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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Intraductal carcinoma of the prostate: interobserver reproducibility survey of 39 urologic pathologists.
Ann Diagn Pathol
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2014
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The diagnosis of intraductal carcinoma (IDC) of the prostate remains subjective because 3 sets of diagnostic criteria are in use. An internet survey was compiled from 38 photomicrographs showing duct proliferations: 14 signed out as high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN), 17 IDC, and 7 invasive cribriform/ductal carcinoma. Each image was assessed for the presence of 9 histologic criteria ascribed to IDC. Thirty-nine respondents were asked to rate images as (1) benign/reactive, (2) HGPIN, (3) borderline between HGPIN and IDC, (4) IDC, or (5) invasive cribriform/ductal carcinoma. Intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.68. There was 70% overall agreement with HGPIN, 43% with IDC, and 73% with invasive carcinoma (P < .001, ?(2)). Respondents considered 19 (50%) of 38 cases as IDC candidates, of which 5 (26%) had a two-thirds consensus for IDC; two-thirds consensus for either borderline or IDC was reached in 9 (47%). Two-thirds consensus other than IDC was reached in the remaining 19 of 38 cases, with 15 supporting HGPIN and 4 supporting invasive carcinoma. Findings that differed across diagnostic categories were lumen-spanning neoplastic cells (P < .001), 2× benign duct diameters (P < .001), duct space contours (round, irregular, and branched) (P < .001), papillary growth (P = .048), dense cribriform or solid growth (both P = .023), and comedonecrosis (P = .015). When the 19 of 38 images that attained consensus for HGPIN or invasive carcinoma were removed from consideration, lack of IDC consensus was most often attributable to only loose cribriform growth (5/19), central nuclear maturation (5/19), or comedonecrosis (3/19). Of the 9 histologic criteria, only 1 retained significant correlation with a consensus diagnosis of IDC: the presence of solid areas (P = .038). One case that attained IDC consensus had less than 2× duct enlargement yet still had severe nuclear atypia and nucleomegaly. Six fold nuclear enlargement was not significant (P = .083), although no image had both 6× nuclei and papillary or loose cribriform growth: a combination postulated as sufficient criteria for IDC. Finally, 20.5% of respondents agreed that an isolated diagnosis of IDC on needle biopsy warrants definitive therapy, 20.5% disagreed, and 59.0% considered the decision to depend upon clinicopathologic variables. Although IDC diagnosis remains challenging, we propose these criteria: a lumen-spanning proliferation of neoplastic cells in preexisting ducts with a dense cribriform or partial solid growth pattern. Solid growth, in any part of the duct space, emerges as the most reproducible finding to rule in a diagnosis of IDC. Comedonecrosis is a rarer finding, but in most cases, it should rule in IDC. Duct space enlargement to greater than 2× the diameter of the largest, adjacent benign spaces is usually present in IDC, although there may be rare exceptions.
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Whole organ cross-section chemical imaging using label-free mega-mosaic FTIR microscopy.
Analyst
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2013
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FTIR chemical imaging has been demonstrated as a promising technique to construct automated systems to complement histopathological evaluation of biomedical tissue samples. The rapid chemical imaging of large areas of tissue has previously been a limiting factor in this application. Consequently, smaller areas of tissue have previously had to be sampled, possibly introducing sampling bias and potentially missing diagnostically important areas. In this report a high spatial resolution chemical image of a whole prostate cross section is shown comprising 66 million pixels. Each pixel represents an area 5.5 × 5.5 ?m(2) of tissue and contains a full infrared spectrum providing a chemical fingerprint. The data acquisition time was 14 hours, thus showing that a clinical time frame of hours rather than days has been achieved.
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High-dose interleukin-2 can produce a high rate of response and durable remissions in appropriately selected patients with metastatic renal cancer.
J. Immunother.
PUBLISHED: 06-22-2011
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Metastatic renal cancer remains hard to treat and the treatment is generally palliative. However, high-dose interleukin-2 (HD IL-2) produced 5% to 10% complete remissions and most of these were durable. With the advent of newer treatments with less toxicity, the role of HD IL-2 is uncertain. We present here a case series of 72 patients with metastatic renal cancer given first-line treatment with HD IL-2. From 2003 to 2006, the patients were offered treatment with HD IL-2 irrespective of their histologic features (retrospective cohort). From 2006 to 2008, the treatment was only offered to patients after stratification into risk groups based on histologic criteria (prospective cohort). In the early series, the response rate to HD IL-2 was 27% (8/30), but with prospective stratification of patients by histology the response rate was 52% (21/40) in the group with favorable histologic features. Combining outcome for all patients with the favorable histology (including those identified retrospectively) 49% (28/57) responded with 25% (14/57) achieving a complete remission and these seem durable. Patients with metastatic renal cancer should be carefully assessed for their suitability to undergo treatment with first-line systemic therapy with HD IL-2 as in carefully selected patients it has a high-rate response and durable remissions.
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Spindle cell lesions of the bladder and urinary tract.
Histopathology
PUBLISHED: 11-17-2009
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Spindle cell lesions of the urinary tract encompass a variety of benign and malignant tumours as well as a group of lesions of controversial nomenclature that is the subject of ongoing debate. This review focuses on our current and evolving understanding of the lesion variably referred to as inflammatory myofibroblastic tumour, pseudosarcomatous myofibroblastic proliferation or inflammatory pseudotumour and the main differential diagnoses of sarcomatoid carcinoma and sarcoma. Other spindle cell lesions of the bladder are described.
