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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Health surveillance study of workers who manufacture multi-walled carbon nanotubes.
Nanotoxicology
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2014
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Abstract While many in vivo and in vitro toxicology studies of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) have already indicated that exposure to MWCNTs can potentially induce health effects in humans, the actual health effects of MWCNTs among exposed workers are not yet known. Moreover, the levels of exposure and internal doses of MWCNTs are becoming more and more important for estimating the health effects resulting from exposure to MWCNTs. However, information on biomonitoring and exposure to MWCNTs remains limited. Therefore, the authors conducted a health surveillance study in a workplace that manufactures MWCNTs, including assessment of the personal and area exposure levels to MWCNTs, a walk-through evaluation of the manufacturing process, and collection of blood and exhaled breath condensates (EBCs) from the MWCNT manufacturing and office workers. In addition, a pulmonary function test was also conducted on the MWCNT manufacturing workers (9) and office workers (4). The worker exposure to elemental carbon was found to be 6.2-9.3??g/m(3) in the personal samplings and 5.5-7.3??g/m(3) in the area samplings. Notwithstanding, the workers exhibited a normal range of hematology and blood biochemistry values and normal lung function parameters. When analyzing the EBCs, the malondialdehyde (MDA), 4-hydroxy-2-hexenal (4-HHE) and n-hexanal levels in the MWCNT manufacturing workers were significantly higher than those in the office workers. The MDA and n-hexanal levels were also significantly correlated with the blood molybdenum concentration, suggesting MDA, n-hexanal and molybdenum as useful biomarkers of MWCNT exposure.
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Apolipoprotein E4 Affects Topographical Changes in Hippocampal and Cortical Atrophy in Alzheimer's Disease Dementia: A Five-Year Longitudinal Study.
J. Alzheimers Dis.
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2014
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Apolipoprotein E4 (APOE4) is a genetic risk factor for developing Alzheimer's disease (AD). Once AD manifests clinically, however, the effects of APOE4 are less clear. Therefore, we investigated the longitudinal effects of APOE4 on topographical changes in AD patient brain atrophy. We prospectively recruited 35 patients with AD (19 APOE4 carriers and 16 non-carriers), and 14 normal controls, then followed them for five years. We measured hippocampal deformities and cortical thickness. Hippocampal comparison between APOE4 carriers and non-carriers with AD showed carriers had rapid changes in the head and body, while non-carriers had rapid changes in a small portion of the body. Cortical thickness comparison between APOE4 carriers and non-carriers with AD dementia showed carriers had rapid thinning in the lateral frontal, temporal, and parietal regions, while no region showed more rapid cortical thinning in non-carriers than in carriers. These findings underlined the importance of the APOE4 allele for designing and interpreting future treatment trials in patients with AD dementia.
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Ophthalmological manifestations in patients with Leigh syndrome.
Br J Ophthalmol
PUBLISHED: 10-30-2014
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To describe the ophthalmological manifestations in patients with childhood onset Leigh syndrome (LS) and investigate the correlation between genotypes and phenotypes in patients with LS.
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Real stereopsis test using a three-dimensional display with tridef software.
Yonsei Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2014
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To investigate horizontal image disparity in three-dimensional (3-D) perception using 3-D animations in normal control patients and patients with intermittent exotropia, anisometropic amblyopia, and partially accommodative esotropia.
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Risk factors for latent tuberculosis infection in close contacts of active tuberculosis patients in South Korea: a prospective cohort study.
BMC Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 10-16-2014
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BackgroundThe diagnosis and treatment of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) have become mandatory to reduce the burden of tuberculosis worldwide. Close contacts of active TB patients are at high risk of both active and LTBI. The aim of this study is to identify the predominant risk factors of contracting LTBI, persons in close contact with TB patients were recruited. This study also aimed to compare the efficacy of the tuberculin skin test (TST) and QuantiFERON®-TB GOLD (QFT-G) to diagnose LTBI.MethodsClose contacts of active pulmonary TB patients visiting a hospital in South Korea were diagnosed for LTBI using TST and/or QFT-G. The association of positive TST and/or QFT-G with the following factors was estimated: age, gender, history of Bacillius Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccination, history of pulmonary TB, cohabitation status, the acid-fast bacilli smear status, and presence of cough in source cases.ResultsOf 308 subjects, 38.0% (116/305) were TST positive and 28.6% (59/206) were QFT-G positive. TST positivity was significantly associated with male gender (OR: 1.734; 95% CI: 1.001-3.003, p =0.049), history of pulmonary TB (OR: 4.130; 95% CI: 1.441-11.835, p =0.008) and household contact (OR: 2.130; 95% CI: 1.198-3.786, p =0.01) after adjustment for confounding variables. The degree of concordance between TST and QFT-G was fair (70.4%, ¿ =0.392).ConclusionsA prevalence of LTBI among close contacts of active pulmonary TB patients was high, and prior TB history and being a household contact were risk factors of LTBI in the study population.
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Association between body mass index and cortical thickness: among elderly cognitively normal men and women.
Int Psychogeriatr
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2014
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ABSTRACT Background: There is increasing evidence of a relationship between underweight or obesity and dementia risk. Several studies have investigated the relationship between body weight and brain atrophy, a pathological change preceding dementia, but their results are inconsistent. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and cortical atrophy among cognitively normal participants. Methods: We recruited cognitively normal participants (n = 1,111) who underwent medical checkups and detailed neurologic screening, including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the health screening visits between September 2008 and December 2011. The main outcome was cortical thickness measured using MRI. The number of subjects with five BMI groups in men/women was 9/9, 148/258, 185/128, 149/111, and 64/50 in underweight, normal, overweight, mild obesity, and moderate to severe obesity, respectively. Linear and non-linear relationships between BMI and cortical thickness were examined using multiple linear regression analysis and generalized additive models after adjustment for potential confounders. Results: Among men, underweight participants showed significant cortical thinning in the frontal and temporal regions compared to normal weight participants, while overweight and mildly obese participants had greater cortical thicknesses in the frontal region and the frontal, temporal, and occipital regions, respectively. However, cortical thickness in each brain region was not significantly different in normal weight and moderate to severe obesity groups. Among women, the association between BMI and cortical thickness was not statistically significant. Conclusions: Our findings suggested that underweight might be an important risk factor for pathological changes in the brain, while overweight or mild obesity may be inversely associated with cortical atrophy in cognitively normal elderly males.
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Higher education affects accelerated cortical thinning in Alzheimer's disease: a 5-year preliminary longitudinal study.
Int Psychogeriatr
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2014
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ABSTRACT Background: Epidemiological studies have reported that higher education (HE) is associated with a reduced risk of incident Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, after the clinical onset of AD, patients with HE levels show more rapid cognitive decline than patients with lower education (LE) levels. Although education level and cognition have been linked, there have been few longitudinal studies investigating the relationship between education level and cortical decline in patients with AD. The aim of this study was to compare the topography of cortical atrophy longitudinally between AD patients with HE (HE-AD) and AD patients with LE (LE-AD). Methods: We prospectively recruited 36 patients with early-stage AD and 14 normal controls. The patients were classified into two groups according to educational level, 23 HE-AD (>9 years) and 13 LE-AD (?9 years). Results: As AD progressed over the 5-year longitudinal follow-ups, the HE-AD showed a significant group-by-time interaction in the right dorsolateral frontal and precuneus, and the left parahippocampal regions compared to the LE-AD. Conclusion: Our study reveals that the preliminary longitudinal effect of HE accelerates cortical atrophy in AD patients over time, which underlines the importance of education level for predicting prognosis.
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Lymph node status did not significantly improve the predictability of survival in patients with clinically early-stage endometrial cancer.
Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2014
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The aim of this study was to determine whether knowledge of lymph node status improves survival prediction in clinically early-stage endometrial cancer.
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Hydrothermal synthesis of Pt-Ag alloy nano-octahedra and their enhanced electrocatalytic activity for the methanol oxidation reaction.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2014
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The high-quality Pt48Ag52 alloy nano-octahedra are synthesized via one-pot hydrothermal method. The catalytic growth of Ag(0) atoms on Pt nuclei and selective oxidative etching on the Ag(0) atoms contribute to the formation of alloy nano-octahedra. Pt48Ag52 alloy nano-octahedra show excellent electrocatalytic activity and durability for the methanol oxidation reaction (MOR).
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Effect of tanshinone IIA in an in vitro model of Graves' orbitopathy.
Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2014
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We investigated the therapeutic effect of nontoxic concentrations of tanshinone IIA (TanIIA) from Salvia miltiorrhiza in primary cultures of orbital fibroblasts from Graves' orbitopathy (GO).
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Genetic modifiers of Huntington's disease.
Mov. Disord.
PUBLISHED: 08-25-2014
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Huntington's disease (HD) is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder that directly affects more than 1 in 10,000 persons in Western societies but, as a family disorder with a long, costly, debilitating course, it has an indirect impact on a far greater proportion of the population. Although some palliative treatments are used, no effective treatment exists for preventing clinical onset of the disorder or for delaying its inevitable progression toward premature death, approximately 15 years after diagnosis. Huntington's disease involves a movement disorder characterized by chorea, as well as a variety of psychiatric disturbances and intellectual decline, with a gradual loss of independence. A dire need exists for effective HD therapies to alleviate the suffering and costs to the individual, family, and health care system. In past decades, genetics, the study of DNA sequence variation and its consequences, provided the tools to map the HD gene to chromosome 4 and ultimately to identify its mutation as an expanded CAG trinucleotide repeat in the coding sequence of a large protein, dubbed huntingtin. Now, advances in genetic technology offer an unbiased route to the identification of genetic factors that are disease-modifying agents in human patients. Such genetic modifiers are expected to highlight processes capable of altering the course of HD and therefore to provide new, human-validated targets for traditional drug development, with the goal of developing rational treatments to delay or prevent onset of HD clinical signs.
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Determination of solubility parameters of ionic liquids and ionic liquid/solvent mixtures from intrinsic viscosity.
Chemphyschem
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
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The total and partial solubility parameters (dispersion, polar and hydrogen-bonding solubility parameters) of ten ionic liquids were determined. Intrinsic viscosity approaches were used that encompassed a one-dimensional method (1D-Method), and two different three-dimensional methods (3D-Method1 and 3D-Method2). The effect of solvent type, the dimethylacetamide (DMA) fraction in the ionic liquid, and dissolution temperature on solubility parameters were also investigated. For all types of effect, both the 1D-Method and 3D-Method2 present the same trend in the total solubility parameter. The partial solubility parameters are influenced by the cation and anion of the ionic liquid. Considering the effect on partial solubility parameters of the solvent type in the ionic liquid, it was observed that in both 3D methods, the dispersion and polar parameters of a 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate/solvent (60:40 vol?%) mixture tend to increase as the total solubility parameter of the solvent increases.
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Direct Hydrogenation of Biomass-Derived Butyric Acid to n-Butanol over a Ruthenium-Tin Bimetallic Catalyst.
ChemSusChem
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2014
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Catalytic hydrogenation of organic carboxylic acids and their esters, for example, cellulosic ethanol from fermentation of acetic acid and hydrogenation of ethyl acetate is a promising possibility for future biorefinery concepts. A hybrid conversion process based on selective hydrogenation of butyric acid combined with fermentation of glucose has been developed for producing biobutanol. ZnO-supported Ru-Sn bimetallic catalysts exhibits unprecedentedly superior performance in the vapor-phase hydrogenation of biomass-derived butyric acid to n-butanol (>98?% yield) for 3500?h without deactivation.
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One-pot transformation of cellobiose to formic acid and levulinic acid over ionic-liquid-based polyoxometalate hybrids.
ChemSusChem
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
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Currently, levulinic acid (LA) and formic acid (FA) are considered as important carbohydrates for the production of value-added chemicals. Their direct production from biomass will open up a new opportunity for the transformation of biomass resource to valuable chemicals. In this study, one-pot transformation of cellobiose into LA and FA was demonstrated, using a series of multiple-functional ionic liquid-based polyoxometalate (IL-POM) hybrids as catalytic materials. These IL-POMs not only markedly promoted the production of valuable chemicals including LA, FA and monosaccharides with high selectivities, but also provided great convenience of the recovery and the reuse of the catalytic materials in an environmentally friendly manner. Cellobiose conversion of 100%, LA selectivity of 46.3%, and FA selectivity of 26.1% were obtained at 423?K and 3?MPa for 3?h in presence of oxygen. A detailed catalytic mechanism for the one-pot transformation of cellobiose was also presented.
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Surfactant media to grow new crystalline cobalt 1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylate metal-organic frameworks.
Inorg Chem
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2014
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In this report, three new metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), [Co3(?3-OH)(HBTC)(BTC)2Co(HBTC)]·(HTEA)3·H2O (NTU-Z30), [Co(BTC)]·HTEA·H2O (NTU-Z31), [Co3(BTC)4]·(HTEA)4 (NTU-Z32), where H3BTC = 1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylic acid, TEA = triethylamine, and NTU = Nanyang Technological University, have been successfully synthesized under surfactant media and have been carefully characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, powder X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, and IR spectromtry. NTU-Z30 has an unusual trimeric [Co3(?3-OH)(COO)7] secondary building unit (SBU), which is different from the well-known trimeric [Co3O(COO)6] SBU. The topology studies indicate that NTU-Z30 and NTU-Z32 possess two new topologies, 3,3,6,7-c net and 2,8-c net, respectively, while NTU-Z31 has a known topology rtl type (3,6-c net). Magnetic analyses show that all three materials have weak antiferromagnetic behavior. Furthermore, NTU-Z30 has been selected as the heterogeneous catalyst for the aerobic epoxidation of alkene, and our results show that this material exhibits excellent catalytic activity as well as good stability. Our success in growing new crystalline cobalt 1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylate MOFs under surfactant media could pave a new road to preparing new diverse crystalline inorganic materials through a surfactant-thermal method.
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Effects of solubility properties of solvents and biomass on biomass pretreatment.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 07-21-2014
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Hildebrand solubility parameters of biomasses and pretreatment solvents were examined by a method of intrinsic viscosity. This is to be used as basic information in selecting a suitable solvent for biomass pretreatment processes. The effects of mixing1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate (EMIM-AC) and different solvents, lignin content in a pretreatment solvent, and biomass type on the Hildebrand solubility parameter and thermodynamic properties were carried out and calculated in this work. The Hildebrand solubility parameters of the mixtures are according to those of organic solvents: ?H[EMIM-AC/DMA]=25.07
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Surgical management of long-standing antielevation syndrome after unilateral anterior transposition of the inferior oblique muscle.
J AAPOS
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2014
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To investigate surgical management of patients with long-standing antielevation syndrome following unilateral anterior transposition of inferior oblique muscle.
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Graphene/NiO nanowires: controllable one-pot synthesis and enhanced pseudocapacitive behavior.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2014
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In this study, we report a facile and simple approach to synthesize a composite of mesoporous NiO nanowires and graphene nanosheets for supercapacitor applications. A Ni precursor was prepared by a one-pot sol-gel method in a water/ethylene glycol mixture containing a graphene oxide. Heat treatment in air was carried out to thermally reduce the graphene oxide to graphene and to convert the Ni precursor to NiO. NiO nanowires possess a rough surface, have a diameter of around 60 nm and are homogeneously deposited on the graphene sheets. The NiO/graphene nanocomposite demonstrates superior pseudocapacitive properties (high specific capacitance, good cyclic performance, and excellent discharge rate capability) as compared to its counterparts. We postulated that this phenomenon arose from the synergistic effect of the addition of graphene as elastic conductive channels, which resulted in better charge transport and more favorable ionic diffusion.
