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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Enterprising personality profile in youth: Components and assessment.
Psicothema
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2014
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In the study of enterprising personality, there are two main approaches, the utilization of general personality traits, such as Big Five, and the use of more specific traits. The aim of the present work is to develop and validate a new measurement instrument that will permit a rigorous assessment of the basic traits of enterprising personality in young people.
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Evaluation of the immunological cellular response of Cebus apella exposed to the carcinogen N-methyl-N-nitrosourea and treated with CANOVA®.
In Vivo
PUBLISHED: 09-06-2014
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The immune response modifier Canova® is a homeopathic remedy indicated for patients with depressed immune system, since this drug appears to increase adaptive immunity and induce an immune response against multiple and severe pathological conditions, including cancer. We evaluated the pattern of immune cellular response in non-human primates of the species Cebus apella exposed to N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU) with and without Canova®. Twelve animals were divided into four groups, with three animals each: negative control and three experimental groups, MNU-alone (35 days); MNU (35 days)-plus-Canova® (3 days) and Canova®-alone (3 days). The animals received MNU orally and Canova® by three intravenous injections. Evaluation of the cellular immune response was performed by immunophenotyping of T-lymphocytes (CD4(+), CD8(+)), B-lymphocytes and natural killer cells. Analysis was also performed of the cell cycle. Our results suggest an increase of T-lymphocytes (CD4(+)CD3(+)) only in the Canova® group, while in the MNU-plus-Canova® group only B-lymphocytes increased.
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Metabolic properties in stroked rats revealed by relaxation-enhanced magnetic resonance spectroscopy at ultrahigh fields.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2014
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(1)H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) yields site-specific signatures that directly report metabolic concentrations, biochemistry and kinetics-provided spectral sensitivity and quality are sufficient. Here, an enabling relaxation-enhanced (RE) MRS approach is demonstrated that by combining highly selective spectral excitations with operation at very high magnetic fields, delivers spectra exhibiting signal-to-noise ratios >50:1 in under 6?s for ~5 × 5 × 5 (mm)(3) voxels, with flat baselines and no interference from water. With this spectral quality, MRS was used to interrogate a number of metabolic properties in stroked rat models. Metabolic confinements imposed by randomly oriented micro-architectures were detected and found to change upon ischaemia; intensities of downfield resonances were found to be selectively altered in stroked hemispheres; and longitudinal relaxation time of lactic acid was found to increase by over 50% its control value as early as 3-h post ischaemia, paralleling the onset of cytotoxic oedema. These results demonstrate potential of (1)H MRS at ultrahigh fields.
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Schizotypal personality questionnaire: new sources of validity evidence in college students.
Psychiatry Res
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2014
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Schizotypal traits represent the behavioral expression of vulnerability to psychosis in general population. Among the most widely used measurement instruments, we could find the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ) (Raine, 1991). However, some aspects of its psychometric quality have yet to be analyzed. The main goal of the present study was to gather new sources of validity evidence of the SPQ scores in non-clinical young adults. The final sample was made up of 1123 college students (M=20.3 years; S.D.=2.6). The study of the internal structure using exploratory factor analysis revealed that SPQ items were grouped in a theoretical structure of seven second-order factors. Confirmatory factor analyses showed that the four-factor model (Paranoid) displayed better goodness-of-fit indices than the other hypothetical dimensional models tested. More complex measurement models, such as those tested using second-order confirmatory factor analyses and Exploratory Structural Equation Modeling, also showed adequate goodness-of-fit indices. The reliability of the SPQ scores ranged from 0.80 to 0.91. A total of 11 items showed differential functioning by gender. Advances in psychosis phenotype measurement open up new horizons to understand the structure and content of schizotypy.
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Continuous infusion of propofol or intermittent bolus of tiletamine-zolazepam in squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus).
Vet Anaesth Analg
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2014
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To investigate an infusion of propofol for anesthesia in comparison to tiletamine-zolazepam anesthesia, evaluating physiological variables and recovery in squirrel monkeys.
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Assessment of risk factors and test performance on malnutrition prevalence at admission using four different screening tools.
Nutr Hosp
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2014
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Malnutrition is very common in patients when admitted to the hospital. The aim of the present study was: a) to determine the prevalence of malnutrition at admission in a tertiary care hospital and identify risk factors for malnutrition, and b) to test the sensitivity and specificity of different screening tests for malnutrition compared to subjective global assessment (SGA).
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Semen characteristics of captive common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus): a comparison of a German with a Brazilian colony.
J. Med. Primatol.
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2014
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The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) is of interest for reproductive studies because of their high and variable fertility in captivity. However, to understand this variability, much basic information still needs to be gathered. This study is the first to characterize marmoset semen comparing a German and a Brazilian colony.
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Clinical significance of toll-like receptor 3, 4, and 9 in gastric cancer.
J. Immunother.
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2014
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Toll-like receptors (TLRs) have raised an extraordinary interest in cancer research due to their role in tumor progression. By activating the production of several biological factors, TLRs drive an inflammatory response and activate the adaptive immune system. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression and clinical relevance of TLR3, TLR4, and TLR9 in gastric cancer. For this purpose, an immunohistochemical study on cancer specimens from 106 patients with gastric cancer was performed using tissue arrays and specific antibodies against TLR3, TLR4, and TLR9. The results indicate that gastric carcinomas samples show high expression of TLR3, TLR4, and TLR9 by cancer cells. The expression of TLR3 by cancer cells was significantly associated with a poor overall survival in patients with resectable tumors. Moreover, in patients with resectable tumors and lymph node invasion, a high TLR3 expression defines a population with even worse prognosis. Therefore, TLR3 may have clinical interest as indicator of tumor aggressiveness and as a prognostic indicator in gastric cancer.
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[Development of the Spanish brief-version of the University of California Performance Skills Assessment (Sp-UPSA-Brief) in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder].
Rev Psiquiatr Salud Ment
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2014
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In patients with severe mental disorders outcome measurement should include symptoms, cognition, functioning and quality of life at least. Shorter and efficient instruments have greater potential for pragmatic and valid clinical utility. Our aim was to develop the Spanish UPSA Brief scale (Sp-UPSA-Brief).
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Prospective evaluation of the conversion rate in the receptor status between primary breast cancer and metastasis: results from the GEICAM 2009-03 ConvertHER study.
Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2014
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The objective of this study was to determine the conversion rate of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) between primary tumors and metastatic lesions in advanced breast cancer. Patients with suspected diagnosis of locally recurrent or metastatic breast cancer, either at first relapse or after successive disease progressions, who had an appropriately preserved sample from a primary tumor and were scheduled for a biopsy of the recurrent lesion, were included. Blinded determinations of receptor status on paired samples were performed by immunohistochemistry and fluorescence in situ hybridization at a central laboratory and compared with those performed locally. Overall, 196 patients were included and 184 patients were considered evaluable. Reasons for non-evaluability included the inability to perform biopsy (n = 4) or biopsy results showing normal tissue (n = 3), benign disease (n = 3) or a second neoplasia (n = 2). Conversion rates determined at local level were higher than those determined centrally (HER2: 16 vs. 3 %, ER: 21 vs. 13 %, PR: 35 vs. 28 %, respectively). There was substantial agreement regarding the expression of HER2 in primary tumors and metastases, and ER at metastases, between local and central laboratories. PR at any site and ER at primary site showed moderate agreement. Oncologists altered their treatment plans in 31 % of patients whose tumor subtype had changed. These results reinforce the recommendation for performing confirmatory biopsies of metastases, not only to avoid misdiagnosis of breast cancer relapse, but also to optimize treatment (clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01377363).
