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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Regulation of rotavirus polymerase activity by inner capsid proteins.
Curr Opin Virol
PUBLISHED: 08-24-2014
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Rotavirus, a cause of pediatric gastroenteritis, has a genome consisting of 11 segments of double-stranded (ds)RNA surrounded by a triple-layered protein capsid. The rotavirus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, VP1, synthesizes both dsRNA and plus-strand RNA (+RNA) within subviral particles. Structural analyses of the rotavirus capsid and polymerase, combined with functional studies of purified capsid proteins, indicate that the inner capsid protein controls the initiation of RNA synthesis by VP1. Whether VP1 directs dsRNA versus +RNA synthesis may be regulated by the impact of the viral RNA capping enzyme on the position of the polymerase plug, a flexible element that inserts into one of the polymerase's RNA exit tunnels. This review discusses recent findings and ideas into the mechanisms used by rotavirus capsid proteins to control the activities of its viral polymerase and to coordinate RNA synthesis with the assembly of virus particles.
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Analysis of human rotaviruses from a single location over an 18-year time span suggests that protein coadaption influences gene constellations.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2014
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Rotaviruses (RVs) are 11-segmented, double-stranded RNA viruses that cause severe gastroenteritis in children. In addition to an error-prone genome replication mechanism, RVs can increase their genetic diversity by reassorting genes during host coinfection. Such exchanges allow RVs to acquire advantageous genes and adapt in the face of selective pressures. However, reassortment may also impose fitness costs if it unlinks genes/proteins that have accumulated compensatory, coadaptive mutations and that operate best when kept together. To better understand human RV evolutionary dynamics, we analyzed the genome sequences of 135 strains (genotype G1/G3/G4-P[8]-I1-C1-R1-A1-N1-T1-E1-H1) that were collected at a single location in Washington, DC, during the years 1974 to 1991. Intragenotypic phylogenetic trees were constructed for each viral gene using the nucleotide sequences, thereby defining novel allele level gene constellations (GCs) and illuminating putative reassortment events. The results showed that RVs with distinct GCs cocirculated during the vast majority of the collection years and that some of these GCs persisted in the community unchanged by reassortment. To investigate the influence of protein coadaptation on GC maintenance, we performed a mutual information-based analysis of the concatenated amino acid sequences and identified an extensive covariance network. Unexpectedly, amino acid covariation was highest between VP4 and VP2, which are structural components of the RV virion that are not thought to directly interact. These results suggest that GCs may be influenced by the selective constraints placed on functionally coadapted, albeit noninteracting, viral proteins. This work raises important questions about mutation-reassortment interplay and its impact on human RV evolution.
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Predicted structure and domain organization of rotavirus capping enzyme and innate immune antagonist VP3.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2014
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Rotaviruses and orbiviruses are nonturreted Reoviridae members. The rotavirus VP3 protein is a multifunctional capping enzyme and antagonist of the interferon-induced cellular oligoadenylate synthetase-RNase L pathway. Despite mediating important processes, VP3 is the sole protein component of the rotavirus virion whose structure remains unknown. In the current study, we used sequence alignment and homology modeling to identify features common to nonturreted Reoviridae capping enzymes and to predict the domain organization, structure, and active sites of rotavirus VP3. Our results suggest that orbivirus and rotavirus capping enzymes share a domain arrangement similar to that of the bluetongue virus capping enzyme. Sequence alignments revealed conserved motifs and suggested that rotavirus and orbivirus capping enzymes contain a variable N-terminal domain, a central guanine-N7-methyltransferase domain that contains an additional inserted domain, and a C-terminal guanylyltransferase and RNA 5'-triphosphatase domain. Sequence conservation and homology modeling suggested that the insertion in the guanine-N7-methyltransferase domain is a ribose-2'-O-methyltransferase domain for most rotavirus species. Our analyses permitted putative identification of rotavirus VP3 active-site residues, including those that form the ribose-2'-O-methyltransferase catalytic tetrad, interact with S-adenosyl-l-methionine, and contribute to autoguanylation. Previous reports have indicated that group A rotavirus VP3 contains a C-terminal 2H-phosphodiesterase domain that can cleave 2'-5' oligoadenylates, thereby preventing RNase L activation. Our results suggest that a C-terminal phosphodiesterase domain is present in the capping enzymes from two additional rotavirus species. Together, these findings provide insight into a poorly understood area of rotavirus biology and are a springboard for future biochemical and structural studies of VP3.
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Absence of genetic differences among G10P[11] rotaviruses associated with asymptomatic and symptomatic neonatal infections in Vellore, India.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2014
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Rotaviruses (RVs) are leading causes of severe diarrhea and vomiting in infants and young children. RVs with G10P[11] genotype specificity have been associated with symptomatic and asymptomatic neonatal infections in Vellore, India. To identify possible viral genetic determinants responsible for differences in symptomology, the genome sequences of G10P[11] RVs in stool samples of 19 neonates with symptomatic infections and 20 neonates with asymptomatic infections were determined by Sanger and next-generation sequencing. The data showed that all 39 viruses had identical genotype constellations (G10-P[11]-I2-R2-C2-M2-A1-N1-T1-E2-H3), the same as those of the previously characterized symptomatic N155 Vellore isolate. The data also showed that the RNA and deduced protein sequences of all the Vellore G10P[11] viruses were nearly identical; no nucleotide or amino acid differences were found that correlated with symptomatic versus asymptomatic infection. Next-generation sequencing data revealed that some stool samples, both from neonates with symptomatic infections and from neonates with asymptomatic infections, also contained one or more positive-strand RNA viruses (Aichi virus, astrovirus, or salivirus/klassevirus) suspected of being potential causes of pediatric gastroenteritis. However, none of the positive-strand RNA viruses could be causally associated with the development of symptoms. These results indicate that the diversity of clinical symptoms in Vellore neonates does not result from genetic differences among G10P[11] RVs; instead, other undefined factors appear to influence whether neonates develop gastrointestinal disease symptoms.
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The Relation Between Knee Flexion Angle and Anterior Cruciate Ligament Femoral Tunnel Characteristics: A Cadaveric Study Comparing a Standard and a Far Anteromedial Portal.
Arthroscopy
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2014
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The purpose of this study was to compare the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) femoral tunnel characteristics between 2 common arthroscopic portals used for ACL reconstruction, a standard anteromedial portal and a far anteromedial portal.
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The translation inhibitor silvestrol exhibits direct anti-tumor activity while preserving innate and adaptive immunity against EBV-driven lymphoproliferative disease.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2014
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Treatment options for patients with Epstein-Barr Virus-driven lymphoproliferative diseases (EBV-LPD) are limited. Chemo-immunotherapeutic approaches often lead to immune suppression, risk of lethal infection and EBV reactivation, thus it is essential to identify agents that can deliver direct anti-tumor activity while preserving innate and adaptive host immune surveillance. Silvestrol possesses direct anti-tumor activity in multiple hematologic malignancies while causing minimal toxicity to normal mononuclear cells. However, the effects of silvestrol on immune function have not been described. We utilized in vitro and in vivo models of EBV-LPD to simultaneously examine the impact of silvestrol on both tumor and normal immune function. We show that silvestrol induces direct anti-tumor activity against EBV-transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCL), with growth inhibition, decreased expression of the EBV oncogene latent membrane protein-1, and  inhibition of the downstream AKT, STAT1 and STAT3 signaling pathways. Silvestrol promoted potent indirect anti-tumor effects by preserving expansion of innate and EBV antigen-specific adaptive immune effector subsets capable of effective clearance of LCL tumor targets in autologous co-cultures. In an animal model of spontaneous EBV-LPD, silvestrol demonstrated significant therapeutic activity dependent on the presence of CD8-positive T-cells. These findings establish a novel immune-sparing activity of silvestrol, justifying further exploration in patients with EBV-positive malignancies.
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Twenty-hour growth hormone secretory profiles after aerobic and resistance exercise.
Med Sci Sports Exerc
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2014
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The pulsatile secretion pattern of growth hormone (GH) is an important parameter of GH action at peripheral tissues, and more information is needed on how exercise impacts GH secretion. This study hypothesized that both aerobic and resistance exercise would exhibit dose-response relationships with respect to exercise duration and 20-h postexercise GH secretion.
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Genetic validation of the protein arginine methyltransferase PRMT5 as a candidate therapeutic target in glioblastoma.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2014
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Glioblastoma is the most common and aggressive histologic subtype of brain cancer with poor outcomes and limited treatment options. Here, we report the selective overexpression of the protein arginine methyltransferase PRMT5 as a novel candidate theranostic target in this disease. PRMT5 silences the transcription of regulatory genes by catalyzing symmetric dimethylation of arginine residues on histone tails. PRMT5 overexpression in patient-derived primary tumors and cell lines correlated with cell line growth rate and inversely with overall patient survival. Genetic attenuation of PRMT5 led to cell-cycle arrest, apoptosis, and loss of cell migratory activity. Cell death was p53-independent but caspase-dependent and enhanced with temozolomide, a chemotherapeutic agent used as a present standard of care. Global gene profiling and chromatin immunoprecipitation identified the tumor suppressor ST7 as a key gene silenced by PRMT5. Diminished ST7 expression was associated with reduced patient survival. PRMT5 attenuation limited PRMT5 recruitment to the ST7 promoter, led to restored expression of ST7 and cell growth inhibition. Finally, PRMT5 attenuation enhanced glioblastoma cell survival in a mouse xenograft model of aggressive glioblastoma. Together, our findings defined PRMT5 as a candidate prognostic factor and therapeutic target in glioblastoma, offering a preclinical justification for targeting PRMT5-driven oncogenic pathways in this deadly disease.
