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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Epidemiology and Individual, Household and Geographical Risk Factors of Podoconiosis in Ethiopia: Results from the First Nationwide Mapping.
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
PUBLISHED: 11-17-2014
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Although podoconiosis is one of the major causes of tropical lymphoedema and is endemic in Ethiopia its epidemiology and risk factors are poorly understood. Individual-level data for 129,959 individuals from 1,315 communities in 659 woreda (districts) were collected for a nationwide integrated survey of lymphatic filariasis and podoconiosis. Blood samples were tested for circulating Wuchereria bancrofti antigen using immunochromatographic card tests. A clinical algorithm was used to reach a diagnosis of podoconiosis by excluding other potential causes of lymphoedema of the lower limb. Bayesian multilevel models were used to identify individual and environmental risk factors. Overall, 8,110 of 129,959 (6.2%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 6.1-6.4%) surveyed individuals were identified with lymphoedema of the lower limb, of whom 5,253 (4.0%, 95% CI 3.9-4.1%) were confirmed to be podoconiosis cases. In multivariable analysis, being female, older, unmarried, washing the feet less frequently than daily, and being semiskilled or unemployed were significantly associated with increased risk of podoconiosis. Attending formal education and living in a house with a covered floor were associated with decreased risk of podoconiosis. Podoconiosis exhibits marked geographical variation across Ethiopia, with variation in risk associated with variation in rainfall, enhanced vegetation index, and altitude.
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Integrated mapping of lymphatic filariasis and podoconiosis: lessons learnt from Ethiopia.
Parasit Vectors
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
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The World Health Organization (WHO), international donors and partners have emphasized the importance of integrated control of neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). Integrated mapping of NTDs is a first step for integrated planning of programmes, proper resource allocation and monitoring progress of control. Integrated mapping has several advantages over disease specific mapping by reducing costs and enabling co-endemic areas to be more precisely identified. We designed and conducted integrated mapping of lymphatic filariasis (LF) and podoconiosis in Ethiopia; here we present the methods, challenges and lessons learnt.
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The global distribution and transmission limits of lymphatic filariasis: past and present.
Parasit Vectors
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
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BackgroundLymphatic filariasis (LF) is one of the neglected tropical diseases targeted for global elimination by 2020 and to guide elimination efforts countries have, in recent years, conducted extensive mapping surveys. Documenting the past and present distribution of LF and its environmental limits is important for a number of reasons. Here, we present an initiative to develop a global atlas of LF and present a new global map of the limits of LF transmission.MethodsWe undertook a systematic search and assembly of prevalence data worldwide and used a suite of environmental and climatic data and boosted regression trees (BRT) modelling to map the transmission limits of LF.ResultsData were identified for 66 of the 72 countries currently endemic and for a further 17 countries where LF is no longer endemic. Our map highlights a restricted and highly heterogeneous distribution in sub-Saharan Africa, with transmission more widespread in West Africa compared to east, central and southern Africa where pockets of transmission occur. Contemporary transmission occurs across much of south and South-east Asia and the Pacific. Interestingly, the risk map reflects environmental conditions suitable for LF transmission across Central and South America, including the southern States of America, although active transmission is only known in a few isolated foci. In countries that have eliminated LF, our predictions of environmental suitability are consistent with historical distribution.ConclusionsThe global distribution of LF is highly heterogeneous and geographically targeted and sustained control will be required to achieve elimination. This first global map can help evaluate the progress of interventions and guide surveillance activities.
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Innovative tools for assessing risks for severe adverse events in areas of overlapping Loa loa and other filarial distributions: the application of micro-stratification mapping.
Parasit Vectors
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2014
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The wide distribution of Loa loa infection (loiasis) throughout the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) is a major obstacle to the plans to eliminate onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis (LF) because the standard drug regime is dependent on ivermectin, which cannot be used in co-endemic areas due to the risk of severe adverse events (SAEs). A better understanding of the micro-epidemiology, overlapping low and high risk areas, and how they relate to SAEs is critical to ensure safe and effective treatment.
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Glossina palpalis palpalis populations from Equatorial Guinea belong to distinct allopatric clades.
Parasit Vectors
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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Luba is one of the four historical foci of Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT) on Bioko Island, in Equatorial Guinea. Although no human cases have been detected since 1995, T. b. gambiense was recently observed in the vector Glossina palpalis palpalis. The existence of cryptic species within this vector taxon has been previously suggested, although no data are available regarding the evolutionary history of tsetse flies populations in Bioko.
