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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Lupus cystitis and repercussions of delayed diagnosis.
Acta Reumatol Port
PUBLISHED: 10-30-2014
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We describe a case of a young female with lupus that complained about suprapubic pain, dysuria, fever and vomits, symptoms first interpreted as pyelonephritis, despite negative cultures and imaging studies showing hydroureteronephrosis with inflammatory changes. When she developed malar rash, anasarca and nephrotic syndrome, the diagnosis of lupus cystitis with stage IV nephropathy was made, and she started immunosuppressive induction treatment with three pulses of corticosteroids followed by oral prednisolone (60 mg/d) and mycophenolate (1.5 g/d). One month later she was admitted again with blood exams compatible with thrombotic microangiopathy, requiring aggressive immunosuppression and plasma exchange. After overcoming multiple complications, the patient gradually improved, and was discharged with close surveillance. This case poses the question: if the urogenital involvement had been recognized and treated in time, would it prevent the onset of lupus nephritis and other complications?
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Concomitant Unipolar Radiofrequency Ablation of Nonparoxysmal Atrial Fibrillation in Rheumatic and Degenerative Valve Disease.
J Card Surg
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2014
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The aim of this study was to compare the results of concomitant unipolar radiofrequency ablation of nonparoxysmal atrial fibrillation (AF) between rheumatic and degenerative valve disease (RHD versus DVD).
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Brain morphometric biomarkers distinguishing unipolar and bipolar depression: a voxel-based morphometry-pattern classification approach.
JAMA Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2014
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The structural abnormalities in the brain that accurately differentiate unipolar depression (UD) and bipolar depression (BD) remain unidentified.
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Model specification and the reliability of fMRI results: implications for longitudinal neuroimaging studies in psychiatry.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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Functional Magnetic Resonance Imagine (fMRI) is an important assessment tool in longitudinal studies of mental illness and its treatment. Understanding the psychometric properties of fMRI-based metrics, and the factors that influence them, will be critical for properly interpreting the results of these efforts. The current study examined whether the choice among alternative model specifications affects estimates of test-retest reliability in key emotion processing regions across a 6-month interval. Subjects (N?=?46) performed an emotional-faces paradigm during fMRI in which neutral faces dynamically morphed into one of four emotional faces. Median voxelwise intraclass correlation coefficients (mvICCs) were calculated to examine stability over time in regions showing task-related activity as well as in bilateral amygdala. Four modeling choices were evaluated: a default model that used the canonical hemodynamic response function (HRF), a flexible HRF model that included additional basis functions, a modified CompCor (mCompCor) model that added corrections for physiological noise in the global signal, and a final model that combined the flexible HRF and mCompCor models. Model residuals were examined to determine the degree to which each pipeline met modeling assumptions. Results indicated that the choice of modeling approaches impacts both the degree to which model assumptions are met and estimates of test-retest reliability. ICC estimates in the visual cortex increased from poor (mvICC?=?0.31) in the default pipeline to fair (mvICC?=?0.45) in the full alternative pipeline - an increase of 45%. In nearly all tests, the models with the fewest assumption violations generated the highest ICC estimates. Implications for longitudinal treatment studies that utilize fMRI are discussed.
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Fatal outcome of infection by dengue 4 in a patient with thrombocytopenic purpura as a comorbid condition in Brazil.
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Sao Paulo
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2014
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Dengue is currently a major public-health problem. Dengue virus (DENV) is classified into four distinct serotypes, DENV 1-4. After 28 years of absence, DENV-4 was again detected in Brazil in 2010 in Roraima State, and one year later, the virus was identified in the northern Brazilian states of Amazonas and Pará, followed by Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo. In Minas Gerais, the first confirmed case of DENV-4 occurred in the municipality of Frutal in 2011 and has now been isolated from a growing number of patients. Although DENV-2 is associated with the highest risk of severe forms of the disease and death due to the infection, DENV-4 has also been associated with severe forms of the disease and an increasing risk of hemorrhagic manifestations. Herein, the first fatal case of confirmed DENV-4 in Brazil is reported. The patient was an 11-year-old girl from the municipality of Montes Claros in northern Minas Gerais State, Brazil. She had idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura as a comorbid condition and presented with a fulminant course of infection, leading to death due to hemorrhagic complications. Diagnosis was confirmed by detection of Dengue-specific antibodies using IgM capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and semi-nested RT-PCR. Primary care physicians and other health-care providers should bear in mind that DENV-4 can also result in severe forms of the disease and lead to hemorrhagic complications and death, mainly when dengue infection is associated with coexisting conditions.
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MANIA-a pattern classification toolbox for neuroimaging data.
Neuroinformatics
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2014
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Conventional univariate statistics are common and widespread in neuroimaging research. However, functional and structural MRI data reveal a multivariate nature, since neighboring voxels are highly correlated and different localized brain regions activate interdependently. Multivariate pattern classification techniques are capable of overcoming shortcomings of univariate statistics. A rising interest in such approaches on neuroimaging data leads to an increasing demand of appropriate software and tools in this field. Here, we introduce and release MANIA-Machine learning Application for NeuroImaging Analyses. MANIA is a Matlab based software toolbox enabling easy pattern classification of neuroimaging data and offering a broad assortment of machine learning algorithms and feature selection methods. Between groups classifications are the main scope of this software, for instance the differentiation between patients and controls. A special emphasis was placed on an intuitive and easy to use graphical user interface allowing quick implementation and guidance also for clinically oriented researchers. MANIA is free and open source, published under GPL3 license. This work will give an overview regarding the functionality and the modular software architecture as well as a comparison between other software packages.
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New host records for European Acroceridae (Diptera), with discussion of species limits of Acrocera orbiculus (Fabricius) based on DNA-barcoding.
Zootaxa
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2014
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New European host records for the Acroceridae species Acrocera orbiculus (Fabricius) and Ogcodes reginae Trojan are reported. Acrocera orbiculus was reared from Amaurobius erberi (Keyserling), and O. reginae from Clubiona leucaspis (Simon) and Evarcha jucunda (Lucas). Where possible, DNA-barcodes are presented for reared endoparasitoids and their host specimens. Based on mitochondrial COI, the intraspecific genetic variability of 15 western Palaearctic A. orbiculus is discussed. Maximum likelihood analysis reveals two clades, though they have low statistical support and no distinct barcoding gap. Therefore, we consider all barcoded specimens of A. orbiculus to be a single biological species with a high degree of phenotypic plasticity regarding body size and coloration. Based on molecular and morphological evidence, Paracrocera kaszabi Majer, Paracrocera manevali Séguy and Paracrocera minuscula Séguy are placed in synonymy with A. orbiculus. The male of the Canary Islands endemic Acrocera cabrerae Frey is described for the first time. 
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Parsing dimensional vs diagnostic category-related patterns of reward circuitry function in behaviorally and emotionally dysregulated youth in the Longitudinal Assessment of Manic Symptoms study.
JAMA Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2014
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Pediatric disorders characterized by behavioral and emotional dysregulation pose diagnostic and treatment challenges because of high comorbidity, suggesting that they may be better conceptualized dimensionally rather than categorically. Identifying neuroimaging measures associated with behavioral and emotional dysregulation in youth may inform understanding of underlying dimensional vs disorder-specific pathophysiologic features.
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Three-dimensional sonographic assessment of placental volume and vascularization in pregnancies complicated by hypertensive disorders.
J Ultrasound Med
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2014
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The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between placental volumes, placental vascularity, and hypertensive disorders in pregnancy.
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A multicenter tractography study of deep white matter tracts in bipolar I disorder: psychotic features and interhemispheric disconnectivity.
JAMA Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2014
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Tractography studies investigating white matter (WM) abnormalities in patients with bipolar disorder have yielded heterogeneous results owing to small sample sizes. The small size limits their generalizability, a critical issue for neuroimaging studies of biomarkers of bipolar I disorder (BPI).
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PD-1 identifies the patient-specific CD8? tumor-reactive repertoire infiltrating human tumors.
