt-sensitive forms of hypertension require a primary shift of renal function: we show that in at least one salt-sensitive form of hypertension the requirement is not necessary. We will refer to this computational model as the 'neurogenic model'. In this Symposium Review we discuss how, despite fundamental differences between the G-C model and the neurogenic model regarding mechanisms regulating sodium excretion and vascular resistance, they generate similar haemodynamic profiles of AngII-salt hypertension. In addition, the steady-state relationships between arterial pressure and sodium excretion, a correlation that is often erroneously presented as the 'renal function curve', are also similar in both models. Our findings suggest that salt-sensitive hypertension is not due solely to renal dysfunction, as predicted by the G-C model, but may also result from neurogenic dysfunction.
The aim of this study was to determine whether glutamic acid decarboxylase antibody (GADA) titer and other clinical parameters could define the risk of progression to insulin therapy in latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA) patients during a 7-year follow-up.
Angiotensin II (ANG II)-induced hypertension is a commonly studied model of experimental hypertension, particularly in rodents, and is often generated by subcutaneous delivery of ANG II using Alzet osmotic minipumps chronically implanted under the skin. We have observed that, in a subset of animals subjected to this protocol, mean arterial pressure (MAP) begins to decline gradually starting the second week of ANG II infusion, resulting in a blunting of the slow pressor response and reduced final MAP. We hypothesized that this variability in the slow pressor response to ANG II was mainly due to factors unique to Alzet pumps. To test this, we compared the pressure profile and changes in plasma ANG II levels during subcutaneous ANG II administration (150 ng·kg(-1)·min(-1)) using either Alzet minipumps, iPrecio implantable pumps, or a Harvard external infusion pump. At the end of 14 days of ANG II, MAP was highest in the iPrecio group (156 ± 3 mmHg) followed by Harvard (140 ± 3 mmHg) and Alzet (122 ± 3 mmHg) groups. The rate of the slow pressor response, measured as daily increases in pressure averaged over days 2-14 of ANG II, was similar between iPrecio and Harvard groups (2.7 ± 0.4 and 2.2 ± 0.4 mmHg/day) but was significantly blunted in the Alzet group (0.4 ± 0.4 mmHg/day) due to a gradual decline in MAP in a subset of rats. We also found differences in the temporal profile of plasma ANG II between infusion groups. We conclude that the gradual decline in MAP observed in a subset of rats during ANG II infusion using Alzet pumps is mainly due to pump-dependent factors when applied in this particular context.
Infections which complicate rheumatic diseases such as Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) and Spondyloarthropathy (SpA) (Psoriatic Arthritis [PA] and Ankylosing Spondylitis [AS]), may cause significant morbidity and mortality. However, among the studies on the incidence rate (IR) of infections in such patients, very few have involved controls and the results have been controversial, probably due to methodological difficulties.To estimate infection rates in RA and SpA patients under disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs), corticosteroids (CS) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)? antagonists, alone or combined, a single-centre retrospective observational cohort study has been performed.
Reoperation for positive margins after lumpectomy for breast cancer is common. Intraoperative analysis of frozen-section (FS) margins permits immediate re-excision, avoiding reoperation. The aim of this study was to compare reoperation rates between an institution using routine FS analysis of all margins and the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) data.
The combination of a proton pump inhibitor and two antibiotics (clarithromycin plus amoxicillin or metronidazole) has been the recommended first-line therapy since the first guidelines for Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection in children were published. In recent years, the success of eradication therapies has declined, in part due to the development of H. pylori resistant strains. Alternative anti-H. pylori treatments are currently becoming more popular than the traditional eradication methods. Components that may be used either as a monotherapy or, in combination with antimicrobials, resulting in a more effective anti-H. pylori therapy have been investigated in depth by several researchers. One of the potential therapies is probiotic cultures; promising results have been observed in initial studies with numerous probiotic strains. Nevertheless, many questions remain unanswered. In this article, we comprehensively review the possible mechanisms of action of probiotics on H. pylori infection, and present the results of published studies using probiotics as possible agents to control H. pylori infection in children. The effect of the addition of probiotics to the standard H. pylori eradication therapy for the prevention of antibiotic associated side-effects is also discussed.
Stellate ganglionectomy (SGx) was used to assess the contribution of cardiac sympathetic nerves to neurogenic hypertension in deoxycorticosterone (DOCA)-salt treated rats. Experiments were conducted in two substrains of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats since previous studies reported bradycardia in Charles River-SD (CR-SD) rats and tachycardia in SASCO-SD (SA-SD) rats with DOCA treatment suggesting different underlying neural mechanisms. Uninephrectomized male rats underwent SGx or SHAM surgery and were instrumented for telemetric monitoring of mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR). After recovery, 0.9% saline solution and DOCA (50mg) were administered. Baseline MAP (Days 0-5 average) after SGx in CR-SD rats (96±2mmHg; n=7) was not significantly different (p=0.08) than CR-SD SHAM rats (103±3mmHg; n=9); however, there was a significantly lower HR during the baseline period (377±7 vs. 432±7bpm, p<0.05) in SGx rats. In SA-SD rats baseline MAP was not different between SGx and SHAM rats and HR was lower in SGx rats (428±8 vs. 371±5bpm, p<0.05). After DOCA treatment in both substrains, MAP and HR were elevated similarly in SHAM and SGx groups showing minimal impact in both groups of SGx on hypertension development. However, overall MAP in SA-SD SHAM rats reached a significantly higher level (155±10mmHg vs 135±5mmHg, p<0.05) than that observed in CR-SD SHAM rats demonstrating that the magnitude of hypertensive response to DOCA-salt treatment varies between substrains. In conclusion, removal of cardiac sympathetic nerves did not alter the development or maintenance of DOCA-salt hypertension in SD rats.
