Recent work shows that cooling protection after mouse cardiac arrest and cardiomyocyte ischemia is mediated by Akt activation. The PI3K p85 subunit can either augment or inhibit Akt activation depending on its binding to p110 or PTEN respectively. To further clarify the role of PI3K p85 in cardioprotection, we studied novel TAT-p85 fusion proteins that selectively inhibit PI3K p85 binding. We hypothesized that TAT fused p85 lacking the PTEN binding site (TAT-?PTEN p85) would enhance Akt phosphorylation to afford cardioprotection. Conversely, TAT fused p85 lacking the p110 binding site (TAT-?p110p85) would decrease Akt phosphorylation and abrogate cardioprotection. Microscopy and Western blot analysis demonstrated that TAT fusion protein was transduced into cardiomyocytes within 5 min and remained more than 2 h. Inhibition of PI3K/Akt by TAT-?p110 p85 significantly increased cell death from 44.6±2.7% to 92.5±3.4% after simulated ischemia and reperfusion. By contrast, PTEN inhibition using TAT-?PTEN p85 decreased cell death to 11.9±5.3%, a similar level of cardioprotection seen with past cooling studies. Additional studies with the small molecule PTEN inhibitor VO-OHpic confirmed that PTEN inhibition was highly protective against cell death induced by ischemia and reperfusion. We conclude that blockade of p85-PTEN interaction and PTEN inhibition may be promising strategies for rescuing the heart from ischemia and reperfusion injury.
Pyk2 is a non-receptor cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase that belongs to the focal adhesion kinase family and has been implicated in neutrophil spreading and respiratory burst activity caused by TNF-alpha. However, the role of Pyk2 in neutrophil migration is incompletely defined. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that Pyk2 regulates the migration of neutrophil-like differentiated HL-60 cells subsequent to beta2-integrin mediated cell adhesion.
The objective of this investigation was to determine the role of Pyk2, an intracellular nonreceptor protein tyrosine kinase for postadhesive inflammatory cell migration, on airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness in immune-sensitized mice. Blockade of Pyk2 was effected by intraperitoneal administration of dominant-negative C-terminal Pyk2 fused to a TAT protein transduction domain (TAT-Pyk2-CT). Ovalbumin challenge elicited infiltration of both eosinophils and lymphocytes into airways, increased mucus-containing epithelial cells, and caused increased airway hyperresponsiveness to methacholine in immune-sensitized mice. Pretreatment with 10 mg/kg TAT-Pyk2-CT intraperitoneally blocked all of these effects and further decreased secretion of Th2 cytokine IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 into the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Intranasal administration of IL-5 caused eosinophil migration into the airway lumen, which was attenuated by systemic pretreatment with TAT-Pyk2-CT. In each paradigm, treatment with control protein TAT-GFP had no blocking effect. We conclude that Pyk2, which is essential for inflammatory cell migration in vitro, regulates airway inflammation, Th2 cytokine secretion, and airway hyperresponsiveness in the ovalbumin-sensitized mice during antigen challenge in vivo.
Proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 (Pyk2) is essential in neutrophil degranulation and chemotaxis in vitro. However, its effect on the process of lung inflammation and edema formation during LPS induced acute lung injury (ALI) remains unknown. The goal of the present study was to determine the effect of inhibiting Pyk2 on LPS-induced acute lung inflammation and injury in vivo.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.
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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.