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Molecular epidemiology of contemporary G2P[4] human rotaviruses cocirculating in a single U.S. community: footprints of a globally transitioning genotype.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
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Group A rotaviruses (RVs) remain a leading cause of childhood gastroenteritis worldwide. Although the G/P types of locally circulating RVs can vary from year to year and differ depending upon geographical location, those with G1P[8], G2P[4], G3P[8], G4P[8], G9P[8], and G12P[8] specificities typically dominate. Little is known about the evolution and diversity of G2P[4] RVs and the possible role that widespread vaccine use has had on their increased frequency of detection. To address these issues, we analyzed the 12 G2P[4] RV isolates associated with a rise in RV gastroenteritis cases at Vanderbilt University Medical Center (VUMC) during the 2010-2011 winter season. Full-genome sequencing revealed that the isolates had genotype 2 constellations typical of DS-1-like viruses (G2P[4]-I2-R2-C2-M2-A2-N2-T2-E2-H2). Phylogenetic analyses showed that the genome segments of the isolates were comprised of two or three different subgenotype alleles; this enabled recognition of three distinct clades of G2P[4] viruses that caused disease at VUMC in the 2010-2011 season. Although the three clades cocirculated in the same community, there was no evidence of interclade reassortment. Bayesian analysis of 328 VP7 genes of G2 viruses isolated in the last 39 years indicate that existing G2 VP7 gene lineages continue to evolve and that novel lineages, as represented by the VUMC isolates, are constantly being formed. Moreover, G2 lineages are characteristically shaped by lineage turnover events that introduce new globally dominant strains every 7 years, on average. The ongoing evolution of G2 VP7 lineages may give rise to antigenic changes that undermine vaccine effectiveness in the long term.
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Homologous 2,5-phosphodiesterases from disparate RNA viruses antagonize antiviral innate immunity.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2013
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Efficient and productive virus infection often requires viral countermeasures that block innate immunity. The IFN-inducible 2,5-oligoadenylate (2-5A) synthetases (OASs) and ribonuclease (RNase) L are components of a potent host antiviral pathway. We previously showed that murine coronavirus (MHV) accessory protein ns2, a 2H phosphoesterase superfamily member, is a phosphodiesterase (PDE) that cleaves 2-5A, thereby preventing activation of RNase L. The PDE activity of ns2 is required for MHV replication in macrophages and for hepatitis. Here, we show that group A rotavirus (RVA), an important cause of acute gastroenteritis in children worldwide, encodes a similar PDE. The RVA PDE forms the carboxy-terminal domain of the minor core protein VP3 (VP3-CTD) and shares sequence and predicted structural homology with ns2, including two catalytic HxT/S motifs. Bacterially expressed VP3-CTD exhibited 2,5-PDE activity, which cleaved 2-5A in vitro. In addition, VP3-CTD expressed transiently in mammalian cells depleted 2-5A levels induced by OAS activation with poly(rI):poly(rC), preventing RNase L activation. In the context of recombinant chimeric MHV expressing inactive ns2, VP3-CTD restored the ability of the virus to replicate efficiently in macrophages or in the livers of infected mice, whereas mutant viruses expressing inactive VP3-CTD (H718A or H798R) were attenuated. In addition, chimeric viruses expressing either active ns2 or VP3-CTD, but not nonfunctional equivalents, were able to protect ribosomal RNA from RNase L-mediated degradation. Thus, VP3-CTD is a 2,5-PDE able to functionally substitute for ns2 in MHV infection. Remarkably, therefore, two disparate RNA viruses encode proteins with homologous 2,5-PDEs that antagonize activation of innate immunity.
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Rotavirus NSP1 mediates degradation of interferon regulatory factors through targeting of the dimerization domain.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2013
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Rotavirus nonstructural protein NSP1 can inhibit expression of interferon (IFN) and IFN-stimulated gene products by inducing proteasome-mediated degradation of IFN-regulatory factors (IRFs), including IRF3, IRF5, and IRF7. All IRF proteins share an N-terminal DNA-binding domain (DBD), and IRF3, IRF5, and IRF7 contain a similar C-proximal IRF association domain (IAD) that mediates IRF dimerization. An autoinhibitory domain (ID) at the extreme C terminus interacts with the IAD, burying residues necessary for IRF dimerization. Phosphorylation of serine/threonine residues in the ID induces charge repulsions that unmask the IAD, enabling IRF dimerization and subsequent nuclear translocation. To define the region of IRF proteins targeted for degradation by NSP1, we generated IRF3 and IRF7 truncation mutants and transiently expressed each with simian SA11-4F NSP1. These assays indicated that the IAD represented a necessary and sufficient target for degradation. Because NSP1 did not mediate degradation of truncated forms of the IAD, NSP1 likely requires a structurally intact IAD for recognition and targeting of IRF proteins. IRF9, which contains an IAD-like region that directs interactions with signal inducer and activator of transcription (STAT) proteins, was also targeted for degradation by NSP1, while IRF1, which lacks an IAD, was not. Analysis of mutant forms of IRF3 unable to undergo dimerization or that were constitutively dimeric showed that both were targeted for degradation by NSP1. These results indicate that SA11-4F NSP1 can induce degradation of inactive and activated forms of IAD-containing IRF proteins (IRF3 to IRF9), allowing a multipronged attack on IFN-based pathways that promote antiviral innate and adaptive immune responses.
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Signatures of selection in the Iberian honey bee (Apis mellifera iberiensis) revealed by a genome scan analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms.
Mol. Ecol.
PUBLISHED: 04-20-2013
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Understanding the genetic mechanisms of adaptive population divergence is one of the most fundamental endeavours in evolutionary biology and is becoming increasingly important as it will allow predictions about how organisms will respond to global environmental crisis. This is particularly important for the honey bee, a species of unquestionable ecological and economical importance that has been exposed to increasing human-mediated selection pressures. Here, we conducted a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based genome scan in honey bees collected across an environmental gradient in Iberia and used four FST -based outlier tests to identify genomic regions exhibiting signatures of selection. Additionally, we analysed associations between genetic and environmental data for the identification of factors that might be correlated or act as selective pressures. With these approaches, 4.4% (17 of 383) of outlier loci were cross-validated by four FST -based methods, and 8.9% (34 of 383) were cross-validated by at least three methods. Of the 34 outliers, 15 were found to be strongly associated with one or more environmental variables. Further support for selection, provided by functional genomic information, was particularly compelling for SNP outliers mapped to different genes putatively involved in the same function such as vision, xenobiotic detoxification and innate immune response. This study enabled a more rigorous consideration of selection as the underlying cause of diversity patterns in Iberian honey bees, representing an important first step towards the identification of polymorphisms implicated in local adaptation and possibly in response to recent human-mediated environmental changes.
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Ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction using bisuspensory fixation: a biomechanical comparison with the docking technique.
Am J Sports Med
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2013
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Many ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) reconstruction techniques have been created and biomechanically tested. Single-bundle reconstructions aim to re-create the important anterior bundle of the UCL. To date, no technique has utilized suspensory fixation on the ulnar and humeral sides to create a single-bundle reconstruction.
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Generation of genetically stable recombinant rotaviruses containing novel genome rearrangements and heterologous sequences by reverse genetics.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2013
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The rotavirus (RV) genome consists of 11 segments of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). Typically, each segment contains 5 and 3 untranslated regions (UTRs) that flank an open reading frame (ORF) encoding a single protein. RV variants with segments of atypical size owing to sequence rearrangements have been described. In many cases, the rearrangement originates from a partial head-to-tail sequence duplication that initiates after the stop codon of the ORF, leaving the protein product of the segment unaffected. To probe the limits of the RV genome to accommodate additional genetic sequence, we used reverse genetics to insert duplications (analogous to synthetic rearrangements) and heterologous sequences into the 3 UTR of the segment encoding NSP2 (gene 8). The approach allowed the recovery of recombinant RVs that contained sequence duplications (up to 200 bp) and heterologous sequences, including those for FLAG, the hepatitis C virus E2 epitope, and the internal ribosome entry site of cricket paralysis virus. The recombinant RVs grew to high titer (>10(7) PFU/ml) and remained genetically stable during serial passage. Despite their longer 3 UTRs, rearranged RNAs of recombinant RVs expressed wild-type levels of protein in vivo. Competitive growth experiments indicated that, unlike RV segments with naturally occurring sequence duplications, genetically engineered segments were less efficiently packaged into progeny viruses. Thus, features of naturally occurring rearranged segments, other than their increased length, contribute to their enhanced packaging phenotype. Our results define strategies for developing recombinant RVs as expression vectors, potentially leading to next-generation RV vaccines that induce protection against other infectious agents.
