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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Medication Adherence Among Men Who Have Sex with Men at Risk for HIV Infection in the United States: Implications for Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis Implementation.
AIDS Patient Care STDS
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2014
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Abstract Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is a promising HIV prevention approach for men who have sex with men (MSM), however non-adherence could limit its effectiveness. Understanding the experiences of HIV-uninfected MSM taking routine medications can provide valuable insights into open label PrEP adherence in real world settings and guide development of PrEP adherence interventions. In this study, we examined self-reported medication-taking experiences and facilitators and barriers of medication adherence among a geographically-diverse online sample of HIV-uninfected US MSM. Among 1480 participants, 806 (54%) reported taking medications regularly, of whom 80% reported taking medications for treatment and 55% for prevention purposes. Facilitators of medication adherence included establishing a routine, keeping medication visible, and using a pill-box; barriers included forgetting, changes in routine, and being busy or away from home. Only 45% rated their medication-taking ability as excellent, and 36% reported not missing any doses in the past 30 days. In multivariable analyses, older men and those not reporting any adherence barriers were more likely to report excellent adherence, and men willing to use PrEP were more likely to report perfect 30-day adherence. Counseling strategies to build pill-taking routines and support younger MSM are suggested to maximize the public health impact of PrEP.
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Enhancing Diversity in the Public Health Research Workforce: The Research and Mentorship Program for Future HIV Vaccine Scientists.
Am J Public Health
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2014
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Objectives. We developed and evaluated a novel National Institutes of Health-sponsored Research and Mentorship Program for African American and Hispanic medical students embedded within the international, multisite HIV Vaccine Trials Network, and explored its impact on scientific knowledge, acquired skills, and future career plans. Methods. Scholars conducted social, behavioral, clinical, or laboratory-based research projects with HIV Vaccine Trials Network investigators over 8 to 16 weeks (track 1) or 9 to 12 months (track 2). We conducted an in-depth, mixed-methods evaluation of the first 2 cohorts (2011-2013) to identify program strengths, areas for improvement, and influence on professional development. Results. A pre-post program assessment demonstrated increases in self-reported knowledge, professional skills, and interest in future HIV vaccine research. During in-depth interviews, scholars reported that a supportive, centrally administered program; available funding; and highly involved mentors and staff were keys to the program's early success. Conclusions. A multicomponent, mentored research experience that engages medical students from underrepresented communities and is organized within a clinical trials network may expand the pool of diverse public health scientists. Efforts to sustain scholar interest over time and track career trajectories are warranted. (Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print August 14, 2014: e1-e8. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2014.302076).
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Development and implementation of a workshop to enhance the effectiveness of mentors working with diverse mentees in HIV research.
AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2014
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Abstract A growing body of evidence highlights the importance of competent mentoring in academic research in the field of HIV, particularly for early stage investigators from diverse, underrepresented backgrounds. We describe the development and implementation of a 2-day intensive workshop to train mid-level and senior-level investigators conducting HIV-related clinical and translational research across multiple academic institutions on more effective mentoring, with an emphasis on techniques to foster mentees of diversity. The workshop was focused on training mentors in techniques designed to improve the effectiveness of the mentor-mentee relationship, and included didactic presentations, interactive discussions, and small-group problem-based learning activities. Mid-level or senior-level faculty involved or planning to be involved in significant mentorship activities related to HIV research were eligible. Surveys and formal actions plans allowed for workshop evaluation and laid the groundwork for subsequent workshops. Twenty-six faculty from 16?U.S.-based institutions participated, with good representation across discipline, gender, and race/ethnicity. The sessions were highly rated and discussions and evaluations revealed important barriers and facilitators to mentoring, challenges and solutions related to mentoring mentees from diverse backgrounds, and specific tools to enhance mentoring effectiveness. The Mentoring the Mentors training program for HIV researchers focusing on early career investigators of diversity was the first of its kind and was well attended, was rated highly, and provided guidance for improving the program in the future. This training program fills an important gap in the HIV researcher community and offers guidance for training mentors interested in diversity issues in settings outside of HIV.
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Genotypic and functional impact of HIV-1 adaptation to its host population during the North American epidemic.
PLoS Genet.