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Oral cancer, HPV infection and evidence of sexual transmission.
Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2013
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The incidence of oropharyngeal cancer and oral cancer is growing worldwide, both in young non-smokers and in young non-drinkers (smoking and drinking are considered the main risk factors). Epidemiologic studies suggest a strong association between the infection by human papillomavirus (HPV), especially types 16 and 18 (high oncological risk) which have already demonstrated their etiological role in anal tumours as well as in cervix cancer. There is clear epidemiologic evidence that both types of tumours relate to changes in sexual behaviour and that both are linked to sexual transmission of HPV. The number of oral and oropharyngeal cancer cases is rising nowadays, especially among young individuals with no typical toxic habits, such as tobacco and/or alcohol. In this review we set out to update the aspects related to the onset of oral cancer, its relationship with HPV infection and whether this association may be due to the sexual transmission of the virus.
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Genetic diversity and signatures of selection of drug resistance in Plasmodium populations from both human and mosquito hosts in continental Equatorial Guinea.
Malar. J.
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2013
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In Plasmodium, the high level of genetic diversity and the interactions established by co-infecting parasite populations within the same host may be a source of selection on pathogen virulence and drug resistance. As different patterns have already been described in humans and mosquitoes, parasite diversity and population structure should be studied in both hosts to properly assess their effects on infection and transmission dynamics. This study aimed to characterize the circulating populations of Plasmodium spp and Plasmodium falciparum from a combined set of human blood and mosquito samples gathered in mainland Equatorial Guinea. Further, the origin and evolution of anti-malarial resistance in this area, where malaria remains a major public health problem were traced.
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Trypanosoma brucei gambiense Adaptation to Different Mammalian Sera Is Associated with VSG Expression Site Plasticity.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Trypanosoma brucei gambiense infection is widely considered an anthroponosis, although it has also been found in wild and domestic animals. Thus, fauna could act as reservoir, constraining the elimination of the parasite in hypo-endemic foci. To better understand the possible maintenance of T. b. gambiense in local fauna and investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying adaptation, we generated adapted cells lines (ACLs) by in vitro culture of the parasites in different mammalian sera. Using specific antibodies against the Variant Surface Glycoproteins (VSGs) we found that serum ACLs exhibited different VSG variants when maintained in pig, goat or human sera. Although newly detected VSGs were independent of the sera used, the consistent appearance of different VSGs suggested remodelling of the co-transcribed genes at the telomeric Expression Site (VSG-ES). Thus, Expression Site Associated Genes (ESAGs) sequences were analysed to investigate possible polymorphism selection. ESAGs 6 and 7 genotypes, encoding the transferrin receptor (TfR), expressed in different ACLs were characterised. In addition, we quantified the ESAG6/7 mRNA levels and analysed transferrin (Tf) uptake. Interestingly, the best growth occurred in pig and human serum ACLs, which consistently exhibited a predominant ESAG7 genotype and higher Tf uptake than those obtained in calf and goat sera. We also detected an apparent selection of specific ESAG3 genotypes in the pig and human serum ACLs, suggesting that other ESAGs could be involved in the host adaptation processes. Altogether, these results suggest a model whereby VSG-ES remodelling allows the parasite to express a specific set of ESAGs to provide selective advantages in different hosts. Finally, pig serum ACLs display phenotypic adaptation parameters closely related to human serum ACLs but distinct to parasites grown in calf and goat sera. These results suggest a better suitability of swine to maintain T. b. gambiense infection supporting previous epidemiological results.
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Duffy negative antigen is no longer a barrier to Plasmodium vivax--molecular evidences from the African West Coast (Angola and Equatorial Guinea).
PLoS Negl Trop Dis
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2011
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Plasmodium vivax shows a small prevalence in West and Central Africa due to the high prevalence of Duffy negative people. However, Duffy negative individuals infected with P. vivax have been reported in areas of high prevalence of Duffy positive people who may serve as supply of P. vivax strains able to invade Duffy negative erythrocytes. We investigated the presence of P. vivax in two West African countries, using blood samples and mosquitoes collected during two on-going studies.
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Immediate semi-static loading using compression healing abutments: a stability study in dogs.