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Biomechanical effects of a 2 suture-pass medial inter-implant mattress on transosseous-equivalent rotator cuff repair and considerations for a "technical efficiency ratio"
J Shoulder Elbow Surg
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2013
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Rotator cuff repair involving fewer tendon suture passes without compromising biomechanical performance would represent a technical advancement. An inter-implant "medial pulley-mattress" transosseous-equivalent (MP-TOE) repair requiring fewer tendon suture-passes was hypothesized to provide equivalent biomechanical characteristics compared to the control.
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Mutations in the rotavirus spike protein VP4 reduce trypsin sensitivity but not viral spread.
J. Gen. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2013
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Infectious entry of the nonenveloped rotavirus virion requires proteolysis of the spike protein VP4 to mediate conformational changes associated with membrane penetration. We sequenced and characterized an isolate that was cultured in the absence of trypsin and found that it is more resistant to proteolysis than WT virus. A substitution mutation abrogates one of the defined trypsin-cleavage sites, suggesting that blocking proteolysis at this site reduces the overall kinetics of proteolysis. Kinetic analysis of the membrane penetration-associated conformational change indicated that the fold-back of the mutant spike protein is slower than that of WT. Despite these apparent biochemical defects, the mutant virus replicates in an identical manner to the WT virus. These findings enhance an understanding of VP4 functions and establish new strategies to interrogate rotavirus cell entry.
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The battle between rotavirus and its host for control of the interferon signaling pathway.
PLoS Pathog.
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2013
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Viral pathogens must overcome innate antiviral responses to replicate successfully in the host organism. Some of the mechanisms viruses use to interfere with antiviral responses in the infected cell include preventing detection of viral components, perturbing the function of transcription factors that initiate antiviral responses, and inhibiting downstream signal transduction. RNA viruses with small genomes and limited coding space often express multifunctional proteins that modulate several aspects of the normal host response to infection. One such virus, rotavirus, is an important pediatric pathogen that causes severe gastroenteritis, leading to ~450,000 deaths globally each year. In this review, we discuss the nature of the innate antiviral responses triggered by rotavirus infection and the viral mechanisms for inhibiting these responses.
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Genetic analyses reveal differences in the VP7 and VP4 antigenic epitopes between human rotaviruses circulating in Belgium and rotaviruses in Rotarix and RotaTeq.
J. Clin. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 12-21-2011
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Two live-attenuated rotavirus group A (RVA) vaccines, Rotarix (G1P[8]) and RotaTeq (G1-G4, P[8]), have been successfully introduced in many countries worldwide, including Belgium. The parental RVA strains used to generate the vaccines were isolated more than 20 years ago in France (G4 parental strain in RotaTeq) and the United States (all other parental strains). At present, little is known about the relationship between currently circulating human RVAs and the vaccine strains. In this study, we determined sequences for the VP7 and VP4 outer capsid proteins of representative G1P[8], G2P[4], G3P[8], G4P[8], G9P[8], and G12P[8] RVAs circulating in Belgium during 2007 to 2009. The analyses showed that multiple amino acid differences existed between the VP7 and VP4 antigenic epitopes of the vaccine viruses and the Belgian isolates, regardless of their G and P genotypes. However, the highest variability was observed among the circulating G1P[8] RVA strains and the G1 and P[8] components of both RVA vaccines. In particular, RVA strains of the P[8] lineage 4 (OP354-like) showed a significant number of amino acid differences with the P[8] VP4 of both vaccines. In addition, the circulating Belgian G3 RVA strains were found to possibly possess an extra N-linked glycosylation site compared to the G3 RVA vaccine strain of RotaTeq. These results indicate that the antigenic epitopes of RVA strains contained in the vaccines differ substantially from those of the currently circulating RVA strains in Belgium. Over time, these differences might result in selection for strains that escape the RVA neutralizing-antibody pressure induced by vaccines.
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P-selectin glycoprotein ligand regulates the interaction of multiple myeloma cells with the bone marrow microenvironment.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 11-16-2011
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Interactions between multiple myeloma (MM) cells and the BM microenvironment play a critical role in the pathogenesis of MM and in the development of drug resistance by MM cells. Selectins are involved in extravasation and homing of leukocytes to target organs. In the present study, we focused on adhesion dynamics that involve P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1) on MM cells and its interaction with selectins in the BM microenvironment. We show that PSGL-1 is highly expressed on MM cells and regulates the adhesion and homing of MM cells to cells in the BM microenvironment in vitro and in vivo. This interaction involves both endothelial cells and BM stromal cells. Using loss-of-function studies and the small-molecule pan-selectin inhibitor GMI-1070, we show that PSGL-1 regulates the activation of integrins and downstream signaling. We also document that this interaction regulates MM-cell proliferation in coculture with BM microenvironmental cells and the development of drug resistance. Furthermore, inhibiting this interaction with GMI-1070 enhances the sensitization of MM cells to bortezomib in vitro and in vivo. These data highlight the critical contribution of PSGL-1 to the regulation of growth, dissemination, and drug resistance in MM in the context of the BM microenvironment.
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Human immune system mice: current potential and limitations for translational research on human antibody responses.
Immunol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2011
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It has recently become possible to generate chimeric mice durably engrafted with many components of the human immune system (HIS mice). We have characterized the maturation and function of the B cell compartment of HIS mice. The antibody response of HIS mice to T cell-dependent B cell antigens is limited, and contributing factors may be the general immaturity of the B cell compartment, infrequent helper T cells selected on human MHC class II antigens, and incomplete reconstitution of secondary lymphoid organs and their microenvironments. In contrast, HIS mice generate protective antibody responses to the bacterium Borrelia hermsii, which acts as a T cell-independent antigen in mice, but do not respond to purified polysaccharide antigens (PPS). We speculate that the anti-B. hermsii response of HIS mice is derived from an abundant B cell subset that may be analogous to B1 B cells in mice. We suggest that failure of HIS mice to respond to PPS is due to the lack of a B cell subset that may originate from adult bone marrow and is highly dependent on human interleukin-7 for development.
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FTY720 increases CD74 expression and sensitizes mantle cell lymphoma cells to milatuzumab-mediated cell death.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 10-31-2011
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Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is an aggressive B-cell malignancy with a short median survival despite multimodal therapy. FTY720, an immunosuppressive drug approved for the treatment of multiple sclerosis, promotes MCL cell death concurrent with down-modulation of phospho-Akt and cyclin D1 and subsequent cell-cycle arrest. However, the mechanism of FTY720-mediated MCL cell death remains to be fully clarified. In the present study, we show features of autophagy blockage by FTY720 treatment, including accumulation of autolysosomes and increased LC3-II and p62 levels. We also show that FTY720-induced cell death is mediated by lysosomal membrane permeabilization with subsequent translocation of lysosomal hydrolases to the cytosol. FTY720-mediated disruption of the autophagic-lysosomal pathway led to increased levels of CD74, a potential therapeutic target in MCL that is degraded in the lysosomal compartment. This finding provided rationale for examining combination therapy with FTY720 and milatuzumab, an anti-CD74 mAb. Treatment of MCL cell lines and primary tumor cells with FTY720 and milatuzumab resulted in statistically significant enhanced cell death, which was synergistic in blastic variant MCL cell lines. Significant in vivo therapeutic activity of combination treatment was also demonstrated in a preclinical, in vivo model of MCL. These findings support clinical evaluation of this combination in patients with MCL.
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Pre-organization of the core structure of E-selectin antagonists.
Chemistry
PUBLISHED: 09-14-2011
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A new class of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (GlcNAc) mimics for E-selectin antagonists was designed and synthesized. The mimic consists of a cyclohexane ring substituted with alkyl substituents adjacent to the linking position of the fucose moiety. Incorporation into E-selectin antagonists led to the test compounds 8 and the 2-benzoylated analogues 21, which exhibit affinities in the low micromolar range. By using saturation transfer difference (STD)-NMR it could be shown that the increase in affinity does not result from an additional hydrophobic contact of the alkyl substituent with the target protein E-selectin, but rather from a steric effect stabilizing the antagonist in its bioactive conformation. The loss of affinity found for antagonists 10 and 35 containing a methyl substituent in a remote position (and therefore unable to support to the stabilization of the core) further supports this hypothesis. Finally, when a GlcNAc mimetic containing two methyl substituents (52 and 53) was used, in which one methyl was positioned adjacent to the fucose linking position and the other was in a remote position, the affinity was regained.
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Interleukin-1? expression by a recombinant porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.