J. Clin. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2014
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Adoptive transfer of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) can mediate regression of metastatic melanoma; however, TILs are a heterogeneous population, and there are no effective markers to specifically identify and select the repertoire of tumor-reactive and mutation-specific CD8? lymphocytes. The lack of biomarkers limits the ability to study these cells and develop strategies to enhance clinical efficacy and extend this therapy to other malignancies. Here, we evaluated unique phenotypic traits of CD8? TILs and TCR ? chain (TCR?) clonotypic frequency in melanoma tumors to identify patient-specific repertoires of tumor-reactive CD8? lymphocytes. In all 6 tumors studied, expression of the inhibitory receptors programmed cell death 1 (PD-1; also known as CD279), lymphocyte-activation gene 3 (LAG-3; also known as CD223), and T cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain 3 (TIM-3) on CD8? TILs identified the autologous tumor-reactive repertoire, including mutated neoantigen-specific CD8? lymphocytes, whereas only a fraction of the tumor-reactive population expressed the costimulatory receptor 4-1BB (also known as CD137). TCR? deep sequencing revealed oligoclonal expansion of specific TCR? clonotypes in CD8?PD-1? compared with CD8?PD-1- TIL populations. Furthermore, the most highly expanded TCR? clonotypes in the CD8? and the CD8?PD-1? populations recognized the autologous tumor and included clonotypes targeting mutated antigens. Thus, in addition to the well-documented negative regulatory role of PD-1 in T cells, our findings demonstrate that PD-1 expression on CD8? TILs also accurately identifies the repertoire of clonally expanded tumor-reactive cells and reveal a dual importance of PD-1 expression in the tumor microenvironment.
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Five years results after intrafamilial kidney post-transplant in a case of familial hypomagnesemia due to a claudin-19 mutation.
J Bras Nefrol
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2014
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Familial Hypomagnesaemia with hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis, with severe ocular impairment secondary to claudin-19 mutation, is a rare recessive autossomic disorder. Its spectrum includes renal Mg2+ wasting, medullary nephrocalcinosis and progressive chronic renal failure in young people.
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Mechanisms of acute kidney injury induced by experimental Lonomia obliqua envenomation.
Arch. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2014
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Lonomia obliqua caterpillar envenomation causes acute kidney injury (AKI), which can be responsible for its deadly actions. This study evaluates the possible mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of renal dysfunction. To characterize L. obliqua venom effects, we subcutaneously injected rats and examined renal functional, morphological and biochemical parameters at several time points. We also performed discovery-based proteomic analysis to measure protein expression to identify molecular pathways of renal disease. L. obliqua envenomation causes acute tubular necrosis, which is associated with renal inflammation; formation of hematic casts, resulting from intravascular hemolysis; increase in vascular permeability and fibrosis. The dilation of Bowman's space and glomerular tuft is related to fluid leakage and intra-glomerular fibrin deposition, respectively, since tissue factor procoagulant activity increases in the kidney. Systemic hypotension also contributes to these alterations and to the sudden loss of basic renal functions, including filtration and excretion capacities, urinary concentration and maintenance of fluid homeostasis. In addition, envenomed kidneys increase the expression of proteins involved in cell stress, inflammation, tissue injury, heme-induced oxidative stress, coagulation and complement system activation. Finally, the localization of the venom in renal tissue agrees with morphological and functional alterations, suggesting also a direct nephrotoxic activity. In conclusion, the mechanisms of L. obliqua-induced AKI are complex involving mainly glomerular and tubular functional impairment and vascular alterations. These results are important to understand the mechanisms of renal injury and may suggest more efficient ways to prevent or attenuate the pathology of Lonomia's envenomation.
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Conservative management of a prosthetic valve thrombosis--report of a successful case.
Heart Lung Circ
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2014
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Prosthetic valve thrombosis (PVT) refers to the presence of non infective material in valvular apparatus, interfering with its function. It is a potentially fatal complication of valvular replacement surgery. Treatment options include surgery, fibrinolysis and anticoagulation optimisation. The authors present the case of a young man, carrier of an aortic prosthetic mechanical valve, who didn't take his anticoagulant medicine, admitted for an acute obstructive PVT, with evidence of a large thrombotic mass on the aortic valve (> 1cm(2)). The patient refused surgical treatment and eventually presented a complete resolution of the acute PVT with anticoagulation optimisation.
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The ENIGMA Consortium: large-scale collaborative analyses of neuroimaging and genetic data.
Paul M Thompson, Jason L Stein, Sarah E Medland, Derrek P Hibar, Alejandro Arias Vasquez, Miguel E Rentería, Roberto Toro, Neda Jahanshad, Gunter Schumann, Barbara Franke, Margaret J Wright, Nicholas G Martin, Ingrid Agartz, Martin Alda, Saud Alhusaini, Laura Almasy, Jorge Almeida, Kathryn Alpert, Nancy C Andreasen, Ole A Andreassen, Liana G Apostolova, Katja Appel, Nicola J Armstrong, Benjamin Aribisala, Mark E Bastin, Michael Bauer, Carrie E Bearden, Orjan Bergmann, Elisabeth B Binder, John Blangero, Henry J Bockholt, Erlend Bøen, Catherine Bois, Dorret I Boomsma, Tom Booth, Ian J Bowman, Janita Bralten, Rachel M Brouwer, Han G Brunner, David G Brohawn, Randy L Buckner, Jan Buitelaar, Kazima Bulayeva, Juan R Bustillo, Vince D Calhoun, Dara M Cannon, Rita M Cantor, Melanie A Carless, Xavier Caseras, Gianpiero L Cavalleri, M Mallar Chakravarty, Kiki D Chang, Christopher R K Ching, Andrea Christoforou, Sven Cichon, Vincent P Clark, Patricia Conrod, Giovanni Coppola, Benedicto Crespo-Facorro, Joanne E Curran, Michael Czisch, Ian J Deary, Eco J C de Geus, Anouk den Braber, Giuseppe Delvecchio, Chantal Depondt, Lieuwe de Haan, Greig I de Zubicaray, Danai Dima, Rali Dimitrova, Srdjan Djurovic, Hongwei Dong, Gary Donohoe, Ravindranath Duggirala, Thomas D Dyer, Stefan Ehrlich, Carl Johan Ekman, Torbjørn Elvsåshagen, Louise Emsell, Susanne Erk, Thomas Espeseth, Jesen Fagerness, Scott Fears, Iryna Fedko, Guillén Fernández, Simon E Fisher, Tatiana Foroud, Peter T Fox, Clyde Francks, Sophia Frangou, Eva Maria Frey, Thomas Frodl, Vincent Frouin, Hugh Garavan, Sudheer Giddaluru, David C Glahn, Beata Godlewska, Rita Z Goldstein, Randy L Gollub, Hans J Grabe, Oliver Grimm, Oliver Gruber, Tulio Guadalupe, Raquel E Gur, Ruben C Gur, Harald H H Göring, Saskia Hagenaars, Tomáš Hájek, Geoffrey B Hall, Jeremy Hall, John Hardy, Catharina A Hartman, Johanna Hass, Sean N Hatton, Unn K Haukvik, Katrin Hegenscheid, Andreas Heinz, Ian B Hickie, Beng-Choon Ho, David Hoehn, Pieter J Hoekstra, Marisa Hollinshead, Avram J Holmes, Georg Homuth, Martine Hoogman, L Elliot Hong, Norbert Hosten, Jouke-Jan Hottenga, Hilleke E Hulshoff Pol, Kristy S Hwang, Clifford R Jack, Mark Jenkinson, Caroline Johnston, Erik G Jönsson, René S Kahn, Dalia Kasperaviciute, Sinead Kelly, Sungeun Kim, Peter Kochunov, Laura Koenders, Bernd Krämer, John B J Kwok, Jim Lagopoulos, Gonzalo Laje, Mikael Landén, Bennett A Landman, John Lauriello, Stephen M Lawrie, Phil H Lee, Stephanie Le Hellard, Herve Lemaitre, Cassandra D Leonardo, Chiang-Shan Li, Benny Liberg, David C Liewald, Xinmin Liu, Lorna M Lopez, Eva Loth, Anbarasu Lourdusamy, Michelle Luciano, Fabio Macciardi, Marise W J Machielsen, Glenda M Macqueen, Ulrik F Malt, René Mandl, Dara S Manoach, Jean-Luc Martinot, Mar Matarin, Karen A Mather, Manuel Mattheisen, Morten Mattingsdal, Andreas Meyer-Lindenberg, Colm McDonald, Andrew M McIntosh, Francis J McMahon, Katie L McMahon, Eva Meisenzahl, Ingrid Melle, Yuri Milaneschi, Sebastian Mohnke, Grant W Montgomery, Derek W Morris, Eric K Moses, Bryon A Mueller, Susana Muñoz Maniega, Thomas W Mühleisen, Bertram Müller-Myhsok, Benson Mwangi, Matthias Nauck, Kwangsik Nho, Thomas E Nichols, Lars-Göran Nilsson, Allison C Nugent, Lars Nyberg, Rene L Olvera, Jaap Oosterlaan, Roel A Ophoff, Massimo Pandolfo, Melina Papalampropoulou-Tsiridou, Martina Papmeyer, Tomas Paus, Zdenka Pausova, Godfrey D Pearlson, Brenda W Penninx, Charles P Peterson, Andrea Pfennig, Mary Phillips, G Bruce Pike, Jean-Baptiste