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Can Nephrologists Use Ultrasound to Evaluate the Inferior Vena Cava? A Cross-Sectional Study of the Agreement between a Nephrologist and a Cardiologist.
Nephron Extra
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The costs and the need for a specialist impair the implementation of ultrasonography for evaluating the inferior vena cava (IVC) to assess the volemic status in hemodialysis patients. We investigated whether a nephrologist with limited ultrasound training can accurately assess the IVC in patients undergoing hemodialysis.
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Continuous infusion of propofol or intermittent bolus of tiletamine-zolazepam in feline night monkeys (Aotus infulatus).
J. Med. Primatol.
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2013
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Although commonly used, dissociative anesthesia results in unsatisfactory and long recovery periods. The intravenous anesthetic propofol seems to be the most advantageous solution. The objectives of this study were to investigate the required infusion rate of propofol to maintain surgical anesthesia and to compare it to tiletamine-zolazepam in Aotus infulatus.
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Assessing the quality of tests: revision of the EFPA review model.
Psicothema
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2013
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Diverse national and international organizations have been developing projects for many years to improve testing practices. The main goal of this paper is to present the revised model of the European Federation of Psychologists Associations (EFPA) for the evaluation of the quality of tests. This model aims to provide test users with rigorous information about the theoretical, practical and psychometric characteristics of tests, in order to enhance their use.
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Professional training in the workplace: the role of achievement motivation and locus of control.
Span J Psychol
PUBLISHED: 07-20-2013
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The core objective of the present work is to explore the reasons why workers from different employment sectors join training courses to improve their job. To this end we assessed achievement motivation, locus of control and professional qualifications according to the participants employment sector. The final sample consisted of 1460 active Spanish workers from four different employment sectors: services, catering, metal construction, and others. Of the sample, 40.1% were male and 59.9% female, with a mean age of 33.3 years (SD = 9.7). The results show that the new scale developed to assess achievement motivation, locus of control and workers qualifications presents adequate psychometric characteristics. Statistically significant differences were found in relation to employment sector. The areas studied showed satisfactory levels of workers effort and achievement motivation to perform their jobs, though their attitudes toward the training courses as a basis for improving their employability are varied. Workers in the catering sector had higher levels of external attribution and the lowest interest in training. Those in the service sector had higher levels of achievement motivation and effort at work. Future research should develop a joint program covering the public and private sectors for the modification of these beliefs, attitudes and attributions.
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Toll-like receptor-4 expression by stromal fibroblasts is associated with poor prognosis in colorectal cancer.
J. Immunother.
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2013
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Because of the important role in inflammation and tissue regeneration, toll-like receptors (TLR) are likely candidates to mediate effects of the innate immune system on tumorigenesis. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression and clinical relevance of TLR in colorectal cancer (CRC). The expressions of TLR3, TLR4, TLR7, and TLR9 were analyzed in 104 patients with resectable CRC by immunohistochemistry. The evaluation of the expression consisted on measuring the overall level of TLR expression and by each cell type. The results showed a direct association between the histologic grade of tumor and TLR9 expression by tumor cells. TLR4 expression by tumor cells was significantly associated with a lower rate of tumor recurrence, whereas the expression by fibroblasts was significant and independently associated with a high rate of tumor recurrence and with a shortened overall survival in patients; particularly in tumors from left colon and rectum. Therefore, TLR4 expression by fibroblasts could be a useful prognostic marker in CRC.
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The assessment of positive dimension of the psychosis phenotype in college students.
Compr Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2013
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The Wisconsin Schizotypy Scales are one of the most used measuring instruments for the assessment of psychometric risk for psychosis. The main goal of the present study was to analyze the reliability of the scores and to provide new sources of validity evidence for the brief version of the Magical Ideation Scale (MIS-B) and the Perceptual Aberration Scale (PAS-B). The final sample was comprised of a total of 1349 university students divided into two subsamples (n1=710; M=19.8years; n2=639; M=21.2years). Results show that both measurement instruments have adequate psychometric properties under Classical Test Theory and Item Response Theory. Internal structure analysis of MIS-B and PAS-B, through exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, yielded an essentially one-dimensional solution. Cronbachs alpha coefficient for the total score of MIS-B ranged between 0.86 and 0.87, whereas for the PAS-B it ranged between 0.78 and 0.89. A total of 5 items showed a differential functioning for sex. The results indicate that the MIS-B and PAS-B are brief measurement instruments with adequate psychometric properties for the assessment of the positive dimension of the psychosis phenotype and could be used as screening tools in the detection of individuals at risk for psychosis in the general population.
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Acute coronary syndrome behavior: results of a Brazilian registry.
Arq. Bras. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2013
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Brazil lacks published multicenter registries of acute coronary syndrome.
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[International Test Commission Guidelines for test translation and adaptation: second edition].
Psicothema
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2013
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Adapting tests across cultures is a common practice that has increased in all evaluation areas in recent years. We live in an increasingly multicultural and multilingual world in which the tests are used to support decision-making in the educational, clinical, organizational and other areas, so the adaptation of tests becomes a necessity. The main goal of this paper is to present the second edition of the guidelines of the International Test Commission (ITC) for adapting tests across cultures.
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Staphylococcus haemolyticus disseminated among neonates with bacteremia in a neonatal intensive care unit in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2013
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Oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus haemolyticus (ORSH) was found as the most prevalent (77.5%) species of coagulase-negative staphylococci associated with bacteremia in neonates making use of intravenous catheters in an intensive care unit of a Brazilian teaching hospital. Thirty-one blood isolates were confirmed as S. haemolyticus by sequencing of the 16S and clustered in 6 pulsed-field gel electrophoresis types (with 58% of the strains belonging to 2 predominant types B and D). S. haemolyticus was mostly oxacillin-resistant (90.3%) displaying multiresistance profiles (70.4%). However, the mecA gene was undetected in 22.6% strains. ORSH exhibited slime production on Congo-Red agar (67.7%), adherence to polystyrene (96.7%), and glass (87%) surfaces. Interestingly, ica-operon was detected in 58% strains, mostly belonging to the B, D, and F genotypes, which is a significantly higher percentage when compared to other studies conducted at different parts of the globe. Data indicated that ica operon and biofilm-forming ORSH are endemic in Brazilian nosocomial environment.
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[Biological exposure-related injuries in workers in a health system of the health service of Galicia, Spain].
Arch Prev Riesgos Labor
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2013
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The objective of this study was to describe the factors involved in biological exposure-related injuries occurring in worker from a health system in Galicia, Spain.
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Cluster C maladaptive personality traits in a general population of adolescents.