Over the last two decades, the rise in the prevalence rates of overweight and obesity explains the emergence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) as the leading cause of chronic liver disease worldwide. As described in adults, children and adolescents with fatty liver display insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, and dyslipidemia. Thus NAFLD has emerged as the hepatic component of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and a strong cardiovascular risk factor even at a very early age. Several studies, including pediatric populations, have reported independent associations between NAFLD and markers of subclinical atherosclerosis including impaired flow-mediated vasodilation, increased carotid artery intima-media thickness, and arterial stiffness, after adjusting for cardiovascular risk factors and MetS. Also, it has been shown that NAFLD is associated with cardiac alterations, including abnormal left ventricular structure and impaired diastolic function. The duration of these subclinical abnormalities may be important, because treatment to reverse the process is most likely to be effective earlier in the disease. In the present review, we examine the current evidence on the association between NAFLD and atherosclerosis as well as between NAFLD and cardiac dysfunction in the pediatric population, and discuss briefly the possible biological mechanisms linking NAFLD and cardiovascular changes. We also address the approach to treatment for this increasingly prevalent disease, which is likely to have an important future global impact on the burden of ill health, to prevent not only end-stage liver disease but also cardiovascular disease.
Secretion of proteins and neurotransmitters from large dense core vesicles (LDCVs) is a highly regulated process. Adrenal LDCV formation involves the granin proteins chromogranin A (CgA) and chromogranin B (CgB); CgA- and CgB-derived peptides regulate catecholamine levels and blood pressure. We investigated function of the granin VGF (nonacronymic) in LDCV formation and the regulation of catecholamine levels and blood pressure. Expression of exogenous VGF in nonendocrine NIH 3T3 fibroblasts resulted in the formation of LDCV-like structures and depolarization-induced VGF secretion. Analysis of germline VGF-knockout mouse adrenal medulla revealed decreased LDCV size in noradrenergic chromaffin cells, increased adrenal norepinephrine and epinephrine content and circulating plasma epinephrine, and decreased adrenal CgB. These neurochemical changes in VGF-knockout mice were associated with hypertension. Germline knock-in of human VGF1-615 into the mouse Vgf locus rescued the hypertensive knockout phenotype, while knock-in of a truncated human VGF1-524 that lacks several C-terminal peptides, including TLQP-21, resulted in a small but significant increase in systolic blood pressure compared to hVGF1-615 mice. Finally, acute and chronic administration of the VGF-derived peptide TLQP-21 to rodents decreased blood pressure. Our studies establish a role for VGF in adrenal LDCV formation and the regulation of catecholamine levels and blood pressure.
Hypertension induced by chronic administration of angiotensin II (AngII) is exacerbated by high-salt intake. Previous studies have demonstrated that this salt-sensitive component is due to increased activity of the sympathetic nervous system, suggesting an interaction of plasma AngII with sodium-sensitive regions of the brain. This study tested the hypothesis that the salt-sensitive component of AngII-induced hypertension would be prevented by intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of the sodium channel/transporter blocker benzamil. Male Sprague Dawley rats were instrumented to measure mean arterial pressure (MAP) by radio telemetry and for ICV administration of benzamil or vehicle and placed in metabolic cages for measurement of sodium and water intake and excretion. In rats consuming a high-salt diet (2.0% NaCl) and treated with ICV vehicle, administration of AngII (150 ng/kg/min, sc) for 13 days increased MAP by ~30 mmHg. ICV administration of benzamil (16 nmol/day) had no effect during the first 5 days of AngII, but returned MAP to control levels by Day 13. There were minimal or no differences between ICV vehicle or benzamil groups in regards to sodium and water balance. A lower dose of ICV benzamil administered ICV at 8 nmol/day had no effect on the MAP response to AngII in rats on a high-salt diet. Finally, in contrast to rats on a high-salt diet, AngII had negligible effects on MAP in rats consuming a low-salt diet (0.1% NaCl) and there were no differences in any variable between ICV benzamil (16 nmol/day) and ICV vehicle-treated groups. We conclude that the salt-sensitive component of AngII-induced hypertension is dependent on benzamil blockable sodium channels or transporters in the brain.
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a highly prevalent, serious and chronic infection that has been associated causally with a diverse spectrum of extragastric disorders including iron deficiency anemia, chronic idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, growth retardation, and diabetes mellitus. The inverse relation of H. pylori prevalence and the increase in allergies, as reported from epidemiological studies, has stimulated research for elucidating potential underlying pathophysiological mechanisms. Although H. pylori is most frequently acquired during childhood in both developed and developing countries, clinicians are less familiar with the pediatric literature in the field. A better understanding of the H. pylori disease spectrum in childhood should lead to clearer recommendations about testing for and treating H. pylori infection in children who are more likely to develop clinical sequelae. A further clinical challenge is whether the progressive decrease of H. pylori in the last decades, abetted by modern clinical practices, may have other health consequences.
