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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Atomic Scale Strain Relaxation in Axial Semiconductor III-V Nanowire Heterostructures.
Nano Lett.
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2014
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Combination of mismatched materials in semiconductor nanowire heterostructures offers a freedom of bandstructure engineering that is impossible in standard planar epitaxy. Nevertheless, the presence of strain and structural defects directly control the optoelectronic properties of these nanomaterials. Understanding with atomic accuracy how mismatched heterostructures release or accommodate strain, therefore, is highly desirable. By using atomic resolution high angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy combined with geometrical phase analyses and computer simulations, we are able to establish the relaxation mechanisms (including both elastic and plastic deformations) to release the mismatch strain in axial nanowire heterostructures. Formation of misfit dislocations, diffusion of atomic species, polarity transfer, and induced structural transformations are studied with atomic resolution at the intermediate ternary interfaces. Two nanowire heterostructure systems with promising applications (InAs/InSb and GaAs/GaSb) have been selected as key examples.
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Solvothermal, Chloroalkoxide-based Synthesis of Monoclinic WO3 Quantum Dots and Gas-Sensing Enhancement by Surface Oxygen Vacancies.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2014
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We report for the first time the synthesis of monoclinic WO3 quantum dots. A solvothermal processing at 250 °C in oleic acid of W chloroalkoxide solutions was employed. It was shown that the bulk monoclinic crystallographic phase is the stable one even for the nanosized regime (mean size 4 nm). The nanocrystals were characterized by X-ray diffraction, High resolution transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, UV-vis, Fourier transform infrared and Raman spectroscopy. It was concluded that they were constituted by a core of monoclinic WO3, surface covered by unstable W(V) species, slowly oxidized upon standing in room conditions. The WO3 nanocrystals could be easily processed to prepare gas-sensing devices, without any phase transition up to at least 500 °C. The devices displayed remarkable response to both oxidizing (nitrogen dioxide) and reducing (ethanol) gases in concentrations ranging from 1 to 5 ppm and from 100 to 500 ppm, at low operating temperatures of 100 and 200 °C, respectively. The analysis of the electrical data showed that the nanocrystals were characterized by reduced surfaces, which enhanced both nitrogen dioxide adsorption and oxygen ionosorption, the latter resulting in enhanced ethanol decomposition kinetics.
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Probing the internal electric field in GaN/AlGaN nanowire heterostructures.
Nano Lett.
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2014
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We demonstrate the direct analysis of polarization-induced internal electric fields in single GaN/Al0.3Ga0.7N nanodiscs embedded in GaN/AlN nanowire heterostructures. Superposition of an external electric field with different polarity results in compensation or enhancement of the quantum-confined Stark effect in the nanodiscs. By field-dependent analysis of the low temperature photoluminescence energy and intensity, we prove the [0001?]-polarity of the nanowires and determine the internal electric field strength to 1.5 MV/cm.
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p-GaN/n-ZnO heterojunction nanowires: optoelectronic properties and the role of interface polarity.
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2014
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In this work, simulations of the electronic band structure of a p-GaN/n-ZnO heterointerface are presented. In contrast to homojunctions, an additional energy barrier due to the type-II band alignment hinders the flow of majority charge carriers in this heterojunction. Spontaneous polarization and piezoelectricity are shown to additionally affect the band structure and the location of the recombination region. Proposed as potential UV-LEDs and laser diodes, p-GaN/n-ZnO heterojunction nanowires were fabricated by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PAMBE). Atomic resolution annular bright field scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) studies reveal an abrupt and defect-free heterointerface with a polarity inversion from N-polar GaN to Zn-polar ZnO. Photoluminescence measurements show strong excitonic UV emission originating from the ZnO-side of the interface as well as stimulated emission in the case of optical pumping above a threshold of 55 kW/cm(2).
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Programmed iron oxide nanoparticles disintegration in anaerobic digesters boosts biogas production.
Small
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2014
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A novel concept of dosing iron ions using Fe3O4 engineered nanoparticles is used to improve biogas production in anaerobic digestion processes. Since small nanoparticles are unstable, they can be designed to provide ions in a controlled manner, and the highest ever reported improvement of biogas production is obtained. The nanoparticles evolution during operation is followed by an array of spectroscopic techniques.
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Polarity-driven polytypic branching in cu-based quaternary chalcogenide nanostructures.