Res. Vet. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2011
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Loading in implant dentistry to accelerate prosthodontic treatment has been receiving increasing interest. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of an early controlled lateral loading (after 7 days) on the establishment of osseointegration by means of resonance frequency analysis. Two groups of six beagle dogs each were used. Group I had implants without loading. Group II had implants loaded with a new prototype compression abutment that created controlled semi-static loading. Loaded implants showed slightly better stability after 5 weeks of healing, but the difference was not significant. We concluded that controlled loading is beneficial to maintain, and even improve, stability during the early critical healing period.
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Glandular odontogenic cyst: two high-risk cases treated with conservative approaches.
J Craniomaxillofac Surg
PUBLISHED: 02-09-2011
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The glandular odontogenic cyst is a rare jawbone cyst that is considered to be an independent entity, although its histopathological characteristics may lead to an incorrect diagnosis as a low-grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma. The treatment of glandular odontogenic cysts is controversial.
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Different lineages of Chikungunya virus in Equatorial Guinea in 2002 and 2006.
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
PUBLISHED: 03-09-2010
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Chikungunya virus is a mosquito-borne virus that causes an acute febrile infection and severe arthralgia and is considered a re-emergent pathogen. During a study investigating arboviruses causing febrile infection in infants in Bata, Equatorial Guinea, the genome of this virus was amplified from blood samples during near two rainy seasons (2002-2003). In 2006, this virus was isolated from a traveler returning to Spain from Equatorial Guinea. These results show that chikungunya virus is present in this country and two lineages are circulating. Thus, this virus should be considered in the differential diagnosis of febrile syndromes in inhabitants and in travelers returning from this country.
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Screening of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense in domestic livestock and tsetse flies from an insular endemic focus (Luba, Equatorial Guinea).
PLoS Negl Trop Dis
PUBLISHED: 02-02-2010
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Sleeping sickness is spread over 36 Sub-Saharan African countries. In West and Central Africa, the disease is caused by Trypanosoma brucei gambiense, which produces a chronic clinical manifestation. The Luba focus (Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea) has not reported autochthonous sleeping sickness cases since 1995, but given the complexity of the epidemiological cycle, the elimination of the parasite in the environment is difficult to categorically ensure.
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Problem-based learning versus lectures: comparison of academic results and time devoted by teachers in a course on Dentistry in Special Patients.
Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2009
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Problem-Based Learning (PBL) is a teaching-learning technique centred on the complete development of the student. It has been successfully implemented in several universities, notably in the health sciences. The process of creating the European Higher Education Area, initiated in Bologna, encourages European universities to use new methodologies in the teaching-learning process, including PBL. Our objectives were to analyze the results obtained by using PBL with fifth-year Dentistry students.
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[Results of the surgical treatment of atlantoaxial instability].
Cir Cir
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2009
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Instability of the cervical spine is defined as an increase in flexibility farther than the physiological limits of one vertebra over another in some of its axes, conditioning symptoms for the patient. Traumatic, degenerative, metabolic and neoplastic causes have all been identified.
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Analysis of new diagnostic methods in suspicious lesions of the oral mucosa.
Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal
PUBLISHED: 02-16-2009
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The objective of this study was to analyse publications related to examination techniques that might improve the visualisation of suspicious lesions of the oral mucosa (ViziLite system and VELscope system) or that might facilitate the cytological identification of suspicious lesions (OralCDx).
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Surgical ciliated cyst of the maxilla. Clinical case.
Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2009
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Surgical ciliated cyst is uncommon in Western countries but frequently reported in Asian populations as a delayed complication of surgery, with inclusion in the bone of nasal or sinus mucosa. Isolated cases have also been reported in the mandible after orthognathic surgery. We report a case in the maxillary region three years after radical sinus surgery for chronic sinusitis. Intraoral examination revealed a small painless tumefaction with no color change in the surrounding tissues. Computed tomography demonstrated a well-defined intraosseous lesion lateral to the maxillary sinus. The lesion was completely excised, when histology demonstrated a pseudostratified ciliated epithelial lining. Differential diagnosis from other lesions such as an odontogenic keratocyst or inflammatory cyst were also made. This case report,uncommon in Western countries, of a surgical ciliated cyst illustrates the need for a meticulous surgical technique, proper management of complications, and routine, long-term follow-up of patients undergoing any type of sinus surgery.
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Pyruvate kinase deficiency in sub-Saharan Africa: identification of a highly frequent missense mutation (G829A;Glu277Lys) and association with malaria.