We have reported that lesion of the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis (OVLT) has no effect on basal levels of mean arterial pressure (MAP) but abolishes the hypertensive effects of angiotensin II (AngII) in rats consuming a normal-salt diet. These results suggest that the OVLT does not contribute to regulation of MAP under conditions of normal salt intake, but it is an important brain site for the hypertensive actions of AngII. The OVLT has been proposed as a major sodium sensor in the brain and the hypertensive effects of AngII are exacerbated by high-salt intake. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the role of the OVLT during AngII-induced hypertension in rats fed a high-salt diet. Male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent sham (Sham; n = 9) or OVLT lesion (OVLTx; n = 8) surgery and were placed on a high-salt (2% NaCl) diet. MAP was measured by radio telemetry during three control days, 10 days of AngII infusion (10 ng/kg/min, i.v.), and a 3-day recovery period. MAP was significantly lower in OVLTx (97 ± 2 mmHg) compared to Sham (106 ± 1 mmHg) rats during the control period (P < 0.05). Moreover, the chronic pressor response to AngII was markedly attenuated in OVLTx rats. MAP increased 58 ± 3 mmHg in Sham rats by Day 10 of AngII compared to a 40 ± 7 mmHg increase in OVLTx rats (P < 0.05). We conclude that (1) the OVLT regulates the basal levels of MAP in rats consuming a high-salt and (2) the OVLT is an important brain site of action for the pathogenesis of AngII-salt hypertension in the rat. Supported by HL076312.
Our aim was to highlight the very recent and rapid expansion of a number of contemporary, pioneering and projected interventional approaches for resistant hypertension. Our discussions of each approach centre on a new model of the cardiovascular system that emphasises the importance of the sympathetic nervous system, its differential control and reflex activation. Four interventional therapeutic strategies are discussed including targeted sympathectomies and carotid body ablation. Harnessing endogenous homeostatic control systems looks promising as a means to correct autonomic balance. The challenge will be in deciding which interventional approach should be selected.
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is the most important risk factor for the development of gastric cancer. The objective of this article is to estimate how the number of clinically diagnosed cases caused by H. pylori would reduce in the years after the eradication of the infection from a population. It is assumed that the eradication of H. pylori will prevent the start of some new gastric tumors, but those that have passed the "point of no return" will continue to develop until diagnosed clinically. The observed reduction in the number of clinically diagnosed cases of gastric cancer will depend on the form and parameters of the distribution of the time t taken for tumor to develop into a clinical case after passing the "point of no return." This analysis assumes that the time t follows normal and log-normal distributions with means 5, 10, and 15 years. If the mean value of time t were 5 years, H. pylori caused cases should be almost eliminated after 10 years, whereas if the mean were 10 years, the number of cases should be halved. If the mean were 15 years, the reduction would only be about 15% after 10 years. The eradication of H. pylori from a population will reduce the incidence of gastric cancer, but the follow-up time needed to show and evaluate the reduction may be longer than that that has been used in studies published so far.
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) may increase the risk for cardiac dysfunction. The present study aimed to determine whether, in children, NAFLD is associated with subclinical left ventricular (LV) structural and functional abnormalities independently of metabolic risk factors. We performed a complete echocardiographic study including tissue Doppler imaging, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for measurement of hepatic fat fraction (HFF) and abdominal fat mass distribution, along with lipid profile, insulin sensitivity, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in 108 obese children, 54 with (HFF ?5%) and 54 without NAFLD, and 18 lean healthy subjects. The three groups were matched for age, gender, and pubertal status, and obese children with NAFLD were matched for body mass index/standard deviation score with those without NAFLD. Forty-one of the children with NAFLD underwent liver biopsy. Compared to controls and children without liver involvement, those with NAFLD had features of LV diastolic dysfunction, including higher E-to-e ratio and lower e tissue velocity. The Tei index (reflecting the combined systolic and diastolic LV function) was also significantly higher in NAFLD children. Among children with biopsy-proven NAFLD, 26 had definite nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and 15 were not-NASH. Patients with definite-NASH had significantly lower e velocity and significantly higher E-to-e and Tei index (P?0.001, respectively) than those without NASH. In multiple logistic regression analysis, NAFLD was the only statistically significant variable associated with increased E-to-e ratio, whereas NAFLD and systolic blood pressure were significantly associated with increased Tei index. Conclusion: Asymptomatic obese children with NAFLD exhibit features of early LV diastolic and systolic dysfunction, and these abnormalities are more severe in those with NASH. (Hepatology 2013;).
Altered gastric anatomy following laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) is likely to induce upper gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms. Published studies, however, have focused mainly on gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). This study aims to evaluate LSGs impact on the prevalence of upper GI symptoms and to assess the effects of time from surgery, weight loss, and proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy.
Over the past two decades, the body of literature on the clinical usefulness of procalcitonin (PCT) in adults has grown rapidly. Although this approach has led to increased insight, it has also prompted debate regarding its potential use in diagnosis and management of severe infection. Clinicians, however, are less familiar with the use of PCT in pediatric populations. In this review, we examine PCT as a marker of severe clinical pediatric conditions including its role in systemic inflammation, infection, and sepsis.
The ability of cells to detect changes in the microenvironment is important in cell signaling and responsiveness to environmental fluctuations. Our interest is in understanding how human bone marrow stromal-derived cells (MSC) and their relatives, vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC), interact with their environment through novel receptors. We found, through a proteomics screen, that MSC express the bitter taste receptor, TAS2R46, a protein more typically localized to the taste bud. Expression was also confirmed in VSMCs. A prototypical bitter compound that binds to the bitter taste receptor class, denatonium, increased intracellular calcium release and decreased cAMP levels as well as increased the extracellular release of ATP in human MSC. Denatonium also bound and activated rodent VSMC with a change in morphology upon compound exposure. Finally, rodents given denatonium in vivo had a significant drop in blood pressure indicating a vasodilator response. This is the first description of chemosensory detection by MSC and VSMCs via a taste receptor. These data open a new avenue of research into discovering novel compounds that operate through taste receptors expressed by cells in the marrow and vascular microenvironments.