Poline, Steven G Potkin, Benno Pütz, Adaikalavan Ramasamy, Jerod Rasmussen, Marcella Rietschel, Mark Rijpkema, Shannon L Risacher, Joshua L Roffman, Roberto Roiz-Santiañez, Nina Romanczuk-Seiferth, Emma J Rose, Natalie A Royle, Dan Rujescu, Mina Ryten, Perminder S Sachdev, Alireza Salami, Theodore D Satterthwaite, Jonathan Savitz, Andrew J Saykin, Cathy Scanlon, Lianne Schmaal, Hugo G Schnack, Andrew J Schork, S Charles Schulz, Remmelt Schür, Larry Seidman, Li Shen, Jody M Shoemaker, Andrew Simmons, Sanjay M Sisodiya, Colin Smith, Jordan W Smoller, Jair C Soares, Scott R Sponheim, Emma Sprooten, John M Starr, Vidar M Steen, Stephen Strakowski, Lachlan Strike, Jessika Sussmann, Philipp G Sämann, Alexander Teumer, Arthur W Toga, Diana Tordesillas-Gutierrez, Daniah Trabzuni, Sarah Trost, Jessica Turner, Martijn van den Heuvel, Nic J van der Wee, Kristel van Eijk, Theo G M van Erp, Neeltje E M van Haren, Dennis van 't Ent, Marie-José van Tol, Maria C Valdés Hernández, Dick J Veltman, Amelia Versace, Henry Völzke, Robert Walker, Henrik Walter, Lei Wang, Joanna M Wardlaw, Michael E Weale, Michael W Weiner, Wei Wen, Lars T Westlye, Heather C Whalley, Christopher D Whelan, Tonya White, Anderson M Winkler, Katharina Wittfeld, Girma Woldehawariat, Christiane Wolf, David Zilles, Marcel P Zwiers, Anbupalam Thalamuthu, Peter R Schofield, Nelson B Freimer, Natalia S Lawrence, Wayne Drevets, .
Brain Imaging Behav
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
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The Enhancing NeuroImaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis (ENIGMA) Consortium is a collaborative network of researchers working together on a range of large-scale studies that integrate data from 70 institutions worldwide. Organized into Working Groups that tackle questions in neuroscience, genetics, and medicine, ENIGMA studies have analyzed neuroimaging data from over 12,826 subjects. In addition, data from 12,171 individuals were provided by the CHARGE consortium for replication of findings, in a total of 24,997 subjects. By meta-analyzing results from many sites, ENIGMA has detected factors that affect the brain that no individual site could detect on its own, and that require larger numbers of subjects than any individual neuroimaging study has currently collected. ENIGMA's first project was a genome-wide association study identifying common variants in the genome associated with hippocampal volume or intracranial volume. Continuing work is exploring genetic associations with subcortical volumes (ENIGMA2) and white matter microstructure (ENIGMA-DTI). Working groups also focus on understanding how schizophrenia, bipolar illness, major depression and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affect the brain. We review the current progress of the ENIGMA Consortium, along with challenges and unexpected discoveries made on the way.
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Human syndromes of immunodeficiency and dysregulation are characterized by distinct defects in T-cell receptor repertoire development.
J. Allergy Clin. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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Human immunodeficiencies characterized by hypomorphic mutations in critical developmental and signaling pathway genes allow for the dissection of the role of these genes in the development of the T-cell receptor (TCR) repertoire and the correlation of alterations of the TCR repertoire with diverse clinical phenotypes.
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Differential Anterior Cingulate Activity during Response Inhibition in Depressed Adolescents with Bipolar and Unipolar Major Depressive Disorder.
J Can Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2014
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Cognitive control deficits are commonly seen in Depression of Bipolar Disorder (BDd) and Unipolar Major Depressive Disorder (UDd). Because failure to differentiate BDd from UDd has significant clinical consequences we aimed to identify differential patterns of neural activity in BDd versus UDd underlying response inhibition and motor control in adolescents.
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A potential source for cellulolytic enzyme discovery and environmental aspects revealed through metagenomics of Brazilian mangroves.
AMB Express
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2013
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The mangroves are among the most productive and biologically important environments. The possible presence of cellulolytic enzymes and microorganisms useful for biomass degradation as well as taxonomic and functional aspects of two Brazilian mangroves were evaluated using cultivation and metagenomic approaches. From a total of 296 microorganisms with visual differences in colony morphology and growth (including bacteria, yeast and filamentous fungus), 179 (60.5%) and 117 (39.5%) were isolated from the Rio de Janeiro (RJ) and Bahia (BA) samples, respectively. RJ metagenome showed the higher number of microbial isolates, which is consistent with its most conserved state and higher diversity. The metagenomic sequencing data showed similar predominant bacterial phyla in the BA and RJ mangroves with an abundance of Proteobacteria (57.8% and 44.6%), Firmicutes (11% and 12.3%) and Actinobacteria (8.4% and 7.5%). A higher number of enzymes involved in the degradation of polycyclic aromatic compounds were found in the BA mangrove. Specific sequences involved in the cellulolytic degradation, belonging to cellulases, hemicellulases, carbohydrate binding domains, dockerins and cohesins were identified, and it was possible to isolate cultivable fungi and bacteria related to biomass decomposition and with potential applications for the production of biofuels. These results showed that the mangroves possess all fundamental molecular tools required for building the cellulosome, which is required for the efficient degradation of cellulose material and sugar release.
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Purification, partial characterization and immobilization of a mannose-specific lectin from seeds of Dioclea lasiophylla mart.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2013
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Lectin from the seeds of Dioclea lasiophylla (DlyL) was purified in a single step by affinity chromatography on a Sephadex® G-50 column. DlyL strongly agglutinated rabbit erythrocytes and was inhibited by monosaccharides (D-mannose and ?-methyl-D-mannoside) and glycoproteins (ovalbumin and fetuin). Similar to other Diocleinae lectins, DlyL has three chains, ?, ? and ?, with mass of 25,569 ± 2, 12,998 ± 1 and 12,588 ± 1 Da, respectively, and has no disulfide bonds. The hemagglutinating activity of DlyL was optimal in pH 8.0, stable at a temperature of 70 °C and decreased in EDTA solution, indicating that lectin activity is dependent on divalent metals. DlyL exhibited low toxicity on Artemia sp. nauplii, but this effect was dependent on the concentration of lectin in solution. DlyL immobilized on cyanogen bromide-activated Sepharose® 4B bound 0.917 mg of ovalbumin per cycle, showing the ability to become a tool for glycoproteomics studies.
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Affect of the unconscious: visually suppressed angry faces modulate our decisions.
Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 07-20-2013
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Emotional and affective processing imposes itself over cognitive processes and modulates our perception of the surrounding environment. In two experiments, we addressed the issue of whether nonconscious processing of affect can take place even under deep states of unawareness, such as those induced by interocular suppression techniques, and can elicit an affective response that can influence our understanding of the surrounding environment. In Experiment 1, participants judged the likeability of an unfamiliar item--a Chinese character--that was preceded by a face expressing a particular emotion (either happy or angry). The face was rendered invisible through an interocular suppression technique (continuous flash suppression; CFS). In Experiment 2, backward masking (BM), a less robust masking technique, was used to render the facial expressions invisible. We found that despite equivalent phenomenological suppression of the visual primes under CFS and BM, different patterns of affective processing were obtained with the two masking techniques. Under BM, nonconscious affective priming was obtained for both happy and angry invisible facial expressions. However, under CFS, nonconscious affective priming was obtained only for angry facial expressions. We discuss an interpretation of this dissociation between affective processing and visual masking techniques in terms of distinct routes from the retina to the amygdala.
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Dissociable patterns of abnormal frontal cortical activation during anticipation of an uncertain reward or loss in bipolar versus major depression.