Virus Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-28-2011
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The cytokine interleukin-1 beta (IL-1?) is a potent inflammatory mediator in response to infection, and can be used as an immunological adjuvant. In this study, we constructed a recombinant porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (vP129/swIL1?) expressing swine IL-1? from the separate subgenomic mRNA inserted between the ORF1b and ORF2 genome region. MARC-145 cells infected with vP129/swIL1? secreted 1947 pg of IL-1? per 2 × 10(5)cells at 36 h post-infection. In vitro growth kinetics analysis in MARC-145 cells showed that the vP129/swIL1? virus had a similar replication rate as that of parental virus. We further performed in vivo characterization of the vP129/swIL1? virus in a nursery pig disease model. The vP129/swIL1? infected pigs did not show visible clinical signs, while respiratory distress and lethargy were evident in pigs infected with the parental virus. The expression of various cytokines from peripheral blood mononuclear cells measured by fluorescent microsphere immunoassay showed that IL-1?, IL-4 and IFN-? expression levels were up-regulated in pigs infected with vP129/swIL1? at 7 and 14 days post-infection. However, no detectable level of IL-1? was found in serum samples from pigs infected with either vP129/swIL1? or parental virus. In summary, this study demonstrated a recombinant PRRSV as a useful tool to study the role of different cytokines in disease progression and immune responses, which represents a new strategy for future therapeutic application and vaccine development.
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Intra-genotypic diversity of archival G4P[8] human rotaviruses from Washington, DC.
Infect. Genet. Evol.
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2011
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Group A human rotaviruses (RVs) remain the most frequently detected viral agents associated with acute gastroenteritis in infants and young children. Despite their medical importance, relatively few complete genome sequences have been determined for commonly circulating G/P-type strains (i.e., G1P[8], G2P[4], G3P[8], G4P[8], and G9P[8]). In the current study, we sequenced the genomes of 11 G4P[8] isolates from stool specimens that were collected in Washington, DC during the years of 1974-1991. We found that the VP7-VP4-VP6-VP1-VP2-VP3-NSP1-NSP2-NSP3-NSP4-NSP5/6-encoding genes of all 11 G4P[8] RVs have the genotypes of G4-P[8]-I1-R1-C1-M1-A1-N1-T1-E1-H1. By constructing phylogenetic trees for each gene, extensive intra-genotypic diversity was revealed among the G4P[8] RVs, and new sub-genotype gene alleles were identified. Several of these alleles are nearly identical to those of G3P[8] isolates previously sequenced from this same Washington, DC collection, strongly suggesting that the RVs underwent gene reassortment. On the other hand, we observed that some G4P[8] RVs exhibit completely different allele-based genome constellations, despite being collected during the same epidemic season; there was no evidence of gene reassortment between these strains. This observation extends our previous findings and supports the notion that stable, genetically-distinct clades of human RVs with the same G/P-type can co-circulate in a community. Interestingly, the sub-genotype gene alleles found in some of the DC RVs share a close evolutionary relationship with genes of more contemporary human strains. Thus, archival human RVs sequenced in this study might represent evolutionary precursors to modern-day strains.
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Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis of proteolytic enzymes in cultures of human respiratory epithelial cells.
J Aerosol Med Pulm Drug Deliv
PUBLISHED: 03-16-2011
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Pancreatic proteolytic digestive enzymes are a major extracellular barrier to the sucessful systemic delivery of biopharmaceuticals via the oral route, whereas in health in the lungs these powerful proteases are virtually absent from the extracellular fluids. Despite this, the absorption of some (but not all) natural peptides and proteins from the lungs may be poor, and one has to acknowledge that information on the activity and spatial distribution of proteolytic enzymes in the human lung is scarce. Here, we investigated expression patterns of a series of proteolytic enzymes in several human respiratory cell types on mRNA level in an attempt to better understand the fate of inhaled biopharmaceuticals.
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Uniformity of rotavirus strain nomenclature proposed by the Rotavirus Classification Working Group (RCWG).
Arch. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2011
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In April 2008, a nucleotide-sequence-based, complete genome classification system was developed for group A rotaviruses (RVs). This system assigns a specific genotype to each of the 11 genome segments of a particular RV strain according to established nucleotide percent cutoff values. Using this approach, the genome of individual RV strains are given the complete descriptor of Gx-P[x]-Ix-Rx-Cx-Mx-Ax-Nx-Tx-Ex-Hx. The Rotavirus Classification Working Group (RCWG) was formed by scientists in the field to maintain, evaluate and develop the RV genotype classification system, in particular to aid in the designation of new genotypes. Since its conception, the group has ratified 51 new genotypes: as of April 2011, new genotypes for VP7 (G20-G27), VP4 (P[28]-P[35]), VP6 (I12-I16), VP1 (R5-R9), VP2 (C6-C9), VP3 (M7-M8), NSP1 (A15-A16), NSP2 (N6-N9), NSP3 (T8-T12), NSP4 (E12-E14) and NSP5/6 (H7-H11) have been defined for RV strains recovered from humans, cows, pigs, horses, mice, South American camelids (guanaco), chickens, turkeys, pheasants, bats and a sugar glider. With increasing numbers of complete RV genome sequences becoming available, a standardized RV strain nomenclature system is needed, and the RCWG proposes that individual RV strains are named as follows: RV group/species of origin/country of identification/common name/year of identification/G- and P-type. In collaboration with the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), the RCWG is also working on developing a RV-specific resource for the deposition of nucleotide sequences. This resource will provide useful information regarding RV strains, including, but not limited to, the individual gene genotypes and epidemiological and clinical information. Together, the proposed nomenclature system and the NCBI RV resource will offer highly useful tools for investigators to search for, retrieve, and analyze the ever-growing volume of RV genomic data.
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Bile acids promote HCV replication through the EGFR/ERK pathway in replicon-harboring cells.
Intervirology
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2011
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Bile acids promoted the replication of hepatitis C virus (HCV) and compromised the anti-HCV effects of interferon-? (IFN-?) in replicon-harboring cells. To explore a potential mechanism for the observation, we studied the effects of bile acids on the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway in association with HCV replication in genotype 1a or 1b replicon-harboring cells.
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Rotavirus VP2 core shell regions critical for viral polymerase activation.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2011
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The innermost VP2 core shell of the triple-layered, icosahedral rotavirus particle surrounds the viral genome and RNA processing enzymes, including the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (VP1). In addition to anchoring VP1 within the core, VP2 is also an essential cofactor that triggers the polymerase to initiate double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) synthesis using packaged plus-strand RNA templates. The VP2 requirement effectively couples packaging with genome replication and ensures that VP1 makes dsRNA only within an assembling previrion particle. However, the mechanism by which the rotavirus core shell protein activates the viral polymerase remains very poorly understood. In the current study, we sought to elucidate VP2 regions critical for VP1-mediated in vitro dsRNA synthesis. By comparing the functions of proteins from several different rotaviruses, we found that polymerase activation by the core shell protein is specific. Through truncation and chimera mutagenesis, we demonstrate that the VP2 amino terminus, which forms a decameric, internal hub underneath each 5-fold axis, plays an important but nonspecific role in VP1 activation. Our results indicate that the VP2 residues correlating with polymerase activation specificity are located on the inner face of the core shell, distinct from the amino terminus. Based on these findings, we predict that several regions of VP2 engage the polymerase during the concerted processes of rotavirus core assembly and genome replication.
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Assortment and packaging of the segmented rotavirus genome.
Trends Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2011
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The rotavirus (RV) genome comprises 11 segments of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) and is contained within a non-enveloped, icosahedral particle. During assembly, a highly coordinated selective packaging mechanism ensures that progeny RV virions contain one of each genome segment. Cis-acting signals thought to mediate assortment and packaging are associated with putative panhandle structures formed by base-pairing of the ends of RV plus-strand RNAs (+RNAs). Viral polymerases within assembling core particles convert the 11 distinct +RNAs to dsRNA genome segments. It remains unclear whether RV +RNAs are assorted before or during encapsidation, and the functions of viral proteins during these processes are not resolved. However, as reviewed here, recent insights gained from the study of RV and two other segmented RNA viruses, influenza A virus and bacteriophage ?6, reveal potential mechanisms of RV assortment and packaging.
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Diversity of interferon antagonist activities mediated by NSP1 proteins of different rotavirus strains.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 12-22-2010
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Studies involving limited numbers of rotavirus (RV) strains have shown that the viral gene 5 product, NSP1, can antagonize beta interferon (IFN-?) expression by inducing the degradation of IFN-regulatory factors (IRFs) (IRF3, IRF5, and IRF7) or a component of the E3 ubiquitin ligase complex responsible for activating NF-?B (?-transducin repeat-containing protein [?-TrCP]). To gain a broader perspective of NSP1 activities, we examined various RV strains for the ability to inhibit IFN-? expression in human cells. We found that all strains encoding wild-type NSP1 impeded IFN-? expression but not always through IRF3 degradation. To identify other degradation targets involved in suppressing IFN-? expression, we used transient expression vectors to test the abilities of a diverse collection of NSP1 proteins to target IRF3, IRF5, IRF7, and ?-TrCP for degradation. The results indicated that human RVs rely predominantly on the NSP1-induced degradation of IRF5 and IRF7 to suppress IFN signaling, whereas NSP1 proteins of animal RVs tended to target IRF3, IRF5, and IRF7, allowing the animal viruses a broader attack on the IFN-? signaling pathway. The results also suggested that the NSP1-induced degradation of ?-TrCP is an uncommon mechanism of subverting IFN-? signaling but is one that can be shared with NSP1 proteins that induce IRF degradation. Our analysis reveals that the activities of NSP1 proteins are diverse, with no obvious correlations between degradations of pairs of target proteins. Thus, RVs have evolved functionally distinct approaches for subverting the host antiviral response, a property consistent with the immense sequence variation noted for NSP1 proteins.
