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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Single-agent tenofovir versus combination emtricitabine plus tenofovir for pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV-1 acquisition: an update of data from a randomised, double-blind, phase 3 trial.
Lancet Infect Dis
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2014
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Antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), with daily oral tenofovir disoproxil fumarate or tenofovir disoproxil fumarate in combination with emtricitabine, has been shown to be efficacious for HIV-1 prevention. Although the use of more than one antiretroviral agent is essential for effective HIV-1 treatment, more than one agent might not be required for effective prophylaxis. We assessed the efficacy of single-agent tenofovir disoproxil fumarate relative to combination emtricitabine plus tenofovir disoproxil fumarate as PrEP.
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Dengue Virus Infections among Haitian and Expatriate Non-governmental Organization Workers - Léogane and Port-au-Prince, Haiti, 2012.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2014
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In October 2012, the Haitian Ministry of Health and the US CDC were notified of 25 recent dengue cases, confirmed by rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs), among non-governmental organization (NGO) workers. We conducted a serosurvey among NGO workers in Léogane and Port-au-Prince to determine the extent of and risk factors for dengue virus infection. Of the total 776 staff from targeted NGOs in Léogane and Port-au-Prince, 173 (22%; 52 expatriates and 121 Haitians) participated. Anti-dengue virus (DENV) IgM antibody was detected in 8 (15%) expatriates and 9 (7%) Haitians, and DENV non-structural protein 1 in one expatriate. Anti-DENV IgG antibody was detected in 162 (94%) participants (79% of expatriates; 100% of Haitians), and confirmed by microneutralization testing as DENV-specific in 17/34 (50%) expatriates and 42/42 (100%) Haitians. Of 254 pupae collected from 68 containers, 65% were Aedes aegypti; 27% were Ae. albopictus. Few NGO workers reported undertaking mosquito-avoidance action. Our findings underscore the risk of dengue in expatriate workers in Haiti and Haitians themselves.
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Loss and dysfunction of V?2? ?? T cells are associated with clinical tolerance to malaria.
Sci Transl Med
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2014
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Although clinical immunity to malaria eventually develops among children living in endemic settings, the underlying immunologic mechanisms are not known. The V?2(+) subset of ?? T cells have intrinsic reactivity to malaria antigens, can mediate killing of Plasmodium falciparum merozoites, and expand markedly in vivo after malaria infection in previously naïve hosts, but their role in mediating immunity in children repeatedly exposed to malaria is unclear. We evaluated ?? T cell responses to malaria among 4-year-old children enrolled in a longitudinal study in Uganda. We found that repeated malaria was associated with reduced percentages of V?2(+) ?? T cells in peripheral blood, decreased proliferation and cytokine production in response to malaria antigens, and increased expression of immunoregulatory genes. Further, loss and dysfunction of proinflammatory V?2(+) ?? T cells were associated with a reduced likelihood of symptoms upon subsequent P. falciparum infection. Together, these results suggest that repeated malaria infection during childhood results in progressive loss and dysfunction of V?2(+) ?? T cells that may facilitate immunological tolerance of the parasite.
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Measles and rubella vaccination coverage in Haiti, 2012: progress towards verifying and challenges to maintaining measles and rubella elimination.
Trop. Med. Int. Health
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2014
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We conducted a nationwide survey to assess measles containing vaccine (MCV) coverage among children aged 1-9 years in Haiti and identify factors associated with vaccination before and during the 2012 nationwide supplementary immunisation activities (SIA).
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First confirmed cases of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection in the United States, updated information on the epidemiology of MERS-CoV infection, and guidance for the public, clinicians, and public health authorities - May 2014.
MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2014
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Since mid-March 2014, the frequency with which cases of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection have been reported has increased, with the majority of recent cases reported from Saudi Arabia and United Arab Emirates (UAE). In addition, the frequency with which travel-associated MERS cases have been reported and the number of countries that have reported them to the World Health Organization (WHO) have also increased. The first case of MERS in the United States, identified in a traveler recently returned from Saudi Arabia, was reported to CDC by the Indiana State Department of Health on May 1, 2014, and confirmed by CDC on May 2. A second imported case of MERS in the United States, identified in a traveler from Saudi Arabia having no connection with the first case, was reported to CDC by the Florida Department of Health on May 11, 2014. The purpose of this report is to alert clinicians, health officials, and others to increase awareness of the need to consider MERS-CoV infection in persons who have recently traveled from countries in or near the Arabian Peninsula. This report summarizes recent epidemiologic information, provides preliminary descriptions of the cases reported from Indiana and Florida, and updates CDC guidance about patient evaluation, home care and isolation, specimen collection, and travel as of May 13, 2014.
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Longitudinal outcomes in a cohort of Ugandan children randomized to artemether-lumefantrine versus dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine for the treatment of malaria.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2014
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Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) has become the standard of care for the treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Although several ACT regimens are approved, data guiding optimal choices of ACTs are limited. We compared short- and long-term outcomes in a cohort of young Ugandan children randomized to 2 leading ACTs.
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Temporal changes in prevalence of molecular markers mediating antimalarial drug resistance in a high malaria transmission setting in Uganda.
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
PUBLISHED: 05-05-2014
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Standard therapy for malaria in Uganda changed from chloroquine to chloroquine + sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine in 2000, and artemether-lumefantrine in 2004, although implementation of each change was slow. Plasmodium falciparum genetic polymorphisms are associated with alterations in drug sensitivity. We followed the prevalence of drug resistance-mediating P. falciparum polymorphisms in 982 samples from Tororo, a region of high transmission intensity, collected from three successive treatment trials conducted during 2003-2012, excluding samples with known recent prior treatment. Considering transporter mutations, prevalence of the mutant pfcrt 76T, pfmdr1 86Y, and pfmdr1 1246Y alleles decreased over time. Considering antifolate mutations, the prevalence of pfdhfr 51I, 59R, and 108N, and pfdhps 437G and 540E were consistently high; pfdhfr 164L and pfdhps 581G were uncommon, but most prevalent during 2008-2010. Our data suggest sequential selective pressures as different treatments were implemented, and they highlight the importance of genetic surveillance as treatment policies change over time.