Bipolar Disord
PUBLISHED: 06-29-2013
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Recent research has found abnormalities in reward-related neural activation in bipolar disorder (BD), during both manic and euthymic phases. However, reward-related neural activation in currently depressed individuals with BD and that in currently depressed individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD) have yet to be directly compared. Here, we studied these groups, examining the neural activation elicited during a guessing task in fronto-striatal regions identified by previous studies.
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Neural activity to intense positive versus negative stimuli can help differentiate bipolar disorder from unipolar major depressive disorder in depressed adolescents: A pilot fMRI study.
Psychiatry Res
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2013
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Failure to distinguish bipolar depression (BDd) from the unipolar depression of major depressive disorder (UDd) in adolescents has significant clinical consequences. We aimed to identify differential patterns of functional neural activity in BDd versus UDd and employed two (fearful and happy) facial expression/ gender labeling functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiments to study emotion processing in 10 BDd (8 females, mean age=15.1±1.1) compared to age- and gender-matched 10 UDd and 10 healthy control (HC) adolescents who were age- and gender-matched to the BDd group. BDd adolescents, relative to UDd, showed significantly lower activity to both intense happy (e.g., insula and temporal cortex) and intense fearful faces (e.g., frontal precentral cortex). Although the neural regions recruited in each group were not the same, both BDd and UDd adolescents, relative to HC, showed significantly lower neural activity to intense happy and mild happy faces, but elevated neural activity to mild fearful faces. Our results indicated that patterns of neural activity to intense positive and negative emotional stimuli can help differentiate BDd from UDd in adolescents.
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Intracardiac leiomyomatosis complicated by pulmonary embolism: a multimodality imaging case of a rare entity.
Can J Cardiol
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2013
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We present a case of intravenous leiomyomatosis with intracaval and right ventricle extension that was misdiagnosed as venous thrombus. Part of the mass had split and embolized the pulmonary artery, requiring urgent surgery. Although the mass fragments were removed from the inferior vena cava, right ventricle, and pulmonary artery successfully, this case clearly shows the importance of prompt surgery.
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Mutated PPP1R3B is recognized by T cells used to treat a melanoma patient who experienced a durable complete tumor regression.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2013
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Adoptive cell therapy with tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) represents an effective treatment for patients with metastatic melanoma. However, most of the Ag targets recognized by effective melanoma-reactive TILs remain elusive. In this study, patient 2369 experienced a complete response, including regressions of bulky liver tumor masses, ongoing beyond 7 y following adoptive TIL transfer. The screening of a cDNA library generated from the autologous melanoma cell line resulted in the isolation of a mutated protein phosphatase 1, regulatory (inhibitor) subunit 3B (PPP1R3B) gene product. The mutated PPP1R3B peptide represents the immunodominant epitope recognized by tumor-reactive T cells in TIL 2369. Five years following adoptive transfer, peripheral blood T lymphocytes obtained from patient 2369 recognized the mutated PPP1R3B epitope. These results demonstrate that adoptive T cell therapy targeting a tumor-specific Ag can mediate long-term survival for a patient with metastatic melanoma. This study also provides an impetus to develop personalized immunotherapy targeting tumor-specific, mutated Ags.
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Acute Lonomia obliqua caterpillar envenomation-induced physiopathological alterations in rats: evidence of new toxic venom activities and the efficacy of serum therapy to counteract systemic tissue damage.
Toxicon
PUBLISHED: 05-04-2013
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The clinical manifestations of Lonomia obliqua caterpillar envenomation are systemic hemorrhage and acute kidney injury. In an effort to better understand the physiopathological mechanisms of envenomation, a rat model was established to study systemic tissue damage during L. obliqua envenomation. An array of acute venom effects was characterized, including biochemical, hematological, histopathological, myotoxic and genotoxic alterations. Rapid increases in serum alanine and aspartate transaminases, ?-glutamyl transferase, lactate dehydrogenase, hemoglobin, bilirubin, creatinine, urea and uric acid were observed, indicating that intravascular hemolysis and liver and kidney damage had occurred. Treatment with a specific antivenom (antilonomic serum) for up to 2 h post-venom injection neutralized the biochemical alterations. However, treatment after 6 h post-venom injection failed to normalize all biochemical parameters, despite its efficacy in reversing coagulation dysfunction. The hematological findings were consistent with hemolytic anemia and neutrophilic leukocytosis. The histopathological alterations were mainly related to hemorrhage and inflammation in the subcutaneous tissue, lung, heart and kidneys. Signs of congestion and hemosiderosis were evident in the spleen, and hemoglobin and/or myoglobin casts were also detected in the renal tubules. Increased levels of creatine kinase and creatine kinase-MB were correlated with the myocardial necrosis observed in vivo and confirmed the myotoxicity detected in vitro in isolated extensor digitorum longus muscles. Significant DNA damage was observed in the kidneys, heart, lung, liver and lymphocytes. The majority of the DNA lesions in the kidney were due to oxidative damage. The results presented here will aid in understanding the pathology underlying Lonomias envenomation.
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Amygdala and whole-brain activity to emotional faces distinguishes major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder.
Bipolar Disord
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2013
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It can be clinically difficult to distinguish depressed individuals with bipolar disorder (BD) and major depressive disorder (MDD). To examine potential biomarkers of difference between the two disorders, the current study examined differences in the functioning of emotion-processing neural regions during a dynamic emotional faces task.
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Neural correlates of treatment in adolescents with bipolar depression during response inhibition.
J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2013
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Abnormal prefrontal and subcortical activity during cognitive control tasks is identified in non-depressed adolescents with bipolar disorder (BD); however, little is known about the neural correlates of bipolar adolescents in a depressed state (BDd). We aimed to investigate baseline versus after-treatment patterns of neural activity underlying motor response and response inhibition in adolescents with BDd.
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Mycotic brain aneurysm and cerebral hemorrhagic stroke: a pediatric case report.
Eur. J. Pediatr.
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2013
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Endocarditis due to Abiotrophia spp. is rare and often associated with negative blood cultures, infection relapse, and high rates of treatment failure and mortality (Lainscak et al., J Heart Valve Dis 14(1):33-36, 2005). The authors describe a case of an adolescent with cerebral hemorrhagic stroke due to mycotic brain aneurysm rupture.
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A subcellular tug of war involving three MYB-like proteins underlies a molecular antagonism in Antirrhinum flower asymmetry.
Plant J.
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2013
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The establishment of meristematic domains with different transcriptional activity is essential for many developmental processes. The asymmetry of the Antirrhinum majus flower is established by transcription factors with an asymmetric pattern of activity. To understand how this asymmetrical pattern is established, we studied the molecular mechanism through which the dorsal MYB protein RADIALIS (RAD) restricts the activity of the MYB transcription factor DIVARICATA (DIV) to the ventral region of the flower meristem. We show that RAD competes with DIV for binding with other MYB-like proteins, termed DRIF1 and DRIF2 (DIV- and-RAD-interacting-factors). DRIF1 and DIV interact to form a protein complex that binds to the DIV-DNA consensus region, suggesting that the DRIFs act as co-regulators of DIV transcriptional activity. In the presence of RAD, the interaction between DRIF1 and DIV bound to DNA is disrupted. Moreover, the DRIFs are sequestered in the cytoplasm by RAD, thus, preventing or reducing the formation of DRIF-DIV heterodimers in the nuclei. Our results suggest that in the dorsal region of the Antirrhinum flower meristem the dorsal protein RAD antagonises the activity of the ventral identity protein DIV in a subcellular competition for a DRIF protein promoting the establishment of the asymmetric pattern of gene activity in the Antirrhinum flower.
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A molecular basis for the control of preimmune escape variants by HIV-specific CD8+ T cells.
Immunity
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2013
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The capacity of the immune system to adapt to rapidly evolving viruses is a primary feature of effective immunity, yet its molecular basis is unclear. Here, we investigated protective HIV-1-specific CD8+ T cell responses directed against the immunodominant p24 Gag-derived epitope KK10 (KRWIILGLNK263-272) presented by human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B?2705. We found that cross-reactive CD8+ T cell clonotypes were mobilized to counter the rapid emergence of HIV-1 variants that can directly affect T cell receptor (TCR) recognition. These newly recruited clonotypes expressed TCRs that engaged wild-type and mutant KK10 antigens with similar affinities and almost identical docking modes, thereby accounting for their antiviral efficacy in HLA-B?2705+ individuals. A protective CD8+ T cell repertoire therefore encompasses the capacity to control TCR-accessible mutations, ultimately driving the development of more complex viral escape variants that disrupt antigen presentation.