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2014
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An appropriate way of realizing property nanoengineering in complex quaternary chalcogenide nanocrystals is presented for Cu2CdxSnSey(CCTSe) polypods. The pivotal role of the polarity in determining morphology, growth, and the polytypic branching mechanism is demonstrated. Polarity is considered to be responsible for the formation of an initial seed that takes the form of a tetrahedron with four cation-polar facets. Size and shape confinement of the intermediate pentatetrahedral seed is also attributed to polarity, as their external facets are anion-polar. The final polypod extensions also branch out as a result of a cation-polarity-driven mechanism. Aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy is used to identify stannite cation ordering, while ab initio studies are used to show the influence of cation ordering/distortion, stoichiometry, and polytypic structural change on the electronic band structure.
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Enhanced photovoltaic performance of nanowire dye-sensitized solar cells based on coaxial TiO2@TiO heterostructures with a cobalt(II/III) redox electrolyte.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2013
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The growth of a TiO shell at the surface of TiO2 nanowires (NWs) allowed us to improve the power conversion efficiency of NW-based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) by a factor 2.5. TiO2@TiO core-shell NWs were obtained by a two-step process: First, rutile-phase TiO2 NWs were hydrothermally grown. Second, a hongquiite-phase TiO shell was electrochemically deposited at the surface of the TiO2 NWs. Bare TiO2 and heterojunction TiO2@TiO NW-based DSCs were obtained using a cobalt(II/III) redox electrolyte and LEG4 as the dye. With this electrolyte/dye combination, DSCs with outstanding Voc values above 900 mV were systematically obtained. While TiO2@TiO NW-based DSCs had slightly lower Voc values than bare TiO2 NW-based DSCs, they provided 3-fold higher photocurrents, overall reaching 2.5-fold higher power conversion efficiencies. The higher photocurrents were associated with the larger surface roughness and an enhanced charge-carrier separation/transfer at the NW/dye interface.
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Robust molecular micro-capsules for encapsulating and releasing hydrophilic contents.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 07-27-2013
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The hydrophobic-amphiphilic self-assembly approach has been employed to prepare molecular micro-capsules simply by cooling down an emulsion, in a hot polar solvent medium, of a melted compound having two very well-distinguished units, both with highly non-polar and hydrophobic characteristics. The resulting micro-capsules are very stable and robust both in suspension and under dry conditions. Further, such micro-capsules can effectively encapsulate hydrophilic compounds which can later on be easily released upon the application of UV-light.
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Solution phase van der Waals epitaxy of ZnO wire arrays.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 06-07-2013
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As an incommensurate epitaxy, van der Waals epitaxy allows defect-free crystals to grow on substrates even with a large lattice mismatch. Furthermore, van der Waals epitaxy is proposed as a universal platform where heteroepitaxy can be achieved irrespective of the nature of the overlayer material and the method of crystallization. Here we demonstrate van der Waals epitaxy in solution phase synthesis for seedless and catalyst-free growth of ZnO wire arrays on phlogopite mica at low temperature. A unique incommensurate interface is observed even with the incomplete initial wetting of ZnO onto the substrate. Interestingly, the imperfect contacting layer does not affect the crystalline and optical properties of other parts of the wires. In addition, we present patterned growth of a well-ordered array with hexagonal facets and in-plane alignment. We expect our seedless and catalyst-free solution phase van der Waals epitaxy synthesis to be widely applicable in other materials and structures.
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CuTe nanocrystals: shape and size control, plasmonic properties, and use as SERS probes and photothermal agents.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2013
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We report a procedure to prepare highly monodisperse copper telluride nanocubes, nanoplates, and nanorods. The procedure is based on the reaction of a copper salt with trioctylphosphine telluride in the presence of lithium bis(trimethylsilyl)amide and oleylamine. CuTe nanocrystals display a strong near-infrared optical absorption associated with localized surface plasmon resonances. We exploit this plasmon resonance for the design of surface-enhanced Raman scattering sensors for unconventional optical probes. Furthermore, we also report here our preliminary analysis of the use of CuTe nanocrystals as cytotoxic and photothermal agents.
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Stable conjugates of peptides with gold nanorods for biomedical applications with reduced effects on cell viability.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2013
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Gold nanorods used in therapy and diagnosis must be nontoxic and stable in biological media and should be specific for the target. The complete combination of these three factors has hindered the use of gold nanorods as carriers in biological and biomedical applications. In this study, we produced a conjugate of gold nanorods with the peptide CLPFFD that recognizes toxic ?-amyloid aggregates present in Alzheimers disease, demonstrates colloidal stability, maintains plasmonic properties, and shows no effects on cell viability in the SH-SY5Y cell line. Furthermore, the irradiation of ?-amyloid in the presence of the conjugate with near-infrared region irradiation energy reduces the amyloidogenic process reducing also its cytotoxicity. The nanorods were synthesized following the seed-mediated method in cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and were conjugated with the N-terminal cysteine peptide, CLPFFD. The conjugate was exhaustively characterized using different techniques (Absorption spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and zeta potential). The effects on cell viability and cell penetration by transmission electron microscopy of the conjugate were evaluated. The chemisorption of the peptide on the surface of gold nanorods increases their stability and reduces their effects on cell viability.