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2014
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HLA-restricted immune escape mutations that persist following HIV transmission could gradually spread through the viral population, thereby compromising host antiviral immunity as the epidemic progresses. To assess the extent and phenotypic impact of this phenomenon in an immunogenetically diverse population, we genotypically and functionally compared linked HLA and HIV (Gag/Nef) sequences from 358 historic (1979-1989) and 382 modern (2000-2011) specimens from four key cities in the North American epidemic (New York, Boston, San Francisco, Vancouver). Inferred HIV phylogenies were star-like, with approximately two-fold greater mean pairwise distances in modern versus historic sequences. The reconstructed epidemic ancestral (founder) HIV sequence was essentially identical to the North American subtype B consensus. Consistent with gradual diversification of a "consensus-like" founder virus, the median "background" frequencies of individual HLA-associated polymorphisms in HIV (in individuals lacking the restricting HLA[s]) were ? 2-fold higher in modern versus historic HIV sequences, though these remained notably low overall (e.g. in Gag, medians were 3.7% in the 2000s versus 2.0% in the 1980s). HIV polymorphisms exhibiting the greatest relative spread were those restricted by protective HLAs. Despite these increases, when HIV sequences were analyzed as a whole, their total average burden of polymorphisms that were "pre-adapted" to the average host HLA profile was only ? 2% greater in modern versus historic eras. Furthermore, HLA-associated polymorphisms identified in historic HIV sequences were consistent with those detectable today, with none identified that could explain the few HIV codons where the inferred epidemic ancestor differed from the modern consensus. Results are therefore consistent with slow HIV adaptation to HLA, but at a rate unlikely to yield imminent negative implications for cellular immunity, at least in North America. Intriguingly, temporal changes in protein activity of patient-derived Nef (though not Gag) sequences were observed, suggesting functional implications of population-level HIV evolution on certain viral proteins.
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Epidemiology of HIV-1 subtypes among men who have sex with men in Cape Town, South Africa.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2014
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Early studies in Cape Town identified independent HIV-1 epidemics, with distinct viral subtypes, among men who have sex with men (MSM) and the heterosexual population. However, few recent HIV-1 subtype data are available for MSM in South Africa. We examined HIV-1 subtypes among MSM in Cape Town.
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Hypoiodite-mediated cyclopropanation of alkenes.
Chemistry
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2014
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An efficient, transition metal-free procedure for the cyclopropanation of alkenes using malononitrile and the LiI-tBuOCl combination under mild reaction conditions is described. The reaction mechanism most likely involves tBuOI generated in situ from LiI and tBuOCl. The utility of this new methodology has been demonstrated by the synthesis of a potential HIV-1 RT inhibitor.
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Can male circumcision have an impact on the HIV epidemic in men who have sex with men?
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Three trials have demonstrated the prophylactic effect of male circumcision (MC) for HIV acquisition among heterosexuals, and MC interventions are underway throughout sub-Saharan Africa. Similar efforts for men who have sex with men (MSM) are stymied by the potential for circumcised MSM to acquire HIV easily through receptive sex and transmit easily through insertive sex. Existing work suggests that MC for MSM should reach its maximum potential in settings where sexual role segregation is historically high and relatively stable across the lifecourse; HIV incidence among MSM is high; reported willingness for prophylactic circumcision is high; and pre-existing circumcision rates are low. We aim to identify the likely public health impact that MC interventions among MSM would have in one setting that fulfills these conditions-Peru-as a theoretical upper bound for their effectiveness among MSM generally.
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Intentions to use preexposure prophylaxis among current phase 2B preventive HIV-1 vaccine efficacy trial participants.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2013
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In November 2010, the iPrEx study reported that preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with daily tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine reduced HIV infections by 44% among men who have sex with men and subsequent trials corroborated efficacy among heterosexual men and women. During regularly scheduled follow-up visits from January to March 2011, participants in an ongoing phase 2b vaccine efficacy trial completed an anonymous Web survey about PrEP. Among 376 respondents, 17% reported they were very likely to use PrEP in the next year. Nonwhite participants were more likely to use PrEP. Among those with some level of interest, intent to use PrEP was greatest if the drug were available through the clinical trial or health insurance. Most (91%) believed taking PrEP would not change their willingness to stay in the vaccine trial and few thought it would affect recruitment. As key stakeholders, currently enrolled trial participants can offer vital input about emerging prevention technologies that may affect the design of future HIV vaccine and nonvaccine prevention trials.