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Inverted left atrial appendage bonded to atrial septum.
Can J Cardiol
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2013
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Inverted left atrial appendage (LAA) is a rare surgical complication. Our patient, a boy aged 2 years, was diagnosed with a partial atrioventricular defect with mild regurgitation of the left atrioventricular valve and a large primum atrial septal defect. Direct postoperative transesophageal echocardiography revealed a new left atrial mass attached to the atrial septum, without left ventricle inflow obstruction. Out of concern about the nature of this mass, we chose surgical direct examination. Intraoperatively, we diagnosed it as an inverted LAA accidentally attached to the atrial septum suture line. Awareness of this condition can avoid unnecessary diagnostic and therapeutic procedures.
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Ischemic rupture of the anterolateral papillary muscle.
Rev Port Cardiol
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2013
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We describe the case of a 59-year-old man who presented with chest pain and ST-segment elevation in the inferior leads, R>S in V1 and ST depression in the anterior leads due to proximal occlusion of the first obtuse marginal. Primary coronary angioplasty and stenting of this artery were performed. Twelve hours later the patient became hemodynamically unstable and severe mitral regurgitation due to rupture of one of the heads of the anterolateral papillary muscle was diagnosed. Emergency surgery was performed (papillary muscle head reimplantation, mitral annuloplasty with a rigid ring, tricuspid annuloplasty and coronary artery bypass grafting). On surgical inspection, it was observed that the detached muscle head had become trapped in the left ventricle by a secondary cord attached to the other head. This case is unusual in presenting two uncommon features of ischemic papillary muscle: rupture of the anterolateral muscle in myocardial infarction involving the inferoposterior walls, and the fact that the ruptured muscle head did not prolapse because it had become trapped in the left ventricle by secondary cord attachment.
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Spatial frequency tuning reveals interactions between the dorsal and ventral visual systems.
J Cogn Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2013
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It is widely argued that the ability to recognize and identify manipulable objects depends on the retrieval and simulation of action-based information associated with using those objects. Evidence for that view comes from fMRI studies that have reported differential BOLD contrast in dorsal visual stream regions when participants view manipulable objects compared with a range of baseline categories. An alternative interpretation is that processes internal to the ventral visual pathway are sufficient to support the visual identification of manipulable objects and that the retrieval of object-associated use information is contingent on analysis of the visual input by the ventral stream. Here, we sought to distinguish these two perspectives by exploiting the fact that the dorsal stream is largely driven by magnocellular input, which is biased toward low spatial frequency visual information. Thus, any tool-selective responses in parietal cortex that are driven by high spatial frequencies would be indicative of inputs from the ventral visual pathway. Participants viewed images of tools and animals containing only low, or only high, spatial frequencies during fMRI. We find an internal parcellation of left parietal "tool-preferring" voxels: Inferior aspects of left parietal cortex are driven by high spatial frequency information and have privileged connectivity with ventral stream regions that show similar category preferences, whereas superior regions are driven by low spatial frequency information. Our findings suggest that the automatic activation of complex object-associated manipulation knowledge is contingent on analysis of the visual input by the ventral visual pathway.
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CMV driven CD8(+) T-cell activation is associated with acute rejection in lung transplantation.
Clin. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2013
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Lung transplantation is the definitive treatment for terminal respiratory disease, but the associated mortality rate is high. Acute rejection of the transplanted lung is a key determinant of adverse prognosis. Furthermore, an epidemiological relationship has been established between the occurrence of acute lung rejection and cytomegalovirus infection. However, the reasons for this association remain unclear. Here, we performed a longitudinal characterization of CMV-specific T-cell responses and immune activation status in the peripheral blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of forty-four lung transplant patients. Acute rejection was associated with high levels of cellular activation in the periphery, reflecting strong CMV-specific CD8(+) T-cell activity post-transplant. Peripheral and lung CMV-specific CD8(+) T-cell responses were very similar, and related to the presence of CMV in the transplanted organ. These findings support that activated CMV-specific CD8(+) T-cells in the lung may play a role in promoting acute rejection.
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Neural correlates of treatment response in depressed bipolar adolescents during emotion processing.
Brain Imaging Behav
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2013
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Depressive mood in adolescents with bipolar disorder (BDd) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, but we have limited information about neural correlates of depression and treatment response in BDd. Ten adolescents with BDd (8 females, mean age = 15.6?±?0.9) completed two (fearful and happy) face gender labeling fMRI experiments at baseline and after 6-weeks of open treatment. Whole-brain analysis was used at baseline to compare their neural activity with those of 10 age and sex-matched healthy controls (HC). For comparisons of the neural activity at baseline and after treatment of youth with BDd, region of interest analysis for dorsal/ventral prefrontal, anterior cingulate, and amygdala activity, and significant regions identified by wholebrain analysis between BDd and HC were analyzed. There was significant improvement in depression scores (mean percentage change on the Child Depression Rating Scale-Revised 57 %?±?28). Neural activity after treatment was decreased in left occipital cortex in the intense fearful experiment, but increased in left insula, left cerebellum, and right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex in the intense happy experiment. Greater improvement in depression was associated with baseline higher activity in ventral ACC to mild happy faces. Study sample size was relatively small for subgroup analysis and consisted of mainly female adolescents that were predominantly on psychotropic medications during scanning. Our results of reduced negative emotion processing versus increased positive emotion processing after treatment of depression (improvement of cognitive bias to negative and away from positive) are consistent with the improvement of depression according to Becks cognitive theory.
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Emotional face processing in pediatric bipolar disorder: evidence for functional impairments in the fusiform gyrus.
J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2013
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Pediatric bipolar disorder involves poor social functioning, but the neural mechanisms underlying these deficits are not well understood. Previous neuroimaging studies have found deficits in emotional face processing localized to emotional brain regions. However, few studies have examined dysfunction in other regions of the face processing circuit. This study assessed hypoactivation in key face processing regions of the brain in pediatric bipolar disorder.
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Late opacification in hydrophilic acrylic intraocular lenses: analysis of 87 eyes in a random sample of 102 patients.
J Cataract Refract Surg
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2013
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To report the incidence of late postoperative opacification of a hydrophilic acrylic foldable intraocular lens (IOL).
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Bioprocess and biotecnology: effect of xylanase from Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus on pulp biobleaching and enzyme production using agroindustrial residues as substract.
Springerplus
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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This study compares two xylanases produced by filamentous fungi such as A. niger and A. flavus using agroindustrial residues as substract and evaluated the effect of these enzymes on cellulose pulp biobleaching process. Wheat bran was the best carbon source for xylanase production by A. niger and A. flavus. The production of xylanase was 18 and 21% higher on wheat bran when we compare the xylanase production with xylan. At 50°C, the xylanase of A. niger retained over 85% activity with 2 h of incubation, and A. flavus had a half-life of more than 75 minutes. At 55°C, the xylanase produced by A. niger showed more stable than from A. flavus showing a half-life of more than 45 minutes. The xylanase activity of A. niger and A. flavus were somehow protected in the presence of glycerol 5% when compared to the control (without additives). On the biobleaching assay it was observed that the xylanase from A. flavus was more effective in comparison to A. niger. The kappa efficiency corresponded to 36.32 and 25.93, respectively. That is important to emphasize that the cellulase activity was either analyzed and significant levels were not detected, which explain why the viscosity was not significantly modified.
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Tool manipulation knowledge is retrieved by way of the ventral visual object processing pathway.
Cortex
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI), we find that object manipulation knowledge is accessed by way of the ventral object processing pathway. We exploit the fact that parvocellular channels project to the ventral but not the dorsal stream, and show that increased neural responses for tool stimuli are observed in the inferior parietal lobule when those stimuli are visible only to the ventral object processing stream. In a control condition, tool-preferences were observed in a superior and posterior parietal region for stimuli titrated so as to be visible by the dorsal visual pathway. Functional connectivity analyses confirm the dissociation between sub-regions of parietal cortex according to whether their principal afferent input is via the ventral or dorsal visual pathway. These results challenge the Embodied Hypothesis of Tool Recognition, according to which tool identification critically depends on simulation of object manipulation knowledge. Instead, these data indicate that retrieval of object-associated manipulation knowledge is contingent on accessing the identity of the object, a process that is subserved by the ventral visual pathway.