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Residues of the rotavirus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase template entry tunnel that mediate RNA recognition and genome replication.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 12-08-2010
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To replicate its segmented, double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) genome, the rotavirus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, VP1, must recognize viral plus-strand RNAs (+RNAs) and guide them into the catalytic center. VP1 binds to the conserved 3 end of rotavirus +RNAs via both sequence-dependent and sequence-independent contacts. Sequence-dependent contacts permit recognition of viral +RNAs and specify an autoinhibited positioning of the template within the catalytic site. However, the contributions to dsRNA synthesis of sequence-dependent and sequence-independent VP1-RNA interactions remain unclear. To analyze the importance of VP1 residues that interact with +RNA on genome replication, we engineered mutant VP1 proteins and assayed their capacity to synthesize dsRNA in vitro. Our results showed that, individually, mutation of residues that interact specifically with RNA bases did not diminish replication levels. However, simultaneous mutations led to significantly lower levels of dsRNA product, presumably due to impaired recruitment of +RNA templates. In contrast, point mutations of sequence-independent RNA contact residues led to severely diminished replication, likely as a result of improper positioning of templates at the catalytic site. A noteworthy exception was a K419A mutation that enhanced the initiation capacity and product elongation rate of VP1. The specific chemistry of Lys419 and its position at a narrow region of the template entry tunnel appear to contribute to its capacity to moderate replication. Together, our findings suggest that distinct classes of VP1 residues interact with +RNA to mediate template recognition and dsRNA synthesis yet function in concert to promote viral RNA replication at appropriate times and rates.
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The particle has landed--characterizing the fate of inhaled pharmaceuticals.
J Aerosol Med Pulm Drug Deliv
PUBLISHED: 12-08-2010
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Although there is a modest body of literature on the absorption of inhaled pharmaceuticals by normal lungs and some limited information from diseased lungs, there is still a surprising lack of mechanistic knowledge about the details of the processes involved. Where are molecules absorbed, what mechanisms are involved, how well are different lung regions penetrated, what are the determinants of metabolism and dissolution, and how best can one retard the clearance of molecules deposited in the lung or induce intracellular uptake by lung cells? Some general principles are evident: (1) small hydrophobic molecules are absorbed very fast (within tens of seconds) usually with little metabolism; (2) small hydrophilic molecules are absorbed fast (within tens of minutes), again with minimal metabolism; (3) very low water solubility of the drug can retard absorption; (4) peptides are rapidly absorbed but are significantly metabolized unless chemically protected against peptidases; (5) larger proteins are more slowly absorbed with variable bioavailabilities; and 6) insulin seems to be best absorbed distally in the lungs while certain antibodies appear to be preferentially absorbed in the upper airways. For local lung disease applications, and some systemic applications as well, many small molecules are absorbed much too fast for convenient and effective therapies. For systemic delivery of peptides and proteins, absorption may sometimes be too fast. Bioavailabilities are often too low for cost-effective and reliable treatments. A better understanding of the determinants of pulmonary drug dissolution, absorption, metabolism, and how to target specific regions and/or cells in the lung will enable safer and more effective inhaled medicines in the future.
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Dual selection mechanisms drive efficient single-gene reverse genetics for rotavirus.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2010
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Current methods for engineering the segmented double-stranded RNA genome of rotavirus (RV) are limited by inefficient recovery of the recombinant virus. In an effort to expand the utility of RV reverse genetics, we developed a method to recover recombinant viruses in which independent selection strategies are used to engineer single-gene replacements. We coupled a mutant SA11 RV encoding a temperature-sensitive (ts) defect in the NSP2 protein with RNAi-mediated degradation of NSP2 mRNAs to isolate a virus containing a single recombinant gene that evades both selection mechanisms. Recovery is rapid and simple; after two rounds of selective passage the recombinant virus reaches titers of ?10(4) pfu/mL. We used this reverse genetics method to generate a panel of viruses with chimeric NSP2 genes. For one of the chimeric viruses, the introduced NSP2 sequence was obtained from a pathogenic, noncultivated human RV isolate, demonstrating that this reverse genetics system can be used to study the molecular biology of circulating RVs. Combining characterized RV ts mutants and validated siRNA targets should permit the extension of this "two-hit" reverse genetics methodology to other RV genes. Furthermore, application of a dual selection strategy to previously reported reverse genetics methods for RV may enhance the efficiency of recombinant virus recovery.
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Primed for Discovery: Atomic-Resolution Cryo-EM Structure of a Reovirus Entry Intermediate.
Viruses
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2010
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A recently solved structure of the aquareovirus virion (Zhang, X; Jin, L.; Fang, Q; Hui, W.H.; Zhou Z.H. 3.3 Å Cryo-EM Structure of a Nonenveloped Virus Reveals a Priming Mechanism for Cell Entry. Cell2010, 141, 472-482 [1]) provides new insights into the order of entry events, as well as confirming and refining several aspects of the entry mechanism, for aquareovirus and the related orthoreovirus. In particular, the structure provides evidence of a defined order for the progressive proteolytic cleavages of myristoylated penetration protein VP5 that prime the virion for membrane penetration. These observations reinforce the concept that, much like enveloped viruses, nonenveloped virions often undergo priming events that lead to a meta-stable state, preparing the virus for membrane penetration under the appropriate circumstances. In addition, this and other recent studies highlight the increasing power of electron cryomicroscopy to analyze large, geometrically regular structures, such as icosahedral viruses, at atomic resolution.
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GMI-1070, a novel pan-selectin antagonist, reverses acute vascular occlusions in sickle cell mice.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2010
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Leukocyte adhesion in the microvasculature influences blood rheology and plays a key role in vaso-occlusive manifestations of sickle cell disease. Notably, polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) can capture circulating sickle red blood cells (sRBCs) in inflamed venules, leading to critical reduction in blood flow and vaso-occlusion. Recent studies have suggested that E-selectin expression by endothelial cells plays a key role by sending activating signals that lead to the activation of Mac-1 at the leading edge of PMNs, thereby allowing RBC capture. Thus, the inhibition of E-selectin may represent a valuable target in this disease. Here, we have tested the biologic properties of a novel synthetic pan-selectin inhibitor, GMI-1070, with in vitro assays and in a humanized model of sickle cell vaso-occlusion analyzed by intravital microscopy. We have found that GMI-1070 predominantly inhibited E-selectin-mediated adhesion and dramatically inhibited sRBC-leukocyte interactions, leading to improved microcirculatory blood flow and improved survival. These results suggest that GMI-1070 may represent a valuable novel therapeutic intervention for acute sickle cell crises that should be further evaluated in a clinical trial.
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Complete genome sequence analysis of candidate human rotavirus vaccine strains RV3 and 116E.
Virology
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2010
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Rotaviruses (RVs) cause severe gastroenteritis in infants and young children; yet, several strains have been isolated from newborns showing no signs of clinical illness. Two of these neonatal strains, RV3 (G3P[6]) and 116E (G9P[11]), are currently being developed as live-attenuated vaccines. In this study, we sequenced the eleven-segmented double-stranded RNA genomes of cell culture-adapted RV3 and 116E and compared their genes and protein products to those of other RVs. Using amino acid alignments and structural predictions, we identified residues of RV3 or 116E that may contribute to attenuation or influence vaccine efficacy. We also discovered residues of the VP4 attachment protein that correlate with the capacity of some P[6] strains, including RV3, to infect newborns versus older infants. The results of this study enhance our understanding of the molecular determinants of RV3 and 116E attenuation and are expected to aid in the ongoing development of these vaccine candidates.
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Inactivation of p53 signaling by p73 or PTEN ablation results in a transformed phenotype that remains susceptible to Nutlin-3 mediated apoptosis.
Cell Cycle
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2010
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The p53 signaling pathway is frequently disrupted in carcinogenesis. However, roughly 50% of all cancers express wild-type p53 and have alterations in accessory signaling components required for p53 activity. Using the well described E1A/RAS transformation model, in which p53 activity must be suppressed for transformation, we show here that p53 is inactive and unable to suppress transformation following ablation of p73 or PTEN. However, despite the transformed phenotype conferred by p53 inactivation following p73 or PTEN loss, p53 could be fully activated by Nutlin-3, resulting in efficient caspase-mediated apoptosis. Our novel and unexpected finding provides important information regarding the efficacy of Nutlin-3 and indicates that patients with tumors deficient in p53 function due to p73 or PTEN loss may benefit from Nutlin-3 treatment.
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Mechanism of intraparticle synthesis of the rotavirus double-stranded RNA genome.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2010
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Rotaviruses perform the remarkable tasks of transcribing and replicating 11 distinct double-stranded RNA genome segments within the confines of a subviral particle. Multiple viral polymerases are tethered to the interior of a particle, each dedicated to a solitary genome segment but acting in synchrony to synthesize RNA. Although the rotavirus polymerase specifically recognizes RNA templates in the absence of other proteins, its enzymatic activity is contingent upon interaction with the viral capsid. This intraparticle strategy of RNA synthesis helps orchestrate the concerted packaging and replication of the viral genome. Here, we review our current understanding of rotavirus RNA synthetic mechanisms.
