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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
[Antimicrobial susceptibility of clinical isolates of aerobic Gram-negative bacteria in 2006].
Jpn J Antibiot
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2010
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We determined MICs of antibacterial agents against 1280 clinical strains of aerobic Gram-negative bacteria (19 genus or species) isolated at 16 Japanese facilities in 2006. MICs were determined using mostly broth microdilution method and antibacterial activity was assessed. Strains producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) accounted for 3.7% of Escherichia coli, 2.7% of Klebsiella spp., and 11.4% of Proteus spp. Notably, 18.8% of Proteus mirabilis was found to produce ESBL higher than 16.7% in 2004. This result was higher extremely than other species. Among Haemophilus influenzae, only 1.2% produced beta-lactamase and 62.8% that increased compared with 57.7% in 2004, were beta-lactamase-negative ampicillin-resistant strains when classified by penicillin-binding protein 3 mutation. Although few antibacterial agents against Pseudomonas aeruginosa have potent activity, only three agents--doripenem, ciprofloxacin, and tobramycin-showed an MIC90 of 4 microg/mL. Of all P aeruginosa strains, 5.7% were resistant to six or more agents of nine antipseudomonal agents, a decrease compared to 8.7% in 2004. Against other glucose-non-fermentative Gram-negative bacteria, the activity of most antibacterial agents was similar to that in 2004.
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[Antimicrobial susceptibility of clinical isolates of aerobic Gram-positive cocci and anaerobic bacteria in 2006].
Jpn J Antibiot
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2010
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The activity of antibacterial agents against aerobic Gram-positive cocci (26 species, 1022 strains) and anaerobic bacteria (23 species, 184 strains) isolated from clinical specimens in 2006 at 16 clinical facilities in Japan were studied using either broth microdilution or agar dilution method. The ratio of methicillin-resistant strains among Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis was 53.0% and 65.8%, suggesting that resistant strains were isolated at high frequency. Vancomycin (VCM) and quinupristin/dalfopristin (QPR/DPR) had good antibacterial activity against methicillin-resistant S. aureus and methicillin-resistant S. epidermidis, with MIC90s of < or = 2 micrcog/mL. The ratio of penicillin (PC) intermediate and resistant strains classified by mutations of PC-binding proteins among Streptococcus pneumoniae was 87.6%. Ceftriaxone, cefpirome, cefepime, carbapenem antibiotics, VCM, teicoplanin, linezolid(LZD) and QPR/DPR had MIC90s of < or = 1 microg/mL against PC-intermediate and resistant S. pneumoniae strains. Against all strains of Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium, the MICs of VCM and TEIC were under 2 microg/mL, and no resistant strain was detected, suggesting that these agents had excellent activities against these species. 10.9% of E. faecalis strains or 3.5% of E. faecium strains showed intermediate or resistant to LZD. 24.4% of E. faecium strains showed intermediate or resistant to QPR/DPR. Against all strains of Clostridium difficile, the MIC of VCM were under 1 microg/mL, suggesting that VCM had excellent activity against C. difficile. Carbapenems showed good activity against Peptococcaceae, Bacteroides spp., and Prevotella spp. However since several strains of Bacteroides fragilis showed resistant to carbapenems and the susceptibility of this species should be well-focused in the future.
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[In vitro susceptibilities to levofloxacin and various antibacterial agents of 12,919 clinical isolates obtained from 72 centers in 2007].