The sympathetic nervous system plays an important role in some forms of human hypertension as well as the Dahl salt-sensitive rat model of hypertension; however, the sympathetic targets involved remain unclear. To address this, we examined the role of the renal and splanchnic sympathetic nerves in Dahl hypertension by performing sham surgery (n=10) or targeted sympathetic ablation of the renal nerves (renal denervation, n=11), the splanchnic nerves (celiac ganglionectomy, n=11), or both renal and splanchnic nerves (n=11) in hypertensive Dahl rats. Mean arterial pressure increased from ?120 mm Hg, while on a 0.1% sodium chloride diet, to ?140 mm Hg after being fed a 4.0% sodium chloride diet for 3 weeks. At that point, rats underwent sham or targeted sympathetic ablation. Four weeks after treatment, mean arterial pressure was lower in renal denervated (150.4±10.4) and celiac ganglionectomized (147.0±6.1) rats compared with sham rats (165.0±3.7) and even lower in rats that underwent both ablations (128.4±6.6). There were no differences in heart rate or fluid balance between sham and renal denervated rats; however, rats that underwent either celiac ganglionectomy or both ablations exhibited marked tachycardia as well as sodium and water retention after treatment. These data suggest that targeted sympathetic ablation is an effective treatment for established hypertension in the Dahl rat and that the kidneys and the splanchnic vascular bed are both independently important targets of the sympathetic nervous system in this model.
Previous studies suggest that ANG II-induced hypertension in rats fed a high-salt (HS) diet (ANG II-salt hypertension) has a neurogenic component dependent on an enhanced sympathetic tone to the splanchnic veins and independent from changes in sympathetic nerve activity to the kidney or hind limb. The purpose of this study was to extend these findings and test whether altered autonomic control of splanchnic resistance arteries and the heart also contributes to the neurogenic component. Mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), superior mesenteric artery blood flow, and mesenteric vascular resistance (MVR) were measured during 4 control days, 14 days of ANG II delivered subcutaneously (150 ng·kg(-1)·min(-1)), and 4 days of recovery in conscious rats fed a HS (2% NaCl) or low-salt (LS; 0.1% NaCl) diet. Autonomic effects on MAP, HR, and MVR were assessed by acute ganglionic blockade with hexamethonium (20 mg/kg iv) on day 3 of control, days 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, and 13 of ANG II, and day 4 of recovery. MVR increased during ANG II infusion in HS and LS rats but remained elevated only in HS rats. Additionally, the MVR response to hexamethonium was enhanced on days 10 and 13 of ANG II selectively in HS rats. Compared with LS rats, HR in HS rats was higher during the 2nd wk of ANG II, and its response to hexamethonium was greater on days 7, 10, and 13 of ANG II. These results suggest that ANG II-salt hypertension is associated with delayed changes in autonomic control of splanchnic resistance arteries and the heart.
Hypertension caused by chronic infusion of angiotensin II (Ang II) in experimental animals is dependent, in part, on increased activity of the sympathetic nervous system. This chronic sympathoexcitatory response is amplified by a high-salt diet, suggesting an interaction of circulating Ang II and dietary salt on sympathetic regulatory pathways in the brain. The present study tested the hypothesis that the subfornical organ (SFO), a forebrain circumventricular organ known to be activated by circulating Ang II, is crucial to the pathogenesis of hypertension induced by chronic Ang II administration in rats on a high-salt diet (Ang II-salt model). Rats were randomly selected to undergo either subfornical organ lesion (SFOx) or sham surgery (Sham) and then placed on a high-salt (2% NaCl) diet. One week later, rats were instrumented for radiotelemetric measurement of mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) and placed in metabolic cages to measure sodium and water balance. Baseline MAP was slightly (but not statistically) lower in SFOx compared with Sham rats during the 5 day control period. During the subsequent 10 days of Ang II administration, MAP was statistically lower in SFOx rats. However, when MAP responses to Ang II were analysed by comparing the change from the 5 day baseline period, only on the fifth day of Ang II was MAP significantly different between groups. There were no differences between groups for water or sodium balance throughout the protocol. We conclude that, although the SFO is required for the complete expression of Ang II-salt hypertension in the rat, other brain sites are also involved.
In August 2010, the Third Annual Mayo Clinic Conference on Systems Engineering and Operations Research in Health Care was held. The continuing mission of the conference is to gather a multidisciplinary group of systems engineers, clinicians, administrators, and academic professors to discuss the translation of systems engineering methods to more effective health care delivery. Education, research, and practice were enhanced via a mix of formal presentations, tutorials, and informal gatherings of participants with diverse backgrounds. Although the conference promotes a diversity of perspectives and methods, participants are united in their desire to find ways in which systems engineering can transform health care, especially in the context of health care reform and other significant changes affecting the delivery of health care.
Negative margins are associated with decreased local recurrence after lumpectomy for breast cancer. A 2nd operation for re-excision of positive margins is required with rates varying from 15 to 50%. At our institution we routinely use frozen-section analysis of all margins to minimize rates of 2nd operations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cost/benefit of routine frozen-section analysis.
The role of the cardiac sympathetic nerve activity in various cardiac diseases is typically evaluated using ?-adrenergic receptor antagonists. However, these antagonists induce global denervation effects not only in the cardiovascular system, but also in the brain and kidney. The objective of this study was to detect the electrophysiological property changes due to 8 days of cardiac sympathetic denervation and investigate the possible mechanisms underlying these changes using a more cardiac-specific bilateral stellate ganglionectomy (SGX) rat model. High-resolution optical mapping using a voltage-sensitive dye was performed in isolated Langendorff-perfused sham and SGX hearts, which were paced at progressively reduced basic cycle lengths under several different conditions: control, pretreatment with isoproterenol, and administration of atenolol and esmolol. Several electrophysiological parameters were recorded during periodic pacing and ventricular fibrillation (VF). Our results demonstrate that cardiac sympathetic denervation by bilateral SGX shortens action potential duration (APD) and flattens the APD restitution curve, but does not significantly affect spatial dispersion of APD. We found that, although the vulnerability of sham and SGX hearts to VF is similar, the dynamics of VF are different. The maximum dominant frequency is higher, and the spatial distribution of VF is more complex in the SGX heart, resulting in different mechanisms of VF. We demonstrated that ?(1)-adrenergic receptors are downregulated in the SGX compared with sham hearts. In addition, our data suggest that the mechanism of cardiac sympathetic denervation by SGX surgery is more similar to the administration of ?-blocker esmolol than atenolol.