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Simian rotaviruses possess divergent gene constellations that originated from interspecies transmission and reassortment.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 11-25-2009
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Although few simian rotaviruses (RVs) have been isolated, such strains have been important for basic research and vaccine development. To explore the origins of simian RVs, the complete genome sequences of strains PTRV (G8P[1]), RRV (G3P[3]), and TUCH (G3P[24]) were determined. These data allowed the genotype constellations of each virus to be determined and the phylogenetic relationships of the simian strains with each other and with nonsimian RVs to be elucidated. The results indicate that PTRV was likely transmitted from a bovine or other ruminant into pig-tailed macaques (its host of origin), since its genes have genotypes and encode outer-capsid proteins similar to those of bovine RVs. In contrast, most of the genes of rhesus-macaque strains, RRV and TUCH, have genotypes more typical of canine-feline RVs. However, the sequences of the canine and/or feline (canine/feline)-like genes of RRV and TUCH are only distantly related to those of modern canine/feline RVs, indicating that any potential transmission of a progenitor of these viruses from a canine/feline host to a simian host was not recent. The remaining genes of RRV and TUCH appear to have originated through reassortment with bovine, human, or other RV strains. Finally, comparison of PTRV, RRV, and TUCH genes with those of the vervet-monkey RV SA11-H96 (G3P[2]) indicates that SA11-H96 shares little genetic similarity to other simian strains and likely has evolved independently. Collectively, our data indicate that simian RVs are of diverse ancestry with genome constellations that originated largely by interspecies transmission and reassortment with nonhuman animal RVs.
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Culturing, storage, and quantification of rotaviruses.
Curr Protoc Microbiol
PUBLISHED: 11-04-2009
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Group A rotaviruses (RVs) infect the young of numerous animal species and cause acute gastroenteritis. Cultivation of animal and human RVs in cells requires proteolytic activation of the viral attachment protein using trypsin. Continuous cell lines, such as rhesus monkey kidney cells, as well as primary monkey kidney cells, are routinely used for the growth and characterization of RVs. Isolation and cultivation of human RVs from clinical fecal specimens is difficult and adaptation to growth in vitro requires multiple rounds of passage in primary cells. Following growth, RV stocks can be purified by centrifugation, if required, and quantified using plaque assay or fluorescence focus assay. This unit describes easily applicable procedures for the culturing, storage, and quantification of RVs.
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Rotavirus antagonism of the innate immune response.
Viruses
PUBLISHED: 09-14-2009
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Rotavirus is a primary cause of severe dehydrating gastroenteritis in infants and young children. The virus is sensitive to the antiviral effects triggered by the interferon (IFN)-signaling pathway, an important component of the host cell innate immune response. To counteract these effects, rotavirus encodes a nonstructural protein (NSP1) that induces the degradation of proteins involved in regulating IFN expression, such as members of the IFN regulatory factor (IRF) family. In some instances, NSP1 also subverts IFN expression by causing the degradation of a component of the E3 ubiquitin ligase complex responsible for activating NF-?B. By antagonizing multiple components of the IFN-induction pathway, NSP1 aids viral spread and contributes to rotavirus pathogenesis.
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Probing the carbohydrate recognition domain of E-selectin: the importance of the acid orientation in sLex mimetics.
Bioorg. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 08-25-2009
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The selectin-leukocyte interaction is the initial event in the early inflammatory cascade. This interplay proceeds via the terminal tetrasaccharide sialyl Lewis(x) (sLe(x)), present on physiological selectin ligands and E- and P-selectins located on the endothelial surface. Blocking this process is regarded as a promising therapeutic approach for inflammatory diseases where excessive leukocyte efflux is responsible for tissue damage. Selectin antagonists are generally based on sLe(x) as lead structure, containing the essential pharmacophores pre-oriented in the bioactive conformation. In this work, we describe a set of competitive sLe(x) mimetics possessing the carboxylic acid pharmacophore equipped with additional hydrophobic substituents as neuraminic acid (Neu5Ac) replacements. This small library of antagonists derived from Huisgen-1,3-dipolar cycloadditions allows to further probe the carbohydrate recognition domain of E-selectin.
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Evolutionary dynamics of human rotaviruses: balancing reassortment with preferred genome constellations.
PLoS Pathog.
PUBLISHED: 07-28-2009
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Group A human rotaviruses (RVs) are a major cause of severe gastroenteritis in infants and young children. Yet, aside from the genes encoding serotype antigens (VP7; G-type and VP4; P-type), little is known about the genetic make-up of emerging and endemic human RV strains. To gain insight into the diversity and evolution of RVs circulating at a single location over a period of time, we sequenced the eleven-segmented, double-stranded RNA genomes of fifty-one G3P[8] strains collected from 1974 to 1991 at Childrens Hospital National Medical Center, Washington, D. C. During this period, G1P[8] strains typically dominated, comprising on average 56% of RV infections each year in hospitalized children. A notable exception was in the 1976 and 1991 winter seasons when the incidence of G1P[8] infections decreased dramatically, a trend that correlated with a significant increase in G3P[8] infections. Our sequence analysis indicates that the 1976 season was characterized by the presence of several genetically distinct, co-circulating clades of G3P[8] viruses, which contained minor but significant differences in their encoded proteins. These 1976 lineages did not readily exchange gene segments with each other, but instead remained stable over the course of the season. In contrast, the 1991 season contained a single major clade, whose genome constellation was similar to one of the 1976 clades. The 1991 clade may have gained a fitness advantage after reassorting with as of yet unidentified RV strain(s). This study reveals for the first time that genetically distinct RV clades of the same G/P-type can co-circulate and cause disease. The findings from this study also suggest that, although gene segment exchange occurs, most reassortant strains are replaced over time by lineages with preferred genome constellations. Elucidation of the selective pressures that favor maintenance of RVs with certain sets of genes may be necessary to anticipate future vaccine needs.
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The ins and outs of four-tunneled Reoviridae RNA-dependent RNA polymerases.
Curr. Opin. Struct. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2009
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RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RdRps) of the segmented double-stranded (ds) RNA viruses of the Reoviridae family exhibit distinguishing structural elements, enabling the enzymes to function within the confines of a proteinaceous core particle. These globular, cage-like polymerases are traversed by four well-defined tunnels, which not only allow template RNAs, nucleotides, and divalent cations to access the interior catalytic site, but also provide two distinct exit conduits for RNA templates and products--one leading out of the core and the other back inside the core. Although Reoviridae RdRps are intrinsically capable of binding template, their catalytic activities are tightly regulated by interactions with core shell proteins. This intra-particle mechanism of RNA synthesis coordinates genome packaging with replication during the infectious cycle.
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Effects of exercise mode and duration on 24-h IGF-I system recovery responses.
Med Sci Sports Exerc
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2009
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This study hypothesized that insulin-like growth factor-binding protein (IGFBP), rather than insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) itself, would be more responsive to acute exercise stress in a dose-dependent fashion.
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Shared and group-specific features of the rotavirus RNA polymerase reveal potential determinants of gene reassortment restriction.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2009
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Rotaviruses (RVs) are nonenveloped, 11-segmented, double-stranded RNA viruses that are major pathogens associated with acute gastroenteritis. Group A, B, and C RVs have been isolated from humans; however, intergroup gene reassortment does not occur for reasons that remain unclear. This restriction might reflect the failure of the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp; VP1) to recognize and replicate the RNA of a different group. To address this possibility, we contrasted the sequences, structures, and functions of RdRps belonging to RV groups A, B, and C (A-VP1, B-VP1, and C-VP1, respectively). We found that conserved amino acid residues are located within the hollow center of VP1 near the active site, whereas variable, group-specific residues are mostly surface exposed. By creating a three-dimensional homology model of C-VP1 with the A-VP1 crystallographic data, we provide evidence that these RV RdRps are nearly identical in their tertiary folds and that they have the same RNA template recognition mechanism that differs from that of B-VP1. Consistent with the structural data, recombinant A-VP1 and C-VP1 are capable of replicating one anothers RNA templates in vitro. Nonetheless, the activity of both RdRps is strictly dependent upon the presence of cognate RV core shell protein A-VP2 or C-VP2, respectively. Together, the results of this study provide unprecedented insight into the structure and function of RV RdRps and support the notion that VP1 interactions may influence the emergence of reassortant viral strains.
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Speciation by monobrachial centric fusions: a test of the model using nuclear DNA sequences from the bat genus Rhogeessa.
Mol. Phylogenet. Evol.