Keizo Yamaguchi, Akira Ohno, Yoshikazu Ishii, Kazuhiro Tateda, Morihiro Iwata, Makoto Kanda, Kouji Akizawa, Chikara Shimizu, Shinichirou Kon, Kastushi Nakamura, Keiko Matsuda, Makoto Tominaga, Takuo Nakagawa, Akihiro Sugita, Tatsumi Ito, Jun Kato, Akira Suwabe, Kumiko Yamahata, Chizuko Kawamura, Hiromi Tashiro, Hiroko Horiuchi, Yosei Katayama, Shigemi Kondou, Shigeki Misawa, Misturu Murata, Yoshio Kobayashi, Hideyuki Okamoto, Kenichiro Yamazaki, Motoi Okada, Kosuke Haruki, Harushige Kanno, Masanori Aihara, Shigefumi Maesaki, Giichi Hashikita, Eiji Miyajima, Midori Sumitomo, Takefumi Saito, Nobuo Yamane, Chieko Kawashima, Takahisa Akiyama, Tamio Ieiri, Yoshitaka Yamamoto, Yuki Okamoto, Hidetoshi Okabe, Kunihiko Moro, Masayo Shigeta, Haruyoshi Yoshida, Masanobu Yamashita, Yukio Hida, Takayuki Takubo, Tadashi Kusakabe, Hiroya Masaki, Hitoshi Heijyou, Hideo Nakaya, Kunimitsu Kawahara, Reiko Sano, Syuji Matsuo, Hisashi Kono, Yosuke Yuzuki, Norio Ikeda, Masayo Idomuki, Masayuki Soma, Go Yamamoto, Syohiro Kinoshita, Seiji Kawano, Mikio Oka, Nobuchika Kusano, Dongchon Kang, Junko Ono, Minoru Yasujima, Makoto Miki, Masato Hayashi, Syunji Okubo, Syunkou Toyoshima, Mitsuo Kaku, Imao Sekine, Joji Shiotani, Hajime Horiuchi, Yoko Tazawa, Akiko Yoneyama, Kazunari Kumasaka, Kazuhiko Koike, Nobuyuki Taniguchi, Yukio Ozaki, Takashi Uchida, Masami Murakami, Kazuhisa Inuzuka, Hideo Gonda, Ikuo Yamaguchi, Yoshinori Fujimoto, Junji Iriyama, Yuko Asano, Hitoshi Genma, Masato Maekawa, Hitoshi Yoshimura, Kaname Nakatani, Hisashi Baba, Satoshi Ichiyama, Shinichi Fujita, Masao Kuwabara, Toshiro Okazaki, Hiromitsu Fujiwara, Hiromi Ota, Astushi Nagai, Jun Fujita, Kiyoshi Negayama, Tetsuro Sugiura, Mikio Kamioka, Mitsuharu Murase, Nobuhisa Yamane, Isamu Nakasone, Akihiko Okayama, Yosuke Aoki, Koji Kusaba, Yukari Nakashima, Hiroaki Miyanohara, Kazufumi Hiramatsu, Tetsunori Saikawa, Katsunori Yanagihara, Junichi Matsuda, Shigeru Kohno, Koichi Mashiba.
Jpn J Antibiot
PUBLISHED: 10-29-2009
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We have reported in this journal in vitro susceptibilities of clinical isolates to antibiotics every year since 1992. In this paper, we report the results of an analysis of in vitro susceptibilities of 12,919 clinical isolates from 72 centers in Japan to selected antibiotics in 2007 compared with the results from previous years. The common respiratory pathogens, Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Moraxella catarrhalis and Haemophilus influenzae maintained a high susceptibility to fluoroquinolones (FQs). The resistance of S. pyogenes to macrolides has been increasing every year and this was especially clear this year. Most strains of Enterobacteriaceae except for Escherichia coli showed a high susceptibility to FQs. Almost 30% of E. coli strains were resistant to FQs and the resistance increased further this year. FQs resistance of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was approximately 95% with the exception of 45% for sitafloxacin (STFX). FQs resistance of methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) was low at about 10%. FQs resistance of methicillin-resistant coagulase negative Staphylococci (MRCNS) was higher than that of methicillin-susceptible coagulase negative Staphylococci (MSCNS), but it was lower than that of MRSA. However, FQs resistance of MSCNS was higher than that of MSSA. FQs resistance of Enterococcus faecalis was 22.5% to 29.6%, while that of Enterococcusfaecium was more than 85% except for STFX (58.3%). In clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa derived from urinary tract infections, FQs resistance was 21-27%, which was higher than that of P. aeruginosa from respiratory tract infections at 13-21%, which was the same trend as in past years. Multidrug resistant strains accounted for 5.6% in the urinary tract and 1.8% in the respiratory tract. Acinetobacter spp. showed high susceptibility to FQs. The carbapenem resistant strains, which present a problem at present, accounted for 2.7%. Neisseria gonorrhoeae showed high resistance of 86-88% to FQs. The results of the present survey indicated that although methicillin-resistant Staphylococci, Enterococci, E. coli, P. aeruginosa, and N. gonorrhoeae showed resistance tendencies, and other species maintained high susceptibility rates more than 90% against FQs, which have been used clinically for over 15 years.