Excess fat is one of the main determinants of insulin resistance, representing the metabolic basis for developing future cardiovascular disease. The aim of the current study was to find an easy-to-detect clinical marker of insulin resistance which can be used to identify young subjects at increased risk of cardiovascular disease.
Over the last two decades, there have been many studies on children who have sought an effective and safe treatment to eradicate Helicobacter pylori infection, but as yet, no therapy regimen has been found which is always effective and safe. Differences in drug response among pediatric patients are common. Such individual variability in drug response is multifactorial, including environmental, genetic, development and disease determinants that affect the disposition of a given drug. In pediatric efficacy studies for the management of H. pylori eradication in children, the most commonly tested regimen has contained a combination of proton pump inhibitor (PPI), clarithromycin and amoxicillin, followed by triple therapies containing PPI, clarithromycin and nitroimidazoles. Thus, PPIs are an integral part of triple therapy for H. pylori eradication in children with gastroduodenal disease. In this article, we comprehensively review, from a pediatric point of view, the literature on the clinical, pharmacologic and microbiologic properties of PPIs. We also discuss genetic, developmental and other host-related factors that may affect the efficacy of these drugs. Finally, we provide some guidance regarding their potential role and limitations for H. pylori eradication in children.
Chronically elevated plasma angiotensin II (AngII) causes a salt-sensitive form of hypertension that is associated with a differential pattern of peripheral sympathetic outflow. This "AngII-salt sympathetic signature" is characterized by a transient reduction in sympathetic nervous system activity (SNA) to the kidneys, no change in SNA to skeletal muscle, and a delayed activation of SNA to the splanchnic circulation. Studies suggest that the augmented sympathetic influence on the splanchnic vascular bed increases vascular resistance and decreases vascular capacitance, leading to hypertension via translocation of blood volume from the venous to the arterial circulation. This unique sympathetic signature is hypothesized to be generated by a balance of central excitatory inputs and differential baroreceptor inhibitory inputs to sympathetic premotor neurons in the rostral ventrolateral medulla. The relevance of these findings to human hypertension and the future development of targeted sympatholytic therapies are discussed.
There is still no study evaluating the influence of gestational age (GA) per se on C reactive protein (CRP) and procalcitonin (PCT) reference intervals. We therefore investigated how length of gestation, age (hours), and prenatal and perinatal variables might influence the levels of CRP and PCT. We also determined 95% age-specific reference intervals for CRP and PCT in healthy preterm and term babies during the early neonatal period.
Vasopressinergic neurons in the paraventricular nucleus project to areas in the spinal cord from which sympathetic nerves originate. This pathway is hypothesized to be involved in the regulation of mean arterial pressure (MAP), particularly under various conditions of osmotic stress. Several studies measuring sympathetic nerve activity support this hypothesis. However, the evidence that spinal vasopressin influences MAP under physiological or pathophysiological conditions in conscious animals is limited. The purpose of this study was to investigate, in conscious rats, if the increases in MAP during acute or chronic osmotic stimuli are due to activation of spinal vasopressin (V1a) receptors. Three conditions of osmotic stress were examined: acute intravenous hypertonic saline, 24- and 48-h water deprivation, and 4 wk of DOCA-salt treatment. Rats were chronically instrumented with an indwelling catheter for intrathecal injections and a radiotelemeter to measure MAP. In normotensive rats, intrathecal vasopressin and V1a agonist increased MAP, heart rate, and motor activity; these responses were blocked by pretreatment with an intrathecal V1a receptor antagonist. However, when the intrathecal V1a antagonist was given during the three conditions of osmotic stress to investigate the role of "endogenous" vasopressin, the antagonist had no effect on MAP, heart rate, or motor activity. Contrary to the hypothesis suggested by previous studies, these findings indicate that spinal V1a receptors are not required for elevations of MAP under conditions of acute or chronic osmotic stress in conscious rats.
Although evidence is emerging that the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is declining in all age groups, the understanding of its disease spectrum continues to evolve. If untreated, H. pylori infection is lifelong. Although H. pylori typically colonizes the human stomach for many decades without adverse consequences, children infected with H. pylori can manifest gastrointestinal diseases. Controversy persists regarding testing (and treating) for H. pylori infection in children with recurrent abdominal pain, chronic idiopathic thrombocytopenia, and poor growth. There is evidence of the role of H. pylori in childhood iron deficiency anemia, but the results are not conclusive. The possibility of an inverse relationship between H. pylori and gastroesophageal reflux disease, as well as childhood asthma, remains a controversial question. A better understanding of the H. pylori disease spectrum in childhood should lead to clearer recommendations about testing for and treating H. pylori infection in children who are more likely to develop clinical sequelae.