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Recyclability of an ionic liquid for biomass pretreatment.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2014
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This study investigated the possibility of reusing an ionic liquid for the pretreatment of biomass. The effects of lignin and water content in a pretreatment solvent on pretreatment products were examined, along with the recyclability of an ionic liquid for pretreatment. It was discovered that the presence of lignin and water within a pretreatment solvent resulted in a far less effective pretreatment process. 1-Ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate/ethanolamine (60/40 vol%) presents more promising properties than EMIM-AC, providing a small decrease in sugar conversion and also a small increase of lignin deposition with an increasing lignin amount in the pretreatment solvent. Deteriorations of the ionic liquid were observed from considerably low sugar conversions and lignin extraction after using the 5th and 7th batch, respectively. Furthermore, the changes of ionic liquid properties and lignin accumulation in ionic liquid were determined by analyzing their thermal decomposition behavior (TGA) and chemical functional groups (FTIR and (1)H NMR).
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Dopaminergic modulation of resting-state functional connectivity in de novo patients with Parkinson's disease.
Hum Brain Mapp
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2014
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Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by degenerative changes of nigral dopamine neurons, resulting in the dopaminergic denervation of the striatum. Resting state networks studies have demonstrated that dopamine modulates distinct network connectivity patterns in both a linear and a nonlinear fashion, but quantitative analyses of dopamine-dependent functional connectivity secondary to PD pathology were less informative. In the present study, we performed a correlation analysis between striatal dopamine levels assessed quantitatively by FP-CIT positron emission tomography imaging and resting-state functional connectivity in 23 drug naïve de novo patients with PD to elucidate dopamine-dependent functional networks. The major finding is that the patterns of dopamine-dependent positive functional connectivity varied depending on the location of striatal seeds. Dopamine-dependent functional connectivity with the caudate predominantly overlay pericentral cortical areas, whereas dopamine-dependent structures functionally connected with the posterior putamen predominantly involved cerebellar areas. The dorsolateral frontal area overlapped as a dopamine-dependent cortical region that was positively connected with the anterior and posterior putamen. On the other hand, cortical areas where functional connectivity from the posterior cingulate was negatively correlated with dopaminergic status in the posterior putamen were localized in the left anterior prefrontal area and the parietal area. Additionally, functional connectivity between the anterior putamen and mesiofrontal areas was negatively coupled with striatal dopamine levels. The present study demonstrated that dopamine-dependent functional network connectivity secondary to PD pathology mainly exhibits a consistent pattern, albeit with some variation. These patterns may reflect the diverse effects of dopaminergic medication on parkinsonian-related motor and cognitive performance. Hum Brain Mapp 35:5431-5441, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Topology of brainstem lesions associated with subjective visual vertical tilt.
Neurology
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2014
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We aimed to determine the topology of anatomical pathways for verticality perception in the brainstem.
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Clinical factors and treatment outcomes associated with failure in the detection of urate crystal in patients with acute gouty arthritis.
Korean J. Intern. Med.
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2014
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To investigate the rate of detection of monosodium urate (MSU) crystals in the synovial fluid (SF) of patients with acute gouty arthritis and factors associated with false-negative results.
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Topographic pattern of cortical thinning with consideration of motor laterality in Parkinson disease.
Parkinsonism Relat. Disord.
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2014
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The asymmetry of Parkinson's disease (PD) may contribute to the unilateral appearance of parkinsonism, as well as its cerebral morphological changes. However, previous studies have not considered that cerebral involvement would probably be asymmetric. Our study aimed to identify whether one-sided symptom dominance has an influence on cortical thinning patterns in early-stage, non-demented PD patients from cortical thickness analyses and cortical thinning patterns are associated with motor functions.
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Size-dependent clearance of gold nanoparticles from lungs of Sprague-Dawley rats after short-term inhalation exposure.
Arch. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 04-13-2014
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Gold nanoparticles are known to be distributed to many tissues following their oral, inhalation, or intravenous exposure. Information on the biodistribution and clearance of gold nanoparticles from these tissues is, therefore, important to understand their behavior in vivo. To study the effect of size on the biodistribution of gold nanoparticles, Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed by inhalation to small gold nanoparticles (13 nm in diameter on average) at an exposure concentration of 12.8 ± 2.42 µg/m(3), and to large gold nanoparticles (105 nm in diameter on average) at an exposure concentration of 13.7 ± 1.32 µg/m(3). The experimental animals were exposed to the gold nanoparticles and the control animals to fresh air for 5 days (6 h/day), followed by a recovery period of 1, 3, and 28 days in fresh air. None of the exposed animals exhibited any toxic response to the gold nanoparticles. Despite the difference in size, both small and large gold nanoparticles deposited mainly in rat lungs. Their biodistribution from the lungs to secondary target organs was significantly higher with the small compared to the large gold nanoparticles. While the large gold nanoparticles were only found in the blood, the small gold nanoparticles were detected in the liver, spleen, brain, testes, and blood. In addition, the elimination half-life of the small gold nanoparticles from the lungs was significantly shorter than that of the large gold nanoparticles. The present data may, therefore, suggest that the smaller gold nanoparticles are able to translocate from the lungs, the primary exposure organ to extrapulmonary organs at a faster rate than the larger gold nanoparticles and thus confirming previous observations reported in the literature.
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Morphological and molecular changes associated with Pitchfork during mouse palate development.
Cell Tissue Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2014
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Mammalian palate development is regulated by complex processes. Many cellular and molecular events, such as cell proliferation, apoptosis, cell migration and the epithelial mesenchymal transition, regulate proper palate development and some abnormalities in palate development lead to cleft palate. Various developmental disorders, such as cleft palate and disorders of the lung, kidney and heart, are known to be associated with ciliary defects. Pitchfork, a mouse embryonic node gene, is associated with ciliary targeting complexes located at the basal body during primary cilia disassembly. To determine the function of Pitchfork during palate development, we examine Pitchfork expression patterns and morphological changes in the developing secondary palate after Pitchfork over-expression. From embryonic day 12.5 (E12.5) to E13.5 in mice, Pitchfork was highly expressed in the developing mouse secondary palate. Morphological differences were observed in vitro in cultured palates in the Pitchfork over-expression group compared with the control group. Pitchfork over-expression induced primary cilia disassembly during palate development. Sonic hedgehog and Patched1 expression levels and palatine rugae morphology were altered in the over-expressed Pitchfork group during palate development. Thus, the proper expression levels of Pitchfork might play a pivotal role in normal secondary palate morphogenesis.
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Cytotoxic and targeted systemic therapy in advanced and recurrent cervical cancer: experience from clinical trials.
Tohoku J. Exp. Med.
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2014
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Cervical cancer is the third most common malignant disease of women worldwide. Despite advances in screening and treatment strategies, a significant number of patients have advanced and recurrent disease. These patients are not amenable to curative treatments, such as surgery and radiation, and have poor prognosis. Therefore, palliative treatment remains the standard of care for these patients. Several phase II/III trials have demonstrated that cisplatin is the most active single agent, and the combination of cisplatin and paclitaxel is considered a standard regimen for clinical practice and trials in these patients with improved response rates and progression-free intervals. Although other cisplatin doublet chemotherapy regimens were not superior to cisplatin plus paclitaxel, substituting topotecan or gemcitabine for paclitaxel might be helpful for some patients considering different toxicity profiles. Because the response to palliative chemotherapy is poor, several targeted agents including bevacizumab, erlotinib, pazopanib, lapatinib, sunitinib and cetuximab, each of which inhibits cell proliferation and angiogenesis, were evaluated in these patients. Of them, bevacizumab, targeting vascular endothelial growth factor, showed favorable results. Recent phase III trial showed that bevacizumab combined with chemotherapy was shown to significantly improve the response rate, progression-free interval, and overall survival compared to chemotherapy alone. These results suggest that targeted agents could significantly improve survival and affect practice guidelines in these patients showing poor prognosis. Thus, future trials using newly developed targeted agents are warranted to improve treatment strategies in these patients.