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Molecular characterization and tandem mass spectrometry of the lectin extracted from the seeds of Dioclea sclerocarpa Ducke.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 09-29-2011
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Lectin from the seeds of Dioclea sclerocarpa (DSL) was purified in a single step by affinity chromatography on a Sephadex G-50 column. The primary sequence, as determined by tandem mass spectrometry, revealed a protein with 237 amino acids and 81% of identity with ConA. DSL has a molecular mass of 25,606 Da. The ? and ? chains weigh 12,873 Da and 12,752 Da, respectively. DSL hemagglutinated rabbit erythrocytes (both native and treated with proteolytic enzymes), showing stability even after one hour of exposure to a specific pH range. The hemagglutinating activity of DSL was optimal between pH 6.0 and 8.0, but was inhibited after incubation with D-galactose and D-glucose. The pure protein possesses a molecular mass of 25 kDa by SDS-PAGE and 25,606 Da by mass spectrometry. The secondary structure content was estimated using the software SELCON3. The results indicate that b-sheet secondary structures are predominant in DSL (approximately 42.3% antiparallel b-sheet and 6.7% parallel b-sheet). In addition to the b-sheet, the predicted secondary structure of DSL features 4.1% a-helices, 15.8% turns and 31.3% other contributions. Upon thermal denaturation, evaluated by measuring changes in ellipticity at 218 nm induced by a temperature increase from 20 °C to 98 °C, DSL displayed cooperative sigmoidal behavior with transition midpoint at 84 °C and permitted the observation of two-state model (native and denatured).
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Abnormal left-sided orbitomedial prefrontal cortical-amygdala connectivity during happy and fear face processing: a potential neural mechanism of female MDD.
Front Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2011
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Background: Pathophysiologic processes supporting abnormal emotion regulation in major depressive disorder (MDD) are poorly understood. We previously found abnormal inverse left-sided ventromedial prefrontal cortical-amygdala effective connectivity to happy faces in females with MDD. We aimed to replicate and expand this previous finding in an independent participant sample, using a more inclusive neural model, and a novel emotion processing paradigm. Methods: Nineteen individuals with MDD in depressed episode (12 females), and 19 healthy individuals, age, and gender matched, performed an implicit emotion processing and automatic attentional control paradigm to examine abnormalities in prefrontal cortical-amygdala neural circuitry during happy, angry, fearful, and sad face processing measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging in a 3-T scanner. Effective connectivity was estimated with dynamic causal modeling in a trinodal neural model including two anatomically defined prefrontal cortical regions, ventromedial prefrontal cortex, and subgenual cingulate cortex (sgACC), and the amygdala. Results: We replicated our previous finding of abnormal inverse left-sided top-down ventromedial prefrontal cortical-amygdala connectivity to happy faces in females with MDD (p?=?0.04), and also showed a similar pattern of abnormal inverse left-sided sgACC-amygdala connectivity to these stimuli (p?=?0.03). These findings were paralleled by abnormally reduced positive left-sided ventromedial prefrontal cortical-sgACC connectivity to happy faces in females with MDD (p?=?0.008), and abnormally increased positive left-sided sgACC-amygdala connectivity to fearful faces in females, and all individuals, with MDD (p?=?0.008; p?=?0.003). Conclusion: Different patterns of abnormal prefrontal cortical-amygdala connectivity to happy and fearful stimuli might represent neural mechanisms for the excessive self-reproach and comorbid anxiety that characterize female MDD.
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Portugal. Health system review.
Health Syst Transit
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2011
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The Portuguese population enjoys good health and increasing life expectancy, though at lower levels than other western European countries. All residents in Portugal have access to health care provided by the National Health Service (NHS), financed mainly through taxation. Co-payments have been increasing over time, and the level of cost-sharing is highest for pharmaceutical products. Approximately one-fifth to a quarter of the population enjoys a second (or more) layer of health insurance coverage through health subsystems and voluntary health insurance (VHI). Health care delivery is based on both public and private providers. Public provision is predominant in primary care and hospital care, with a gatekeeping system in place for the former. Pharmaceutical products, diagnostic technologies and private practice by physicians constitute the bulk of private health care provision. The Portuguese health system has not undergone any major changes on the financing side since the early 1990s, despite the steady growth of public health expenditure. On the other hand, many measures have been adopted to improve the performance of the health system, including public private partnerships (PPPs) for new hospitals, a change in NHS hospital management structures, pharmaceutical reforms, the reorganization of primary care and the creation of long-term care networks. Some of these measures have faced opposition from the (local) population, namely those related to the closure of health care facilities. There is an overall awareness, and concern, about the rise in health care expenditure in Portugal. Most of the reforms that have come into effect have done so too recently to measure any effects at present (January 2011).
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Unbiased molecular analysis of T cell receptor expression using template-switch anchored RT-PCR.
Curr Protoc Immunol
PUBLISHED: 08-03-2011
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A detailed knowledge of the principles that guide clonal selection within the memory and effector T cell pools is essential to further our understanding of the factors that influence effective T cell-mediated immunity and has direct implications for the rational design of vaccines and immunotherapies. This unit provides methods for the unbiased quantification and characterization of all expressed T cell receptor (TCR) gene products within any defined T cell population. The approach is based on a template-switch anchored reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and is optimized for the analysis of antigen-specific T cells isolated directly ex vivo.
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Escape from highly effective public CD8+ T-cell clonotypes by HIV.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 07-06-2011
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Mapping the precise determinants of T-cell efficacy against viruses in humans is a public health priority with crucial implications for vaccine design. To inform this effort, we performed a comprehensive analysis of the effective CD8(+) T-cell clonotypes that constitute responses specific for the HIV p24 Gag-derived KK10 epitope (KRWIILGLNK; residues 263-272) restricted by HLA-B*2705, which are known to confer superior control of viral replication in HIV-infected individuals. Particular KK10-specific CD8(+) T-cell clonotypes, characterized by TRBV4-3/TRBJ1-3 gene rearrangements, were found to be preferentially selected in vivo and shared between individuals. These "public" clonotypes exhibit high levels of TCR avidity and Ag sensitivity, which impart functional advantages and enable effective suppression of HIV replication. The early L(268)M mutation at position 6 of the KK10 epitope enables the virus to avoid recognition by these highly effective CD8(+) T-cell clonotypes. However, alternative clonotypes with variant reactivity provide flexibility within the overall KK10-specific response. These findings provide refined mechanistic insights into the workings of an effective CD8(+) T-cell response against HIV.
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Brain activity patterns during phonological verbal fluency performance with varying levels of difficulty: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study in Portuguese-speaking healthy individuals.
J Clin Exp Neuropsychol
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2011
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A large number of functional neuroimaging studies have investigated the brain circuitry which is engaged during performance of phonological verbal fluency tasks, and the vast majority of these have been carried out in English. Although there is evidence that this paradigm varies depending on the language spoken, it is unclear if this difference is associated with differences in brain activation patterns. Also, there is neuroimaging evidence that the patterns of regional cerebral activation during verbal fluency tasks may vary with the level of task demanded. In particular, the engagement of the anterior cingulate cortex seems to be relative to cognitive demand. We compared functional magnetic resonance imaging data in healthy Portuguese-speaking subjects during overt production of words beginning with letters classified as easy or hard for word production in Portuguese. Compared to the baseline condition, the two verbal fluency tasks (with either easy or hard letters) engaged a network including the left inferior and middle frontal cortices, anterior cingulate cortex, putamen, thalamus and cerebellum (p < .001). The direct comparison between the two verbal fluency conditions showed greater cerebellar activation in the easy condition relative to the hard condition. In the anterior cingulate cortex, there was a direct correlation between activity changes and verbal fluency performance during the hard condition only. Despite grammatical differences, the changes in patterns of brain activity during verbal fluency performance observed in our study are in accordance with findings of previous neuroimaging studies of verbal fluency carried out in English and other languages, with recruitment of a set of distributed cerebral areas during word production.
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Assessment of a five-year survival on hemodialysis in Brazil: a cohort of 3,082 incident patients.