DOCA-salt treatment increases mean arterial pressure (MAP), while central infusion of benzamil attenuates this effect. The present study used c-Fos immunoreactivity to assess the role of benzamil-sensitive proteins in the brain on neural activity following chronic DOCA-salt treatment. Uninephrectomized rats were instrumented with telemetry transmitters for measurement of MAP and with an intracerebroventricular (ICV) cannula for benzamil administration. Groups included rats receiving DOCA-salt treatment alone, rats receiving DOCA-salt treatment with ICV benzamil, and appropriate controls. At study completion, MAP in vehicle-treated DOCA-salt rats reached 142 ± 4 mmHg. In contrast DOCA-salt rats receiving ICV benzamil had lower MAP (124 ± 3 mmHg). MAP in normotensive controls was 102 ± 3 mmHg. c-Fos immunoreactivity was quantified in the supraoptic nucleus (SON) and across subnuclei of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), as well as other cardiovascular regulatory sites. Compared with vehicle-treated normotensive controls, c-Fos expression was increased in the SON and all subnuclei of the PVN, but not in other key autonomic nuclei, such as the rostroventrolateral medulla. Moreover, benzamil treatment decreased c-Fos immunoreactivity in the SON and in medial parvocellular and posterior magnocellular neurons of the PVN in DOCA-salt rats but not areas associated with regulation of sympathetic activity. Our results do not support the hypothesis that DOCA-salt increases neuronal activity (as indicated by c-Fos immunoreactivity) of other key regions that regulate sympathetic activity. These results suggest that ICV benzamil attenuates DOCA-salt hypertension by modulation of neuroendocrine-related PVN nuclei rather than inhibition of PVN sympathetic premotor neurons in the PVN and rostroventrolateral medulla.
The effect of Helicobacter pylori treatment on the potential reversal of atrophic body gastritis (ABG) is controversial. Body atrophy reversal was evaluated in a cohort of H. pylori-negative and treated H. pylori-positive ABG patients.
Hypertension caused by chronic infusion of angiotensin II (Ang II) in experimental animals is likely to be mediated, at least in part, by an elevation of ongoing sympathetic nerve activity (SNA). However, the contribution of SNA relative to non-neural mechanisms in mediating Ang II-induced hypertension is an area of intense debate and remains unresolved. We hypothesize that sympathoexcitatory actions of Ang II are directly related to the level of dietary salt intake. To test this hypothesis, chronically instrumented rats were placed on a 0.1 (low), 0.4 (normal) or 2.0% NaCl diet (high) and, following a control period, administered Ang II (150 ng kg(1) min(1), s.c.) for 10-14 days. The hypertensive response to Ang II was greatest in rats on the high-salt diet (Ang II-salt hypertension), which was associated with increased whole body sympathetic activity as measured by noradrenaline spillover and ganglionic blockade. Indirect and direct measures of organ-specific SNA revealed a distinct sympathetic signature in Ang II-salt rats characterized by increased SNA to the splanchnic vascular bed, transiently reduced renal SNA and no change in SNA to the hindlimbs. Electrophysiological experiments indicate that increased sympathetic outflow in Ang II-salt rats is unlikely to involve activation of rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) vasomotor neurons with barosensitive cardiac rhythmic discharge. Instead, another set of RVLM neurons that discharge in discrete bursts have exaggerated spontaneous activity in rats with Ang II-salt hypertension. Although their discharge is not cardiac rhythmic at resting levels of arterial pressure, it nevertheless appears to be barosensitive. Therefore, these burst-firing RVLM neurons presumably serve a vasomotor function, consistent with their having axonal projections to the spinal cord. Bursting discharge of these neurons is respiratory rhythmic and driven by the respiratory network. Given that splanchnic SNA is strongly coupled to respiration, we hypothesize that enhanced central respiratory-vasomotor neuron coupling in the RVLM could be an important mechanism that contributes to exaggerated splanchnic sympathetic outflow in Ang II-salt hypertension. This hypothesis remains to be tested directly in future investigations.
In Italy, immigrants from Less Developed Countries (LDCs) have doubled every 10 years since the 1970s and this number grew to 330,000 at the end of 1981, and to more than 1,300,000 in 2001. As the presence of immigrants increases, it becomes ever more important to assess their health needs and utilisation of health services, in order to promote adequate programmes and policies. This study was aimed to compare the patterns of hospital use by immigrants from LDCs living in the Lazio Region, Italy, with those of the resident Italians. The study was based on the hospital discharge data collected by the Lazio Region Hospital Information System. Discharges of immigrants from acute hospitals in Lazio during 2005 were compared with discharges of resident Italians. Age- and sex-specific hospitalisation rates (per 1,000) were also calculated for legal immigrants and Italians aged 18 years and over. Of 56,610 foreign patients from LCDs admitted to hospitals in Lazio during 2005, 88% were legally residing in the region. The immigrants were younger than the Italians (mean age 30.6 and 51.7 years, respectively), more than half were female and single, and about 1/3 had studied for 9 or more years. Among males, a similar pattern of hospital use by age was observed for foreigners and Italians, with the rates for foreigners in acute care being higher among young people (due to traumatic accidents) and lower among the oldest. Differently, among foreign females, the admission rates for both acute and day care settings varied with womens age, the pattern of hospital use being strongly influenced by reproductive events. The main reason for hospitalisation of foreign males in acute care was injuries (approximately 1/4 of all discharges), and in day care was neoplasms; among females, more than half of the admissions were for childbirth in acute or induced abortions in day care. Injuries for males and induced abortions for females were identified as critical areas for migrants health, in which public health interventions may be promoted.