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Artemisinin-based combination therapies are efficacious and safe for treatment of uncomplicated malaria in HIV-infected Ugandan children.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2014
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Artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) are highly efficacious and safe, but data from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children concurrently receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) and ACTs are limited.
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Comparative impacts over 5 years of artemisinin-based combination therapies on Plasmodium falciparum polymorphisms that modulate drug sensitivity in Ugandan children.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2014
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Artemisinin-based combination therapies, including artemether-lumefantrine (AL) and dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP), are recommended to treat uncomplicated falciparum malaria. Sensitivities to components of AL and DP are impacted by polymorphisms in pfmdr1 and pfcrt. We monitored changes in prevalences of polymorphisms in Tororo, Uganda, from 2008 to 2012.
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Validation of the ligase detection reaction fluorescent microsphere assay for the detection of Plasmodium falciparum resistance mediating polymorphisms in Uganda.
Malar. J.
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2014
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Malaria remains a major public health problem, and its control has been hampered by drug resistance. For a number of drugs, Plasmodium falciparum single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are associated with altered drug sensitivity and can be used as markers of drug resistance. Several techniques have been studied to assess resistance markers. The most widely used methodology is restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. The ligase detection reaction fluorescent microsphere (LDR-FM) assay was recently shown to provide high throughput assessment of P. falciparum SNPs associated with drug resistance. The aim of this study was to validate the reliability and accuracy of the LDR-FM assay in a field setting.
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Strengthening global health security capacity--Vietnam demonstration project, 2013.
MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2014
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Over the past decade, Vietnam has successfully responded to global health security (GHS) challenges, including domestic elimination of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and rapid public health responses to human infections with influenza A(H5N1) virus. However, new threats such as Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) and influenza A(H7N9) present continued challenges, reinforcing the need to improve the global capacity to prevent, detect, and respond to public health threats. In June 2012, Vietnam, along with many other nations, obtained a 2-year extension for meeting core surveillance and response requirements of the 2005 International Health Regulations (IHR). During March-September 2013, CDC and the Vietnamese Ministry of Health (MoH) collaborated on a GHS demonstration project to improve public health emergency detection and response capacity. The project aimed to demonstrate, in a short period, that enhancements to Vietnam's health system in surveillance and early detection of and response to diseases and outbreaks could contribute to meeting the IHR core capacities, consistent with the Asia Pacific Strategy for Emerging Diseases. Work focused on enhancements to three interrelated priority areas and included achievements in 1) establishing an emergency operations center (EOC) at the General Department of Preventive Medicine with training of personnel for public health emergency management; 2) improving the nationwide laboratory system, including enhanced testing capability for several priority pathogens (i.e., those in Vietnam most likely to contribute to public health emergencies of international concern); and 3) creating an emergency response information systems platform, including a demonstration of real-time reporting capability. Lessons learned included awareness that integrated functions within the health system for GHS require careful planning, stakeholder buy-in, and intradepartmental and interdepartmental coordination and communication.
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Rapidly building global health security capacity--Uganda demonstration project, 2013.
MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2014
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Increasingly, the need to strengthen global capacity to prevent, detect, and respond to public health threats around the globe is being recognized. CDC, in partnership with the World Health Organization (WHO), has committed to building capacity by assisting member states with strengthening their national capacity for integrated disease surveillance and response as required by International Health Regulations (IHR). CDC and other U.S. agencies have reinforced their pledge through creation of global health security (GHS) demonstration projects. One such project was conducted during March-September 2013, when the Uganda Ministry of Health (MoH) and CDC implemented upgrades in three areas: 1) strengthening the public health laboratory system by increasing the capacity of diagnostic and specimen referral networks, 2) enhancing the existing communications and information systems for outbreak response, and 3) developing a public health emergency operations center (EOC) (Figure 1). The GHS demonstration project outcomes included development of an outbreak response module that allowed reporting of suspected cases of illness caused by priority pathogens via short messaging service (SMS; i.e., text messaging) to the Uganda District Health Information System (DHIS-2) and expansion of the biologic specimen transport and laboratory reporting system supported by the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR). Other enhancements included strengthening laboratory management, establishing and equipping the EOC, and evaluating these enhancements during an outbreak exercise. In 6 months, the project demonstrated that targeted enhancements resulted in substantial improvements to the ability of Uganda's public health system to detect and respond to health threats.
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Early parasite clearance following artemisinin-based combination therapy among Ugandan children with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria.
Malar. J.
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) is widely recommended as first-line therapy for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria worldwide. Artemisinin resistance has now been reported in Southeast Asia with a clinical phenotype manifested by slow parasite clearance. Although there are no reliable reports of artemisinin resistance in Africa, there is a need to better understand the dynamics of parasite clearance in African children treated with ACT in order to better detect the emergence of artemisinin resistance.
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IFN?/IL-10 co-producing cells dominate the CD4 response to malaria in highly exposed children.
PLoS Pathog.