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Malondialdehyde and 3-nitrotyrosine in exhaled breath condensate in retired elderly coal miners with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
Saf Health Work
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2014
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Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is an important cause of occupational mortality in miners exposed to coal mine dust. Although the inflammatory mediators involved in COPD have not been defined, many studies have shown that inflammatory mediators such as reactive oxygen and nitrogen species are involved in orchestrating the complex inflammatory process in COPD.
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Comparison of the efficacy and safety profiles of a pelubiprofen versus celecoxib in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a 6-week, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, phase III, non-inferiority clinical trial.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2014
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Pelubiprofen is a prodrug of 2-arylpropionic acid with relatively selective effects on cyclooxygenase-2 activity. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety profiles of pelubiprofen with those of celecoxib in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.
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Comparison of radioimmunoprecipitation versus antigen-specific assays for identification of myositis-specific autoantibodies in dermatomyositis patients.
Mod Rheumatol
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2014
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Abstract Background. To confirm the antigen specificities of autoantibodies that precipitate 140-kDa (anti-p140) or 155/140-kDa polypeptides (anti-p155/140) previously identified by radioimmunoprecipitation in Korean patients with dermatomyositis (DM) and to look into the relationship between each MSA and clinical features of DM. Methods. Seventeen serum samples of classic DM patients who had been found to have either anti-p140 antibodies (n = 9) or anti-p155/140 (n = 8) antibodies in our previous study were examined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (for anti-MDA5 antibodies) and immunoblotting (for anti-MJ/NXP-2 and anti-TIF-1? antibodies). Results. Seven out of nine anti-p140 antibody positive patients were found to have anti-MDA5 antibodies. Two out of nine had anti-MJ/NXP-2 antibodies with no interstitial lung disease (ILD). All eight anti-p155/140 antibody positive patients were found to have anti-TIF-1? antibodies. Anti-TIF-1? and anti-MDA5 antibodies were simultaneously detected in one patient with anti-p155/140 antibody, who suffered HIV infection and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The associations between anti-MDA5 antibody and rapidly progressive ILD and between anti-TIF-1? antibody and cancer-associated DM were confirmed to be significant. Conclusions. Although radioimmunoprecipitation still looks to be a good screening tool, confirmation with antigen-specific assays seems mandatory. The associations between anti-MDA5 and rapidly progressive ILD and between anti-TIF-1? and cancer-associated DM were confirmed in Korean patients with DM.
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Baseline serum interleukin-34 levels independently predict radiographic progression in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.
Rheumatol. Int.
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2014
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The aim of our observational study was to investigate the clinical significance of interleukin (IL)-34, a novel osteoclastogenic cytokine, for predicting structural damage in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Serum IL-34 levels were measured in 100 RA patients, 36 patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS), and 59 gender- and age-matched healthy individuals using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We also measured IL-34 concentrations in synovial fluid (SF) samples from 18 RA patients and 19 osteoarthritis (OA) patients. Progression of structural damage was assessed in 81 patients with RA by plain radiographs using the modified Sharp/van der Heijde score (SHS) at baseline and after an average 1.6-year follow-up period. Serum IL-34 levels were significantly higher in patients with RA (p < 0.001) or AS (p < 0.001) than in healthy controls. SF IL-34 levels were also significantly higher in RA patients than in OA patients (p < 0.001). In RA, serum IL-34 levels were associated with rheumatoid factor positivity (p = 0.01), current smoking (p < 0.01), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (p = 0.01), and C-reactive protein levels (p < 0.01), but not with disease activity score 28. ?SHS/year was positively correlated with serum IL-34 levels (r = 0.443, p < 0.001). In multivariate logistic regression analyses, serum IL-34 level was an independent risk factor for radiographic progression. These results suggest that IL-34, a novel osteoclastogenic cytokine, plays a role in RA-associated joint damage and is a potential biomarker for predicting subsequent radiographic progression in patients with RA.
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Pirfenidone attenuates the IL-1?-induced hyaluronic acid increase in orbital fibroblasts from patients with thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy.
Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2014
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This study aimed to investigate the effect of pirfenidone on the IL-1?-induced hyaluronic acid (HA) increase in orbital fibroblasts from patients with thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO).
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Strabismus surgery and long-term visual outcomes in patients with preadolescent onset ocular myasthenia gravis.
Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol.
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2014
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To investigate long-term strabismus surgical outcomes and visual prognosis in preadolescent ocular myasthenia gravis (OMG).
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The genome sequence of the Antarctic bullhead notothen reveals evolutionary adaptations to a cold environment.
Genome Biol.
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2014
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BackgroundAntarctic fish have adapted to the freezing waters of the Southern Ocean. Representative adaptations to this harsh environment include a constitutive heat shock response and the evolution of an antifreeze protein in the blood. Despite their adaptations to the cold, genome-wide studies have not yet been performed on these fish due to the lack of a sequenced genome. Notothenia coriiceps, the Antarctic bullhead notothen, is an endemic teleost fish with a circumpolar distribution and makes a good model to understand the genomic adaptations to constant sub-zero temperatures.ResultsWe provide the draft genome sequence and annotation for N. coriiceps. Comparative genome-wide analysis with other fish genomes shows that mitochondrial proteins and hemoglobin evolved rapidly. Transcriptome analysis of thermal stress responses find alternative response mechanisms for evolution strategies in a cold environment. Loss of the phosphorylation-dependent sumoylation motif in heat shock factor 1 suggests that the heat shock response evolved into a simple and rapid phosphorylation-independent regulatory mechanism. Rapidly evolved hemoglobin and the induction of a heat shock response in the blood may support the efficient supply of oxygen to cold-adapted mitochondria.ConclusionsOur data and analysis suggest that evolutionary strategies in efficient aerobic cellular respiration are controlled by hemoglobin and mitochondrial proteins, which may be important for the adaptation of Antarctic fish to their environment. The use of genome data from the Antarctic endemic fish provides an invaluable resource providing evidence of evolutionary adaptation and can be applied to other studies of Antarctic fish.
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Cognitive and cortical thinning patterns of subjective cognitive decline in patients with and without Parkinson's disease.
Parkinsonism Relat. Disord.
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2014
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Subjective cognitive decline (SCD) has gained attention as a predictor of future cognitive decline in neurodegenerative diseases. Based on the hypothesis that different pathologies may distinctly contribute to SCD, we investigated the cognitive profiles and cortical thickness of patients with SCD, with and without Parkinson's disease (PD).
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In vivo genotoxicity evaluation of lung cells from Fischer 344 rats following 28 days of inhalation exposure to MWCNTs, plus 28 days and 90 days post-exposure.