J Bras Nefrol
PUBLISHED: 06-22-2011
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Brazil has the third largest contingent of patients on maintenance hemodialysis (HD) worldwide. However, little is known regarding survival rate and predictors of mortality risk in that population, which are the purposes of this study. A total of 3,082 patients incident on HD, from 2000 to 2004, at 25 dialysis facilities distributed among 7 out of 26 states of Brazil were followed-up until 2009. Patients were 52 ± 16 years-old, 57.8% men, and 20.4%, diabetics. The primary outcome was all causes of mortality. Data were censored at five years of follow-up. The global five-year survival rate was 58.2%. In the Cox proportional model, variables associated with risk of death were: age (hazard ratio - HR = 1.44 per decade, p < 0.0001), diabetes (HR = 1.51, p < 0.0001), serum albumin (HR = 0.76 per g/dL, p = 0.001), creatinine (HR = 0.92 per mg/dL, p < 0.0001), and phosphorus (HR = 1.06 per mg/dL, p = 0.04). The present results show that the mortality rate on HD in this Brazilian cohort was relatively low, but the population is younger and with a lower prevalence of diabetes than the ones reported for developed countries.
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Effects of glycosylation on heparin binding and antithrombin activation by heparin.
Proteins
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2011
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Antithrombin (AT), a serine protease inhibitor, circulates in blood in two major isoforms, ? and ?, which differ in their amount of glycosylation and affinity for heparin. After binding to this glycosaminoglycan, the native AT conformation, relatively inactive as a protease inhibitor, is converted to an activated form. In this process, ?-AT presents the higher affinity for heparin, being suggested as the major AT glycoform inhibitor in vivo. However, either the molecular basis demonstrating the differences in heparin binding to both AT isoforms or the mechanism of its conformational activation are not fully understood. Thus, the present work evaluated the effects of glycosylation and heparin binding on AT structure, function, and dynamics. Based on the obtained data, besides the native and activated forms of AT, an intermediate state, previously proposed to exist between such conformations, was also spontaneously observed in solution. Additionally, Asn135-linked oligosaccharide caused a bending in AT-bounded heparin, moving such polysaccharide away from helix D, which supports its reduced affinity for ?-AT. The obtained data supported the proposal of an atomic-level, solvent and amino acid residues accounting, putative model for the transmission of the conformational signal from heparin binding exosite to ?-sheet A and the reactive center loop, also supporting the identification of differences in such transmission between the serpin glycoforms involving helix D, where the Asn135-linked oligosaccharide stands. Such intramolecular rearrangements, together with heparin dynamics over AT surface, may support an atomic-level explanation for the Asn135-linked glycan influence over heparin binding and AT activation.
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Structural processing and category-specific deficits.
Cortex
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2011
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We evaluated the contribution of four structural dimensions (object parts, internal details, objects contours and variability of the representation), as a possible source of categorical processing differences and category-specific deficits. Importantly, these dimensions aggregate 22 different structural measures that have been proposed to describe the Snodgrass and Vanderwart (1980) picture set. Study 1 analysed the differences between the four dimensions across domains and categories. Study 2 investigated how these dimensions may contribute to the performance of two patients with category-specific deficits that have been reported previously in the literature (Farah et al., 1991). The results showed that living things were structurally more complex than non-living things, scoring higher in object parts and object contours. Regarding the variability of the representation, living things did not show much within-item diversity but did show more contour overlap and less visual similarity, the latter two qualities of living things being detrimental to object processing in a naming task. Parts, contours and variability of the representation also differentiated animals, fruits and vegetables and, to a certain degree, non-living things: animals had more parts, fruits had more object contours and non-living things had a lower variability of the representation (which was especially related to higher within-item diversity and lower contour overlap). The same three dimensions predicted patient performance. However, when structural dimensions were considered together with domain (living/non-living) and concept familiarity, only variability of the representation contributed significantly to patient performance.
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GagCM9-specific CD8+ T cells expressing limited public TCR clonotypes do not suppress SIV replication in vivo.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2011
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Several lines of evidence suggest that HIV/SIV-specific CD8(+) T cells play a critical role in the control of viral replication. Recently we observed high levels of viremia in Indian rhesus macaques vaccinated with a segment of SIVmac239 Gag (Gag(45-269)) that were subsequently infected with SIVsmE660. These seven Mamu-A*01(+) animals developed CD8(+) T cell responses against an immunodominant epitope in Gag, GagCM9, yet failed to control virus replication. We carried out a series of immunological and virological assays to understand why these Gag-specific CD8(+) T cells could not control virus replication in vivo. GagCM9-specific CD8(+) T cells from all of the animals were multifunctional and were found in the colonic mucosa. Additionally, GagCM9-specific CD8(+) T cells accessed B cell follicles, the primary residence of SIV-infected cells in lymph nodes, with effector to target ratios between 20-250 GagCM9-specific CD8(+) T cells per SIV-producing cell. Interestingly, vaccinated animals had few public TCR clonotypes within the GagCM9-specific CD8(+) T cell population pre- and post-infection. The number of public TCR clonotypes expressed by GagCM9-specific CD8(+) T cells post-infection significantly inversely correlated with chronic phase viral load. It is possible that these seven animals failed to control viral replication because of the narrow TCR repertoire expressed by the GagCM9-specific CD8(+) T cell population elicited by vaccination and infection.
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PER2 rs2304672 polymorphism moderates circadian-relevant reward circuitry activity in adolescents.
Biol. Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 05-05-2011
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Reward behavior in animals is influenced by circadian genes, including clock-pathway genes such as Period2 (PER2). Several forms of psychiatric illness are associated with both altered reward function and disturbances in circadian function. The PER2 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs2304672 has been associated with psychiatric illnesses involving reward dysfunction. Associations among circadian genes, function in neural reward circuits, and circadian-influenced behavior have not yet been studied in humans, however.
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A human memory T cell subset with stem cell-like properties.
Nat. Med.
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2011
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Immunological memory is thought to depend on a stem cell-like, self-renewing population of lymphocytes capable of differentiating into effector cells in response to antigen re-exposure. Here we describe a long-lived human memory T cell population that has an enhanced capacity for self-renewal and a multipotent ability to derive central memory, effector memory and effector T cells. These cells, specific to multiple viral and self-tumor antigens, were found within a CD45RO(-), CCR7(+), CD45RA(+), CD62L(+), CD27(+), CD28(+) and IL-7R?(+) T cell compartment characteristic of naive T cells. However, they expressed large amounts of CD95, IL-2R?, CXCR3, and LFA-1, and showed numerous functional attributes distinctive of memory cells. Compared with known memory populations, these lymphocytes had increased proliferative capacity and more efficiently reconstituted immunodeficient hosts, and they mediated superior antitumor responses in a humanized mouse model. The identification of a human stem cell-like memory T cell population is of direct relevance to the design of vaccines and T cell therapies.
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[Acute coronary syndrome as clinical presentation of cardiac paraganglioma].
Rev Port Cir Cardiotorac Vasc
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2011
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We present the case of a 60-year-old woman with a non secretor cardiac paraganglioma diagnosed in the setting of an acute coronary syndrome. The tumor was supplied by a huge branch of the circumflex artery and we admit flow steal as the cause of myocardial ischemia. Complete resection was feasible under cardiopulmonary bypass and the patient was discharged on the 9th postoperative day.
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Dissociable patterns of neural activity during response inhibition in depressed adolescents with and without suicidal behavior.
J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2011
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Impaired attentional control and behavioral control are implicated in adult suicidal behavior. Little is known about the functional integrity of neural circuitry supporting these processes in suicidal behavior in adolescence.
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[Genotypic characterization of a Portuguese population of Marfan syndrome patients].
Rev Port Cardiol
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2011
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The diagnosis of Marfan syndrome (MFS) depends on a multidisciplinary clinical evaluation. Molecular study to identify mutations in the FBN1 gene can establish a definitive diagnosis even with atypical or «incomplete» phenotypes and enable earlier diagnosis in asymptomatic patients.
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A mechanism for TCR sharing between T cell subsets and individuals revealed by pyrosequencing.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2011
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The human naive T cell repertoire is the repository of a vast array of TCRs. However, the factors that shape their hierarchical distribution and relationship with the memory repertoire remain poorly understood. In this study, we used polychromatic flow cytometry to isolate highly pure memory and naive CD8(+) T cells, stringently defined with multiple phenotypic markers, and used deep sequencing to characterize corresponding portions of their respective TCR repertoires from four individuals. The extent of interindividual TCR sharing and the overlap between the memory and naive compartments within individuals were determined by TCR clonotype frequencies, such that higher-frequency clonotypes were more commonly shared between compartments and individuals. TCR clonotype frequencies were, in turn, predicted by the efficiency of their production during V(D)J recombination. Thus, convergent recombination shapes the TCR repertoire of the memory and naive T cell pools, as well as their interrelationship within and between individuals.