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Although evidence suggests that T cells are critical for immunity to malaria, reliable T cell correlates of exposure to and protection from malaria among children living in endemic areas are lacking. We used multiparameter flow cytometry to perform a detailed functional characterization of malaria-specific T cells in 78 four-year-old children enrolled in a longitudinal cohort study in Tororo, Uganda, a highly malaria-endemic region. More than 1800 episodes of malaria were observed in this cohort, with no cases of severe malaria. We quantified production of IFN?, TNF?, and IL-10 (alone or in combination) by malaria-specific T cells, and analyzed the relationship of this response to past and future malaria incidence. CD4(+) T cell responses were measurable in nearly all children, with the majority of children having CD4(+) T cells producing both IFN? and IL-10 in response to malaria-infected red blood cells. Frequencies of IFN?/IL10 co-producing CD4(+) T cells, which express the Th1 transcription factor T-bet, were significantly higher in children with ?2 prior episodes/year compared to children with <2 episodes/year (P<0.001) and inversely correlated with duration since malaria (Rho?=?-0.39, P<0.001). Notably, frequencies of IFN?/IL10 co-producing cells were not associated with protection from future malaria after controlling for prior malaria incidence. In contrast, children with <2 prior episodes/year were significantly more likely to exhibit antigen-specific production of TNF? without IL-10 (P?=?0.003). While TNF?-producing CD4(+) T cells were not independently associated with future protection, the absence of cells producing this inflammatory cytokine was associated with the phenotype of asymptomatic infection. Together these data indicate that the functional phenotype of the malaria-specific T cell response is heavily influenced by malaria exposure intensity, with IFN?/IL10 co-producing CD4(+) T cells dominating this response among highly exposed children. These CD4(+) T cells may play important modulatory roles in the development of antimalarial immunity.
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Efficacy of preexposure prophylaxis for HIV-1 prevention among high-risk heterosexuals: subgroup analyses from a randomized trial.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 11-11-2013
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Daily oral antiretroviral preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is a promising strategy for prevention of HIV-1 acquisition. Three clinical trials demonstrated PrEP efficacy; however, two PrEP trials among women did not find protection against HIV-1. One hypothesis proposed for these divergent results is that PrEP efficacy may be reduced in populations with higher HIV-1 incidence.
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Seroepidemiologic survey of epidemic cholera in Haiti to assess spectrum of illness and risk factors for severe disease.
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2013
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To assess the spectrum of illness from toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 and risk factors for severe cholera in Haiti, we conducted a cross-sectional survey in a rural commune with more than 21,000 residents. During March 22-April 6, 2011, we interviewed 2,622 residents ? 2 years of age and tested serum specimens from 2,527 (96%) participants for vibriocidal and antibodies against cholera toxin; 18% of participants reported a cholera diagnosis, 39% had vibriocidal titers ? 320, and 64% had vibriocidal titers ? 80, suggesting widespread infection. Among seropositive participants (vibriocidal titers ? 320), 74.5% reported no diarrhea and 9.0% had severe cholera (reported receiving intravenous fluids and overnight hospitalization). This high burden of severe cholera is likely explained by the lack of pre-existing immunity in this population, although the virulence of the atypical El Tor strain causing the epidemic and other factors might also play a role.
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Modeling the effect of water, sanitation, and hygiene and oral cholera vaccine implementation in Haiti.
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2013
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In 2010, toxigenic Vibrio cholerae was newly introduced to Haiti. Because resources are limited, decision-makers need to understand the effect of different preventive interventions. We built a static model to estimate the potential number of cholera cases averted through improvements in coverage in water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) (i.e., latrines, point-of-use chlorination, and piped water), oral cholera vaccine (OCV), or a combination of both. We allowed indirect effects and non-linear relationships between effect and population coverage. Because there are limited incidence data for endemic cholera in Haiti, we estimated the incidence of cholera over 20 years in Haiti by using data from Malawi. Over the next two decades, scalable WASH interventions could avert 57,949-78,567 cholera cases, OCV could avert 38,569-77,636 cases, and interventions that combined WASH and OCV could avert 71,586-88,974 cases. Rate of implementation is the most influential variable, and combined approaches maximized the effect.
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Pharmacokinetic predictors for recurrent malaria after dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine treatment of uncomplicated malaria in Ugandan infants.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2013
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Although dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP) is used primarily in children, pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) data on DP use in young children are lacking.
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The effects of ACT treatment and TS prophylaxis on Plasmodium falciparum gametocytemia in a cohort of young Ugandan children.
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2013
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Artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TS) prophylaxis are important tools for malaria control, but there are concerns about their effect on gametocytes, the stage of the parasite responsible for transmission. We conducted a longitudinal clinical trial in a cohort of HIV-infected and uninfected children living in an area of high malaria transmission intensity in Uganda. Study participants were randomized to artemether-lumefantrine (AL) or dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP) for all treatments of uncomplicated malaria (N = 4,380) as well as TS prophylaxis for different durations. The risks of gametocytemia detected by microscopy in the 28 days after antimalarial therapy were compared using multivariate analyses. The risk of gametocyte detection was significantly higher in patients treated with DP compared with AL (adjusted relative risk = 1.85, P < 0.001) and among children prescribed TS prophylaxis (adjusted relative risk = 1.76, P < 0.001). The risk of gametocytemia and its potential for increasing transmission should be considered when evaluating different ACTs and TS prophylaxis for malaria control.
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Cholera surveillance during the Haiti epidemic--the first 2 years.
N. Engl. J. Med.
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2013
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In October 2010, nearly 10 months after a devastating earthquake, Haiti was stricken by epidemic cholera. Within days after detection, the Ministry of Public Health and Population established a National Cholera Surveillance System (NCSS).
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Knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to treatment and prevention of cholera, Haiti, 2010.
Emerging Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 12-30-2011
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In response to the recent cholera outbreak, a public health response targeted high-risk communities, including resource-poor communities in Port-au-Prince, Haiti. A survey covering knowledge and practices indicated that hygiene messages were received and induced behavior change, specifically related to water treatment practices. Self-reported household water treatment increased from 30.3% to 73.9%.
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Toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 in water and seafood, Haiti.
