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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Experimental and theoretical investigation of the electronic structure of Cu2O and CuO thin films on Cu(110) using x-ray photoelectron and absorption spectroscopy.
J Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2013
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The electronic structure of Cu(2)O and CuO thin films grown on Cu(110) was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). The various oxidation states, Cu(0), Cu(+), and Cu(2+), were unambiguously identified and characterized from their XPS and XAS spectra. We show that a clean and stoichiometric surface of CuO requires special environmental conditions to prevent loss of oxygen and contamination by background water. First-principles density functional theory XAS simulations of the oxygen K edge provide understanding of the core to valence transitions in Cu(+) and Cu(2+). A novel method to reference x-ray absorption energies based on the energies of isolated atoms is presented.
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Highly compressed two-dimensional form of water at ambient conditions.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2013
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The structure of thin-film water on a BaF(2)(111) surface under ambient conditions was studied using x-ray absorption spectroscopy from ambient to supercooled temperatures at relative humidity up to 95%. No hexagonal ice-like structure was observed in spite of the expected templating effect of the lattice-matched (111) surface. The oxygen K-edge x-ray absorption spectrum of liquid thin-film water on BaF(2) exhibits, at all temperatures, a strong resemblance to that of high-density phases for which the observed spectroscopic features correlate linearly with the density. Surprisingly, the highly compressed, high-density thin-film liquid water is found to be stable from ambient (300 K) to supercooled (259 K) temperatures, although a lower-density liquid would be expected at supercooled conditions. Molecular dynamics simulations indicate that the first layer water on BaF(2)(111) is indeed in a unique local structure that resembles high-density water, with a strongly collapsed second coordination shell.
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Reaction of bromide with bromate in thin-film water.
J Phys Chem A
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2010
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Thin-film water is ubiquitous in nature, occurring on virtually all surfaces exposed to the ambient environment. In particular, alkali halide salts below their deliquescence point are expected to be coated with water films from one molecular layer to a few nanometers thick. While salt ion mobility in thin-film water has been characterized in the literature, little is known about the chemistry occurring within these films. Here we investigate the surface chemistry change of a mixed bromine salt (KBr/KBrO(3)) using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, secondary electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. At 68% relative humidity, the Br(-) surface concentration was observed to deplete with increasing water vapor exposure time. Known bulk solution kinetics for the reaction of Br(-) + BrO(3)(-) has a second-order dependence on H(+) concentrations. However, in the present experiments there was no addition of an external acid. These results suggest that the pH and chemical reactions within thin-film water are uniquely differently from bulk solution. Because bromine chemistry in the atmosphere is strongly influenced by pH, these results have implications for the cycling of bromine where thin-film water is present.
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The nature of nitrate at the ice surface studied by XPS and NEXAFS.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 06-08-2010
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Trace contaminants such as strong acids have been suggested to affect the thickness of the quasi-liquid layer at the ice/air interface, which is at the heart of heterogeneous chemical reactions between snowpacks or cirrus clouds and the surrounding air. We used X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and electron yield near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) to probe the ice surface in the presence of HNO(3) formed from the heterogeneous hydrolysis of NO(2) at 230 K. We studied the nature of the adsorbed species at the ice/vapor interfaces as well as the effect of HNO(3) on the hydrogen bonding environment at the ice surface. The NEXAFS spectrum of ice with adsorbed HNO(3) can be represented as linear combination of the clean ice and nitrate solution spectrum, thus indicating that in the presence of HNO(3) the ice surface consists of a mixture of clean ice and nitrate ions that are coordinated as in a concentrated solution at the same temperature but higher HNO(3) pressures.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.