Inhal Toxicol
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2014
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Despite their useful physico-chemical properties, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) continue to cause concern over occupational and human health due to their structural similarity to asbestos. Thus, to evaluate the toxic and genotoxic effect of multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) on lung cells in vivo, eight-week-old rats were divided into four groups (each group?=?25 animals), a fresh air control (0?mg/m(3)), low (0.17?mg/m(3)), middle (0.49?mg/m(3)), and high (0.96?mg/m(3)) dose group, and exposed to MWCNTs via nose-only inhalation 6?h per day, 5 days per week for 28 days. The count median length and geometric standard deviation for the MWCNTs determined by TEM were 330.18 and 1.72?nm, respectively, and the MWCNT diameters ranged from 10 to 15?nm. Lung cells were isolated from five male and five female rats in each group on day 0, day 28 (only from males) and day 90 following the 28-day exposure. The total number of animals used was 15 male and 10 female rats for each concentration group. To determine the genotoxicity of the MWCNTs, a single cell gel electrophoresis assay (Comet assay) was conducted on the rat lung cells. As a result of the exposure, the olive tail moments were found to be significantly higher (p?
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Expression of p75(NGFR), a Proliferative and Basal Cell Marker, in the Buccal Mucosa Epithelium during Re-epithelialization.
Acta Histochem Cytochem
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2014
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We investigated the expression of p75(NGFR), a proliferative and basal cell marker, in the mouse buccal mucosa epithelium during wound healing in order to elucidate the role of epithelial stem cells. Epithelial defects were generated in the epithelium of the buccal mucosa of 6-week-old mice using CO2 laser irradiation. BrdU was immediately administered to mice following laser irradiation. They were then sacrificed after 1, 3, 7, and 14 days. Paraffin sections were prepared and the irradiated areas were analyzed using immunohistochemistry with anti-p75(NGFR), BrdU, PCNA, and CK14 antibodies. During re-epithelialization, PCNA (-)/p75(NGFR) (+) cells extended to the wound, which then closed, whereas PCNA (+)/p75(NGFR) (+) cells were not observed at the edge of the wound. In addition, p75(NGFR) (-)/CK14 (+), which reflected the presence of post-mitotic differentiating cells, was observed in the supra-basal layers of the extended epithelium. BrdU (+)/p75(NGFR) (+), which reflected the presence of epithelial stem cells, was detected sparsely in buccal basal epithelial cells after healing, and disappeared after 7 days. These results suggest that p75(NGFR) (+) keratinocytes are localized in the basal layer, which contains oral epithelial stem cells, and retain the ability to proliferate in order to regenerate the buccal mucosal epithelium.
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Gastrointestinal Tract Involvement of Gorham's Disease with Expression of D2-40 in Duodenum.
Pediatr Gastroenterol Hepatol Nutr
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2014
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We present a case of a 13-year-old boy with Gorham's disease involving the thoracic and lumbar spine, femur, and gastrointestinal (GI) tract, which was complicated by recurrent chylothorax and GI bleeding. The presenting symptoms were intermittent abdominal pain, back pain, and melena. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy and colonoscopy showed no abnormal lesions, but duodenal biopsy showed marked dilation of the lymphatics in the mucosa and submucosa, which revealed positive staining with a D2-40 immunohistochemical marker. In cases of GI bleeding with osteolysis, the expression of a D2-40 marker in the lymphatic endothelium of the GI tract may help to diagnose GI involvement in Gorham's disease. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report to pathologically demonstrate intestinal lymphatic malformation as a cause of GI bleeding in Gorham's disease.
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Efficacy and safety of PG201 (Layla(®)) and celecoxib in the treatment of symptomatic knee osteoarthritis: a double-blinded, randomized, multi-center, active drug comparative, parallel-group, non-inferiority, phase III study.
Rheumatol. Int.
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2014
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The objectives of the study are to demonstrate the non-inferiority of PG201 (Layla(®)) 600 mg in comparison with celecoxib 200 mg for the treatment of symptomatic knee osteoarthritis (OA). In total, 309 patients were randomly assigned to receive either the test drug, PG201 600 mg (n = 154) or celecoxib 200 mg (n = 155). The primary efficacy variable was improvement in mean 100-mm pain VAS score from baseline to the final visit (week 8), and this value was compared between the 2 treatment groups. Secondary outcome variables included changes from baseline in the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC) pain VAS score and subscale score, patient's global assessment of disease status quality of life (short form-36) and responder index at weeks 4 and 8. For safety assessment, adverse events were recorded at each clinical visit. At weeks 8, the 100-mm pain VAS scores were significantly decreased in patients receiving both PG201 600 mg (p < 0.0001) and celecoxib 200 mg (p < 0.0001) as compared to the baseline scores; however, no statistically significant differences in these values were noted between the groups (p = 0.312). These results met pre-specified criteria for non-inferiority for both the intent-to-treat and per-protocol populations. PG201 600 mg and celecoxib 200 mg were both well tolerated and no statistically significant differences in the tolerability profile between the groups. PG201 600 mg was as effective and safe as celecoxib 200 mg in the treatment of symptomatic knee OA and might be a useful new medication for the treatment of symptomatic knee OA.
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Serum levels of TGF-?1 and MCP-1 as biomarkers for progressive coal workers' pneumoconiosis in retired coal workers: a three-year follow-up study.
Ind Health
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2014
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Various cytokines activated by the inhalation of coal dust may mediate inflammation and lead to tissue damage. Objective of this study was to examine the relationships between coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP) progression over a 3?yr period and the serum levels of cytokines in 85 retired coal workers. To investigate the relevance of serum cytokines in CWP, serum levels of interleukin-8 (IL-8), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?), transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-?1), and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) as progressive CWP biomarkers were studied in relation to the progression of pneumoconiosis over a 3?yr period in 85 patients with CWP. CWP progression was evaluated through paired comparisons of chest radiographs. Median levels of TGF-?1 and MCP-1 were significantly higher in subjects with progressive CWP than in those without CWP progression. The area under the ROC curve for TGF-?1 (0.693) and MCP-1 (0.653) indicated that these cytokines could serve as biomarkers for the progression of CWP. Serum TGF-?1 levels were related to the progression of CWP (?=0.247, p=0.016). The results suggest that high serum levels of TGF-?1 and MCP-1 are associated with the progression of CWP.
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Single nucleotide polymorphisms in IL-10-mediated signalling pathways in Korean patients with Behçet's disease.
Clin. Exp. Rheumatol.
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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Previous genome-wide association studies have demonstrated an association between the IL-10 region and Behçet's disease (BD) in Turkish and Japanese populations. Our aim was to fully examine the relationship between IL-10 and BD, the associations between BD and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in IL-10-mediated signalling pathways (JAK1, TYK2, and STAT3) were examined in Korean patients with BD.
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Mesenchymal stem cells can modulate longitudinal changes in cortical thickness and its related cognitive decline in patients with multiple system atrophy.
Front Aging Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is an adult-onset, sporadic neurodegenerative disease. Because the prognosis of MSA is fatal, neuroprotective or regenerative strategies may be invaluable in MSA treatment. Previously, we obtained clinical and imaging evidence that mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) treatment could have a neuroprotective role in MSA patients. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of MSC therapy on longitudinal changes in subcortical deep gray matter volumes and cortical thickness and their association with cognitive performance. Clinical and imaging data were obtained from our previous randomized trial of autologous MSC in MSA patients. During 1-year follow-up, we assessed longitudinal differences in automatic segmentation-based subcortical deep gray matter volumes and vertex-wise cortical thickness between placebo (n = 15) and MSC groups (n = 11). Next, we performed correlation analysis between the changes in cortical thickness and changes in the Korean version of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) scores and cognitive performance of each cognitive subdomain using a multiple, comparison correction. There were no significant differences in age at baseline, age at disease onset, gender ratio, disease duration, clinical severity, MoCA score, or education level between the groups. The automated subcortical volumetric analysis revealed that the changes in subcortical deep gray matter volumes of the caudate, putamen, and thalamus did not differ significantly between the groups. The areas of cortical thinning over time in the placebo group were more extensive, including the frontal, temporal, and parietal areas, whereas these areas in the MSC group were less extensive. Correlation analysis indicated that declines in MoCA scores and phonemic fluency during the follow-up period were significantly correlated with cortical thinning of the frontal and posterior temporal areas and anterior temporal areas in MSA patients, respectively. In contrast, no significant correlations were observed in the MSC group. These results suggest that MSC treatment in patients with MSA may modulate cortical thinning over time and related cognitive performance, inferring a future therapeutic candidate for cognitive disorders.