PLoS ONE
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Pyruvate kinase (PK) deficiency, causing hemolytic anemia, has been associated to malaria protection and its prevalence in sub-Saharan Africa is not known so far. This work shows the results of a study undertaken to determine PK deficiency occurrence in some sub-Saharan African countries, as well as finding a prevalent PK variant underlying this deficiency.
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Differences in the expression of five senescence markers in oral cancer, oral leukoplakia and control samples in humans.
Oncol Lett
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Oncogene-induced senescence (OIS) may be a response to oncogenic activation, acting as a natural barrier against carcinogenesis at a premalignant stage. Thus, numerous cells in premalignant lesions enter senescence, but none or few in malignant tumours. This event could be due to the loss of senescence pathway effectors, including p16 (INK4a)-pRb or ARF-p53. The aim of this study was to characterize and compare the expression of certain senescent markers between oral precancer and cancer tissue samples. The expression of cyclin D1, Rb, maspin, p53 and mouse double minute 2 (MDM2) was analyzed in 20 paraffin-embedded tissue samples of normal oral mucosa (NOM), 14 samples of oral leukoplakia without dysplasia (OLD-), 11 samples of leukoplakia with dysplasia (OLD+) and 15 samples of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) by immunohistochemistry in tissue arrays. The expression of p16-pRb pathway markers, cyclin D1, maspin and Rb, was more frequent in OLD+ samples than in OSCC samples, although a statistical significance was only observed for maspin (P=0.036). Cyclin D1 expression was also significantly more frequent in OLD- samples vs. NOM samples. For the ARF-p53 pathway, the expression of p53 and MDM2 was significantly more frequent in the OLD- samples compared to in the NOM ones. These findings may indicate a role for cellular senescence in oral carcinogenesis, considering maspin as a reliable senescence marker and prognostic factor in oral premalignant lesions.
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Leishmaniasis worldwide and global estimates of its incidence.
PLoS ONE
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As part of a World Health Organization-led effort to update the empirical evidence base for the leishmaniases, national experts provided leishmaniasis case data for the last 5 years and information regarding treatment and control in their respective countries and a comprehensive literature review was conducted covering publications on leishmaniasis in 98 countries and three territories (see Leishmaniasis Country Profiles Text S1, S2, S3, S4, S5, S6, S7, S8, S9, S10, S11, S12, S13, S14, S15, S16, S17, S18, S19, S20, S21, S22, S23, S24, S25, S26, S27, S28, S29, S30, S31, S32, S33, S34, S35, S36, S37, S38, S39, S40, S41, S42, S43, S44, S45, S46, S47, S48, S49, S50, S51, S52, S53, S54, S55, S56, S57, S58, S59, S60, S61, S62, S63, S64, S65, S66, S67, S68, S69, S70, S71, S72, S73, S74, S75, S76, S77, S78, S79, S80, S81, S82, S83, S84, S85, S86, S87, S88, S89, S90, S91, S92, S93, S94, S95, S96, S97, S98, S99, S100, S101). Additional information was collated during meetings conducted at WHO regional level between 2007 and 2011. Two questionnaires regarding epidemiology and drug access were completed by experts and national program managers. Visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis incidence ranges were estimated by country and epidemiological region based on reported incidence, underreporting rates if available, and the judgment of national and international experts. Based on these estimates, approximately 0.2 to 0.4 cases and 0.7 to 1.2 million VL and CL cases, respectively, occur each year. More than 90% of global VL cases occur in six countries: India, Bangladesh, Sudan, South Sudan, Ethiopia and Brazil. Cutaneous leishmaniasis is more widely distributed, with about one-third of cases occurring in each of three epidemiological regions, the Americas, the Mediterranean basin, and western Asia from the Middle East to Central Asia. The ten countries with the highest estimated case counts, Afghanistan, Algeria, Colombia, Brazil, Iran, Syria, Ethiopia, North Sudan, Costa Rica and Peru, together account for 70 to 75% of global estimated CL incidence. Mortality data were extremely sparse and generally represent hospital-based deaths only. Using an overall case-fatality rate of 10%, we reach a tentative estimate of 20,000 to 40,000 leishmaniasis deaths per year. Although the information is very poor in a number of countries, this is the first in-depth exercise to better estimate the real impact of leishmaniasis. These data should help to define control strategies and reinforce leishmaniasis advocacy.
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