Emerging Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 11-22-2011
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During the 2010 cholera outbreak in Haiti, water and seafood samples were collected to detect Vibrio cholerae. The outbreak strain of toxigenic V. cholerae O1 serotype Ogawa was isolated from freshwater and seafood samples. The cholera toxin gene was detected in harbor water samples.
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Epidemic cholera in a crowded urban environment, Port-au-Prince, Haiti.
Emerging Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 11-22-2011
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We conducted a case-control study to investigate factors associated with epidemic cholera. Water treatment and handwashing may have been protective, highlighting the need for personal hygiene for cholera prevention in contaminated urban environments. We also found a diverse diet, a possible proxy for improved nutrition, was protective against cholera.
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Rapid assessment of cholera-related deaths, Artibonite Department, Haiti, 2010.
Emerging Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 11-22-2011
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We evaluated a high (6%) cholera case-fatality rate in Haiti. Of 39 community decedents, only 23% consumed oral rehydration salts at home, and 59% did not seek care, whereas 54% of 48 health facility decedents died after overnight admission. Early in the cholera epidemic, care was inadequate or nonexistent.
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Risk factors early in the 2010 cholera epidemic, Haiti.
Emerging Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 11-22-2011
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During the early weeks of the cholera outbreak that began in Haiti in October 2010, we conducted a case-control study to identify risk factors. Drinking treated water was strongly protective against illness. Our results highlight the effectiveness of safe water in cholera control.
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Considerations for oral cholera vaccine use during outbreak after earthquake in Haiti, 2010-2011.
Emerging Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 11-22-2011
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Oral cholera vaccines (OCVs) have been recommended in cholera-endemic settings and preemptively during outbreaks and complex emergencies. However, experience and guidelines for reactive use after an outbreak has started are limited. In 2010, after over a century without epidemic cholera, an outbreak was reported in Haiti after an earthquake. As intensive nonvaccine cholera control measures were initiated, the feasibility of OCV use was considered. We reviewed OCV characteristics and recommendations for their use and assessed global vaccine availability and capacity to implement a vaccination campaign. Real-time modeling was conducted to estimate vaccine impact. Ultimately, cholera vaccination was not implemented because of limited vaccine availability, complex logistical and operational challenges of a multidose regimen, and obstacles to conducting a campaign in a setting with population displacement and civil unrest. Use of OCVs is an option for cholera control; guidelines for their appropriate use in epidemic and emergency settings are urgently needed.
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Lessons learned during public health response to cholera epidemic in Haiti and the Dominican Republic.
Emerging Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 11-22-2011
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After epidemic cholera emerged in Haiti in October 2010, the disease spread rapidly in a country devastated by an earthquake earlier that year, in a population with a high proportion of infant deaths, poor nutrition, and frequent infectious diseases such as HIV infection, tuberculosis, and malaria. Many nations, multinational agencies, and nongovernmental organizations rapidly mobilized to assist Haiti. The US government provided emergency response through the Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance of the US Agency for International Development and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. This report summarizes the participation by the Centers and its partners. The efforts needed to reduce the spread of the epidemic and prevent deaths highlight the need for safe drinking water and basic medical care in such difficult circumstances and the need for rebuilding water, sanitation, and public health systems to prevent future epidemics.
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CD4 cell count and viral load monitoring in patients undergoing antiretroviral therapy in Uganda: cost effectiveness study.
BMJ
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2011
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To examine the cost and cost effectiveness of quarterly CD4 cell count and viral load monitoring among patients taking antiretroviral therapy (ART).
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Outbreak of Marburg hemorrhagic fever among miners in Kamwenge and Ibanda Districts, Uganda, 2007.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 10-12-2011
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Marburg hemorrhagic fever was detected among 4 miners in Ibanda District, Uganda, from June through September, 2007. Infection was likely acquired through exposure to bats or bat secretions in a mine in Kamwenge District, Uganda, and possibly human-to-human transmission between some patients. We describe the epidemiologic investigation and the health education response.
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Filovirus outbreak detection and surveillance: lessons from Bundibugyo.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 10-12-2011
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The first outbreak of Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF) due to Bundibugyo ebolavirus occurred in Uganda from August to December 2007. During outbreak response and assessment, we identified 131 EHF cases (44 suspect, 31 probable, and 56 confirmed). Consistent with previous large filovirus outbreaks, a long temporal lag (approximately 3 months) occurred between initial EHF cases and the subsequent identification of Ebola virus and outbreak response, which allowed for prolonged person-to-person transmission of the virus. Although effective control measures for filovirus outbreaks, such as patient isolation and contact tracing, are well established, our observations from the Bundibugyo EHF outbreak demonstrate the need for improved filovirus surveillance, reporting, and diagnostics, in endemic locations in Africa.
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Virologic suppression in nevirapine-exposed HIV-infected infants initiating antiretroviral therapy in rural Uganda.
J. Trop. Pediatr.
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2011
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We measured virologic suppression among 34 nevirapine (NVP)-exposed HIV-infected children with median age of 8.6 months (range: 3.2-19.9) initiating NVP-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) in rural Uganda. In Kaplan-Meier analysis, the cumulative probability of virologic suppression, defined as having two consecutive HIV-1 RNA <400 copies ml(-1) by 18 months was 56%. In multivariate Cox proportional hazard modeling, the following pre-ART measurements were independently associated with an increased probability of viral suppression: increasing age [hazard ratio (HR) =1.28 per 1 month increase in age, p?=?0.002], lower viral load (HR?=?3.54 for HIV RNA?>?7?50?000 copies ml(-1), p?=?0.03) and high CD4% (HR?=?6.0 for CD4%?>?25, p?=?0.003). These results lend additional support to the 2010 World Health Organization recommendations that protease inhibitors be used to treat NVP-exposed children, but that NVP-based ART should be initiated before the decline of CD4% to optimize outcomes in NVP-exposed children when protease inhibitors are not available.