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Recent developments and future directions in the growth of nanostructures by van der Waals epitaxy.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2013
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Here we review the characteristics of "van der Waals epitaxy" (vdWE) as an alternative epitaxy mechanism that has been demonstrated as a viable method for circumventing the lattice matching requirements for epitaxial growth. Particular focus is given on the application of vdWE for nonplanar nanostructures. We highlight our works on the vdWE growth of nanowire arrays, tripods, and tetrapods from various semiconductors (ZnO, ZnTe, CdS, CdSe, CdSxSe1-x, CdTe, and PbS) on muscovite mica substrates, irrespective of the ensuing lattice mismatch. We then address the controllability of the synthesis and the growth mechanism of ZnO nanowires from catalyst-free vdWE in vapor transport growth. As exemplified herein with optical characterizations of ZnO and CdSe nanowires, we show that samples from vdWE may possess properties that are as excellent as those from conventional epitaxy. With our works, we aim to advocate vdWE as a prospective universal growth strategy for nonplanar epitaxial nanostructures.
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Metal ions to control the morphology of semiconductor nanoparticles: copper selenide nanocubes.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2013
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Morphology is a key parameter in the design of novel nanocrystals and nanomaterials with controlled functional properties. Here, we demonstrate the potential of foreign metal ions to tune the morphology of colloidal semiconductor nanoparticles. We illustrate the underlying mechanism by preparing copper selenide nanocubes in the presence of Al ions. We further characterize the plasmonic properties of the obtained nanocrystals and demonstrate their potential as a platform to produce cubic nanoparticles with different composition by cation exchange.
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Core-shell nanoparticles as building blocks for the bottom-up production of functional nanocomposites: PbTe-PbS thermoelectric properties.
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2013
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The bottom-up assembly of nanocrystals provides access to a three-dimensional composition control at the nanoscale not attainable by any other technology. In particular, colloidal nanoheterostructures, with intrinsic multiphase organization, are especially appealing building blocks for the bottom-up production of nanocomposites. In the present work, we use PbTe-PbS as the model material system and thermoelectricity as the paradigmatic application to investigate the potential of the bottom-up assembly of core-shell nanoparticles to produce functional nanocomposites. With this goal in mind, a rapid, high-yield and scalable colloidal synthetic route to prepare grams of PbTe@PbS core-shell nanoparticles with unprecedented narrow size distributions and exceptional composition control is detailed. PbTe@PbS nanoparticles were used as building blocks for the bottom-up production of PbTe-PbS nanocomposites with tuned composition. In such PbTe-PbS nanocomposites, synergistic nanocrystal doping effects result in up to 10-fold higher electrical conductivities than in pure PbTe and PbS nanomaterials. At the same time, the acoustic impedance mismatch between PbTe and PbS phases and a partial phase alloying provide PbTe-PbS nanocomposites with strongly reduced thermal conductivities. As a result, record thermoelectric figures of merit (ZT) of ?1.1 were obtained from undoped PbTe and PbS phases at 710 K. These high ZT values prove the potential of the proposed processes to produce efficient functional nanomaterials with programmable properties.
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Spontaneous formation of hollow cobalt oxide nanoparticles by the Kirkendall effect at room temperature at the water-air interface.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2013
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We observe the spontaneous formation of hollow cobalt oxide nanoparticles at room temperature, indicating an enhancement of the solid-state diffusion at the nanoscale. Single crystal cobalt nanoparticles covered by a hydrophobic organic layer were transformed spontaneously into CoO hollow nanoparticles when deposited on the water-air interface in a matter of a few hours. The presence of water modifies the reactivity on the nanoparticle surface favoring the formation of the hollow structure; otherwise Co-CoO core-shell nanoparticles are obtained. The CoO hollow nanoparticles are formed only in an intermediate state, and after a period of time these structures finally undergo disintegration to form minor CoO entities.
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Carving at the nanoscale: sequential galvanic exchange and Kirkendall growth at room temperature.
Science
PUBLISHED: 12-14-2011
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Shape control of inorganic nanocrystals is important for understanding basic size- and shape-dependent scaling laws and is useful in a wide range of applications. With minor modifications in the chemical environment, it is possible to control the reaction and diffusion processes at room temperature, opening up a synthetic route for the production of polymetallic hollow nanoparticles with very different morphology and composition, obtained by the simultaneous or sequential action of galvanic replacement and the Kirkendall effect.