Actas Esp Psiquiatr
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2013
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The prevalence of the Cluster C traits and personality disorders in adolescents has been poorly analyzed. The main goal of this research was to analyze the rate of the Cluster C traits and maladaptive personality patterns in a community sample of adolescents. We also examined the dimensional structure and the influence of sex and age in its phenotypic expression.
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Genotype by climate interaction in the genetic evaluation for growing traits of Braunvieh cattle in Mexico.
Trop Anim Health Prod
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2013
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The objective of this study was to determine the magnitude of genotype by climate interaction (GCI) in the national genetic evaluation for weaning (WW) and yearling (YW) weights of Mexican Braunvieh cattle. The numbers of performance records and animals in the pedigree were 12,364 and 25,173 for WW, and 7,991 and 18,072 for YW, respectively. Performance records were clustered based on climatological variables into: dry tropic (DT), wet tropic (WT), and temperate (TE) climates. Animal models were used to estimate genetic parameters and predict breeding values in each of the climates. Bivariate analyses were carried out for pairwise combinations of climates on each trait, considering the same trait in different climates as a different trait. Criteria to evaluate GCI were genetic correlations (r g), correlations between predicted breeding values (r BV), and frequencies of coincidence (FC) in the ranking of the top 25 sires. Results of comparisons between pairs of climates were variable, depending on specific cases. For WW, the r g, r BV, and FC ranged from -0.36 to 0.84, -0.60 to 0.97, and 0.16 to 0.92, respectively; whereas for YW, they fluctuated between 0.23 and 0.99, 0.33 and 1.00, and 0.60 and 1.00, respectively. For both traits, the results suggest absence of GCI between DT and TE; however, GCI was detected in the other pairs of climates, where WT was involved. To maximize genetic progress, the joint genetic evaluation should be performed only for animals with performance data in DT and TE, whereas a separated evaluation is suggested for animals with performance records generated under WT conditions.
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Assessing organizational climate: psychometric properties of the CLIOR Scale.
Psicothema
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2013
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Organizational climate is the set of perceptions shared by workers who occupy the same workplace. The main goal of this study is to develop a new organizational climate scale and to determine its psychometric properties.
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Dimensionality of the wisconsin schizotypy scales-brief forms in college students.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Wisconsin Schizotypy Scales are one of the most used measuring instruments for the assessment of psychometric risk for psychosis. The main goal of the present study was to analyze the internal structure of the Wisconsin Schizotypy Scales-Brief (WSS-B) forms and the reliability of the scores in a large sample of college students. The final sample was comprised by a total of 1349 students, 288 males, with a mean age of 20.48 years (SD = 2.58). The results indicated that the WSS-B scores presented adequate psychometric properties. Cronbachs alfa coefficient for total scores in WSS-B ranged from 0.86 to 0.93. Analysis of the internal structure of the WSS-B, through confirmatory factor analysis and exploratory structural equation modeling, yielded a four factor solution (Magical Ideation, Perceptual Aberration, Social Anhedonia, and Physical Anhedonia) as the most adequate. Statistically significant differences in mean scores of WSS-B by sex were found. These results provided new validity evidence of the WSS-B scores in an independent sample of nonclinical young adults. The WSS-B seems to be useful, brief, and easy to administrate for the screening of extended psychosis phenotype in the general population.
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Development of a computerized adaptive test for Schizotypy assessment.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Schizotypal traits in adolescents from the general population represent the behavioral expression of liability for psychotic disorders. Schizotypy assessment in this sector of population has advanced considerably in the last few years; however, it is necessary to incorporate recent advances in psychological and educational measurement.
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Borderline personality traits in nonclinical young adults.
J. Pers. Disord.
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2011
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The main purpose of this study was to explore the dimensionality of the borderline personality disorder in nonclinical young adults by means of the Borderline Personality Questionnaire (BPQ; Poreh et al., 2006). We also studied the phenotypic expression of the borderline personality traits as a function of participants gender and age, and the relationship between BPQ subscales and measures of depressive symptoms, anxiety, stress, hallucinatory predisposition, and paranoid ideation. The sample comprised 809 young adults, 562 (69.5%) were women, with a mean age of 20.2 years (SD = 2.9). The results indicate that the BPQ self-report has adequate psychometric properties. The levels of internal consistency for the BPQ subscales ranged between .78 and .93. Analysis of the internal structure of the BPQ subscales yielded a one-dimensional solution. In contrast, second-order principal components analysis at the item level yielded a five-dimensional solution. Likewise, statistically significant differences in the mean scores of the borderline personality traits as a function of participants gender and age were found. The BPQ subscales correlated significantly with measures of depression, anxiety, stress, paranoid ideation, and hallucinatory predisposition. These results help to improve our understanding of the dimensional structure of the borderline personality in the general population. Future research should continue to identify participants who are at risk for the development of borderline personality disorder and facilitating the development of early detection and prevention programs.
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Sleep architecture in patients with fibromyalgia.
Psicothema
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2011
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The main objective of this work was to evaluate the characteristics of sleep in patients diagnosed with fibromyalgia syndrome. Sleep architecture in 32 patients with fibromyalgia and 20 healthy controls was evaluated. Following the recommendations of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology, polysomnographies were conducted with fibromyalgia patients and the control subjects. The fibromyalgia patients showed alterations in cyclic organization of sleep and an increased number of periodic leg movements associated with cortical arousals. No significant differences were found in respiratory and oximetry variables or in alpha-delta sleep. The results support that fibromyalgia patients present an increase of superficial sleep at the expense of deep sleep and also an increase of periodic leg movements, which could have a pathogenic effect, facilitating the onset of the illness. Lastly, we discuss the results and propose some future lines of research.
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Prevalence and characteristics of depressive symptomatology in non-clinical adolescents.
Actas Esp Psiquiatr
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2011
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Depressive symptoms are fairly common in children and adolescents, these varying according to gender and age.
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Postal dosimetry audit test for small photon beams.
Radiother Oncol
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2011
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Small radiation beams (<4 cm width) are being increasingly used in the delivery of advanced techniques as Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy (IMRT) and Stereotactic Radiosurgery (SRS). Dose measurements in small beams present challenges not encountered for larger beams. A postal audit with Thermoluminiscent Dosimeters (TLD) was developed to check the doses in small photon beams. A validation test in real conditions was carried out in fourteen centres.
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Measurement invariance of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire-Brief across gender and age.
Psychiatry Res
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2011
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The purpose of this study was to examine the dimensional structure and measurement invariance of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire-Brief (SPQ-B) (Raine and Benishay, 1995) across sex and age in a representative sample of nonclinical adolescents and young adults. The sample consisted of 1789 adolescents and young adults (42.1% males), with a mean age of 17.1years (S.D.=2.9). The results indicated that the Likert version of the SPQ-B showed adequate psychometric properties (? total score 0.89). The schizotypal personality models that presented the best fit indices were Raine et al.s (1994) three-factor model and Stefanis et al.s (2004) four-factor model. In addition, the results support the measurement invariance of the SPQ-B across sex and age. When the latent means of the schizotypal dimensions were compared across sex and age, statistically significant differences were found. Consistent with previous literature, schizotypal personality is a multidimensional construct whose structure appears invariant across sex and age. Future studies should examine the invariance of schizotypal personality across cultures, as well as using the SPQ-B as a screening method in the general population to detect individuals at risk for schizophrenia-spectrum disorders, given its rapid and easy administration.