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A post-trial assessment of factors influencing study drug adherence in a randomized biomedical HIV-1 prevention trial.
AIDS Behav
PUBLISHED: 08-25-2011
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High adherence and maintenance of blinding are critical for placebo-controlled efficacy trials of HIV-1 biomedical prevention strategies. We assessed adherence to study drug and factors affecting adherence, including perceived randomization group, in a post-trial questionnaire of participants who completed HPTN 039, a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of HSV-2 suppression with twice-daily acyclovir to reduce HIV-1 acquisition. Of the 3172 trial participants, 2003 (63%) completed the post-trial questionnaire. Of these 2003, 72% reported missing a dose of study drug less than twice a week. Study drug adherence was not compromised by perceived randomization or genital ulcer symptoms during the study. Alcohol use was cited as an adherence barrier in some populations. Assessment of study drug adherence during and at the end of trials can evaluate perceptions of randomization and adherence by randomization arm, help to better understand barriers to and motivations for adherence, and develop interventions to increase adherence for future trials.
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Impact of herpes simplex virus type 2 on HIV-1 acquisition and progression in an HIV vaccine trial (the Step study).
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 08-24-2011
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Extensive observational data suggest that herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection may facilitate HIV acquisition, increase HIV viral load, and accelerate HIV progression and onward transmission. To explore these relationships, we examined the impact of preexisting HSV-2 infection in an international HIV vaccine trial.
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Male circumcision and risk of HIV acquisition among MSM.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 06-07-2011
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To assess the association between male circumcision, insertive anal sex practices, and HIV acquisition in a cohort of MSM.
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What is the potential impact of adult circumcision on the HIV epidemic among men who have sex with men in San Francisco?
Sex Transm Dis
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2011
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With the help of a community-based survey, we assess the potential effect of circumcision on the HIV epidemic among men who have sex with men (MSM) in San Francisco. Only a small minority of MSM would both derive benefit from circumcision (i.e., were uncircumcised, HIV-negative, predominantly insertive, and reported unprotected insertive anal sex) and be willing to participate in circumcision trials (0.7%) or be circumcised if proven effective as a prevention strategy (0.9%). Circumcision would have limited public health significance for MSM in San Francisco.
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The major genetic determinants of HIV-1 control affect HLA class I peptide presentation.
, Florencia Pereyra, Xiaoming Jia, Paul J McLaren, Amalio Telenti, Paul I W de Bakker, Bruce D Walker, Stephan Ripke, Chanson J Brumme, Sara L Pulit, Mary Carrington, Carl M Kadie, Jonathan M Carlson, David Heckerman, Robert R Graham, Robert M Plenge, Steven G Deeks, Lauren Gianniny, Gabriel Crawford, Jordan Sullivan, Elena González, Leela Davies, Amy Camargo, Jamie M Moore, Nicole Beattie, Supriya Gupta, Andrew Crenshaw, Noel P Burtt, Candace Guiducci, Namrata Gupta, Xiaojiang Gao, Ying Qi, Yuko Yuki, Alicja Piechocka-Trocha, Emily Cutrell, Rachel Rosenberg, Kristin L Moss, Paul Lemay, Jessica O'Leary, Todd Schaefer, Pranshu Verma, Ildikó Tóth, Brian Block, Brett Baker, Alissa Rothchild, Jeffrey Lian, Jacqueline Proudfoot, Donna Marie L Alvino, Seanna Vine, Marylyn M Addo, Todd M