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Determinants of early and late mortality among HIV-infected individuals receiving home-based antiretroviral therapy in rural Uganda.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2011
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Up to 20% of people initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) in sub-Saharan Africa die during the first year of treatment. Understanding the clinical conditions associated with mortality could potentially lead to effective interventions to prevent these deaths.
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HIV prevalence, risk behavior, hormone use and surgical history among transgender persons in Thailand.
AIDS Behav
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2011
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While Male-to-female transgender persons (TG) are believed to often engage in sex work and have high HIV infection risk, little is known about demographics, surgical and hormone use history, risk behaviors and HIV prevalence. Between March and October 2005, 474 TG from Bangkok, Chiangmai, and Phuket were surveyed using venue-day-time sampling. Of 474 participants, overall HIV prevalence was 13.5%. Most participants had completed at least secondary or vocational education (79.2%), gender self-identified as female (89.0%), had received money, gifts or valuables for sex (60.8%), and reported hormone use (88.6%). Surgical history was taken from 325 participants. Of these, 68.6% reported some form of surgery and 11.1% had undergone penile-vaginal reconstructive surgery. In multivariate analysis, being recruited from a park/street; older age, anal sex role identification as "versatile" and anal sex debut before age 13 were independently associated with HIV prevalence. The development, implementation and evaluation of culturally appropriate sexual health interventions for Thai TG is urgently needed.
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Characteristics of HIV-1 serodiscordant couples enrolled in a clinical trial of antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV-1 prevention.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 07-06-2011
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Stable heterosexual HIV-1 serodiscordant couples in Africa have high HIV-1 transmission rates and are a critical population for evaluation of new HIV-1 prevention strategies. The Partners PrEP Study is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of tenofovir and emtricitabine-tenofovir pre-exposure prophylaxis to decrease HIV-1 acquisition within heterosexual HIV-1 serodiscordant couples. We describe the trial design and characteristics of the study cohort.
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Sexual behavior and HIV transmission risk of Ugandan adults taking antiretroviral therapy: 3 year follow-up.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2011
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Long-term impact of antiretroviral therapy (ART) on sexual HIV-transmission risk in Africa is unknown. We assessed sexual behavior changes and estimated HIV transmission from HIV-infected adults on ART in Uganda.
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Protective efficacy of co-trimoxazole prophylaxis against malaria in HIV exposed children in rural Uganda: a randomised clinical trial.
BMJ
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2011
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To evaluate the protective efficacy of co-trimoxazole prophylaxis against malaria in HIV exposed children (uninfected children born to HIV infected mothers) in Africa.
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Effect of nutritional status on response to treatment with artemisinin-based combination therapy in young Ugandan children with malaria.
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2011
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The relationship between malnutrition and malaria in young children is under debate, and no studies evaluating the association between malnutrition and response to artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) have been published. We evaluated the association between malnutrition and response to antimalarial therapy in Ugandan children treated with ACTs for repeated episodes of malaria. Children aged 4 to 12 months diagnosed with uncomplicated malaria were randomized to dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP) or artemether-lumefantrine (AL) and followed for up to 2 years. All HIV-exposed and HIV-infected children received trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole prophylaxis (TS). The primary exposure variables included height-for-age and weight-for-age z scores. Outcomes included parasite clearance at days 2 and 3 and risk of recurrent parasitemia after 42 days of follow-up. Two hundred ninety-two children were randomized to DP or AL, resulting in 2,013 malaria treatments. Fewer than 1% of patients had a positive blood smear by day 3 (DP, 0.2%; AL, 0.6% [P = 0.18]). There was no significant association between height-for-age or weight-for-age z scores and a positive blood smear 2 days following treatment. For children treated with DP but not on TS, decreasing height-for-age z scores of <-1 were associated with a higher risk of recurrent parasitemia than a height-for-age z score of >0 (hazard ratio [HR] for height-for-age z score of <-1 and ?-2 = 2.89 [P = 0.039]; HR for height-for-age z score of <-2 = 3.18 [P = 0.022]). DP and AL are effective antimalarial therapies in chronically malnourished children in a high-transmission setting. However, children with mild to moderate chronic malnutrition not taking TS are at higher risk for recurrent parasitemia and may be considered a target for chemoprevention.
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Assessment of BED HIV-1 incidence assay in seroconverter cohorts: effect of individuals with long-term infection and importance of stable incidence.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2011
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Performance of the BED assay in estimating HIV-1 incidence has previously been evaluated by using longitudinal specimens from persons with incident HIV infections, but questions remain about its accuracy. We sought to assess its performance in three longitudinal cohorts from Thailand where HIV-1 CRF01_AE and subtype B dominate the epidemic.
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Prevalence and correlates of GB virus C infection in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected pregnant women in Bangkok, Thailand.
J. Med. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2011
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GB virus C (GBV-C) is an apathogenic virus that has been shown to inhibit HIV replication. This study examined the prevalence and correlates of GBV-C infection and clearance in three cohorts of pregnant women in Thailand. The study population consisted of 1,719 (1,387 HIV-infected and 332 HIV-uninfected) women from three Bangkok perinatal HIV transmission studies. Stored blood was tested for GBV-C RNA, GBV-C antibody, and if RNA-positive, genotype. Risk factors associated with the prevalence of GBV-C infection (defined as presence of GBV-C RNA and/or antibody) and viral clearance (defined as presence of GBV-C antibody in the absence of RNA) among women with GBV-C infection were examined using multiple logistic regression. The prevalence of GBV-C infection was 33% among HIV-infected women and 15% among HIV-uninfected women. GBV-C infection was independently associated (AOR, 95% CI) with an increasing number of lifetime sexual partners (referent-1 partner, 2 partners [1.60, 1.22-2.08], 3-10 partners [1.92, 1.39-2.67], >10 partners [2.19, 1.33-3.62]); injection drug use (5.50, 2.12-14.2); and HIV infection (3.79, 2.58-5.59). Clearance of GBV-C RNA among women with evidence of GBV-C infection was independently associated with increasing age in years (referent <20, 20-29 [2.01, 1.06-3.79] and ?30 [3.18, 1.53-6.60]), more than 10 lifetime sexual partners (3.05, 1.38-6.75), and HIV infection (0.29, 0.14-0.59). This study found that GBV-C infection is a common infection among Thai women and is associated with HIV infection and both sexual and parenteral risk behaviors.
