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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Quantitative parameters and ecological implications of a specialized tritrophic interaction involving a seed-feeding tortricid, Pseudargyrotoza conwagana, a braconid parasitoid, Bracon otiosus, and the wild privet, Ligustrum vulgare.
J. Insect Sci.
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2014
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Little is known about tritrophic interactions involving seed-feeding insects, parasitoid wasps, and wild fleshy fruits. Here, we examine relationships between Pseudargyrotoza conwagana (F.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), Bracon otiosus Marshall (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), and the wild privet, Ligustrum vulgare L. (Lamiales: Oleaceae), after collecting fruits in a hedgerow habitat in northwest Spain and rearing insects indoors. No other insect species was detected in this trophic system. Each fruit contained one to four seeds, each infested fruit contained only one seed-feeding tortricid caterpillar, and each parasitized caterpillar was affected by a single braconid individual, i.e., B. otiosus was a solitary parasitoid. Almost half of the wild privet shrubs were infested by P. conwagana, and infestation ranged from 2 to 32% of fruits per infested shrub. The general effect of P.conwagana on wild privet dispersal can be considered low, as the overall rate of seed infestation was low (6% of seeds). The infestation rate was higher in wild privet shrubs with a larger number of seeds per fruit, and tortricid caterpillars that left the fruits successfully ate >80% of seeds. In total, the parasitism rate was moderate (25% of caterpillars), but varied considerably (0?75%) among shrubs where P. conwagana infestation was detected. Parasitism only occurred in shrubs showing high infestation rates (19?32% infested fruits), i.e., with high host densities; however, the parasitism rate was density-independent in these shrubs. The wild privets benefited from the action of B. otiosus in two ways: the tortricid caterpillar population was partly eliminated, and the caterpillars were prevented from eating more than one seed per fruit. The B. otiosus sex ratio was very balanced (1 male to 1.18 females). Winter diapause and protandry were prevalent in B. otiosus.
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Are Modic Changes Able to Help us in Our Clinical Practice? A Study of the Modic Changes in Young Adults During Working Age.
J Spinal Disord Tech
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2014
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Modic changes (VESC, Vertebral Endplate Spinal Changes) have been related to degenerative disc disease, and in past decades it was thought that their presence justified the surgical treatment, in particular spinal fusion.
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The antibacterial and antifungal activity of essential oils extracted from Guatemalan medicinal plants.
Pharm Biol
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2014
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Abstract Context: Essential oils are prevalent in many medicinal plants used for oral hygiene and treatment of diseases. Objective: Medicinal plant species were extracted to determine the essential oil content. Those producing sufficient oil were screened for activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus acidophilus, and Candida albicans. Materials and methods: Plant samples were collected, frozen, and essential oils were extracted by steam distillation. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were determined using a tube dilution assay for those species yielding sufficient oil. Results: Fifty-nine of the 141 plant species produced sufficient oil for collection and 12 species not previously reported to produce essential oils were identified. Essential oil extracts from 32 species exhibited activity against one or more microbes. Oils from eight species were highly inhibitory to S. mutans, four species were highly inhibitory to C. albicans, and 19 species yielded MIC values less than the reference drugs. Discussion: Results suggest that 11 species were highly inhibitory to the microbes tested and merit further investigation. Oils from Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume (Lauraceae), Citrus aurantiifolia (Christm.) Swingle (Rutaceae), Lippia graveolens Kunth (Verbenaceae), and Origanum vulgare L. (Lamiaceae) yielded highly significant or moderate activity against all microbes and have potential as antimicrobial agents. Conclusion: Teas prepared by decoction or infusion are known methods for extracting essential oils. Oils from 11 species were highly active against the microbes tested and merit investigation as to their potential for addressing health-related issues and in oral hygiene.
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Development of in vivo drug-induced neurotoxicity models.
Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol
PUBLISHED: 10-13-2014
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Neurotoxicity caused by diverse psychostimulant drugs, for example, methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine, cocaine or morphine is a cause of concern to human populations especially the young generation across the world. These recreational drugs affect brain function severely leading to addiction and brain pathology. Use of psychostimulants may induce breakdown of the blood-brain barrier to serum proteins resulting in adverse brain microenvironment, edema cell injury or eventually neuronal death. Thus, there is an urgent need to find out detailed mechanisms of psychostimulants-induced neurotoxicity in vivo models for suitable therapeutic strategies to induce neuroprotection and also to help de-addiction in clinical situations.
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Effects of antidepressants and soybean association in depressive menopausal women.
Acta Pol Pharm
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2014
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Depression in menopausal women has been widely described for many years ago and is related to hormonal decrease, mainly estrogens. The use of soy has been proposed as a possible coadjutant alternative to treat menopausal depressive disorder. In the present pilot clinical trial the effect of soybean, antidepressants and the association of soybean with antidepressants was studied in 40 depressive menopausal women for three months. Patients were divided in four groups of 10 women: fluoxetine (10 mg), soybean (100 mg), sertraline (50 mg), and sertraline (50 mg) plus soybean (100 mg). The Hamilton and Zung Depression Scales were used to measure the treatment effects. Values at the beginning and at the end of the study were compared. In all cases a significant difference was observed when the treated groups were compared vs. their untreated situation in both scales (p < 0.001). When a comparison between pre- minus post-treatment Zung scale scores was done, the effect induced by the association of sertraline and soybean was significantly higher than the other groups (p < 0.05). These effects were also seen using the Hamilton scale scores, showing significant differences between the association vs. soybean (p < 0.05) and setraline (p < 0.05) groups, but not vs. fluoxetine group. We conclude that soybean has an antidepressant effect per se, and the association of soybean and antidepressants increases their effects.