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Simian immunodeficiency virus SIVmac239Deltanef vaccination elicits different Tat28-35SL8-specific CD8+ T-cell clonotypes compared to a DNA prime/adenovirus type 5 boost regimen in rhesus macaques.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2011
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Different human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) vaccine vectors expressing the same viral antigens can elicit disparate T-cell responses. Within this spectrum, replicating variable vaccines, like SIVmac239?nef, appear to generate particularly efficacious CD8(+) T-cell responses. Here, we sequenced T-cell receptor ?-chain (TRB) gene rearrangements from immunodominant Mamu-A 01-restricted Tat(28-35)SL8-specific CD8(+) T-cell populations together with the corresponding viral epitope in four rhesus macaques during acute SIVmac239?nef infection. Ultradeep pyrosequencing showed that viral variants arose with identical kinetics in SIVmac239?nef and pathogenic SIVmac239 infection. Furthermore, distinct Tat(28-35)SL8-specific T-cell receptor (TCR) repertoires were elicited by SIVmac239?nef compared to those observed following a DNA/Ad5 prime-boost regimen, likely reflecting differences in antigen sequence stability.
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[Mycotic aneurysm of the left ventricular free wall complicating aortic valve endocarditis].
Rev Port Cardiol
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2011
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We report the case of a 34-year-old man with aortic valve infective endocarditis caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, complicated by an aortic annular abscess. A 23-mm St. Jude HP aortic mechanical prosthesis was implanted. The pre-discharge echocardiogram revealed a mycotic aneurysm of the basal posteroinferior wall, confirmed by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, and it was decided to reintervene. The aneurysm was closed with a patch and the mitral valve had to be replaced. Although a small leak from the aneurysm patch persisted on the pre-discharge transthoracic echocardiogram, there was no trace of the aneurysm at nine-month re-evaluation. This case illustrates a rare complication of aortic valve endocarditis and shows the evolution of the mycotic aneurysm after closure via a transmitral approach.
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Marfan syndrome: clinical manifestations, pathophysiology and new outlook on drug therapy.
Rev Port Cardiol
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2010
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Marfan Syndrome (MFS) is a genetic disorder of the connective tissue with multisystemic manifestations, which typically involves the skeletal, cardiovascular and ocular systems. It is usually associated with fibrillin-1 (FBN1) gene mutations, an extracellular matrix protein, and its diagnosi requires the presence of several clinical criteria, called the Ghent criteria. Studies with animal models have helped understand some of the pathophysiologic mechanisms of the syndrome, and the core role of transforming growth factor, (TGF-beta) signalling pathways in these mutations. These findings created new therapeutic opportunities, like the use of losartan, known to have an antagonistic effect on TGF-beta. With the aging of this population, new clinical manifestations are expected, requiring close and continued MFS patient monitoring.
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Spontaneous closure of a left ventricle pseudoaneurysm following apical venting.
Eur J Echocardiogr
PUBLISHED: 08-25-2010
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Cardiac surgery is the second most frequent aetiology of left ventricular pseudoaneurysm (LVP). Left ventricular apical venting is a recognized cause of LVP. Prompt surgical treatment is usually needed since there is a high risk of rupture and spontaneous closure is very rare. We describe a case of spontaneous closure of a left ventricle pseudoaneurysm following apical venting.
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Cognitive control associated with irritability induction: an autobiographical recall fMRI study.
Rev Bras Psiquiatr
PUBLISHED: 07-27-2010
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Despite the relevance of irritability emotions to the treatment, prognosis and classification of psychiatric disorders, the neurobiological basis of this emotional state has been rarely investigated to date. We assessed the brain circuitry underlying personal script-driven irritability in healthy subjects (n = 11) using functional magnetic resonance imaging.
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Changes in 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 expression in a low-protein rat model of intrauterine growth restriction.
Nephrol. Dial. Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2010
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Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is associated with systemic hypertension of the offspring later in life. The exact mechanisms are still incompletely understood. 11?-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 (11?-HSD2) in the distal renal tubule protects the mineralocorticoid receptor from cortisol. As we did not find a suppression of 11?-HSD2 in total kidney of IUGR animals, our objective was to investigate whether a suppression of 11?-HSD2 could be detected on a more sophisticated level such as in situ protein and gene expression of 11?-HSD2 in mildly hypertensive IUGR offspring.
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Massive right atrial myxoma presenting as syncope and exertional dyspnea: case report.
Cardiovasc Ultrasound
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2010
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Primary heart neoplasms are rare occurring with an estimated incidence of 0.0017-0.19%. Myxoma is the most prevalent primary heart tumor. The right atrium is an unusual localization, occurring only in 15-20% of myxoma cases. We report a rare case of a massive right atrial myxoma causing tricuspid valve obstruction and presenting as syncope and exertional dyspnea. This case illustrates the influence of myxomas size, position and mobility as well as patients body posture and respiration to the development of signs and symptoms. Three-dimensional echocardiography proved useful in surgery planning, allowing a better definition of the tumor outline and attachment.
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The role of tight junctions in paracellular ion transport in the renal tubule: lessons learned from a rare inherited tubular disorder.
Am. J. Kidney Dis.
PUBLISHED: 05-19-2010
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Familial hypomagnesemia with hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis (FHHNC) is an autosomal recessive renal tubular disorder that typically presents with disturbances in magnesium and calcium homeostasis, recurrent urinary tract infections, and polyuria and/or polydipsia. Patients with FHHNC have high risk of the development of chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease in early adolescence. Multiple distinct mutations in the CLDN16 gene, which encodes a tight junction protein, have been found responsible for this disorder. In addition, mutations in another member of the claudin family, CLDN19, were identified in a subset of patients with FHHNC with visual impairment. The claudins belong to the family of tight junction proteins that define the intercellular space between adjacent endo- and epithelial cells. Claudins are especially important for the regulation of paracellular ion permeability. We describe a Brazilian family with 2 affected siblings presenting with the typical FHHNC phenotype with ocular anomalies. The clinical diagnosis of FHHNC was confirmed using mutational analysis of the CLDN19 gene, which showed 2 compound heterozygous mutations. In the context of the case vignette, we summarize the clinical presentation, diagnostic criteria, and therapeutic options for patients with FHHNC. We also review recent advances in understanding the electrophysiologic function of claudin-16 and -19 in the thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle and implications for ion homeostasis in the human body.
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The role of the dorsal visual processing stream in tool identification.
Psychol Sci
PUBLISHED: 05-18-2010
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The dorsal visual processing stream subserves object-directed action, whereas the ventral visual processing stream subserves visual object recognition. Little is known about how information computed by dorsal-stream structures influences object recognition. We used continuous flash suppression to functionally separate information computed by the dorsal stream from that computed by the ventral stream. We show that information originating from the dorsal stream influences not only decisions requiring the selection of superordinate category labels, but also decisions that entail the selection of a basic-level object. We further show that information computed by the dorsal stream does not carry specific functional information about objects. Our results indicate that the dorsal stream, in isolation from the ventral stream, is agnostic as to the identity of the objects that it processes. We suggest that structures within the dorsal visual processing stream compute motor-relevant information (e.g., graspability), which influences the identification of manipulable objects, and is not either about the function of the object or function-specific.
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Right orbitofrontal corticolimbic and left corticocortical white matter connectivity differentiate bipolar and unipolar depression.
Biol. Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2010
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The absence of pathophysiologically relevant diagnostic markers of bipolar disorder (BD) leads to its frequent misdiagnosis as unipolar depression (UD). We aimed to determine whether whole brain white matter connectivity differentiated BD from UD depression.
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Abnormal left and right amygdala-orbitofrontal cortical functional connectivity to emotional faces: state versus trait vulnerability markers of depression in bipolar disorder.
Biol. Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2010
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Amygdala-orbitofrontal cortical (OFC) functional connectivity (FC) to emotional stimuli and relationships with white matter remain little examined in bipolar disorder individuals (BD).
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Comparison between fetal endoscopic tracheal occlusion using a 1.0-mm fetoscope and prenatal expectant management in severe congenital diaphragmatic hernia.
Fetal. Diagn. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 02-02-2010
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To evaluate if fetal endoscopic tracheal occlusion (FETO) for severe congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) using a 1.0-mm fetoscope improves neonatal outcome.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.