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Proportion of deaths and clinical features in Bundibugyo Ebola virus infection, Uganda.
Emerging Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 12-03-2010
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The first known Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF) outbreak caused by Bundibugyo Ebola virus occurred in Bundibugyo District, Uganda, in 2007. Fifty-six cases of EHF were laboratory confirmed. Although signs and symptoms were largely nonspecific and similar to those of EHF outbreaks caused by Zaire and Sudan Ebola viruses, proportion of deaths among those infected was lower (?40%).
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Increased risk of early vomiting among infants and young children treated with dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine compared with artemether-lumefantrine for uncomplicated malaria.
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
PUBLISHED: 10-05-2010
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Artemether-lumefantrine (AL) and dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP) are highly efficacious antimalarial therapies in Africa. However, there are limited data regarding the tolerability of these drugs in young children. We used data from a randomized control trial in rural Uganda to compare the risk of early vomiting (within one hour of dosing) for children 6-24 months of age randomized to receive DP (n = 240) or AL (n = 228) for treatment of uncomplicated malaria. Overall, DP was associated with a higher risk of early vomiting than AL (15.1% versus 7.1%; P = 0.007). The increased risk of early vomiting with DP was only present among breastfeeding children (relative risk [RR] = 3.35, P = 0.001) compared with children who were not breastfeeding (RR = 1.03, P = 0.94). Age less than 18 months was a risk factor for early vomiting independent of treatment (RR = 3.27, P = 0.02). Our findings indicate that AL may be better tolerated than DP among young breastfeeding children treated for uncomplicated malaria.
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Breastfeeding and the risk of malaria in children born to HIV-infected and uninfected mothers in rural Uganda.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2010
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Early cessation of breastfeeding increases morbidity and mortality of children born to HIV-infected mothers in resource-limited settings. However, data on whether breastfeeding reduces the risk of malaria in HIV-exposed and HIV-infected children is limited.
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Schistosomiasis among recreational users of Upper Nile River, Uganda, 2007.
Emerging Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2010
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After recreational exposure to river water in Uganda, 12 (17%) of 69 persons had evidence of schistosome infection. Eighteen percent self-medicated with praziquantel prophylaxis immediately after exposure, which was not appropriate. Travelers to schistosomiasis-endemic areas should consult a travel medicine physician.
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Drug use and the risk of HIV infection amongst injection drug users participating in an HIV vaccine trial in Bangkok, 1999-2003.
Int. J. Drug Policy
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2010
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HIV spread rapidly amongst injecting drug users (IDUs) in Bangkok in the late 1980s. In recent years, changes in the drugs injected by IDUs have been observed. We examined data from an HIV vaccine trial conducted amongst IDUs in Bangkok during 1999-2003 to describe drug injection practices, drugs injected, and determine if drug use choices altered the risk of incident HIV infection.
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Rates of virological failure in patients treated in a home-based versus a facility-based HIV-care model in Jinja, southeast Uganda: a cluster-randomised equivalence trial.
Lancet
PUBLISHED: 11-24-2009
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Identification of new ways to increase access to antiretroviral therapy in Africa is an urgent priority. We assessed whether home-based HIV care was as effective as was facility-based care.
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Artemether-lumefantrine versus dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine for falciparum malaria: a longitudinal, randomized trial in young Ugandan children.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 11-03-2009
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Artemisinin-based combination therapies are now widely recommended as first-line treatment for uncomplicated malaria. However, which therapies are optimal is a matter of debate. We aimed to compare the short- and longer-term efficacy of 2 leading therapies in a cohort of young Ugandan children.
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Multidrug-resistant TB and HIV in Thailand: overlapping, but not independently associated, risk factors.
Southeast Asian J. Trop. Med. Public Health
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2009
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The HIV and multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) epidemics are closely linked. In Thailand as part of a sentinel surveillance system, we collected data prospectively about pulmonary TB cases treated in public clinics. A subset of HIV-infected TB patients identified through this system had additional data collected for a research study. We conducted multivariate analysis to identify factors associated with MDR-TB. Of 10,428 TB patients, 2,376 (23%) were HIV-infected; 145 (1%) had MDR-TB. Of the MDR-TB cases, 52 (37%) were HIV-infected. Independent risk factors for MDR-TB included age 18-29 years old, male sex, and previous TB treatment, but not HIV infection. Among new patients, having an injection drug use history was a risk factor for MDR-TB. Of 539 HIV-infected TB patients in the research study, MDR-TB was diagnosed in 19 (4%); the only significant risk factors were previous TB treatment and previous hepatitis. In Thailand, HIV is common among MDR-TB patients, but is not an independent risk factor for MDR-TB. Populations at high risk for HIV-young adults, men, injection drug users - should be prioritized for drug susceptibility testing.
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Cost-effectiveness of routine rapid human immunodeficiency virus antibody testing before DNA-PCR testing for early diagnosis of infants in resource-limited settings.
Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J.
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2009
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Infants born to HIV-infected women should receive HIV testing to allow early diagnosis and treatment. Recommendations for resource-limited settings stress laboratory-based virologic assays. While effective, these tests are logistically complex and expensive. This study explored the cost-effectiveness of incorporating initial screening with rapid HIV tests (RHT) into the conventional testing algorithm to screen-out HIV-uninfected infants, thereby reducing the need for costly virologic testing.