Angiotensin II (AngII)-induced hypertension in experimental animals has been proposed to be attributed in part to activation of the sympathetic nervous system. This sympathetic activation appears to be accentuated in animals consuming a high-salt diet (AngII-salt hypertension). However, accurate quantification of sympathetic activity is difficult, and controversy remains. It is particularly important to ask which are the critical vascular beds targeted by increased sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) in AngII-salt hypertension. To address this issue, mean arterial pressure and renal SNA or lumbar SNA were continuously recorded during a 5-day control period, 11 days of AngII (150 ng/kg per minute, SC), and a 5-day recovery period in conscious rats on a high-salt (2% NaCl) diet. Although mean arterial pressure reached a new steady-state level of 30 to 35 mm Hg above control levels by the end of the AngII period, renal SNA decreased by 40% during the first 7 days of AngII and then returned toward control levels by day 10 of AngII. In contrast, lumbar SNA remained at control levels throughout the AngII period. In another experiment we measured hindlimb norepinephrine spillover in conscious rats on normal (0.4%) or high- (2.0%) salt diets before and during 14 days of AngII administration. AngII had no significant affect on hindlimb norepinephrine spillover in either group. We conclude that chronic AngII modulates renal and lumbar SNAs differentially in rats consuming a high-salt diet and that AngII-salt hypertension in the rat is not caused by increased SNA to the renal or hindlimb vascular beds.
It is now well accepted that many forms of experimental hypertension and human essential hypertension are caused by increased activity of the sympathetic nervous system. However, the role of region-specific changes in sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) in the pathogenesis of hypertension has been difficult to determine because methods for chronic measurement of SNA in conscious animals have not been available. We have recently combined indirect, and continuous and chronic direct, assessment of region-specific SNA to characterize hypertension produced by administration of angiotensin II (Ang II) to rats consuming a high-salt diet (Ang II-salt hypertension). Angiotensin II increases whole-body noradrenaline (NA) spillover and depressor responses to ganglionic blockade in rats consuming a high-salt diet, but not in rats on a normal-salt diet. Despite this evidence for increased whole-body SNA in Ang II-salt hypertensive rats, renal SNA is decreased in this model and renal denervation does not attenuate the steady-state level of arterial pressure. In addition, neither lumbar SNA, which largely targets skeletal muscle, nor hindlimb NA spillover is changed from control levels in Ang II-salt hypertensive rats. However, surgical denervation of the splanchnic vascular bed attenuates/abolishes the increase in arterial pressure and total peripheral resistance, as well as the decrease in vascular capacitance, observed in Ang II-salt hypertensive rats. We hypothesize that the sympathetic signature of Ang II-salt hypertension is characterized by increased splanchnic SNA, no change in skeletal muscle SNA and decreased renal SNA, and this sympathetic signature creates unique haemodynamic changes capable of producing sustained hypertension.
Studies performed in adults with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have suggested that mucosa-associated Escherichia coli strains may be involved in its pathogenesis. The aim of this study was to characterize E. coli strains from the intestinal mucosa of pediatric IBD patients to investigate whether a particular subset of strains could be associated with the disease.
Arterial pressure is regulated over long periods of time by neural, hormonal and local control mechanisms, which ultimately determine the total blood volume and how it is distributed between the various vascular compartments of the circulation. A full understanding of the complex interplay of these mechanisms can be greatly facilitated by the use of mathematical models. In 1967, Guyton and Coleman published a model for long-term control of arterial pressure that focused on renal control of body sodium and water and thus total blood volume. The central point of their model is that the long-term level of arterial pressure is determined exclusively by the renal function curve, which relates arterial pressure to urinary excretion of salt and water. The contribution of the sympathetic nervous system to setting the long-term level of arterial pressure in the model is limited. In light of the overwhelming evidence for a major role of the sympathetic nervous system in long-term control of arterial pressure and the pathogenesis of hypertension, new mathematical models for long-term control of arterial pressure may be necessary. Despite the prominence and general acceptance of the Guyton-Coleman model in the field of hypertension research, we argue here that it overestimates the importance of renal control of body fluids and total blood volume in blood pressure regulation. Furthermore, we suggest that it is possible to construct an alternative model in which sympathetic nervous system activity plays an important role in long-term control of arterial pressure independent of its effects on total blood volume.
Whether the eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection can increase the platelet count in patients with immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) is still a controversial issue. To provide evidence-based guidance, we performed a systematic review of the literature published in English, selecting articles reporting 15 or more total patients. We identified 25 studies including 1555 patients, of whom 696 were evaluable for the effects of H pylori eradication on platelet count. The weighted mean complete response (platelet count > or = 100 x 10(9)/L) and overall response (platelet count > or = 30 x 10(9)/L and at least doubling of the basal count) were 42.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 31.8%-53.9%) and 50.3% (95% CI, 41.6%-59.0%), respectively. In 222 patients with a baseline platelet count less than 30 x 10(9)/L, the complete response rate was 20.1% (95% CI, 13.5%-26.7%) and the overall response rate was 35.2% (95% CI, 28.0%-42.4%). The response rate tended to be higher in countries with a high background prevalence of H pylori infection and in patients with milder degrees of thrombocytopenia. These findings suggest that the detection and eradication of H pylori infection should be considered in the work-up of patients with seemingly typical ITP.
Bodyweight is a significant predictor of bone mass. Hormonal factors are thought to play a role in the mechanisms controlling the association of body weight and fat mass with bone mass. Very recently, the orexigenic hormone ghrelin has also been implicated in bone metabolism. In this study we examined the associations of circulating acylated and des-acyl ghrelin concentrations with measures of bone in a group of obese children and adolescents as well as in a group of healthy control children. We also determined whether the associations were independent of body composition, chronological age, gender, Tanner stage, and leptin, glucose, insulin and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 levels.