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Ultrastructural aspects of Callithrix penicillata lingual papillae.
Microsc. Res. Tech.
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2011
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Callithrix penicillata belongs to the family Callitrichidae, Callithrix genus. They are basically insectivorous, but they consume fruits. The mucosa of the tongue is composed of some papillary types, revealing different levels of expertise. The present study attempted to describe the morphological and ultrastructural aspects of the dorsal surface of the C. penicillata, describing the characteristics and distribution of papillae found. Five tongues of C. penicillata (two females and three males), obtained from breeding colonies of CENP-Ananindeua-PA, died from natural causes. The material was fixed partly in a buffer solution paraformaldehyde 10% and partly in modified Karnovsky solution, divided into apex, body, and root, and then the fragments were used in light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The average length of the tongue of the females was 22 mm and for males 20.5 mm. Three types of papillae were described: filiform (along all tissue extension with 154 ?m of diameter), fungiform (along all tissue extension with 275 ?m of diameter), and vallate (just three units in caudal (dorsal) portion with 672 ?m of diameter). Data analysis indicates that the distribution and ultrastructural morphology of the C. penicillata lingual papillae are some similar to other primates.
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Psychotic-like experiences in the adolescent general population.
Actas Esp Psiquiatr
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2011
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The main purpose of this study was to analyze the distribution of psychotic-like experiences in nonclinical adolescents. Likewise, we studied in depth the role of gender and age in phenotypal expression of these symptoms.
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[Effectiveness assessment of public clinical laboratories: the case of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State].
Cien Saude Colet
PUBLISHED: 04-20-2011
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The organization of public clinical laboratories is experiencing changes without, however, an organizational assessment of its effectiveness. The study aimed to determine a parameter of effectiveness for public clinical laboratories of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, and set cut-off points for the sections of these laboratories. In order to do so, the total production and number of hours worked during a period of 7 months in the year 2008 were consolidated. Due to the entrance of the workers in the mode of production in the laboratories network, it could be observed a variability regarding the performance of these workers. The effectiveness parameter of the network was established in 29.90 tests per hour. As a consequence of this first analysis, the cut-off points are: 15.50 for the hematology section; 67.29 for chemistry; 6.45 for parasitology; 11.35 for urinalysis; 4.94 for microbiology and 19.03 for immunology. From these results, it was concluded that the working process in laboratories can generate a decrease in effectiveness.
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Effect of thermally oxidized oil and fasting status on the short-term digestibility of ketolinoleic acids and total oxidized fatty acids in rats.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2011
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Western diets contain substantial amounts of lipid oxidation products. The effects of fasting status and oil oxidation on short-term digestibility of oxidized fatty acids (ox-FA) and ketolinoleic acids (keto-LA) of sunflower oils were evaluated. Twelve rats were fasted overnight for 3 days, whereas another 12 rats had free access to diet. From day 4, and for 4 days, two groups of rats, nonfasted (NFT) and fasted (FT), received 1 g/100 g body weight of sunflower oil reused from 40 deep-frying processes, and two control groups of rats, nonfasted (NFC) and fasted (FC), received the same amount of fresh oil. Ox-FA and keto-LA were determined 5 h after the last administration in the various gastrointestinal compartments together with the intraintestinal MDA. Oil digestibility was highest in NFC and lowest in FT rats. NFT and FT rats had higher (at least P < 0.05) intraintestinal MDA, ox-FA, and keto-LA than NFC and FC; MDA and keto-LA concentrations correlated with each other (P < 0.05). Ox-FA and keto-LA levels found in the gastric lumen suggest that digestion contributes to the formation of these compounds. Total ox-FA and keto-LA were efficiently absorbed during the first 5 h after test oil administration, but poorly absorbed in the case of fresh oils. Oil alteration influenced the digestibility of these compounds more than fasting, although the digestibility of oxidized oil was significantly affected by fasting.
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Dimensional structure and measurement invariance of the youth self-report across gender and age.
J Adolesc Health
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2011
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The aim of the present work was to examine the correlated eight-syndrome model of the Youth Self-Report (YSR) proposed by Ivanova et al [1], using a confirmatory factor analysis for ordinal data. Likewise, we explored the measurement invariance of the YSR across gender and age using multigroup comparisons, and checked whether there were differences in the latent means.
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Experimental gastric carcinogenesis in Cebus apella nonhuman primates.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-16-2011
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The evolution of gastric carcinogenesis remains largely unknown. We established two gastric carcinogenesis models in New-World nonhuman primates. In the first model, ACP03 gastric cancer cell line was inoculated in 18 animals. In the second model, we treated 6 animals with N-methyl-nitrosourea (MNU). Animals with gastric cancer were also treated with Canova immunomodulator. Clinical, hematologic, and biochemical, including C-reactive protein, folic acid, and homocysteine, analyses were performed in this study. MYC expression and copy number was also evaluated. We observed that all animals inoculated with ACP03 developed gastric cancer on the 9(th) day though on the 14(th) day presented total tumor remission. In the second model, all animals developed pre-neoplastic lesions and five died of drug intoxication before the development of cancer. The last surviving MNU-treated animal developed intestinal-type gastric adenocarcinoma observed by endoscopy on the 940(th) day. The level of C-reactive protein level and homocysteine concentration increased while the level of folic acid decreased with the presence of tumors in ACP03-inoculated animals and MNU treatment. ACP03 inoculation also led to anemia and leukocytosis. The hematologic and biochemical results corroborate those observed in patients with gastric cancer, supporting that our in vivo models are potentially useful to study this neoplasia. In cell line inoculated animals, we detected MYC immunoreactivity, mRNA overexpression, and amplification, as previously observed in vitro. In MNU-treated animals, mRNA expression and MYC copy number increased during the sequential steps of intestinal-type gastric carcinogenesis and immunoreactivity was only observed in intestinal metaplasia and gastric cancer. Thus, MYC deregulation supports the gastric carcinogenesis process. Canova immunomodulator restored several hematologic measurements and therefore, can be applied during/after chemotherapy to increase the tolerability and duration of anticancer treatments.
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Caring about medullary anesthesia in Saimiri sciureus: the conus medullaris topography.
An. Acad. Bras. Cienc.
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2011
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Saimiri sciureus is a New World non-human primate (NHP) that inhabits Brazilian rain forests. Surgical interventions in wild NHPs can be considered common both for experimental studies procedures and corrective procedures for endangered species. Among various anesthetic procedures, the epidural anesthesia or blockades, depending on the surgical procedure, might be considered elective for wild monkeys, mostly based on its safeness, efficiency and non-time consuming characteristics. However its safeness would be limiting because of the spinal cord arrangement. Notwithstanding the available former studies on New World NHP anatomy, the description of the medullar cone of Saimiri sciureus is still scarce. Therefore, we believe that the better understanding the medullar cone of Saimiri sciureus would contribute to improve the applicability of epidural procedures in the species. Vertebrae architecture of Saimiri sciureus was composed by 9 lumbar, 3 sacral and 18 coccygeal vertebrae, and the medullar cone measured about 3.3 cm. We can conclude that the conus medullaris in Saimiri sciureus is situated more caudally in comparison to other species.