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Safety and tolerability of artemether-lumefantrine versus dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine for malaria in young HIV-infected and uninfected children.
Malar. J.
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2009
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Artemisinin combination therapy has become the standard of care for uncomplicated malaria in most of Africa. However, there is limited data on the safety and tolerability of these drugs, especially in young children and patients co-infected with HIV.
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The contribution of family planning towards the prevention of vertical HIV transmission in Uganda.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2009
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Uganda has one of the highest total fertility rates (TFR) worldwide. We compared the effects of antiretroviral (ARV) prophylaxis for the prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) to that of existing family planning (FP) use and estimated the burden of pediatric HIV disease due to unwanted fertility.
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Antiretroviral resistance patterns and HIV-1 subtype in mother-infant pairs after the administration of combination short-course zidovudine plus single-dose nevirapine for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 06-16-2009
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World Health Organization guidelines for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) recommend administration of zidovudine and single-dose nevirapine (NVP) for HIV-1-infected women who are not receiving treatment for their own health or if complex regimens are not available. This study assessed antiretroviral resistance patterns among HIV-infected women and infants receiving single-dose NVP in Thailand, where the predominant circulating HIV-1 strains are CRF01_AE recombinants and where the minority are subtype B.
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Isoniazid, rifampin, ethambutol, and pyrazinamide pharmacokinetics and treatment outcomes among a predominantly HIV-infected cohort of adults with tuberculosis from Botswana.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2009
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We explored the association between antituberculosis drug pharmacokinetics and treatment outcomes among patients with pulmonary tuberculosis in Botswana.
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Blood and seminal plasma HIV-1 RNA levels among HIV-1-infected injecting drug users participating in the AIDSVAX B/E efficacy trial in Bangkok, Thailand.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2009
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We investigated effects of vaccination with AIDSVAX B/E HIV-1 candidate vaccine on blood and seminal plasma HIV-1 RNA viral loads (BVL and SVL, respectively) in vaccine recipients (VRs) and placebo recipients (PRs) who acquired infection.
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Isolation of genetically diverse Marburg viruses from Egyptian fruit bats.
PLoS Pathog.
PUBLISHED: 04-13-2009
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In July and September 2007, miners working in Kitaka Cave, Uganda, were diagnosed with Marburg hemorrhagic fever. The likely source of infection in the cave was Egyptian fruit bats (Rousettus aegyptiacus) based on detection of Marburg virus RNA in 31/611 (5.1%) bats, virus-specific antibody in bat sera, and isolation of genetically diverse virus from bat tissues. The virus isolates were collected nine months apart, demonstrating long-term virus circulation. The bat colony was estimated to be over 100,000 animals using mark and re-capture methods, predicting the presence of over 5,000 virus-infected bats. The genetically diverse virus genome sequences from bats and miners closely matched. These data indicate common Egyptian fruit bats can represent a major natural reservoir and source of Marburg virus with potential for spillover into humans.
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HIV care and treatment factors associated with improved survival during TB treatment in Thailand: an observational study.
BMC Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 04-13-2009
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In Southeast Asia, HIV-infected patients frequently die during TB treatment. Many physicians are reluctant to treat HIV-infected TB patients with anti-retroviral therapy (ART) and have questions about the added value of opportunistic infection prophylaxis to ART, the optimum ART regimen, and the benefit of initiating ART early during TB treatment.
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Multi-drug resistant TB and HIV in Thailand: overlapping, but not independently associated risk factors.
Southeast Asian J. Trop. Med. Public Health
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2009
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The HIV and multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) epidemics are closely linked. In Thailand as part of a sentinel surveillance system, we collected data prospectively about pulmonary TB cases treated in public clinics. A subset of HIV-infected TB patients identified through this system had additional data collected for a research study. We conducted multivariate analysis to identify factors associated with MDR-TB. Of 10,428 TB patients, 2,376 (23%) were HIV-infected; 145 (1%) had MDR-TB. Of the MDR-TB cases, 52 (37%) were HIV-infected. Independent risk factors for MDR-TB included age 18-29 years old, male sex, and previous TB treatment, but not HIV infection. Among new patients, having an injection drug use history was a risk factor for MDR-TB. Of 539 HIV-infected TB patients in the research study, MDR-TB was diagnosed in 19 (4%); the only significant risk factors were previous TB treatment and previous hepatitis. In Thailand, HIV is common among MDR-TB patients, but is not an independent risk factor for MDR-TB. Populations at high risk for HIV-young adults, men, injection drug users - should be prioritized for drug susceptibility testing.
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Correlates of forced sex among populations of men who have sex with men in Thailand.
Arch Sex Behav
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2009
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Although forced sex is a correlate of HIV infection, its prevalence and associated risks are not well described among men who have sex with men (MSM) in developing-country settings. Between March and October 2005, we assessed the prevalence of forced sex and correlates among populations of MSM (this includes general MSM, male sex workers, and male-to-female transgender persons) in Thailand using a community-based sample. Participants were enrolled from venues around Bangkok, Chiangmai, and Phuket using venue day-time sampling. Handheld computer-assisted self-interviewing was used to collect demographic and behavioral data and logistic regression evaluated factors associated with forced sex, defined as ever being forced to have sexual intercourse against ones will. Of the 2,049 participants (M age, 24.8 years), a history of forced sex was reported by 376 (18.4%) men and, of these, most were forced by someone they knew (83.8%), forced more than once (67.3%), and had first occurrence during adolescence (55.1%). In multivariate analysis, having a history of forced sex was significantly associated with being recruited in Phuket, classification as general MSM or transgender (versus classification as male sex worker), drug use, increased number of male sexual partners, and buying sex. The findings in our assessment were consistent with assessments from Western countries. Longitudinal studies are needed to understand the mechanisms of the relationships between forced sex correlates found in our assessment and HIV acquisition and transmission risks.