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Ultrathin conformal coating for complex magneto-photonic structures.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2011
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We report on an extremely fast and versatile synthetic approach, based on microwave assisted sol-gel chemistry, that allows a conformal nanometric coating of intricate three-dimensional structures. Using this methodology, we have achieved a conformal coverage of large areas of three-dimensional opals with a superparamagnetic manganese ferrite layer, yielding magneto-photonic crystals with excellent quality. The use of a ternary oxide for the ultrathin coating demonstrates the potential of this methodology to realize three-dimensional structures with complex materials that may find applications beyond photonics, such as energy, sensing or catalysis.
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Morphology evolution of Cu(2-x)S nanoparticles: from spheres to dodecahedrons.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2011
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An oriented attachment and growth mechanism allows an accurate control of the size and morphology of Cu(2-x)S nanocrystals, from spheres and disks to tetradecahedrons and dodecahedrons. The synthesis conditions and the growth mechanism are detailed here.
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Untangling the electronic band structure of wurtzite GaAs nanowires by resonant Raman spectroscopy.
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2011
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In semiconductor nanowires, the coexistence of wurtzite and zinc-blende phases enables the engineering of the electronic structure within a single material. This presupposes an exact knowledge of the band structure in the wurtzite phase. We demonstrate that resonant Raman scattering is a important tool to probe the electronic structure of novel materials. Exemplarily, we use this technique to elucidate the band structure of wurtzite GaAs at the ? point. Within the experimental uncertainty we find that the free excitons at the edge of the wurtzite and the zinc-blende band gap exhibit equal energies. For the first time we show that the conduction band minimum in wurtzite GaAs is of ?(7) symmetry, meaning a small effective mass. We further find evidence for a light-hole-heavy-hole splitting of 103 meV at 10 K.
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Three-dimensional multiple-order twinning of self-catalyzed GaAs nanowires on Si substrates.
Nano Lett.
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2011
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In this paper we introduce a new paradigm for nanowire growth that explains the unwanted appearance of parasitic nonvertical nanowires. With a crystal structure polarization analysis of the initial stages of GaAs nanowire growth on Si substrates, we demonstrate that secondary seeds form due to a three-dimensional twinning phenomenon. We derive the geometrical rules that underlie the multiple growth directions observed experimentally. These rules help optimizing nanowire array devices such as solar or water splitting cells or of more complex hierarchical branched nanowire devices.
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In(Ga)As quantum dot formation on group-III assisted catalyst-free InGaAs nanowires.
Nanotechnology
PUBLISHED: 03-23-2011
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Growth of GaAs and In(x)Ga(1-x)As nanowires by the group-III assisted molecular beam epitaxy growth method on (001)GaAs/SiO(2) substrates is studied in dependence on growth temperature, with the objective of maximizing the indium incorporation. Nanowire growth was achieved for growth temperatures as low as 550?°C. The incorporation of indium was studied by low temperature micro-photoluminescence spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and electron energy loss spectroscopy. The results show that the incorporation of indium achieved by lowering the growth temperature does not have the effect of increasing the indium concentration in the bulk of the nanowire, which is limited to 3-5%. For growth temperatures below 575?°C, indium rich regions form at the surface of the nanowires as a consequence of the radial growth. This results in the formation of quantum dots, which exhibit spectrally narrow luminescence.
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Single crystalline La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 molecular sieve nanowires with high temperature ferromagnetism.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2011
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Porous mixed-valent manganese oxides are a group of multifunctional materials that can be used as molecular sieves, catalysts, battery materials, and gas sensors. However, material properties and thus activity can vary significantly with different synthesis methods or process conditions, such as temperature and time. Here, we report on a new synthesis route for MnO(2) and LaSr-doped molecular sieve single crystalline nanowires based on a solution chemistry methodology combined with the use of nanoporous polymer templates supported on top of single crystalline substrates. Because of the confined nucleation in high aspect ratio nanopores and of the high temperatures attained, new structures with novel physical properties have been produced. During the calcination process, the nucleation and crystallization of ?-MnO(2) nanoparticles with a new hexagonal structure is promoted. These nanoparticles generated up to 30 ?m long and flexible hexagonal nanowires at mild growth temperatures (T(g) = 700 °C) as a consequence of the large crystallographic anisotropy of ?-MnO(2). The nanocrystallites of MnO(2) formed at low temperatures serve as seeds for the growth of La(0.7)Sr(0.3)MnO(3) nanowires at growth temperatures above 800 °C, through the diffusion of La and Sr into the empty 1D-channels of ?-MnO(2). Our particular growth method has allowed the synthesis of single crystalline molecular sieve (LaSr-2 × 4) monoclinic nanowires with composition La(0.7)Sr(0.3)MnO(3) and with ordered arrangement of La(3+) and Sr(2+) cations inside the 1D-channels. These nanowires exhibit ferromagnetic ordering with strongly enhanced Curie temperature (T(c) > 500 K) that probably results from the new crystallographic order and from the mixed valence of manganese.