A cluster randomised trial was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of a health promotion intervention aimed at improving knowledge and preventing sexually transmitted diseases (STD) amongst Grade 9 primary school students in Salerno (Italy). Students were randomized to either one of two groups: intervention group or control group. The intervention group was required to attend three meetings, each lasting one and a half hours. A questionnaire was then administered to both groups to evaluate knowledge of STD, contraception, sexuality, affectivity, satisfaction with interpersonal relationships with family, social groups and healthcare professionals. Variations of knowledge in the two groups were evaluated through calculation of odds ratios. Three hundred twenty-two students participated in the study. All students who received the study intervention were able to identify at least one STD post-intervention, while 2.5% of students in the control group did not indicate any. Students in the intervention group were more likely to select condoms as the most suitable contraception for young people (OR 5.54; 95% CI 3.27 -9.38), compared to controls (OR 1.91; 95% CI 1.20 - 3.05) (p = 0.002). They were also better aware of the possibility of contracting a STD even after incomplete sexual intercourse (OR 0.21, 95% CI 0.13 to 0.35), with a statistically significant difference (p <0.001) compared to the control group (OR 0.71, 95% CI 0.45 to 1.11). In addition, students in the intervention group were more likely to turn to their own parents when having doubts about sexual issues (p = 0.004) and female students to consider their gynecologist as a reference figure. In conclusion, the findings indicate that students randomized to the intervention group were more informed and aware of issues related to sexuality and its associated risks.
To review the need for operative intervention and critical care services for motocross truncal injuries in children. DESIGN COHORT: Retrospective review of patients identified via the hospital trauma registry.
Increased plasma osmolality elevates mean arterial pressure (MAP) through activation of the sympathetic nervous system, but the neurotransmitters released in the spinal cord to regulate MAP during osmotic stress remain unresolved. Glutamatergic neurons of the rostral ventrolateral medulla project to sympathetic preganglionic neurons in the spinal cord and are likely activated during conditions of osmotic stress; however, this has not been examined in conscious rats. This study investigated whether increased MAP during chronic osmotic stress depends on activation of spinal glutamate receptors. Rats were chronically instrumented with an indwelling intrathecal (i.t.) catheter for antagonist delivery to the spinal cord and a radiotelemetry transmitter for continuous monitoring of MAP and heart rate. Osmotic stress induced by 48 h of water deprivation (WD) increased MAP by ~15 mmHg. Intrathecal kynurenic acid, a nonspecific antagonist of ionotropic glutamate receptors, decreased MAP significantly more after 48 h of WD compared with the water-replete state. Water-deprived rats also showed a greater fall in MAP in response to i.t. 2-amino-5-phosphonovalerate. Finally, i.t. kynurenic acid also decreased MAP more in an osmotically driven model of neurogenic hypertension, the DOCA-salt rat, compared with normotensive controls. Our results suggest that spinally released glutamate mediates increased MAP during 48-h WD and DOCA-salt hypertension.
Forty-eight hours of water deprivation (WD) in conscious rats results in a paradoxical increase in mean arterial pressure (MAP). Previous studies suggest this may be due to increased sympathetic nerve activity (SNA). However, this remains to be investigated in conscious, freely behaving animals. The purpose of this study was to determine, in conscious rats, the role of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) in mediating WD-induced increases in MAP and to identify which vascular beds are targeted by increased SNA. Each rat was chronically instrumented with a radiotelemetry transmitter to measure MAP and heart rate (HR) and an indwelling venous catheter for plasma sampling and/or drug delivery. MAP and HR were continuously measured during a 2-day baseline period followed by 48 h of WD and then a recovery period. By the end of the WD period, MAP increased by ?15 mmHg in control groups, whereas HR did not change significantly. Chronic blockade of ?(1)/?(1)-adrenergic receptors significantly attenuated the WD-induced increase in MAP, suggesting a role for global activation of the SNS. However, the MAP response to WD was unaffected by selective denervations of the hindlimb, renal, or splanchnic vascular beds, or by adrenal demedullation. In contrast, complete adrenalectomy (with corticosterone and aldosterone replaced) significantly attenuated the MAP response to WD in the same time frame as ?(1)/?(1)-adrenergic receptor blockade. These results suggest that, in conscious water-deprived rats, the SNS contributes to the MAP response and may be linked to release of adrenocortical hormones. Finally, this sympathetically mediated response is not dependent on increased SNA to one specific vascular bed.
A conceptually novel mathematical model of neurogenic angiotensin II-salt hypertension is developed and analysed. The model consists of a lumped parameter circulatory model with two parallel vascular beds; two distinct control mechanisms for both natriuresis and arterial resistances can be implemented, resulting in four versions of the model. In contrast with the classical Guyton-Coleman model (GC model) of hypertension, in the standard version of our new model natriuresis is assumed to be independent of arterial pressure and instead driven solely by sodium intake; arterial resistances are driven by increased sympathetic nervous system activity in response to the elevated plasma angiotensin II and increased salt intake (AngII-salt). We compare the standard version of our new model against a simplified Guyton-Coleman model in which natriuresis is a function of arterial pressure via the pressure-natriuresis mechanism, and arterial resistances are controlled via the whole-body autoregulation mechanism. We show that the simplified GC model and the new model correctly predict haemodynamic and renal excretory responses to induced changes in angiotensin II and sodium inputs. Importantly, the new model reproduces the pressure-natriuresis relationship--the correlation between arterial pressure and sodium excretion--despite the assumption of pressure-independent natriuresis. These results show that our model provides a conceptually new alternative to Guytons theory without contradicting observed haemodynamic changes or pressure-natriuresis relationships. Furthermore, the new model supports the view that hypertension need not necessarily have a renal aetiology and that long-term arterial pressure could be determined by sympathetic nervous system activity without involving the renal sympathetic nerves.
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