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Schizotypy, emotional-behavioural problems and personality disorder traits in a non-clinical adolescent population.
Psychiatry Res
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2011
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The main goal of the present study was to examine the relationship between the schizotypy dimensions, emotional-behavioural problems and personality disorder traits in non-clinical general adolescent population. A total of 1455 participants (M=15.9years; S.D.=1.2) were administered the Oviedo Schizotypy Assessment Questionnaire (ESQUIZO-Q), the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4+ (PDQ-4+). Correlation analyses revealed significant associations between the schizotypy and emotional-behavioural problems self-reported by adolescents. Participants with high scores in schizotypy dimensions, reported higher rates of affective and behavioural problems than those with low scores. Also, schizotypy dimensions and personality disorder traits were closely related in adolescent population. These data indicate, as occurs in clinical samples, the high overlap between schizotypy and personality disorder traits. Affective dysregulation and behavioural problems are present at the subclinical level in non-clinical adolescent population. These results have implications for the integration of schizotypy studies within the paradigms of developmental psychology and dimensional models of personality.
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Early psychopathological features in Spanish adolescents.
Psicothema
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2011
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Schizotypal experiences and depressive symptoms are quite common among adolescents, and have been considered as risk markers for schizophrenia-spectrum and mood disorders. The main goal of the present study was to analyze the relationship between schizotypal experiences and depressive symptoms in a community sample of non-clinical adolescents. The sample comprised a total of 1653 participants, 794 male (48%), with an average age of 15.94 years (SD = 1.23). Results showed that schizotypal traits and depressive symptoms were closely related at a subclinical level. Canonical correlation analysis indicated that the two sets of variables shared approximately 48% of the variance. The study of the dimensionality underlying the subscales of the self-reports revealed the presence of three components, namely: Depressive, Anhedonia and Reality Distortion. These results are convergent with previous studies conducted in both clinical and non-clinical samples, indicating overlap between schizotypal experiences and depressive symptoms.
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Factor structure and measurement invariance of the Wisconsin Schizotypy scales across gender and age.
Span J Psychol
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2010
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The Wisconsin Schizotypy Scales are among the most widely used instruments for the assessment of psychosis proneness. The main goal of the present work was to study the dimensional structure underlying the Revised Physical Anhedonia Scale (RPhA), the Revised Social Anhedonia Scale (RSAS), the Magical Ideation Scale (MIS) and the Perceptual Aberration Scale (PAS). It was also explored whether the dimensions underlying these scales were invariant across gender and age. The sample was made up of 710 university students with a mean age of 19.8 years (SD = 1.9). The results showed that the dimensional structure of the Wisconsin scales was similar to that found in previous studies, displaying a Positive dimension and a Negative dimension, the Social Anhedonia Scale being related to both dimensions. Moreover, the factor structure of the schizotypy scales was found to be invariant across participants gender and age.
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Ultrastructural aspects of lingual papillae in squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus).
Microsc. Res. Tech.
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2010
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Saimiri sciureus is one of the smallest Cebidae native of Amazon region and also found at the biological reserve of northeast Atlantic forest. It is an omnivore animal, with diversified diet that directly influences the lingual mucosa, which includes certain types of papillae with different organization levels. The present study attempted to describe the morphological and ultrastructure aspects of the dorsal surface of the S. sciureus. Five tongues of de S. sciureus were analyzed from three males and two females who died from natural causes and were obtained from breeding colonies of CENP-Ananindeua-PA. Main macroscopic features were a general triangular shape with a craniocaudal elongation pointed apex. Tissue samples--apex, body, and root of tongue--were fixed in modified Karnovsky solution, following standard scanning protocol, mounted in stubs, coated by gold, and analyzed by Scanning Electron Macroscopy (SEM). Four types of papillae were described: filiform (along all tissue extension with 154 ?m of diameter), fungiform (along all tissue extension with 272 ?m of diameter), vallate [just three units in caudal (dorsal) portion with 830 ?m of diameter] and foliate (one pair at caudolateral surface with ? 13 projections and 3000 ?m in length). Data analysis indicates that the distribution and ultra structural morphology of the S. sciureus lingual papillae are some similar to other primates.
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Gastric emptying and short-term digestibility of thermally oxidized sunflower oil used for frying in fasted and nonfasted rats.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2010
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Four-hour in vivo digestibility of sunflower oil used in frying was tested in fasted and nonfasted rats. For three consecutive days, 12 male Wistar rats received 1 g of unused oil (controls, C), while 12 received 1 g of used oil (test group, T). On the night of day 3, 6 rats from each group were fasted (FC, FT) while the other 6 animals from each group had free access to food (NFC, NFT). On day 4, FC and NFC received 2 g of unused oil, while FT and NFT received 2 g of used oil. Luminal gastric and intestinal fats were studied by column and HPSE chromatography after endogenous corrections. Gastric emptying in FT was significantly slower than in NFT and FC. The luminal gastric fat profile differed from that of the oils administered, suggesting that nonoxidized triacylglycerols passed quickly into the intestines. All glyceridic compounds present in the luminal intestinal fat were affected by oil type (at least P < 0.01). Oil digestibility value order was FT < NFT < FC < NFC. FT and NFT presented lower (P < 0.001) triacylglycerol polymer and dimer digestibilities than NFC and FC. In conclusion, oil type determined luminal intestinal fat compounds and their digestibility more than nutritional status.
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The use of new world primates for biomedical research: an overview of the last four decades.
Am. J. Primatol.
PUBLISHED: 07-14-2010
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Animal experimentation contributes significantly to the progression of science. Nonhuman primates play a particularly important role in biomedical research not only because of their anatomical, physiological, biochemical, and behavioral similarities with humans but also because of their close phylogenetic affinities. In order to investigate the use of New World primates (NWP) in biomedical research over the last four decades (1966-2005), we performed a quantitative study of the literature listed in bibliographic databases from the Health Sciences. The survey was performed for each genus of NWP that has been bred in the National Center of Primates in Brazil. The number of articles published was determined for each genus and sorted according to the country from which the studies originated and the general scientific field. The data obtained suggests that Brazil is a leader in generating knowledge with NWP models for translational medicine.
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Validation of a computer-adaptive test to evaluate generic health-related quality of life.
Health Qual Life Outcomes
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2010
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Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) is a relevant variable in the evaluation of health outcomes. Questionnaires based on Classical Test Theory typically require a large number of items to evaluate HRQoL. Computer Adaptive Testing (CAT) can be used to reduce tests length while maintaining and, in some cases, improving accuracy. This study aimed at validating a CAT based on Item Response Theory (IRT) for evaluation of generic HRQoL: the CAT-Health instrument.
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Psychometric properties of two measures for the assessment of Schizotypy in adolescents.