Allen, Marcus Altfeld, Matthew R Henn, Sylvie Le Gall, Hendrik Streeck, David W Haas, Daniel R Kuritzkes, Gregory K Robbins, Robert W Shafer, Roy M Gulick, Cecilia M Shikuma, Richard Haubrich, Sharon Riddler, Paul E Sax, Eric S Daar, Heather J Ribaudo, Brian Agan, Shanu Agarwal, Richard L Ahern, Brady L Allen, Sherly Altidor, Eric L Altschuler, Sujata Ambardar, Kathryn Anastos, Ben Anderson, Val Anderson, Ushan Andrady, Diana Antoniskis, David Bangsberg, Daniel Barbaro, William Barrie, J Bartczak, Simon Barton, Patricia Basden, Nesli Basgoz, Suzane Bazner, Nicholaos C Bellos, Anne M Benson, Judith Berger, Nicole F Bernard, Annette M Bernard, Christopher Birch, Stanley J Bodner, Robert K Bolan, Emilie T Boudreaux, Meg Bradley, James F Braun, Jon E Brndjar, Stephen J Brown, Katherine Brown, Sheldon T Brown, Jedidiah Burack, Larry M Bush, Virginia Cafaro, Omobolaji Campbell, John Campbell, Robert H Carlson, J Kevin Carmichael, Kathleen K Casey, Chris Cavacuiti, Gregory Celestin, Steven T Chambers, Nancy Chez, Lisa M Chirch, Paul J Cimoch, Daniel Cohen, Lillian E Cohn, Brian Conway, David A Cooper, Brian Cornelson, David T Cox, Michael V Cristofano, George Cuchural, Julie L Czartoski, Joseph M Dahman, Jennifer S Daly, Benjamin T Davis, Kristine Davis, Sheila M Davod, Edwin DeJesus, Craig A Dietz, Eleanor Dunham, Michael E Dunn, Todd B Ellerin, Joseph J Eron, John J W Fangman, Claire E Farel, Helen Ferlazzo, Sarah Fidler, Anita Fleenor-Ford, Renee Frankel, Kenneth A Freedberg, Neel K French, Jonathan D Fuchs, Jon D Fuller, Jonna Gaberman, Joel E Gallant, Rajesh T Gandhi, Efrain Garcia, Donald Garmon, Joseph C Gathe, Cyril R Gaultier, Wondwoosen Gebre, Frank D Gilman, Ian Gilson, Paul A Goepfert, Michael S Gottlieb, Claudia Goulston, Richard K Groger, T Douglas Gurley, Stuart Haber, Robin Hardwicke, W David Hardy, P Richard Harrigan, Trevor N Hawkins, Sonya Heath, Frederick M Hecht, W Keith Henry, Melissa Hladek, Robert P Hoffman, James M Horton, Ricky K Hsu, Gregory D Huhn, Peter Hunt, Mark J Hupert, Mark L Illeman, Hans Jaeger, Robert M Jellinger, Mina John, Jennifer A Johnson, Kristin L Johnson, Heather Johnson, Kay Johnson, Jennifer Joly, Wilbert C Jordan, Carol A Kauffman, Homayoon Khanlou, Robert K Killian, Arthur Y Kim, David D Kim, Clifford A Kinder, Jeffrey T Kirchner, Laura Kogelman, Erna Milunka Kojic, P Todd Korthuis, Wayne Kurisu, Douglas S Kwon, Melissa Lamar, Harry Lampiris, Massimiliano Lanzafame, Michael M Lederman, David M Lee, Jean M L Lee, Marah J Lee, Edward T Y Lee, Janice Lemoine, Jay A Levy, Josep M Llibre, Michael A Liguori, Susan J Little, Anne Y Liu, Alvaro J Lopez, Mono R Loutfy, Dawn Loy, Debbie Y Mohammed, Alan Man, Michael K Mansour, Vincent C Marconi, Martin Markowitz, Rui Marques, Jeffrey N Martin, Harold L Martin, Kenneth Hugh Mayer, M Juliana McElrath, Theresa A McGhee, Barbara H McGovern, Katherine McGowan, Dawn McIntyre, Gavin X Mcleod, Prema Menezes, Greg Mesa, Craig E Metroka, Dirk Meyer-Olson, Andy O Miller, Kate Montgomery, Karam C Mounzer, Ellen H Nagami, Iris Nagin, Ronald G Nahass, Margret O Nelson, Craig Nielsen, David L Norene, David H O'Connor, Bisola O Ojikutu, Jason Okulicz, Olakunle O Oladehin, Edward C Oldfield, Susan A Olender, Mario Ostrowski, William F Owen, Eunice Pae, Jeffrey Parsonnet, Andrew M Pavlatos, Aaron M Perlmutter, Michael N Pierce, Jonathan M Pincus, Leandro Pisani, Lawrence Jay Price, Laurie Proia, Richard C Prokesch, Heather Calderon Pujet, Moti Ramgopal, Almas Rathod, Michael Rausch, J Ravishankar, Frank S Rhame, Constance Shamuyarira Richards, Douglas D Richman, Berta Rodés, Milagros Rodriguez, Richard C Rose, Eric S Rosenberg, Daniel Rosenthal, Polly E Ross, David S Rubin, Elease Rumbaugh, Luis Saenz, Michelle R Salvaggio, William C Sanchez, Veeraf M Sanjana, Steven Santiago, Wolfgang Schmidt, Hanneke Schuitemaker, Philip M Sestak, Peter Shalit, William Shay, Vivian N Shirvani, Vanessa I Silebi, James M Sizemore, Paul R Skolnik, Marcia Sokol-Anderson, James M Sosman, Paul Stabile, Jack T Stapleton, Sheree Starrett, Francine Stein, Hans-Jürgen Stellbrink, F Lisa Sterman, Valerie