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InAs quantum dot arrays decorating the facets of GaAs nanowires.
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2010
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InAs quantum dot arrays are obtained on GaAs nanowire facets by molecular beam epitaxy. The GaAs nanowires are first grown by the gallium-assisted catalyst-free method. Decoration of the nanowire facets with InAs quantum dots is achieved only when the facets are capped with an ultrathin AlAs layer, as demonstrated by atomic force, high-resolution electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy line scans. The excitation of single and double excitons in the quantum dots are demonstrated by low-temperature photoluminescence spectroscopy realized on the single nanowires. This new type of heterostructures opens a new avenue to the fabrication of highly efficient single-photon sources, novel quantum optics experiments, as well as the realization of intermediate-band nanowire solar cells for third-generation photovoltaics.
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Hydrophobic gold nanoparticle self-assembly with phosphatidylcholine lipid: membrane-loaded and janus vesicles.
Nano Lett.
PUBLISHED: 08-25-2010
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Hybrids of hydrophobic sub-2-nm-diameter dodecanethiol-coated Au nanoparticles and phosphatidylcholine (PC) lipid vesicles made by extrusion were examined by cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryoTEM). The nanoparticles loaded the vesicles as a dense monolayer in the hydrophobic core of the lipid bilayer, without disrupting their structure. Nanoparticle-vesicle hybrids could also be made by a dialysis process, mixing preformed vesicles with detergent-stabilized nanoparticles, but this approach led to vesicles only partially loaded with nanoparticles that segregated into hemispherical domains, forming a Janus vesicle-nanoparticle hybrid structure.
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Size-dependent passivation shell and magnetic properties in antiferromagnetic/ferrimagnetic core/shell MnO nanoparticles.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2010
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The magnetic properties of bimagnetic core/shell nanoparticles consisting of an antiferromagnetic MnO core and a ferrimagnetic passivation shell have been investigated. It is found that the phase of the passivation shell (gamma-Mn(2)O(3) or Mn(3)O(4)) depends on the size of the nanoparticles. Structural and magnetic characterizations concur that while the smallest nanoparticles have a predominantly gamma-Mn(2)O(3) shell, larger ones have increasing amounts of Mn(3)O(4). A considerable enhancement of the Néel temperature, T(N), and the magnetic anisotropy of the MnO core for decreasing core sizes has been observed. The size reduction also leads to other phenomena such as persistent magnetic moment in MnO up to high temperatures and an unusual temperature behavior of the magnetic domains.
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Multifunctionalized gold nanoparticles with peptides targeted to gastrin-releasing peptide receptor of a tumor cell line.
Bioconjug. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 05-19-2010
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Functionalization of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) with both a targeting peptide (an analogue of the peptide Bombesin) and a drug peptide ligand (an analogue of the RAF peptide) with the aim of improving selectivity in the delivery of the conjugates as well as the antitumor activity is described. Studies on the internalization mechanism of peptide-AuNP conjugates and viability of cells were carried out. An enhancement of the activity and selectivity of the peptide multifunctionalized conjugates was observed.
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Synthesis of quaternary chalcogenide nanocrystals: stannite Cu(2)Zn(x)Sn(y)Se(1+x+2y).
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2010
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A successful synthesis of Cu(2)Zn(x)Sn(y)Se(1+x+2y) (CZTSe) nanoparticles is presented. Nearly monodisperse and highly faceted CZTSe nanoparticles were prepared through reaction of metal amino complexes with saturated solutions of selenium in trioctylphosphine at high temperature. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis showed the prepared nanocrystals to have the tetragonal Cu(2)ZnSnSe(4) crystallographic structure. Nanoscale-resolved electron energy loss spectroscopy images showed the presence of the four elements in each individual nanocrystal. Further analyses of the particles chemical composition showed the nanocrystals to be consistently Zn- and Sn-poor.
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Synthesis of platinum cubes, polypods, cuboctahedrons, and raspberries assisted by cobalt nanocrystals.
Nano Lett.