Psychiatry Res
PUBLISHED: 05-18-2010
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The purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Thinking and Perceptual Style Questionnaire (TPSQ) and the Multidimensional Schizotypal Traits Questionnaire-Reduced (MSTQ-R) in non-clinical adolescents. The final sample consisted of 991 participants with a mean age of 14.7 years (S.D.=1.8). The internal consistency of the TPSQ subscales ranged from 0.77 to 0.89, and that of the MSTQ-R subscales ranged from 0.62 to 0.81. Construct validity analysis from the TPSQ subscales showed a three-dimensional solution based on the factors social disorganisation, aberrant processing and anhedonia. For its part, factor analysis of the MSTQ-R also showed a three-dimensional solution based on the factors: positive symptoms, negative symptoms and impulsive-nonconformity. The TPSQ and MSTQ-R appear to have good psychometric properties and to be useful instruments for the measurement of schizotypy in adolescence. Moreover, the factor structure of these measures resembles that seen in young adult samples and provides further empirical evidence of the multidimensional structure of the instruments that we use to measure the complex schizotypy construct. Future research should explore in more depth the psychometric properties of these self-report instruments and improve our understanding of schizotypy in adolescents.
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Dioctophyma renale (Goeze, 1782) in the abdominal cavity of a capuchin monkey (Cebus apella), Brazil.
Vet. Parasitol.
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2010
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This study reports a case of parasitism by Dioctophyma renale (Goeze, 1762) encysted in the abdominal cavity of a capuchin monkey (Cebus apella) coming from the Centro Nacional de Primatas, Brazil. The animal was sent to the Veterinary Clinic sector with an increase in abdominal volume and no occurrence of any other clinical signs. Upon palpation, a movable circular mass with a diameter of approximately 10 cm was found. Urinalysis, complete blood count and serum biochemistry were performed without revealing any alterations. The animal was then submitted to an abdominal ultrasound exam. The cyst was punctured and a surgical removal procedure was performed, revealing a brownish-colored cylindrical structure that was already deteriorated, making it impossible to perform morphological analysis and classification. In the sediment of the liquid found, eggs were encountered that had morphological characteristics compatible with D. renale. The objective of this paper is to report the first case of parasitism by D. renale in C. apella (Linnaeus, 1758).
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Schizotypal traits and depressive symptoms in nonclinical adolescents.
Compr Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2010
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The main goal of this study was to examine the relationship between schizotypal personality traits and depressive symptoms in a sample of nonclinical adolescents. The Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire-Brief (J Personal Disord 1995;9:346-355) and the Reynolds Depression Adolescent Scale (Reynolds WM. Reynolds Adolescent Depression Scale. Professional Manual. Odessa: Psychological Assessment Resources, Inc; 1987) were administered. The sample was made up of 1384 adolescents (48.6% boys), with a mean (SD) age of 15.7 (1.0) years. The results of the study indicate a high degree of overlap between schizotypal experiences and depressive symptoms at a nonclinical level. Canonical correlation between the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire-Brief scales and the Reynolds Adolescent Depression Scale scales was 0.63, which represents 39.69% of the associated variance between the 2 sets of variables. Confirmatory factor analysis showed that the 4-dimensional model made up of the Positive, Interpersonal, Disorganized, and Depressive dimensions was that which best fit the data. Moreover, the dimensional structure underlying the schizotypal traits and depressive symptoms was found to be invariant across sex and age. These findings converge with data found in previous studies of both patients with schizophrenia and nonclinical adults and suggest that affective dysregulation is also present at a subclinical level. Future research should continue to make progress in the early detection of participants at risk of developing schizophrenia-spectrum disorders based on the early identification of these types of subclinical traits.
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Differences in metal and metalloid content in the hair of normo- and hypertensive postmenopausal women.
Hypertens. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2010
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This study was performed on scalp hair samples from postmenopausal women (n=26; 12 normotensives and 14 hypertensives) to determine the relationship between blood pressure and metal and metalloids in hair samples. Hair concentrations of Al, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Sr and V were measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, whereas Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Na and Zn concentrations were measured by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. Methods were optimized and then validated using certified reference material GBW 09101 human hair. Although Cd, Co and Mo levels in hypertensive volunteers were significantly higher than in normotensive individuals (P<0.05), the concentrations of Fe, Mn, Na (all P<0.05) and K (P<0.001) were significantly lower. Concentrations of K (P<0.001; P<0.001) were negatively correlated with systolic and diastolic blood pressure. The concentration of Co (P=0.004; P<0.001) displayed a positive correlation with both types of pressure, whereas Cu (P=0.013) and Ni (P<0.001) concentrations correlated significantly with diastolic blood pressure and Mn negatively correlated with systolic blood pressure (P=0.031). Overweight and hypertension concurred in 27% of volunteers. This concurrence did not modify differences in hair mineral levels attributed to hypertension. The present results indicate that scalp hair concentrations of certain metals and metalloids can be used as biomarkers for hypertension in postmenopausal women.
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Psychometric properties of the Revised Physical and Social Anhedonia Scales in non-clinical young adults.
Span J Psychol
PUBLISHED: 11-11-2009
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Anhedonia, a central dimension within the schizotypy construct, has been considered to be a promising vulnerability marker for schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. The Revised Physical Anhedonia Scale (RPhA) and Revised Social Anhedonia Scale (RSAS) are two self-reports widely used in the assessment of anhedonia; however, they psychometric characteristics have been scarcely investigated in Spanish population. The objective of the current work was to study the psychometric properties of the Revised Physical and Social Anhedonia Scales in non-clinical young adults. The sample was composed of 728 college students with a mean age of 20.1 years (SD = 2.5). The data indicated that the scales showed adequate psychometric characteristics. The Cronbach alpha was 0.95 (RSAS) and 0.92 (RPhA) respectively. The confirmatory factor analysis carried out on the matrix of tetrachoric correlations showed that both scales presented an essentially unidimensional solution. The Revised Physical and Social Anhedonia Scales seem to be adequate for psychosis-risk assessment in non-clinical populations. Future research should further investigate the construct validity in other populations and cultures as well as study its relation to emotional aspects and cognitive endophenotypes.
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[Health economic evaluation in a local level government health care system].
Cien Saude Colet
PUBLISHED: 09-15-2009
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This work aims to contribute to the discussion about the possibility of applying health economic evaluations at local level government healthcare system, and consequently use the results of this study into decision making. In order to subside this reflexion, it was analyzed the SAMU/192 Program costs evaluation in the city of Belo Horizonte, as well as data concerning effectiveness of the program and a review on electronic databases (SciELO and Medline) about the application of studies in decision making. The analysis showed that even for a simple evaluation on expenditure, there are still unsolved problems of data availability as well as of data effectiveness on information systems definition and association. It showed that decision makers do not use the result of studies for decision making either. So, we conclude that there is no possibility to apply a health economic evaluation research and have the results used in a local level government health care system.
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[A reduced version of Thinking and Perceptual Style Questionnaire (TPSQ)].