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HD CAGnome: a search tool for huntingtin CAG repeat length-correlated genes.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The length of the huntingtin (HTT) CAG repeat is strongly correlated with both age at onset of Huntington's disease (HD) symptoms and age at death of HD patients. Dichotomous analysis comparing HD to controls is widely used to study the effects of HTT CAG repeat expansion. However, a potentially more powerful approach is a continuous analysis strategy that takes advantage of all of the different CAG lengths, to capture effects that are expected to be critical to HD pathogenesis.
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Co6(?3-OH)6 cluster based coordination polymer as an effective heterogeneous catalyst for aerobic epoxidation of alkenes.
Dalton Trans
PUBLISHED: 12-06-2013
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A new hexaprismane Co(ii)6(?3-OH)6 cluster-based three-dimensional coordination polymer ({Co(?3-OH)(HCOO)0.72(CH3COO)0.28}n, ) was successfully synthesized and characterized with single-crystal XRD, IR spectra, TGA spectra and elemental analysis. was used as an effective heterogeneous catalyst for the aerobic epoxidation of various alkenes. For the catalytic epoxidation of trans-stilbene, the conversion and selectivity towards the epoxide reached 98.6 and 98.0%, respectively. Also, an average TOF of 22 h(-1) was obtained for the reaction. The results indicated that displayed excellent aerobic epoxidation activity among the reported coordination polymer materials, even rivaling the traditional heterogeneous cobalt catalysts. The influence of the reaction parameters such as temperature and oxygen flow rate for the epoxidation of the trans-stilbene were also studied in detail.
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Home cage locomotor changes in non-human primates after prolonged welding-fume exposure.
Inhal Toxicol
PUBLISHED: 12-06-2013
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Abstract To define the relationship between the brain concentration of manganese and neurological signs, such as locomotion, after prolonged welding-fume exposure, cynomolgus monkeys were acclimated for 1 month and then divided into three concentration groups: unexposed, low concentration (31?mg/m(3) total suspended particulate (TSP), 0.9?mg/m(3) of Mn), and high concentration (62?mg/m(3) TSP, 1.95?mg/m(3) of Mn) of TSP. The monkeys were exposed to manual metal-arc stainless steel (MMA-SS) welding fumes for 2?h per day over 8 months in an inhalation chamber system equipped with an automatic fume generator. The home cage locomotor activity and patterns were determined using a camera system over 2-4 consecutive days. After 25 and 32 weeks of exposure, the home cage locomotor activity of the high-concentration primates was found to be 5-6 times higher than that of the unexposed primates, and this increased locomotor activity was maintained for 7 weeks after ceasing the welding-fume exposure, eventually subsiding to three times higher after 13 weeks of recovery. Therefore, the present results, along with our previous observations of a high magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) T1 signal in the globus pallidus and increased blood Mn concentration, indicate that prolonged welding-fume exposure can cause neurobehavioral changes in cynomolgus monkeys.
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Molecular and engineering approaches to regenerate and repair teeth in mammals.
Cell. Mol. Life Sci.
PUBLISHED: 09-29-2013
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Continuous replacement of teeth throughout the lifespan of an individual is possibly basal for most of the vertebrates including fish and reptiles; however, mammals generally have a limited capacity of tooth renewal. The ability to induce cellular differentiation in adults to replace lost or damaged cells in mammals, or to tissue-engineer organs in vitro, has hence become one of the major goals of regenerative medicine. In this article, we will revisit some of the important signals and tissue interactions that regulate mammalian tooth development, and will offer a synopsis of the latest progress in tooth regeneration and repair via molecular and engineering approaches. It is hoped that this article will not only offer an overview of recent technologies in tooth regeneration and repair but will also stimulate more interdisciplinary research in this field to turn the pursuit of tooth regeneration and repair into practical reality.
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Acute central retinal artery occlusion associated with livedoid vasculopathy: a variant of Sneddons syndrome.
Korean J Ophthalmol
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2013
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Livedoid vasculopathy (LV) is characterized by a long history of ulceration of the feet and legs and histopathology indicating a thrombotic process. We report a case of acute central retinal artery occlusion in a 32-year-old woman who had LV. She showed no discernible laboratory abnormalities such as antiphospholipid antibodies and no history of cerebrovascular accidents. Attempted intra-arterial thrombolysis showed no effect in restoring retinal arterial perfusion or vision. The central retinal artery occlusion accompanied by LV in this case could be regarded as a variant form of Sneddons syndrome, which is characterized by livedo reticularis and cerebrovascular accidents.
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The EULAR Sjogrens syndrome patient reported index as an independent determinant of health-related quality of life in primary Sjogrens syndrome patients: in comparison with non-Sjogrens sicca patients.
Rheumatology (Oxford)
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2013
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To investigate the significant determinants of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and the association of the EULAR Sjögrens syndrome patient reported index (ESSPRI) with clinical parameters including HRQOL in Korean patients with primary Sjögrens syndrome (pSS) compared with non-SS sicca patients.
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Localized cortical thinning in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.
Sleep
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2013
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To investigate differences in cortical thickness in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) syndrome and healthy controls.
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Facile synthesis of low crystalline MoS2 nanosheet-coated CNTs for enhanced hydrogen evolution reaction.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2013
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In this work, a networked MoS2/CNT nanocomposite has been synthesized by a facile solvothermal method. The as-prepared sample exhibits high catalytic activity for electrocatalytic hydrogen evolution.
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Distillable ionic liquids: reversible amide o?alkylation.
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2013
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Put it in reverse: The recycling of ionic liquids (ILs) by distillation of the regenerated volatile precursors was demonstrated to be feasible by using low-cost amide-cation-derived aprotic ionic liquids prepared from reversible O?alkylation. The low viscosity (21.6?cP at 25?°C), high conductivity (15.45?mS?cm(-1) at 25?°C), and wide electrochemical windows (ca. 4.5?V) of the ILs show potential for electrochemical applications.
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The correlates of unemployment and its association with quality of life in cervical cancer survivors.
J Gynecol Oncol
PUBLISHED: 07-07-2013
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Little is known regarding cervical cancer survivors employment status, which represents social integration of cancer survivors as a pivotal domain of long-term quality of life. The goal of this study was to assess the correlates of unemployment and evaluate the impact on the comprehensive quality of life in cervical cancer survivors.
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Clinical and radiologic course of symptomatic spontaneous isolated dissection of the superior mesenteric artery treated with conservative management.
J. Vasc. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2013
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To determine the clinical and radiological outcomes of patients with symptomatic spontaneous isolated dissection of the superior mesenteric artery (SIDSMA) who were treated with conservative management.
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Recent developments in nanoparticle-based siRNA delivery for cancer therapy.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2013
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RNA interference (RNAi) is a gene regulation mechanism initiated by RNA molecules that enables sequence-specific gene silencing by promoting degradation of specific mRNAs. Molecular therapy using small interfering RNA (siRNA) has shown great therapeutic potential for diseases caused by abnormal gene overexpression or mutation. The major challenges to application of siRNA therapeutics include the stability and effective delivery of siRNA in vivo. Important progress in nanotechnology has led to the development of efficient siRNA delivery systems. In this review, the authors discuss recent advances in nanoparticle-mediated siRNA delivery and the application of siRNA in clinical trials for cancer therapy. This review will also offer perspectives on future applications of siRNA therapeutics.