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2010
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The introduction of metallic traces into the synthesis of platinum nanocrystals (Pt NCs) has been investigated as a surfactant-independent means of controlling shape. Various nanocrystal morphologies have been produced without modification of the reaction conditions, composition, and concentration other than the presence of cobalt traces (<5%). In the presence of metallic cobalt (a strong reducer for Pt cations) cubic Pt NCs are obtained, while cobalt ions or gold NCs have no effect on the synthesis, and as a result, polypods are obtained. Intermediate shapes such as cemented cubes or cuboctahedron NCs are also obtained under similar conditions. Thus, various NC shapes can be obtained with subtle changes, which illustrates the high susceptibility and mutability of the NC shape to modification of the reaction kinetics during the early reduction process. Our studies help progress toward a general mechanism for nanocrystal shape control.
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Single crystalline and core-shell indium-catalyzed germanium nanowires-a systematic thermal CVD growth study.
Nanotechnology
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2009
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Germanium nanowires were synthesized using thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and indium as a catalyst. The process parameter space for successful growth was studied. By optimizing the growth temperature and gas pressure, high aspect ratio germanium nanowires have been obtained. Scanning electron microscopy investigations indicate that the final diameter of the nanowires is strongly influenced by the growth temperature and the germane partial pressure. High resolution transmission electron microscopy reveals that nanowires grow either as high quality single crystalline, or with a high quality single-crystalline core and a concentric amorphous shell. The occurrence of these two morphologies is found to only depend on the wire diameter. Chemical analysis of the nanowire tip indicates the presence of indium, validating its role as a catalyst. Raman spectroscopy measurements reveal a higher incidence of core-shell structures for nanowires synthesized at 30 Torr and indicate the presence of tensile strain. These results are important towards obtaining high quality germanium nanowires without the use of gold as a catalyst, which is known to degrade the wires electrical and optical properties.
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Single-step chemical synthesis of ferrite hollow nanospheres.
Nanotechnology
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2009
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We report a single-step chemical synthesis of iron oxide hollow nanospheres with 9.3 nm in diameter. The sample presents a narrow particle diameter distribution and chemical homogeneity. The hollow nature of the particles is confirmed by HRTEM and HAADF STEM analysis. Electron and x-ray diffraction show that the outer material component is constituted by 2 nm ferrite crystals. Mössbauer data provide further evidence for the formation of iron oxide with high structural disorder, magnetically ordered at 4.2 K and superparamagnetism at room temperature. An unusual magnetic behavior under an applied field is reported, which can be explained by the large fraction of atoms existing at both inner and outer surfaces.
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Conjugation of Kahalalide F with gold nanoparticles to enhance in vitro antitumoral activity.
Bioconjug. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2009
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Two Cys-containing analogues of the anticancer drug Kahalalide F are synthesized and conjugated to 20 and 40 nm gold nanoparticles (GNPs). The resulting complexes are characterized by different analytical techniques to confirm the attachment of peptide to the GNPs. The self-assembly capacity of a peptide dramatically influences the final ratio number of molecules per nanoparticle, saturating the nanoparticle surface and prompting multilayered capping on the surface. In such way, the nanoparticle could act as a concentrator for the delivery of drugs, thereby increasing bioactivity. The GNP sizes and the conjugation have influence on the biological activities. Kahalalide F analogues conjugated with GNPs are located subcellularly at lysosome-like bodies, which may be related to the action mechanism of Kahalalide F. The results suggest that the selective delivery and activity of Kahalalide F analogues can be improved by conjugating the peptides to GNPs.
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Triple-twin domains in Mg doped GaN wurtzite nanowires: structural and electronic properties of this zinc-blende-like stacking.
Nanotechnology
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2009
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We report on the effect of Mg doping on the properties of GaN nanowires grown by plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy. The most significant feature is the presence of triple-twin domains, the density of which increases with increasing Mg concentration. The resulting high concentration of misplaced atoms gives rise to local changes in the crystal structure equivalent to the insertion of three non-relaxed zinc-blende (ZB) atomic cells, which result in quantum wells along the wurtzite (WZ) nanowire growth axis. High resolution electron energy loss spectra were obtained exactly on the twinned (zinc-blende) and wurtzite planes. These atomically resolved measurements, which allow us to identify modifications in the local density of states, revealed changes in the band to band electronic transition energy from 3.4 eV for wurtzite to 3.2 eV in the twinned lattice regions. These results are in good agreement with specific ab initio atomistic simulations and demonstrate that the redshift observed in previous photoluminescence analyses is directly related to the presence of these zinc-blende domains, opening up new possibilities for band-structure engineering.
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Catalyst-free nanowires with axial InxGa1-xAs/GaAs heterostructures.