E Stone, David R Stone, Giuseppe Tambussi, Randy A Taplitz, Ellen M Tedaldi, William Theisen, Richard Torres, Lorraine Tosiello, Cécile Tremblay, Marc A Tribble, Phuong D Trinh, Alice Tsao, Peggy Ueda, Anthony Vaccaro, Emília Valadas, Thanes J Vanig, Isabel Vecino, Vilma M Vega, Wenoah Veikley, Barbara H Wade, Charles Walworth, Chingchai Wanidworanun, Douglas J Ward, Daniel A Warner, Robert D Weber, Duncan Webster, Steve Weis, David A Wheeler, David J White, Ed Wilkins, Alan Winston, Clifford G Wlodaver, Angelique van't Wout, David P Wright, Otto O Yang, David L Yurdin, Brandon W Zabukovic, Kimon C Zachary, Beth Zeeman, Meng Zhao.
Science
PUBLISHED: 11-04-2010
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Infectious and inflammatory diseases have repeatedly shown strong genetic associations within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC); however, the basis for these associations remains elusive. To define host genetic effects on the outcome of a chronic viral infection, we performed genome-wide association analysis in a multiethnic cohort of HIV-1 controllers and progressors, and we analyzed the effects of individual amino acids within the classical human leukocyte antigen (HLA) proteins. We identified >300 genome-wide significant single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the MHC and none elsewhere. Specific amino acids in the HLA-B peptide binding groove, as well as an independent HLA-C effect, explain the SNP associations and reconcile both protective and risk HLA alleles. These results implicate the nature of the HLA-viral peptide interaction as the major factor modulating durable control of HIV infection.
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Lessons drawn from recent HIV vaccine efficacy trials.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 09-06-2010
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A safe and effective HIV vaccine is needed to curtail the US and global epidemics. However, the search for one has been elusive despite more than 25 years of focused research. Results from the RV144 Thai efficacy trial have renewed hope that a vaccine may protect against HIV acquisition. We can draw several scientific and operational lessons from RV144 and other recent tests-of-concept efficacy trials. Here we describe how trial results, some unexpected, highlight the fundamental role these clinical studies play in HIV vaccine discovery. These trials also teach us that transparency in data analysis and results dissemination can yield substantial rewards and that efforts to engage communities, particularly those most heavily affected by the epidemic, are needed to augment research literacy and trial recruitment. Future efficacy trial designs may incorporate novel, partially effective prevention strategies. Although greater in size and complexity, these trials may offer unique opportunities to explore synergies with vaccines under study.
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Effect of acyclovir on HIV-1 set point among herpes simplex virus type 2-seropositive persons during early HIV-1 infection.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2010
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We evaluated whether acyclovir suppression during human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) acquisition reduces HIV-1 set point, increases CD4 cell counts, and selects reverse-transcriptase mutations among 76 HIV-1 seroconverters identified in a placebo-controlled trial of twice-daily acyclovir (400 mg) for the prevention of HIV acquisition in herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2)-seropositive persons (HIV Prevention Trials Network study 039). We found no significant difference in plasma HIV-1 RNA levels (P =.30) or CD4 cell counts (P =.85) between the acyclovir and placebo recipients. V75I and other mutations in HIV-1 reverse transcriptase reported from in vitro acyclovir studies were not observed. In conclusion, acyclovir suppression during HIV-1 seroconversion and the subsequent 6 months does not affect HIV-1 set point.
