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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Systematic characterization of deubiquitylating enzymes for roles in maintaining genome integrity.
Nat. Cell Biol.
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2014
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DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are perhaps the most toxic of all DNA lesions, with defects in the DNA-damage response to DSBs being associated with various human diseases. Although it is known that DSB repair pathways are tightly regulated by ubiquitylation, we do not yet have a comprehensive understanding of how deubiquitylating enzymes (DUBs) function in DSB responses. Here, by carrying out a multidimensional screening strategy for human DUBs, we identify several with hitherto unknown links to DSB repair, the G2/M DNA-damage checkpoint and genome-integrity maintenance. Phylogenetic analyses reveal functional clustering within certain DUB subgroups, suggesting evolutionally conserved functions and/or related modes of action. Furthermore, we establish that the DUB UCHL5 regulates DSB resection and repair by homologous recombination through protecting its interactor, NFRKB, from degradation. Collectively, our findings extend the list of DUBs promoting the maintenance of genome integrity, and highlight their potential as therapeutic targets for cancer.
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Human HDAC1 and HDAC2 function in the DNA-damage response to promote DNA nonhomologous end-joining.
Nat. Struct. Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 06-07-2010
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DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair occurs within chromatin and can be modulated by chromatin-modifying enzymes. Here we identify the related human histone deacetylases HDAC1 and HDAC2 as two participants in the DNA-damage response. We show that acetylation of histone H3 Lys56 (H3K56) was regulated by HDAC1 and HDAC2 and that HDAC1 and HDAC2 were rapidly recruited to DNA-damage sites to promote hypoacetylation of H3K56. Furthermore, HDAC1- and 2-depleted cells were hypersensitive to DNA-damaging agents and showed sustained DNA-damage signaling, phenotypes that reflect defective DSB repair, particularly by nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ). Collectively, these results show that HDAC1 and HDAC2 function in the DNA-damage response by promoting DSB repair and thus provide important insights into the radio-sensitizing effects of HDAC inhibitors that are being developed as cancer therapies.
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CDK2AP1/DOC-1 is a bona fide subunit of the Mi-2/NuRD complex.
Mol Biosyst
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2010
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The Mi-2/NuRD (NUcleosome Remodeling and histone Deacetylase) chromatin remodeling complex is a large heterogeneous multiprotein complex associated with transcriptional repression. Here we apply a SILAC based quantitative proteomics approach to show that all known Mi-2/NuRD complex subunits co-purify with Cyclin Dependent Kinase 2 Associated Protein1 (CDK2AP1), also known as Deleted in Oral Cancer 1 (DOC-1). DOC-1 displays in vitro binding affinity for methylated DNA as part of the meCpG binding MBD2/NuRD complex. In luciferase reporter assays, DOC-1 is a potent repressor of transcription. Finally, immunofluorescence experiments reveal co-localization between MBD2 and DOC-1 in mouse NIH-3T3 nuclei. Collectively, these results indicate that DOC-1 is a bona fide subunit of the Mi-2/NuRD chromatin remodeling complex.
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Screen for DNA-damage-responsive histone modifications identifies H3K9Ac and H3K56Ac in human cells.
EMBO J.
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2009
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Recognition and repair of damaged DNA occurs within the context of chromatin. The key protein components of chromatin are histones, whose post-translational modifications control diverse chromatin functions. Here, we report our findings from a large-scale screen for DNA-damage-responsive histone modifications in human cells. We have identified specific phosphorylations and acetylations on histone H3 that decrease in response to DNA damage. Significantly, we find that DNA-damage-induced changes in H3S10p, H3S28p and H3.3S31p are a consequence of cell-cycle re-positioning rather than DNA damage per se. In contrast, H3K9Ac and H3K56Ac, a mark previously uncharacterized in human cells, are rapidly and reversibly reduced in response to DNA damage. Finally, we show that the histone acetyl-transferase GCN5/KAT2A acetylates H3K56 in vitro and in vivo. Collectively, our data indicate that though most histone modifications do not change appreciably after genotoxic stress, H3K9Ac and H3K56Ac are reduced in response to DNA damage in human cells.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.