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Investigating FTIR based histopathology for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.
J Biophotonics
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2009
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Prostate cancer is the most common gender specific cancer. The current gold standard for diagnosis, histopathology, is subjective and limited by variation between different pathologists. The diagnostic problems associated with the correct grading and staging of prostate cancer (CaP) has led to an interest in the development of spectroscopic based diagnostic techniques. FTIR microspectroscopy used in combination with a Principal Component Discriminant Function Analysis (PC-DFA) was applied to investigate FTIR based histopathology for the diagnosis of CaP. In this paper we report the results of a large patient study in which FTIR has been proven to grade CaP tissue specimens to a high degree of sensitivity and specificity.
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FTIR microspectroscopy of selected rare diverse sub-variants of carcinoma of the urinary bladder.
J Biophotonics
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Urothelial carcinomas of the bladder are a heterogeneous group of tumours, although some histological sub-variants are rare and sparsely reported in the literature. Diagnosis of sub-variants from conventional urothelial carcinoma can be challenging, as they may mimic the morphology of other malignancies or benign tumours and therefore their distinction is important. For the first time, the spectral pathology of some of these sub-variants has been documented by infrared microspectroscopy and an attempt made to profile their biochemistry. It is important not only to identify and separate the cancer-associated epithelial tissue spectra from common tissue features such as stroma or blood, but also to detect the signatures of tumour sub-variants. As shown, their spectroscopic signals can change dramatically as a consequence of differentiation. Example cases are discussed and compared with histological evaluations.
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Ultrastructurally confirmed myofibrosarcoma: a series of 10 new cases, with a discussion on diagnostic criteria.
Int. J. Surg. Pathol.
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Some view ultrastructure as key to myofibrosarcoma diagnosis, whereas others argue that electron microscopy is too little used in contemporary practice to be considered an important diagnostic tool. These views are discussed in the context of 10 ultrastructurally confirmed cases of myofibrosarcoma, some occurring at rare sites such as skin and penis. Patient age ranged from 21 to 83 years, with a 6:4 male to female ratio. Size ranged from 2 to 7.5 cm and all had infiltrative margins. Histologically, all consisted of variably cellular fascicles of spindle cells with mild to moderately pleomorphic nuclei, small punctate nucleoli, and eosinophilic cytoplasm. All cases showed ?-smooth muscle actin positivity and 2 showed very focal weak positivity for desmin. Ultrastructurally, the tumor cells contained rough endoplasmic reticulum, mainly peripheral smooth-muscle myofilaments, and fibronectin fibrils or fibronexus junctions at the cell surface. The most confident diagnosis of myofibrosarcoma is provided by ultrastructural examination. However, given the right histological appearance, use of a panel of antibodies that includes ?-smooth muscle actin, desmin, and h-caldesmon, serves as an acceptable practical way of diagnosing myofibrosarcoma.
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Heterozygote FANCD2 mutations associated with childhood T Cell ALL and testicular seminoma.
Fam. Cancer
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Fanconi anaemia (FA) is an inherited disease with congenital and developmental abnormalities characterised by cellular cross linker hypersensitivity. FA is caused by mutations in any of so far 15 identified FANC genes, which encode proteins that interact in a common DNA damage response (DDR) pathway. Individuals with FA have a high risk of developing acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) and squamous cell carcinoma. An increased cancer risk has been firmly established for carriers of mutations in FANCD1/BRCA2, FANCJ/BRIP1, FANCN/PALB2, RAD51C/FANCO and link the FA pathway to inherited breast and ovarian cancer. We describe a pedigree with FANCD2 mutations c.458T > C (p.Leu153Ser) and c.2715 + 1G > A (p.Glu906LeufsX4) with mild phenotype FA in the index case, T cell ALL in the Leu153Ser heterozygous brother and testicular seminoma in the p.Glu906LeufsX4 heterozygous father. Both FANCD2 alleles were present in the T Cell ALL and the seminoma. This links specific FANCD2 mutations to T cell ALL and seminoma without evidence of allelic loss in the tumour tissue.
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FTIR microscopy of biological cells and tissue: data analysis using resonant Mie scattering (RMieS) EMSC algorithm.
Analyst
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Transmission and transflection infrared microscopy of biological cells and tissue suffer from significant baseline distortions due to scattering effects, predominantly resonant Mie scattering (RMieS). This scattering can also distort peak shapes and apparent peak positions making interpretation difficult and often unreliable. A correction algorithm, the resonant Mie scattering extended multiplicative signal correction (RMieS-EMSC), has been developed that can be used to remove these distortions. The correction algorithm has two key user defined parameters that influence the accuracy of the correction. The first is the number of iterations used to obtain the best outcome. The second is the choice of the initial reference spectrum required for the fitting procedure. The choice of these parameters influences computational time. This is not a major concern when correcting individual spectra or small data sets of a few hundred spectra but becomes much more significant when correcting spectra from infrared images obtained using large focal plane array detectors which may contain tens of thousands of spectra. In this paper we show that, classification of images from tissue can be achieved easily with a few (<10) iterations but a reliable interpretation of the biochemical differences between classes could require more iterations. Regarding the choice of reference spectrum, it is apparent that the more similar it is to the pure absorption spectrum of the sample, the fewer iterations required to obtain an accurate corrected spectrum. Importantly however, we show that using three different non-ideal reference spectra, the same unique correction solution can be obtained.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.