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A New Classification System for Ischemia Using a Combination of Deep and Periventricular White Matter Hyperintensities.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2013
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The Clinical Research Center for Dementia of South Korea (CREDOS) group developed a new classification system for ischemia using a combination of deep and periventricular white matter hyperintensities (WMHs). In this study, we aimed to evaluate the validity of the CREDOS ischemia classification system. A total of 352 patients with cognitive impairments were included. Their WMH scores were rated using the CREDOS WMH visual rating scale. These patients were divided into 3 groups according to the CREDOS ischemia classification system. The volume of WMH was also automatically measured. The number of lacunes and microbleeds (MBs) were counted. The CREDOS ischemia classification system was revised with factor analysis using vascular risk factors and cerebrovascular disease (CVD) markers (WMH volume, lacunes, and MBs). External validation was performed in another group of patients with cognitive impairment using multinomial logistic regression analysis. The CREDOS WMH visual rating scale showed excellent correlation with the automatically measured volume of WMH. The factor analysis showed that the severe group was expanded to D3P1 and D3P2 in the revised CREDOS ischemia classification system. In the validation group, the presence of vascular risk factors and the severity of CVD markers could be distinguished according to the revised CREDOS ischemia classification. We validated a newly developed classification system for ischemia. This simple visual classification system was capable of providing information on vascular risk factors and CVD markers by simply rating WMH on magnetic resonance imaging.
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Idiopathic normal-pressure hydrocephalus, cortical thinning, and the cerebrospinal fluid tap test.
J. Neurol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2013
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When considering the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms involved in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH), white matter is often the main locus of investigation. However, when an axon in the brain is damaged, degeneration of the neuron can occur proximally (dying back) and Alzheimers disease (AD), associated with cortical thinning, is a common pathologic comorbidity with iNPH. We investigated differences in cortical thickness between CSF tap test (CSFTT) responders and non-responders in iNPH patients and compared patterns of cortical thickness in iNPH patients with that of AD patients. Thirty-two iNPH patients (16 CSFTT responders and 16 CSFTT non-responders) and 16 AD patients were imaged with MRI, including 3-dimensional volumetric images for cortical thickness analysis across the entire brain. Among the iNPH patients, CSFTT non-responders, when compared to responders, had statistically significant cortical thinning in the left superior frontal gyrus at the level of a false discovery rate (FDR) p<0.05, and tended to show widespread cortical thinning in most areas of the brain. Relative to the CSFTT responders, AD patients showed statistically significant cortical thinning in superior and medial frontal gyrus, left precentral gyrus, postcentral gyrus, paracentral lobule, precuneus, and superior parietal lobule after FDR correction (p<0.05). However, comparing patterns of cortical thinning between AD patients and CSFTT non-responders revealed no statistically significant differences. Differences in cortical thickness correlated with CSFTT response for iNPH patients may indicate a possibility for considering patterns of cortical thinning in patients with ventriculomegaly as potential brain imaging markers for the prediction of CSFTT responders. And, our findings suggest that comorbid AD pathology might be related to the cortical thinning patterns found in CSFTT non-responders. Larger studies, using normal controls and combinations of other biomarkers associated with AD, would be necessary to evaluate these hypotheses.
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Dimensionality reduced cortical features and their use in predicting longitudinal changes in Alzheimers disease.
Neurosci. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2013
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Neuroimaging features derived from the cortical surface provide important information in detecting changes related to the progression of Alzheimers disease (AD). Recent widespread adoption of neuroimaging has allowed researchers to study longitudinal data in AD. We adopted cortical thickness and sulcal depth, parameterized by three-dimensional meshes, from magnetic resonance imaging as the surface features. The cortical feature is high-dimensional, and it is difficult to use directly with a classifier because of the "small sample size" problem. We applied manifold learning to reduce the dimensionality of the feature and then tested the usage of the dimensionality reduced feature with a support vector machine classifier. Principal component analysis (PCA) was chosen as the method of manifold learning. PCA was applied to a region of interest within the cortical surface. We used 30 normal, 30 mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and 12 conversion cases taken from the ADNI database. The classifier was trained using the cortical features extracted from normal and MCI patients. The classifier was tested for the 12 conversion patients only using the imaging data before the actual conversion. The conversion was predicted early with an accuracy of 83%.
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Design of short membrane selective antimicrobial peptides containing tryptophan and arginine residues for improved activity, salt-resistance, and biocompatibility.
Biotechnol. Bioeng.
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2013
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Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) kill microbes by non-specific membrane permeabilization, making them ideal templates for designing novel peptide-based antibiotics that can combat multi-drug resistant pathogens. For maximum efficacy in vivo and in vitro, AMPs must be biocompatible, salt-tolerant and possess broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. These attributes can be obtained by rational design of peptides guided by good understanding of peptide structure-function. Toward this end, this study investigates the influence of charge and hydrophobicity on the activity of tryptophan and arginine rich decamer peptides engineered from a salt resistant human ?-defensin-28 variant. Mechanistic investigations of the decamers with detergents mimicking the composition of bacterial and mammalian membrane, reveal a correlation between improved antibacterial activity and the increase in tryptophan and positive residue content, while keeping hemolysis low. The potent antimicrobial activity and high cell membrane selective behavior of the two most active decamers, D5 and D6, are attributed to an optimum peptide charge to hydrophobic ratio bestowed by systematic arginine and tryptophan substitution. D5 and D6 show surface localization behavior with binding constants of 1.86?×?10(8) and 2.6?×?10(8) ?M(-1) , respectively, as determined by isothermal calorimetry measurements. NMR derived structures of D5 and D6 in SDS detergent micelles revealed proximity of Trp and Arg residues in an extended structural scaffold. Such potential cation-? interactions may be critical in cell permeabilization of the AMPs. The fundamental characterization of the engineered decamers provided in this study improves the understanding of structure-activity relationship of short arginine tryptophan rich AMPs, which will pave the way for future de novo design of potent AMPs for therapeutic and biomedical applications. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2014;111: 37-49. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Cytokine signaling-1 suppressor is inducible by IL-1beta and inhibits the catabolic effects of IL-1beta in chondrocytes: its implication in the paradoxical joint-protective role of IL-1beta.
Arthritis Res. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2013
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Although IL-1? is believed to be crucial in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA), the IL-1? blockade brings no therapeutic benefit in human OA and results in OA aggravation in several animal models. We explored the role of a cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1) suppressor as a regulatory modulator of IL-1? signaling in chondrocytes.
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Clinical Risk Factors for Adverse Events in Allopurinol Users.
J Clin Pharmacol
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2013
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Allopurinol, one of the most commonly used uric acid-lowering agents, can cause serious adverse events. To investigate the risk factors for allopurinol-induced adverse events, the authors enrolled 94 patients who developed allopurinol-induced adverse events and 378 controls who were randomly chosen from 1934 patients who used allopurinol but did not develop any adverse events in this retrospective case control study. Univariate analysis showed that patients who developed allopurinol-induced adverse events had more chronic kidney disease (46% vs 30%, P = .005), more hypertension (42% vs 30%, P = .036), less tumor lysis syndrome (P = .030), higher cholesterol (P = .013), and lower aspartate aminotransferase (P = .002) and alanine aminotransferase levels (P = .033) and more commonly used angiotensin receptor blockers (27% vs 15%, P = .007), colchicines (16% vs 5%, P = .010), or statins (19% vs 8%, P = .002) than those who did not. In multiple logistic regression analysis, the use of colchicines (odds ratio, 3.11; 95% confidence interval, 1.28-7.58; P = .012) and statins (2.10; 1.03-4.25; P = .041) was an independent risk factor predicting adverse events in allopurinol users. In conclusion, patients who use colchicine or statins are at significant risk for developing allopurinol-induced adverse events.