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Clinical and virologic efficacy of herpes simplex virus type 2 suppression by acyclovir in a multicontinent clinical trial.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2010
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Acyclovir suppressive therapy (400 mg twice daily) reduces herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 2-associated genital ulcer disease and lesional HSV shedding. In an international trial of acyclovir for suppression of HSV type 2 to prevent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) acquisition (HIV Prevention Trials Network 039), acyclovir had a smaller effect on the frequency of genital ulcer disease as well as a smaller effect on the frequency and quantity of lesional HSV DNA in African women and Peruvian men, compared with its effects in men in the United States. The observed regional variation in the clinical and virologic efficacy of acyclovir for HSV suppression warrants further evaluation of determinants of responses to acyclovir. (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00076232.).
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A novel HIV T helper epitope-based vaccine elicits cytokine-secreting HIV-specific CD4+ T cells in a Phase I clinical trial in HIV-uninfected adults.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2009
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A Phase I human vaccine trial of a novel polypeptide vaccine of HIV T helper epitopes (EP-1043) and a DNA vaccine of HIV CTL epitopes was conducted in 84 healthy adult volunteers. The vaccine immunogenicity was assessed by an intracellular cytokine staining assay for IL-2, IL-4, TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma. Sixty eight percent (32/47) of subjects had a positive CD4+ T response after receiving two vaccinations of the polypeptide vaccine. The responding CD4+ T cells made various combinations of IL-2, IL-4, IFN-gamma, and TNF-alpha. The study demonstrated that the EP-1043 vaccine is safe, well-tolerated, and immunogenic.
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Safety and immunogenicity of a CTL multiepitope peptide vaccine for HIV with or without GM-CSF in a phase I trial.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2009
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There is an urgent need for a vaccine capable of preventing HIV infection or the development of HIV-related disease. A number of approaches designed to stimulate HIV-specific CD8+ cytotoxic T cell responses together with helper responses are presently under evaluation. In this phase 1, multi-center, placebo-controlled trial, we tested the ability of a novel multiepitope peptide vaccine to elicit HIV-specific immunity. To enhance the immunogenicity of the peptide vaccine, half of the vaccine recipients received recombinant granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) protein as a coadjuvant. The vaccine was safe; tolerability was moderate, with a number of adverse events related to local injection site reactogenicity. Anti-GM-CSF antibody responses developed in the majority of GM-CSF recipients but were not associated with adverse hematologic events. The vaccine was only minimally immunogenic. Six of 80 volunteers who received vaccine developed HIV-specific responses as measured by interferon-gamma ELISPOT assay, and measurable responses were transient. This study failed to demonstrate that GM-CSF can substantially improve the overall weak immunogenicity of a multiepitope peptide-based HIV vaccine.
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DNA and modified vaccinia virus Ankara vaccines encoding multiple cytotoxic and helper T-lymphocyte epitopes of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) are safe but weakly immunogenic in HIV-1-uninfected, vaccinia virus-naive adults.
Clin. Vaccine Immunol.
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We evaluated a DNA plasmid-vectored vaccine and a recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara vaccine (MVA-mBN32), each encoding cytotoxic and helper T-lymphocyte epitopes of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial in 36 HIV-1-uninfected adults using a heterologous prime-boost schedule. HIV-1-specific cellular immune responses, measured as interleukin-2 and/or gamma interferon production, were induced in 1 (4%) of 28 subjects after the first MVA-mBN32 immunization and in 3 (12%) of 25 subjects after the second MVA-mBN32 immunization. Among these responders, polyfunctional T-cell responses, including the production of tumor necrosis factor alpha and perforin, were detected. Vaccinia virus-specific antibodies were induced to the MVA vector in 27 (93%) of 29 and 26 (93%) of 28 subjects after the first and second immunizations with MVA-mBN32. These peptide-based vaccines were safe but were ineffective at inducing HIV-1-specific immune responses and induced much weaker responses than MVA vaccines expressing the entire open reading frames of HIV-1 proteins.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.