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Factors associated with incarceration and incident human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among injection drug users participating in an HIV vaccine trial in Bangkok, Thailand, 1999-2003.
Addiction
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2009
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To determine if incarceration was associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and identify risk factors for incarceration among injection drug users (IDUs) participating in an HIV vaccine trial in Bangkok.
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Reproductive intentions and outcomes among women on antiretroviral therapy in rural Uganda: a prospective cohort study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2009
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Antiretroviral therapy (ART) may influence the biological, social and behavioral determinants of pregnancy in HIV-infected women. However, there are limited longitudinal data on the reproductive intentions and outcomes among women on ART in Africa. METHODOLOGY /PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using a prospective cohort design, we analyzed trends in desire for children and predictors of pregnancy among a cohort of 733 HIV-infected women in rural Uganda who initiated ART between May 2003 and May 2004 and were followed up in their homes until June 2006. Women answered in-depth social and behavioral questionnaires administered every quarter in year 1 after initiating ART, and every 6 to 12 months thereafter. Use of family planning methods was assessed at 18 and 24 months after starting ART. We tested for non-constant pregnancy incidence by using a shape parameter test from the Weibull distribution. We modeled repeated measurements of all variables related to the womens desire for children over time using a generalized estimating equation (GEE) extension to the logistic regression model. Risk factors for pregnancy were examined using Cox proportional hazards model. 711 women eligible for the study were followed-up for a median time of 2.4 years after starting ART. During this time, less than 7% of women reported wanting more children at any time point yet 120 (16.9%) women experienced 140 pregnancies and pregnancy incidence increased from 3.46 per 100 women-years (WY) in the first quarter to 9.5 per 100 WY at 24 months (p<0.0001). This was paralleled by an increase in the proportion of women reporting sexual activity in the past 3 months, from 24.4% at baseline to 32.5% over 24 months of follow-up (p = 0.001). Only 14% of women used permanent or semi-permanent family planning methods by their second year on ART. In the multivariate model, younger age (HR = 2.71 per 10-year decrease, 95% CI: 2.95-3.78), having a BMI>18.5 (HR = 1.09, CI: 1.01-1.18) and not having used condoms consistently in the last 3 months (HR = 1.79, CI: 1.02-3.13) were independently associated with pregnancy.
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Increasing incidence of malaria in children despite insecticide-treated bed nets and prompt anti-malarial therapy in Tororo, Uganda.
Malar. J.
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The burden of malaria has decreased in parts of Africa following the scaling up of control interventions. However, similar data are limited from high transmission settings.
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Seasonal pulses of Marburg virus circulation in juvenile Rousettus aegyptiacus bats coincide with periods of increased risk of human infection.
PLoS Pathog.
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Marburg virus (family Filoviridae) causes sporadic outbreaks of severe hemorrhagic disease in sub-Saharan Africa. Bats have been implicated as likely natural reservoir hosts based most recently on an investigation of cases among miners infected in 2007 at the Kitaka mine, Uganda, which contained a large population of Marburg virus-infected Rousettus aegyptiacus fruit bats. Described here is an ecologic investigation of Python Cave, Uganda, where an American and a Dutch tourist acquired Marburg virus infection in December 2007 and July 2008. More than 40,000 R. aegyptiacus were found in the cave and were the sole bat species present. Between August 2008 and November 2009, 1,622 bats were captured and tested for Marburg virus. Q-RT-PCR analysis of bat liver/spleen tissues indicated ~2.5% of the bats were actively infected, seven of which yielded Marburg virus isolates. Moreover, Q-RT-PCR-positive lung, kidney, colon and reproductive tissues were found, consistent with potential for oral, urine, fecal or sexual transmission. The combined data for R. aegyptiacus tested from Python Cave and Kitaka mine indicate low level horizontal transmission throughout the year. However, Q-RT-PCR data show distinct pulses of virus infection in older juvenile bats (~six months of age) that temporarily coincide with the peak twice-yearly birthing seasons. Retrospective analysis of historical human infections suspected to have been the result of discrete spillover events directly from nature found 83% (54/65) events occurred during these seasonal pulses in virus circulation, perhaps demonstrating periods of increased risk of human infection. The discovery of two tags at Python Cave from bats marked at Kitaka mine, together with the close genetic linkages evident between viruses detected in geographically distant locations, are consistent with R. aegyptiacus bats existing as a large meta-population with associated virus circulation over broad geographic ranges. These findings provide a basis for developing Marburg hemorrhagic fever risk reduction strategies.
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Preventing maritime transfer of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae.
Emerging Infect. Dis.
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Organisms, including Vibrio cholerae, can be transferred between harbors in the ballast water of ships. Zones in the Caribbean region where distance from shore and water depth meet International Maritime Organization guidelines for ballast water exchange are extremely limited. Use of ballast water treatment systems could mitigate the risk for organism transfer.
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HIV infection among men who have sex with men in Kampala, Uganda--a respondent driven sampling survey.
PLoS ONE
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Ugandas generalized HIV epidemic is well described, including an estimated adult male HIV prevalence in Kampala of 4.5%, but no data are available on the prevalence of and risk factors for HIV infection among men who have sex with men (MSM).
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The association between malnutrition and the incidence of malaria among young HIV-infected and -uninfected Ugandan children: a prospective study.
Malar. J.
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In sub-Saharan Africa, malnutrition and malaria remain major causes of morbidity and mortality in young children. There are conflicting data as to whether malnutrition is associated with an increased or decreased risk of malaria. In addition, data are limited on the potential interaction between HIV infection and the association between malnutrition and the risk of malaria.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.