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2009
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Members of Rhogeessa are hypothesized to have undergone speciation via chromosomal rearrangements in a model termed speciation by monobrachial centric fusions. Recently, mitochondrial cytochrome-b sequence data tentatively supported this hypothesis but could not explicitly test the models expectations regarding interbreeding among karyotypic forms. These data showed potential evidence for hybridization or incomplete lineage sorting between the karyotypically distinct R. tumida and R. aeneus and identified multiple lineages of karyotypically identical R. tumida. Here, we present a more comprehensive test of speciation by monobrachial centric fusions in Rhogeessa. Our analysis is based on sequence data from two nuclear loci: paternally inherited ZFY and autosomal MPI genes. These data provide results consistent either with incomplete lineage sorting or ancient hybridization to explain alleles shared at low frequency between R. aeneus and R. tumida. Recent and ongoing hybridization between any species can be ruled out. These data confirm the presence of multiple lineages of the 2n=34 karyotypic form ("R. tumida") that are not each others closest relatives. These results are generally consistent with speciation by monobrachial centric fusions, although additional modes of speciation have also occurred in Rhogeessa. Phylogeographic analyses indicate habitat differences may be responsible for isolation and divergence between different lineages currently referred to as R. tumida.
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Modulation of CD163 receptor expression and replication of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in porcine macrophages.
Virus Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2009
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Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) has a specific cell tropism for differentiated macrophages, such as porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs). We analyzed the expression of CD163 on PAMs and macrophages derived from CD14 positive blood monocytes (MDMs), in correlation with PRRSV replication. By flow cytometry analysis, we showed that the levels of CD163 expression correlated well with the overall level of PRRSV replication. We further examined the effects of modulators of macrophage function, including 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and interleukin (IL)-10 on the expression of CD163 and PRRSV replication. Pre-treatment of PAMs or MDMs with TPA or LPS resulted in decreased expression of CD163 and reduction in PRRSV replication. On the contrary, the incubation of CD14 positive monocytes with IL-10 during differentiation into MDMs resulted in up-regulated expression of CD163 with a corresponding increase in PRRSV infection. These data indicate that the expression of CD163 on macrophages in different microenvironments, in vivo, may determine the replication efficiency and subsequent pathogenecity of PRRSV.
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Maximum carotid artery wall thickness and risk factors in a young primary prevention population.
Brain Behav
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Maximum carotid artery wall thickness was utilized in a primary prevention population and compared with baseline risk factors. Carotid wall thickness was measured between the blood-intima and media-adventitia interfaces by B-mode ultrasonography using software calipers at points of protrusion. Long-axis measures were confirmed by short-axis assessment. The maximum carotid wall thickness for each subject was divided by age in years to yield an annual accretion rate (called carotid intima-media thickness accretion rate [CIMTAR]). The entire study population was then divided by median CIMTAR to investigate the association with baseline variables used in standard risk assessments with the bifurcated groups. Traditional risk factors such as age, diabetes, smoking, hyperlipidemia, and obesity were not associated with greater than median CIMTAR. Only male gender (P = 0.02) and systolic blood pressure (P = 0.002) in baseline variables were associated with an elevated CIMTAR for the entire population. Among those not taking lipid-lowering therapy at baseline, only systolic blood pressure remained significant (P = 0.0002). Correlations between low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol level and maximum carotid wall thickness/CIMTAR were weak for the entire population (r = -0.17/r = -0.12, respectively). Measure of maximum carotid wall thickness may select patients earlier for treatment than traditional risk factors. The addition of CIMTAR to risk algorithms may permit a single-point assignation of subsequent vascular risk that is more efficacious than traditional risk factors.
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Vascular niche E-selectin regulates hematopoietic stem cell dormancy, self renewal and chemoresistance.
Nat. Med.
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The microenvironment, or niche, surrounding a stem cell largely governs its cellular fate. Two anatomical niches for hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) have been reported in the bone marrow, but a distinct function for each of these niches remains unclear. Here we report a new role for the adhesion molecule E-selectin expressed exclusively by bone marrow endothelial cells in the vascular HSC niche. HSC quiescence was enhanced and self-renewal potential was increased in E-selectin knockout (Sele(-/-)) mice or after administration of an E-selectin antagonist, demonstrating that E-selectin promotes HSC proliferation and is a crucial component of the vascular niche. These effects are not mediated by canonical E-selectin ligands. Deletion or blockade of E-selectin enhances HSC survival threefold to sixfold after treatment of mice with chemotherapeutic agents or irradiation and accelerates blood neutrophil recovery. As bone marrow suppression is a severe side effect of high-dose chemotherapy, transient blockade of E-selectin is potentially a promising treatment for the protection of HSCs during chemotherapy or irradiation.
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Crystallographic Analysis of Rotavirus NSP2-RNA Complex Reveals Specific Recognition of 5 GG Sequence for RTPase Activity.
J. Virol.
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Rotavirus nonstructural protein NSP2, a functional octamer, is critical for the formation of viroplasms, which are exclusive sites for replication and packaging of the segmented double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) rotavirus genome. As a component of replication intermediates, NSP2 is also implicated in various replication-related activities. In addition to sequence-independent single-stranded RNA-binding and helix-destabilizing activities, NSP2 exhibits monomer-associated nucleoside and 5 RNA triphosphatase (NTPase/RTPase) activities that are mediated by a conserved H225 residue within a narrow enzymatic cleft. Lack of a 5 ?-phosphate is a common feature of the negative-strand RNA [(-)RNA] of the packaged dsRNA segments in rotavirus. Strikingly, all (-)RNAs (of group A rotaviruses) have a 5 GG dinucleotide sequence. As the only rotavirus protein with 5 RTPase activity, NSP2 is implicated in the removal of the ?-phosphate from the rotavirus (-)RNA. To understand how NSP2, despite its sequence-independent RNA-binding property, recognizes (-)RNA to hydrolyze the ?-phosphate within the catalytic cleft, we determined a crystal structure of NSP2 in complex with the 5 consensus sequence of minus-strand rotavirus RNA. Our studies show that the 5 GG of the bound oligoribonucleotide interacts extensively with highly conserved residues in the NSP2 enzymatic cleft. Although these residues provide GG-specific interactions, surface plasmon resonance studies suggest that the C-terminal helix and other basic residues outside the enzymatic cleft account for sequence-independent RNA binding of NSP2. A novel observation from our studies, which may have implications in viroplasm formation, is that the C-terminal helix of NSP2 exhibits two distinct conformations and engages in domain-swapping interactions, which result in the formation of NSP2 octamer chains.
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A germline-competent embryonic stem cell line from NOD.Cg-Prkdc ( scid ) Il2rg ( tm1Wjl )/SzJ (NSG) mice.
Transgenic Res.
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The NOD.Cg-Prkdc ( scid ) Il2rg ( tm1Wjl )/SzJ mouse strain, commonly known as NSG (for NOD SCID Gamma) is severely immunodeficient and thus is an excellent recipient for xenografts, and in particular for engrafting human tumor cells and human hematopoietic stem cells. In the latter case, these cells give rise to many human hematopoetic lineages in their NSG hosts, resulting in recapitulation of many of the features of a human immune system. However, the immune system of these "humanized mice" (huMice) is not completely functional, in part because of a lack of expression of necessary human cytokines and HLA molecules by NSG host tissues. In order to facilitate the genetic modification of this strain in order to improve the huMouse model, we have created germline competent ES cells of this strain in which such modifications can be carried out.
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Diversity and relationships of cocirculating modern human rotaviruses revealed using large-scale comparative genomics.
J. Virol.
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Group A rotaviruses (RVs) are 11-segmented, double-stranded RNA viruses and are primary causes of gastroenteritis in young children. Despite their medical relevance, the genetic diversity of modern human RVs is poorly understood, and the impact of vaccine use on circulating strains remains unknown. In this study, we report the complete genome sequence analysis of 58 RVs isolated from children with severe diarrhea and/or vomiting at Vanderbilt University Medical Center (VUMC) in Nashville, TN, during the years spanning community vaccine implementation (2005 to 2009). The RVs analyzed include 36 G1P[8], 18 G3P[8], and 4 G12P[8] Wa-like genogroup 1 strains with VP6-VP1-VP2-VP3-NSP1-NSP2-NSP3-NSP4-NSP5/6 genotype constellations of I1-R1-C1-M1-A1-N1-T1-E1-H1. By constructing phylogenetic trees, we identified 2 to 5 subgenotype alleles for each gene. The results show evidence of intragenogroup gene reassortment among the cocirculating strains. However, several isolates from different seasons maintained identical allele constellations, consistent with the notion that certain RV clades persisted in the community. By comparing the genes of VUMC RVs to those of other archival and contemporary RV strains for which sequences are available, we defined phylogenetic lineages and verified that the diversity of the strains analyzed in this study reflects that seen in other regions of the world. Importantly, the VP4 and VP7 proteins encoded by VUMC RVs and other contemporary strains show amino acid changes in or near neutralization domains, which might reflect antigenic drift of the virus. Thus, this large-scale, comparative genomic study of modern human RVs provides significant insight into how this pathogen evolves during its spread in the community.
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Comparative analysis of Reoviridae reverse genetics methods.