Nanotechnology
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2009
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Self-catalyzed growth of axial In(x)Ga(1-x)As/GaAs heterostructures has been realized by molecular beam epitaxy. The growth of the wires is achieved from gallium/indium alloy droplets that are nucleated in situ. By variation of the In/Ga beam flux during the growth it was possible to vary the effective indium content up to x = 5%, as deduced from photoluminescence measurements. We have analyzed the dependence of the alloy concentration on the growth conditions and present a simple model for the growth. The heterostructures grown with the method presented were spatially mapped along the wires with confocal microphotoluminescence and cathodoluminescence. It was found as expected that the emission of GaAs/In(x)Ga(1-x)As/GaAs heterostructures is localized. This work is important for the use of an external catalyst-free growth of complex axial heterostructures and related opto-electronic devices that facilitates its possible integration in the device or system fabrication processes.
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Highly enhanced exciton recombination rate by strong electron-phonon coupling in single ZnTe nanobelt.
Nano Lett.
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Electron-phonon coupling plays a key role in a variety of elemental excitations and their interactions in semiconductor nanostructures. Here we demonstrate that the relaxation rate of free excitons in a single ZnTe nanobelt (NB) is considerably enhanced via a nonthermalized hot-exciton emission process as a result of an ultrastrong electron-phonon coupling. Using time-resolved photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy and resonant Raman spectroscopy (RRS), we present a comprehensive study on the identification and the dynamics of free/bound exciton recombination and the electron-phonon interactions in crystalline ZnTe NBs. Up to tenth-order longitudinal optical (LO) phonons are observed in Raman spectroscopy, indicating an ultrastrong electron-phonon coupling strength. Temperature-dependent PL and RRS spectra suggest that electron-phonon coupling is mainly contributed from Light hole (LH) free excitons. With the presence of hot-exciton emission, two time constants (?80 and ?18 ps) are found in photoluminescence decay curves, which are much faster than those in many typical semiconductor nanostructures. Finally we prove that under high excitation power amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) originating from the electron-hole plasma occurs, thereby opening another radiative decay channel with an ultrashort lifetime of few picoseconds.
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Self-assembled GaN quantum wires on GaN/AlN nanowire templates.
Nanoscale
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We present a novel approach for self-assembled growth of GaN quantum wires (QWRs) exhibiting strong confinement in two spatial dimensions. The GaN QWRs are formed by selective nucleation on {112[combining macron]0} (a-plane) facets formed at the six intersections of {11[combining macron]00} (m-plane) sidewalls of AlN/GaN nanowires used as a template. Based on microscopy observations we have developed a 3D model explaining the growth mechanism of QWRs. We show that the QWR formation is governed by self-limited pseudomorphic growth on the side facets of the nanowires (NWs). Quantum confinement in the QWRs is confirmed by the observation of narrow photoluminescence lines originating from individual QWRs with emission energies up to 4.4 eV. Time-resolved photoluminescence studies reveal a short decay time (~120 ps) of the QWR emission. Capping of the QWRs with AlN allows enhancement of the photoluminescence, which is blue-shifted due to compressive strain. The emission energies from single QWRs are modelled assuming a triangular cross-section resulting from self-limited growth on a-plane facets. Comparison with the experimental results yields an average QWR diameter of about 2.7 nm in agreement with structural characterization. The presented results open a new route towards controlled realization of one-dimensional semiconductor quantum structures with a high potential both for fundamental studies and for applications in electronics and in UV light generation.
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Magnetic states of an individual Ni nanotube probed by anisotropic magnetoresistance.
Nanoscale
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Defined magnetization states in magnetic nanotubes could be the basic building blocks for future memory elements. To date, it has been extremely challenging to measure the magnetic states at the single-nanotube level. We investigate the magnetization states of an individual Ni nanotube by measuring the anisotropic magnetoresistance effect at cryogenic temperature. Depending on the magnitude and direction of the magnetic field, we program the nanotube to be in a vortex- or onion-like state near remanence.
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Self-assembled GaN nanowires on diamond.
Nano Lett.
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We demonstrate the nucleation of self-assembled, epitaxial GaN nanowires (NWs) on (111) single-crystalline diamond without using a catalyst or buffer layer. The NWs show an excellent crystalline quality of the wurtzite crystal structure with m-plane faceting, a low defect density, and axial growth along the c-axis with N-face polarity, as shown by aberration corrected annular bright-field scanning transmission electron microscopy. X-ray diffraction confirms single domain growth with an in-plane epitaxial relationship of (10 ?10)(GaN) [parallel] (01 ?1)(Diamond) as well as some biaxial tensile strain induced by thermal expansion mismatch. In photoluminescence, a strong and sharp excitonic emission reveals excellent optical properties superior to state-of-the-art GaN NWs on silicon substrates. In combination with the high-quality diamond/NW interface, confirmed by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy measurements, these results underline the potential of p-type diamond/n-type nitride heterojunctions for efficient UV optoelectronic devices.