Psicothema
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2009
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The purpose of this paper was to create a short version of the Thinking and Perceptual Style Questionnaire (TPSQ), to be used for the detection of vulnerable individuals to psychosis. A confirmatory factor analysis was conducted to examine the dimensional structure of schizotypy. The sample consisted of 1785 participants, 719 males, with a mean age of 16.9 years (SD=3.05). The results indicate that either the original or the short version (TPSQ-R) show adequate psychometric properties. Internal consistency for the subscales of the original version ranged from 0.77 to 0.88, and from 0.73 to 0.83 of the short version. The confirmatory factor analyses conducted indicated that schizotypy is organized in four factors: Anhedonia, Aberrant Beliefs, Distorted Information Processing, and Social Paranoia. Correlations between the subscales of the original and short versions were high and statistically significant. Accordingly, the TPSQ-R seems to be an instrument with psychometric guarantee for the assessment of psychosis risk in nonclinical adolescents and young adults. The TPSQ-R could be used as a screening instrument in future research, combined with laboratory tasks and new computerized adapted versions.
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[Development of the CAT-Health, the first adaptive computerized test (CAT) for the evaluation health-related quality of life in Spain].
Med Clin (Barc)
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2009
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To develop a Computerized Adaptive Test to obtain a generic measure of the patients perceived health state.
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Developmental sources of conservation and variation in the evolution of the primate eye.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 05-18-2009
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Conserved developmental programs, such as the order of neurogenesis in the mammalian eye, suggest the presence of useful features for evolutionary stability and variability. The owl monkey, Aotus azarae, has developed a fully nocturnal retina in recent evolution. Description and quantification of cell cycle kinetics show that embryonic cytogenesis is extended in Aotus compared with the diurnal New World monkey Cebus apella. Combined with the conserved mammalian pattern of retinal cell specification, this single change in retinal progenitor cell proliferation can produce the multiple alterations of the nocturnal retina, including coordinated reduction in cone and ganglion cell numbers, increase in rod and rod bipolar numbers, and potentially loss of the fovea.
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Validation of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire-Brief Form in adolescents.
Schizophr. Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2009
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The main objective of the study was to validate the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire-Brief (SPQ-B) in a sample of non-clinical adolescents. In addition, the schizotypal personality structure and differences in the dimensions of schizotypy according to gender and age are analyzed. The sample comprises 1683 students, 818 males (48.6%), with a mean age of 15.9 years (SD=1.2). The results showed that the SPQ-B had adequate psychometric properties. Internal consistency of the subscales and total score ranged from 0.61 to 0.81. Confirmatory factor analyses indicated that the three-factor model (positive, negative, and disorganized) and the four-factor model (positive, paranoid, negative, and disorganized) fit reasonably well in comparison to the remaining models. With regard to gender and age, statistically significant differences were found due to age but not to gender. In line with previous literature, the results confirmed the multi-factor structure of the schizotypal personality in non-clinical adolescent populations. Future studies could use the SPQ-B as a screening self-report of rapid and efficient application for the detection of adolescents vulnerable to the development of schizophrenia-spectrum disorders in the general population, in genetically high-risk samples and in clinical studies.
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Schizotypal traits, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, and social functioning in adolescents.
Compr Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2009
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The relationship between self-reported social functioning, schizotypal traits, and obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) was studied in a sample of 508 adolescents, of which 49.8% were male adolescents, with a mean age of 14.9 (SD, 1.6). The Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire-Brief, Maudsley Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory and Social Adaptation Self-evaluation Scale was administered. The results showed that schizotypal personality in adolescents consists of 4 factors (Interpersonal, Disorganized, Paranoia and Magical Ideation) which are associated with OCS in nonclinical populations. The canonical correlation analysis showed that schizotypal traits and OCS shared 18% of the variance. Social functioning was negatively related to schizotypal personality traits; however, no relationship was found between social functioning and OCS. The data highlight the overlap between schizotypal traits and OCS, as well as the deficits in self-reported social functioning in schizotypal subjects. Future studies should focus on the link between these 2 constructs and study in depth the role that social functioning may be playing.
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Toward a clinical practice guide in pharmacogenomics testing for functional polymorphisms of drug-metabolizing enzymes. Gene/drug pairs and barriers perceived in Spain.
Front Genet
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The development of clinical practice recommendations or guidelines for the clinical use of biomarkers is an issue of great importance with regard to adverse drug reactions. The potential of pharmacogenomic biomarkers has been extensively investigated in recent years. However, several barriers to implementing the use of pharmacogenomics testing exist. We conducted a survey among members of the Spanish Societies of Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacology to obtain information about the perception of such barriers and to compare the perceptions of participants about the relative importance of major gene/drug pairs. Of 11 potential barriers, the highest importance was attributed to lack of institutional support for pharmacogenomics testing, and to the issues related to the lack of guidelines. Of the proposed gene/drug pairs the highest importance was assigned to HLA-B/abacavir, UGT1A1/irinotecan, and CYP2D6/tamoxifen. In this perspective article, we compare the relative importance of 29 gene/drug pairs in the Spanish study with that of the same pairs in the American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics study, and we provide suggestions and areas of focus to develop a guide for clinical practice in pharmacogenomics testing.
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Anatomy and morphometric aspects of the trachea of Saimiri sciureus Linnaeus, 1758: knowledge for emergency procedures.
An. Acad. Bras. Cienc.
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The aim of this work is to study the morphological characteristics of the trachea of Saimiri sciureus through quantification and measurement of the cartilaginous rings, providing information to facilitate the election of more appropriate endotracheal tube, laryngeal mask or tracheostomy tube for anesthetic and emergency procedures, as it is a species of Neotropical primates most commonly used as biological models, and little is known about their morphology. Nine animals were investigated, being 4 adults and 5 young acquired from the Centro Nacional de Primatas (National Primate Center - CENP) - Ananindeua - PA, which died from natural causes and then fixed in aqueous buffered formalin 10%. Saimiri sciureus trachea comprises an average of 32.8 incomplete rings and an average length of 3.74 cm in young animals, while in adults it demonstrated an average of 30.25 rings and average length of 3.67 cm. The shape of the light and its proportion varied along the trachea. Endotracheal tube with a diameter the 2.0 - 2.5 mm, laryngeal mask number 1.0 or tracheostomy tube neonatal Shiley number 3.0, can be placed in animals weighing 600 g - 1.2 Kg. Given the great importance of the species studied, which is widely used as a biological model, the detailing on the morphology and morphometry of tracheal animal studies provides new approaches needed in respiratory emergency, as well as, facilitates the development of future anesthetic protocols.
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The antioxidant status response to low-fat and walnut paste-enriched meat differs in volunteers at high cardiovascular Risk carrying different PON-1 polymorphisms.
J Am Coll Nutr
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Cardiovascular risk largely depends on diet, antioxidant status, and gene polymorphisms. Low-fat meat (CM) and walnut-enriched meat (WM) products may exert potential beneficial health effects with respect to conventional meat products.
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Cluster B maladaptive personality traits in Spanish adolescents.
Rev Psiquiatr Salud Ment
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The prevalence and expression of Cluster B personality disorders during adolescence have been poorly analyzed. The main aim of this research was to analyze the rate of Cluster B maladaptive personality traits in Spanish adolescents. We also examined dimensional structure underlying the influence of sex and age in its phenotypic expression, was also examined.