Methods
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Effective methods to engineer the segmented, double-stranded RNA genomes of Reoviridae viruses have only recently been developed. Mammalian orthoreoviruses (MRV) and bluetongue virus (BTV) can be recovered from entirely recombinant reagents, significantly improving the capacity to study the replication, pathogenesis, and transmission of these viruses. Conversely, rotaviruses (RVs), which are the major etiological agent of severe gastroenteritis in infants and children, have thus far only been modified using single-segment replacement methods. Reoviridae reverse genetics techniques universally rely on site-specific initiation of transcription by T7 RNA polymerase to generate the authentic 5 end of recombinant RNA segments, but they vary in how the RNAs are introduced into cells: recombinant BTV is recovered by transfection of in vitro transcribed RNAs, whereas recombinant MRV and RV RNAs are transcribed intracellularly from transfected plasmid cDNAs. Additionally, several parameters have been identified in each system that are essential for recombinant virus recovery. Generating recombinant BTV requires the use of 5 capped RNAs and is enhanced by multiple rounds of RNA transfection, suggesting that translation of viral proteins is likely the rate-limiting step. For RV, the efficiency of recovery is almost entirely dependent on the strength of the selection mechanism used to isolate the single-segment recombinant RV from the unmodified helper virus. The reverse genetics methods for BTV and RV are presented and compared to the previously described MRV methods. Analysis and comparison of each method suggest several key lines of research that might lead to a reverse genetics system for RV, analogous to those used for MRV and BTV.
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Rotavirus RNA polymerases resolve into two phylogenetically distinct classes that differ in their mechanism of template recognition.
Virology
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Rotaviruses (RVs) are segmented double-stranded RNA viruses that cause gastroenteritis in mammals and birds. Within the RV genus, eight species (RVA-RVH) have been proposed. Here, we report the first RVF and RVG sequences for the viral RNA polymerase (VP1)-encoding segments and compare them to those of other RV species. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that the VP1 RNA segments and proteins resolve into two major clades, with RVA, RVC, RVD and RVF in clade A, and RVB, RVG and RVH in clade B. Plus-strand RNA of clade A viruses, and not clade B viruses, contain a 3-proximal UGUG cassette that serves as the VP1 recognition signal. VP1 structures for a representative of each RV species were predicted using homology modeling. Structural elements involved in interactions with the UGUG cassette were conserved among VP1 of clade A, suggesting a conserved mechanism of viral RNA recognition for these viruses.
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Mutational analysis of residues involved in nucleotide and divalent cation stabilization in the rotavirus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase catalytic pocket.
Virology
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The rotavirus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), VP1, contains canonical RdRp motifs and a priming loop that is hypothesized to undergo conformational rearrangements during RNA synthesis. In the absence of viral core shell protein VP2, VP1 fails to interact stably with divalent cations or nucleotides and has a retracted priming loop. To identify residues of potential import to nucleotide and divalent cation stabilization, we aligned VP1 of divergent rotaviruses and the structural homolog reovirus ?3. VP1 mutants were engineered and characterized for RNA synthetic capacity in vitro. Conserved aspartic acids in RdRp motifs A and C and arginines in motif F that likely stabilize divalent cations and nucleotides were required for efficient RNA synthesis. Mutation of individual priming loop residues diminished or enhanced RNA synthesis efficiency without obviating the need for VP2, which suggests that this structure serves as a dynamic regulatory element that links RdRp activity to particle assembly.
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Interactions among capsid proteins orchestrate rotavirus particle functions.
Curr Opin Virol
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Rotaviruses are members of the Reoviridae family of non-enveloped viruses and important etiologic agents of acute gastroenteritis in infants and young children. In recent years, high-resolution structures of triple-layered rotavirus virions and the constituent proteins have provided valuable insights into functions. Of note, structural studies have revealed the position of the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, VP1, within the inner capsid, which in turn provides clues about the location of the viral capping machinery and the route of viral transcript egress. Mechanisms by which the viral spike protein, VP4, mediates receptor binding and membrane penetration have also been aided by high-resolution structural studies. Future work may serve to fill the remaining gaps in understanding of rotavirus particle structure and function.
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Vaccine-derived NSP2 segment in rotaviruses from vaccinated children with gastroenteritis in Nicaragua.
Infect. Genet. Evol.
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Rotavirus (RV) vaccination programs have been established in several countries using the human-attenuated G1P[8] monovalent vaccine Rotarix (GlaxoSmithKline) and/or the human-bovine reassortant G1, G2, G3, G4, P[8] pentavalent vaccine RotaTeq (Merck). The efficacy of both vaccines is high (?90%) in developed countries, but can be remarkably lower in developing countries. For example, a vaccine efficacy against severe diarrhea of only 58% was observed in a 2007-2009 Nicaraguan study using RotaTeq. To gain insight into the significant level of vaccine failure in this country, we sequenced the genomes of RVs recovered from vaccinated Nicaraguan children with gastroenteritis. The results revealed that all had genotype specificities typical for human RVs (11 G1P[8], 1 G3P[8]) and that the sequences and antigenic epitopes of the outer capsid proteins (VP4 and VP7) of these viruses were similar to those reported for RVs isolated elsewhere in the world. As expected, nine of the G1P[8] viruses and the single G3P[8] virus had genome constellations typical of human G1P[8] and G3P[8] RVs: G1/3-P[8]-I1-R1-C1-M1-A1-N1-T1-E1-H1. However, two of the G1P[8] viruses had atypical constellations, G1-P[8]-I1-R1-C1-M1-A1-N2-T1-E1-H1, due to the presence of a genotype-2 NSP2 (N2) gene. The sequence of the N2 NSP2 gene was identical to the bovine N2 NSP2 gene of RotaTeq, indicating that the two atypical viruses originated via reassortment of human G1P[8] RVs with RotaTeq viruses. Together, our data suggest that the high level of vaccine failure in Nicaraguan is probably not due to antigenic drift of commonly circulating virus strains nor the emergence of new antigenetically distinct virus strains. Furthermore, our data suggest that the widespread use of the RotaTeq vaccine has led to the introduction of vaccine genes into circulating human RVs.
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Rotavirus variant replicates efficiently although encoding an aberrant NSP3 that fails to induce nuclear localization of poly(A)-binding protein.
J. Gen. Virol.
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The rotavirus (RV) non-structural protein NSP3 forms a dimer that has binding domains for the translation initiation factor eIF4G and for a conserved 3-terminal sequence of viral mRNAs. Through these activities, NSP3 has been proposed to promote viral mRNA translation by directing circularization of viral polysomes. In addition, by disrupting interactions between eIF4G and the poly(A)-binding protein (PABP), NSP3 has been suggested to inhibit translation of host polyadenylated mRNAs and to stimulate relocalization of PABP from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. Herein, we report the isolation and characterization of SA11-4Fg7re, an SA11-4F RV derivative that contains a large sequence duplication initiating within the genome segment (gene 7) encoding NSP3. Our analysis showed that mutant NSP3 (NSP3m) encoded by SA11-4Fg7re is almost twice the size of the wild-type protein and retains the capacity to dimerize. However, in comparison to wild-type NSP3, NSP3m has a decreased capacity to interact with eIF4G and to suppress the translation of polyadenylated mRNAs. In addition, NSP3m fails to induce the nuclear accumulation of PABP in infected cells. Despite the defective activities of NSP3m, the levels of viral protein and progeny virus produced in SA11-4Fg7re- and SA11-4F-infected cells were indistinguishable. Collectively, these data are consistent with a role for NSP3 in suppressing host protein synthesis through antagonism of PABP activity, but also suggest that NSP3 functions may have little or no impact on the efficiency of virus replication in widely used RV-permissive cell lines.
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Rotavirus diversity and evolution in the post-vaccine world.
Discov Med
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Rotaviruses (RVs) are a large genetically diverse population of segmented double-stranded (ds) RNA viruses that are important causes of gastroenteritis in many animal species. The human RVs are responsible for the deaths of nearly 450,000 infants and young children each year, most occurring in developing countries. Recent large-scale sequencing efforts have revealed that the genomes of human RVs typically consist of phylogenetically linked constellations of eleven dsRNA segments. The presence of such preferred constellations indicate that the human RV genes have co-evolved to produce protein sets that work optimally together to support virus replication. Two of the viral genes encode virion outer capsid proteins (VP7 and VP4) whose antigenic properties define the G/P type of the virus. From year-to-year and place-to-place, the G/P type of human RVs associated with disease can fluctuate dramatically, phenomena that can be associated with the presence and behavior of genetically distinct RV clades. The recent introduction of two live attenuated RV vaccines [RotaTeq (TM) and Rotarix (TM)] into the childhood vaccination programs of various countries has been highly effective in reducing the incidence of RV diarrheal disease. Whether the widespread use of these vaccines will introduce selective pressures on human RVs, triggering genetic and antigenic changes that undermine the effectiveness of vaccinations programs, is uncertain and will require continued surveillance of human RVs.
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Structural insights into the coupling of virion assembly and rotavirus replication.
Nat. Rev. Microbiol.
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Viral replication is rapid and robust, but it is far from a chaotic process. Instead, successful production of infectious progeny requires that events occur in the correct place and at the correct time. Rotaviruses (segmented double-stranded RNA viruses of the Reoviridae family) seem to govern their replication through ordered disassembly and assembly of a triple-layered icosahedral capsid. In recent years, high-resolution structural data have provided unprecedented insight into these events. In this Review, we explore the current understanding of rotavirus replication and how it compares to replication of other Reoviridae family members.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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