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[Antimicrobial susceptibilityof clinical isolates of aerobic gram-negative bacteria in 2008].
Jpn J Antibiot
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We determined MICs of antibacterial agents against 1145 clinical strains of aerobic Gram-negative bacteria (22 species) isolated at 16 Japanese facilities in 2008. MICs were determined using mostly broth microdilution method and antibacterial activity was assessed. Strains producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) accounted for 3.8% of Escherichia coli, 2.6% of Klebsiella pneumoniae, 6.8% of Klebsiella oxytoca, 5.5% of Proteus mirabilis and 1.8% of Proteus vulgaris. ESBL produced strains were 6.8% at K. oxytoca that increased compared with 3.2% and 5.5% at P. mirabilis that decreased compared with 18.8% in 2006. Among Haemophilus influenzae, 61.7% that decreased compared with 67.7% in 2006, equaled 58.7% in 2004, were strains when classified by penicillin-binding protein 3 mutation. Against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the activity of most antibacterial agents was similar to that in 2006. Although two antibacterial agents that tobramycin showed an MIC90 of 1 microg/mL and doripenem showed an MIC90 of 4 microg/mL against P. aeruginosa have potent activity. Of all P. aeruginosa strains, 4.3% were resistant to six agents of nine antipseudomonal agents, that decreased compared to 12.2% in 2004 and 5.7% in 2006. Against other glucose-non-fermentative Gram-negative rods, the activity of most antibacterial agents was similar to that in 2006.
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[Antimicrobial susceptibility of clinical isolates of aerobic gram-positive cocci and anaerobic bacteria in 2008].
Jpn J Antibiot
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The activity of antibacterial agents against aerobic Gram-positive cocci (25 genus or species, 1029 strains) and anaerobic bacteria (21 genus or species, 187 strains) isolated from clinical specimens in 2008 at 16 clinical facilities in Japan were studied using either broth microdilution or agar dilution method. The ratio of methicillin-resistant strains among Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis was 59.6% and 81.2%, suggesting that resistant strains were isolated at high frequency. Vancomycin (VCM), linezolid (LZD) and quinupristin/dalfopristin (QPR/DPR) had good antibacterial activity against methicillin-resistant S. aureus and methicillin-resistant S. epidermidis, with MIC90s of < or = 2 microg/mL. The ratio of penicillin (PC) intermediate and resistant strains classified by mutations of PC-binding proteins among Streptococcus pneumoniae was 92.0% that was highest among our previous reports. Cefpirome, carbapenems, VCM, teicoplanin (TEIC), LZD and QPR/DPR had MIC90s of < or = 1 microg/mL against PC-intermediate and resistant S. pneumoniae strains. Against all strains of Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium, the MICs of VCM and TEIC were under 2 microg/mL, and no resistant strain was detected, suggesting that these agents had excellent activities against these species. 15.9% of E. faecalis strains and 1.2% of E. faecium strains showed intermediate to LZD. 17.1% of E. faecium strains showed intermediate or resistant to QPR/DPR. Against all strains of Clostridium difficile, the MIC of VCM was under 1 microg/mL, suggesting that VCM had excellent activity. Carbapenems showed good activity against Clostridiales, Bacteroides spp., and Prevotella spp., but one strain of Bacteroides fragilis showed resistant to carbapenems. And so, the susceptibility of this species should be well-focused in the future at detecting continuously.
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