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Phenotypic expression of schizotypal traits in an adolescent population.
J. Pers. Disord.
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The main goal of the present study was to examine the influence of gender and age in the phenotypic expression of schizotypal traits in a community sample of adolescents. The sample was composed of a total of 1,618 participants, 776 (48%) males, with a mean age of 15.9 years (SD = 1.2). The ESQUIZO-Q: Oviedo Schizotypy Assessment Questionnaire was used for the assessment of schizotypal traits, a measure specifically developed for its use in adolescents. The results showed that gender and age were two sociodemographical variables that influenced the expression of schizotypal features. The males in the study obtained higher mean scores than the females in the Negative dimension (Physical and Social Anhedonia); however, the females obtained higher mean scores in Magical Thinking, Lack of Close Friends, and Social Disorganization. With regard to age, the younger adolescents had lower scores in Odd Thinking and Language, Lack of Close Friends, Excessive Social Anxiety, and Social Disorganization compared to the older adolescents. This differential pattern is similar to the one found in patients with schizophrenia and in nonclinical young adults, and these findings improve our understanding about the phenotypic expression of schizotypy during adolescence.
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Validation of the Community Assessment Psychic Experiences -42 (CAPE-42) in Spanish college students and patients with psychosis.
Actas Esp Psiquiatr
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Psychotic-like experiences can be considered as a vulnerability marker for psychotic disorders. The psychometric assessment of the extended psychosis phenotype has advanced considerably in recent years, although it must continue to deepen the quality of self-reports available for its assessment in Spanish population. The main goal was to analyze the psychometric quality of the Community Assessment Psychic Experiences-42 (CAPE-42) in Spanish college students and patients with psychosis. The final sample was comprised of a total of 660 students (M = 20.3 years, SD = 2.6) and 97 patients with psychosis (M = 35.4 years, SD = 10.2). The goodness of fit indices resulting from the confirmatory factor analysis that tested the hypothesized three-dimensional model (Positive, Negative and Depressive) were not adequate. In contrast, the exploratory factor analysis yielded a three-dimensional solution. Internal consistency values for the three dimensions of the CAPE-42 ranged between 0.78 and 0.89 in the sample of students and between 0.84 and 0.93 in the patients with psychosis. The CAPE-42 scores correlated statistically significant with delusions and trait anxiety and state. These results show further evidence of validity of the CAPE-42 scores in samples of the Spanish population and support its use as a tool for the assessment of the extended psychosis phenotype.
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Reliability and sources of validity evidence of the Oviedo Schizotypy Assessment Questionnaire-Abbreviated (ESQUIZO-Q-A).
Span J Psychol
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The main goal of this research was to examine the reliability and different sources of validity evidence of the Oviedo Schizotypy Assessment Questionnaire-Abbreviated (ESQUIZO-Q-A) in nonclinical adolescents. The final sample was made up of 1,455 participants, 705 males (48.5%), with a mean age of 15.92 years (SD = 1.18). The internal consistency of the subscales ranged from .62 to .75. The analysis of its internal structure yielded a three-dimensional solution based on the dimensions: Reality Distortion, Anhedonia, and Interpersonal Disorganization. Likewise, the goodness-of-fit indices derived from the Confirmatory Factor Analysis for the hypothesized three-factor model were adequate. The three dimensions of the ESQUIZO-Q-A were significantly correlated with the subscales of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. The ESQUIZO-Q is a brief and simple self-report with adequate psychometric properties for the assessment of schizotypal traits in nonclinical adolescent populations. Future research should continue to explore the metric quality of the ESQUIZO-Q-A (e.g., sensitivity and specificity) and incorporate the new advances in psychological and educational assessment such as Computerized Adaptive Testing.
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Predicting risk of atrial fibrillation after heart valve surgery: evaluation of a Brazilian risk score.
Rev Bras Cir Cardiovasc
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The aim of this study is to evaluate the applicability of a Brazilian score for predicting atrial fibrillation (AF) in patients undergoing heart valve surgery in the Division of Cardiovascular Surgery of Pronto Socorro Cardiológico de Pernambuco - PROCAPE (Recife, PE, Brazil).
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GuaragnaSCORE satisfactorily predicts outcomes in heart valve surgery in a Brazilian hospital.
Rev Bras Cir Cardiovasc
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The aim of this study is to evaluate the applicability of GuaragnaSCORE for predicting mortality in patients undergoing heart valve surgery in the Division of Cardiovascular Surgery of Pronto Socorro Cardiológico de Pernambuco - PROCAPE, Recife, PE, Brazil.
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hTERT and TP53 deregulation in intestinal-type gastric carcinogenesis in non-human primates.
Clin. Exp. Med.
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Despite the high incidence, the molecular events involved in intestinal-type gastric carcinogenesis remains unclear. We previously established an intestinal-type gastric carcinogenesis model in Cebus apella, a New World monkey. In the present study, we evaluated hTERT and TP53 mRNA expression, as well as their protein immunoreactivity, in normal mucosa, non-atrophic gastritis, atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, and intestinal-type gastric cancer samples of non-human primates treated with N-methyl-nitrosourea. In addition, we evaluated the number of TP53 copies in these samples. Although hTERT immunoreactivity was only detected in gastric cancer, a continuous increase of hTERT mRNA expression was observed from non-atrophic gastritis to gastric tumors. No sample presented p53 immunoreactivity. However, we also observed a continuous decrease of TP53 mRNA expression during the sequential steps of gastric carcinogenesis. Moreover, loss of TP53 copies was observed in intestinal metaplasia and gastric cancer samples. Our study highlights that hTERT and TP53 have a key role in intestinal-type gastric cancer initiation.
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Phenotypic Expression of Schizotypal Traits in an Adolescent Population.
J. Pers. Disord.
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The main goal of the present study was to examine the influence of gender and age in the phenotypic expression of schizotypal traits in a community sample of adolescents. The sample was composed of a total of 1,618 participants, 776 (48%) males, with a mean age of 15.9 years (SD = 1.2). The ESQUIZO-Q: Oviedo Schizotypy Assessment Questionnaire was used for the assessment of schizotypal traits, a measure specifically developed for its use in adolescents. The results showed that gender and age were two sociodemographical variables that influenced the expression of schizotypal features. The males in the study obtained higher mean scores than the females in the Negative dimension (Physical and Social Anhedonia); however, the females obtained higher mean scores in Magical Thinking, Lack of Close Friends, and Social Disorganization. With regard to age, the younger adolescents had lower scores in Odd Thinking and Language, Lack of Close Friends, Excessive Social Anxiety, and Social Disorganization compared to the older adolescents. This differential pattern is similar to the one found in patients with schizophrenia and in nonclinical young adults, and these findings improve our understanding about the phenotypic expression of schizotypy during adolescence.
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Effect of the expression of matrix metalloproteases and their tissue inhibitors on survival of patients with resectable colorectal cancer.
Dig. Dis. Sci.
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Matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) and their tissue inhibitors (TIMPs) are of crucial importance in the degradation of the stromal connective tissue and basement membrane components. Study of the behavior of these components might help to predict the aggressiveness of tumors.
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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.