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Polarity assignment in ZnTe, GaAs, ZnO, and GaN-AlN nanowires from direct dumbbell analysis.
Nano Lett.
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Aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) with high angle annular dark field (HAADF) imaging and the newly developed annular bright field (ABF) imaging are used to define a new guideline for the polarity determination of semiconductor nanowires (NWs) from binary compounds in two extreme cases: (i) when the dumbbell is formed with atoms of similar mass (GaAs) and (ii) in the case where one of the atoms is extremely light (N or O: ZnO and GaN/AlN). The theoretical fundaments of these procedures allow us to overcome the main challenge in the identification of dumbbell polarity. It resides in the separation and identification of the constituent atoms in the dumbbells. The proposed experimental via opens new routes for the fine characterization of nanostructures, e.g., in electronic and optoelectronic fields, where the polarity is crucial for the understanding of their physical properties (optical and electronic) as well as their growth mechanisms.
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Incommensurate van der Waals epitaxy of nanowire arrays: a case study with ZnO on muscovite mica substrates.
Nano Lett.
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The requirement of lattice matching between a material and its substrate for the growth of defect-free heteroepitaxial crystals can be circumvented with van der Waals epitaxy (vdWE). However, the utilization and characteristics of vdWE in nonlamellar/nonplanar nanoarchitectures are still not very well-documented. Here we establish the characteristics of vdWE in nanoarchitectures using a case study of ZnO nanowire (NW) array on muscovite mica substrate without any buffer/seed layer. With extensive characterizations involving electron microscopy, diffractometry, and the related analyses, we conclude that the NWs grown via vdWE exhibit an incommensurate epitaxy. The incommensurate vdWE allows a nearly complete lattice relaxation at the NW-substrate heterointerface without any defects, thus explaining the unnecessity of lattice matching for well-crystallized epitaxial NWs on muscovite mica. We then determine the polarity of the NW via a direct visualization of Zn-O dumbbells using the annular bright field scanning transmission electron miscroscopy (ABF-STEM) in order to identify which atoms are at the base of the NWs and responsible for the van der Waals interactions. The information from the ABF-STEM is then used to construct the proper atomic arrangement at the heterointerface with a 3D atomic modeling to corroborate the characteristics of the incommensurate vdWE. Our findings suggest that the vdWE might be extended for a wider varieties of compounds and epitaxial nanoarchitectures to serve as a universal epitaxy strategy.
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Cu2ZnGeSe4 nanocrystals: synthesis and thermoelectric properties.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
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A synthetic route for producing Cu(2)ZnGeSe(4) nanocrystals with narrow size distributions and controlled composition is presented. These nanocrystals were used to produce densely packed nanomaterials by hot-pressing. From the characterization of the thermoelectric properties of these nanomaterials, Cu(2)ZnGeSe(4) is demonstrated to show excellent thermoelectric properties. A very preliminary adjustment of the nanocrystal composition has already resulted in a figure of merit of up to 0.55 at 450 °C.
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Citrate-coated gold nanoparticles as smart scavengers for mercury(II) removal from polluted waters.
ACS Nano
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Colloidal gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) have been employed as single entities for rapid scanning and sequestration of Hg(II) from multicomponent aqueous solutions containing low pollutant concentrations. Under the studied conditions, sodium citrate has been identified as the reducing agent and Au NPs as the catalyst in the reduction of Hg(II), which is efficiently trapped in the presence of other cations such as Cu(II) and Fe(III). The effect of Hg(II) uptake implies amalgam formation, which leads to remarkable morphological transformations. The hydrophobicity of the resulting amalgam and consequent expulsion from water eases its recovery. The interaction between Au and Hg has been studied using UV-vis, ICP-MS, (S)TEM, SEM, EDX, and XRD.
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Suppression of three dimensional twinning for a 100% yield of vertical GaAs nanowires on silicon.
Nanoscale
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Multiple seed formation by three-dimensional twinning at the initial stages of growth explains the manifold of orientations found when self-catalyzed GaAs nanowires grow on silicon. This mechanism can be tuned as a function of the growth conditions by changing the relative size between the GaAs seed and the Ga droplet. We demonstrate how growing under high V/III ratio results in a 100% yield of vertical nanowires on silicon(111). These results open up the avenue towards the efficient integration of III-V nanowire arrays on the silicon platform.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.