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Clinical risk factors for adverse events in allopurinol users.
J Clin Pharmacol
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2013
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Allopurinol, one of the most commonly used uric acid-lowering agents, can cause serious adverse events. To investigate the risk factors for allopurinol-induced adverse events, the authors enrolled 94 patients who developed allopurinol-induced adverse events and 378 controls who were randomly chosen from 1934 patients who used allopurinol but did not develop any adverse events in this retrospective case control study. Univariate analysis showed that patients who developed allopurinol-induced adverse events had more chronic kidney disease (46% vs 30%, P = .005), more hypertension (42% vs 30%, P = .036), less tumor lysis syndrome (P = .030), higher cholesterol (P = .013), and lower aspartate aminotransferase (P = .002) and alanine aminotransferase levels (P = .033) and more commonly used angiotensin receptor blockers (27% vs 15%, P = .007), colchicines (16% vs 5%, P = .010), or statins (19% vs 8%, P = .002) than those who did not. In multiple logistic regression analysis, the use of colchicines (odds ratio, 3.11; 95% confidence interval, 1.28-7.58; P = .012) and statins (2.10; 1.03-4.25; P = .041) was an independent risk factor predicting adverse events in allopurinol users. In conclusion, patients who use colchicine or statins are at significant risk for developing allopurinol-induced adverse events.
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Topographic distribution of cortical thinning in subtypes of multiple system atrophy.
Parkinsonism Relat. Disord.
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2013
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Despite the predominant degeneration of subcortical structures, recent studies have suggested the evidence of cortical involvement in multiple system atrophy (MSA). This study aimed to identify the different topographic pattern of cortical thinning in MSA according to clinical subtypes, and the association of cortical thinning with cerebellar atrophy and other disease related metrics.
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Effects of levetiracetam monotherapy on the cognitive function of epilepsy patients.
Eur. Neurol.
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2013
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To estimate the effect of levetiracetam (LEV) on cognitive function and mood status in newly diagnosed epilepsy patients.
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Ultrafine particle characteristics in a rubber manufacturing factory.
Ann Occup Hyg
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2013
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According to epidemiological research, exposure to rubber fumes can cause various types of cancer and can lead to an increase in death rate because of cardiovascular diseases.
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Transcriptome response to alkane biofuels in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: identification of efflux pumps involved in alkane tolerance.
Biotechnol Biofuels
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2013
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Hydrocarbon alkanes have been recently considered as important next-generation biofuels because microbial production of alkane biofuels was demonstrated. However, the toxicity of alkanes to microbial hosts can possibly be a bottleneck for high productivity of alkane biofuels. To tackle this toxicity issue, it is essential to understand molecular mechanisms of interactions between alkanes and microbial hosts, and to harness these mechanisms to develop microbial host strains with improved tolerance against alkanes. In this study, we aimed to improve the tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a model eukaryotic host of industrial significance, to alkane biofuels by exploiting cellular mechanisms underlying alkane response.
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Joint-protective effects of compound K, a major ginsenoside metabolite, in rheumatoid arthritis: in vitro evidence.
Rheumatol. Int.
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2013
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Regulatory expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and osteoclastogenesis is implicated in the process of joint destruction in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Although several reports suggested the anti-arthritic effects of ginseng saponins, it has not been investigated whether the most absorbable ginsenoside, compound K (CK), has a joint-protective action. We here investigated the effect of CK (0-5 ?M) on TNF-?-induced MMP-1, MMP-3, and MMP-13 and TIMP-1 production from RA fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) and determined the inhibitory effect of CK on osteoclastogenesis from RAW264.7 cells co-cultured with RA-FLS and from human CD14+ monocytes. The effect of CK on NF-?B, nuclear factor of activated T cells c1 (NFATc1), and mitogen-activated protein kinases pathways were evaluated using immunoblotting or specific inhibitors. CK significantly inhibited MMP-1 and MMP-3 productions from RA-FLS in a concentration-dependent manner through suppressing the JNK and ERK pathways. In the co-culture system of TNF-?-stimulated RA-FLS and RAW264.7 cells, CK dose-dependently reduced receptor activator of NF-?B ligand (RANKL) expression in the RA-FLS and inhibited the formation of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive osteoclast-like cells. Furthermore, CK significantly inhibited soluble RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis or osteoclast activity in RAW264.7 cells and human CD14+ monocytes through inhibition of RANKL-induced I?B? degradation and NFATc1 expression. In conclusion, our results increase the understanding of the molecular mechanisms of the joint-protective effects of CK in RA. The characteristic actions of CK provide in vitro evidence for its potential utility in RA therapy.
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Neuroanatomical heterogeneity of essential tremor according to propranolol response.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Recent studies have suggested that essential tremor (ET) is a more complex and heterogeneous clinical entity than initially thought. In the present study, we assessed the pattern of cortical thickness and diffusion tensor white matter (WM) changes in patients with ET according to the response to propranolol to explore the pathogenesis underlying the clinical heterogeneity of ET.
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Influence ofAPOE Genotype on Whole-Brain Functional Networks in Cognitively Normal Elderly.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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This study aimed to investigate the influence of apolipoprotein E (APOE) ?4 allele on whole-brain functional networks in cognitively normal (CN) elderly by applying graph theoretical analysis to brain glucose metabolism. Eighty-six CN elderly [28 APOE ?4 carriers (?4+) and 58 non-carriers (?4-)] underwent clinical evaluation and resting [(18)F] fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography scan. Whole-brain functional networks were constructed from correlations of the 90 regions of interest using the automated anatomical labeling template, and analyzed using graph theoretical approaches. The overall small-world property seen in ?4- was preserved in ?4+. However, both local clustering and path length were lower in ?4+ compared to ?4-. In terms of the hubs of functional networks, ?4+ showed decreased centrality of the right hippocampus but increased centrality of several brain regions associated with the default mode network compared to ?4-. Our results indicate that genetic vulnerability to Alzheimers disease may alter whole-brain functional networks even before clinical symptoms appear.
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A Broad Phenotypic Screen Identifies Novel Phenotypes Driven by a Single Mutant Allele in Huntingtons Disease CAG Knock-In Mice.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Huntingtons disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder caused by the expansion of a CAG trinucleotide repeat in the HTT gene encoding huntingtin. The disease has an insidious course, typically progressing over 10-15 years until death. Currently there is no effective disease-modifying therapy. To better understand the HD pathogenic process we have developed genetic HTT CAG knock-in mouse models that accurately recapitulate the HD mutation in man. Here, we describe results of a broad, standardized phenotypic screen in 10-46 week old heterozygous HdhQ111 knock-in mice, probing a wide range of physiological systems. The results of this screen revealed a number of behavioral abnormalities in HdhQ111/+ mice that include hypoactivity, decreased anxiety, motor learning and coordination deficits, and impaired olfactory discrimination. The screen also provided evidence supporting subtle cardiovascular, lung, and plasma metabolite alterations. Importantly, our results reveal that a single mutant HTT allele in the mouse is sufficient to elicit multiple phenotypic abnormalities, consistent with a dominant disease process in patients. These data provide a starting point for further investigation of several organ systems in HD, for the dissection of underlying pathogenic mechanisms and for the identification of reliable phenotypic endpoints for therapeutic testing.
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The comparison of clinicopathological characteristics in primary malignant mixed m?llerian tumour with epithelial endometrial carcinoma.
Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol
PUBLISHED: 12-20-2011
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We performed an age-matched case-control study to compare the clinical and pathology outcomes between histologically diagnosed primary malignant mixed m?llerian tumour (MMMT) of the uterus and endometrial carcinoma.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.