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Good prognosis of cerclage in cases of cervical insufficiency when intra-amniotic inflammation/infection is ruled out.
J. Matern. Fetal. Neonatal. Med.
PUBLISHED: 09-13-2014
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Abstract Objective: To determine if absence of sub-clinical intra-amniotic inflammation improves the prognosis of rescue cerclage in cases of bulging membranes. Methods: Cohort study with all women with bulging membranes admitted into our hospital between 2009 and 2013. Patients underwent amniocentesis to quantify amniotic glucose, leukocytes, IL-6 and leukocyte esterase levels and for microbiological culture. All patients without intra-amniotic inflammation or sub-clinical chorioamnionitis were proposed a physical examination-indicated cervical cerclage. Those who did not accept were treated with bed rest. Results: We enrolled 31 women. Median gestational age at diagnosis was 23?+?1 (21-25?+?4) weeks. Median interval until delivery was 12 (3-52.5) d. IL-6 had the highest diagnostic accuracy for good prognosis. Patients with IL6 <2.90?ng/ml were diagnosed later in pregnancy and presented a longer interval until delivery (89 versus 4?d), higher gestational age at delivery (35?+?1 versus 23?+?3 weeks) and a lower rate of prematurity (54.5% versus 100%) and perinatal mortality (0% versus 80%) than those with IL-6 ?2.90?ng/ml. Rescue cerclage and low Il-6 were the best predictors of good outcome. Conclusion: IL-6 levels in amniotic fluid may be of clinical value for individualizing the management of patients with bulging membranes for placement of rescue cerclage.
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Love wave immunosensor for the detection of carbaryl pesticide.
Sensors (Basel)
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2014
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A Love Wave (LW) immunosensor was developed for the detection of carbaryl pesticide. The experimental setup consisted on: a compact electronic characterization circuit based on phase and amplitude detection at constant frequency; an automated flow injection system; a thermal control unit; a custom-made flow-through cell; and Quartz /SiO2 LW sensors with a 40 ?m wavelength and 120 MHz center frequency. The carbaryl detection was based on a competitive immunoassay format using LIB-CNH45 monoclonal antibody (MAb). Bovine Serum Albumin-CNH (BSA-CNH) carbaryl hapten-conjugate was covalently immobilized, via mercaptohexadecanoic acid self-assembled monolayer (SAM), onto the gold sensing area of the LW sensors. This immobilization allowed the reusability of the sensor for at least 70 assays without significant signal losses. The LW immunosensor showed a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.09 ?g/L, a sensitivity of 0.31 ?g/L and a linear working range of 0.14-1.63 ?g/L. In comparison to other carbaryl immunosensors, the LW immunosensor achieved a high sensitivity and a low LOD. These features turn the LW immunosensor into a promising tool for applications that demand a high resolution, such as for the detection of pesticides in drinking water at European regulatory levels.
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Stepwise cyclopalladation of 2-phenacylthiopyridine to give C,C,N-pincer complexes.
Dalton Trans
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2014
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Orthopalladation of the phenyl ring in the cyclopalladated complex [Pd{C,N-pyl-SCHC(O)Ph}(?-X)]2 (pyl = 2-pyridyl, X = Cl; 1·Cl) occurs upon reacting it with AgOAc (1?:?2) in MeCN to give the pincer complex [Pd{C,C,N-pyl-SCHC(O)C6H4-2}(NCMe)] (2). The nature of the base and X plays a key role because palladation neither occurs with other bases nor when AgOAc is the base and X is Br, in which case 1·OAc is obtained. In addition, complex 2 is not obtained upon refluxing 1·OAc in MeCN. Complex 2 affords complexes [Pd{C,C,N,S-pyl-SCHC(O)C6H4-2}]n, [Pd{C,C,N-pyl-SCHC(O)C6H4-2}L] (L = PPh3, (t)BuNC, XyNC) or Me4N[Pd{C,C,N-pyl-SCHC(O)C6H4-2}Cl] upon acetonitrile loss, or its replacement by neutral or anionic ligands, respectively. Some such complexes act as metallaligands towards AgClO4 or [PdCl2(NCPh)2] giving rise to heterodinuclear [{Pd{C,C,N-pyl-SCHC(O)C6H4-2}(PPh3)}{Ag(PPh3)}]ClO4 or homodinuclear [{Pd{C,C,N-pyl-SCHC(O)C6H4-2}(Cl)}{Pd(?-Cl)}]2, [{Pd{C,C,N-pyl-SCHC(O)C6H4-2}(Cl)}{Pd(Cl)(PPh3}] complexes. Some derivatives of complexes 1 were also obtained.
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Blood pressure values and depression in hypertensive individuals at high cardiovascular risk.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2014
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Hypertension and depression are both important risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. Nevertheless, the association of blood pressure on and depression has not been completely established. This study aims to analyze whether depression may influence the control of blood pressure in hypertensive individuals at high cardiovascular risk.
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Real-time assessment of hybridization between wolves and dogs: combining noninvasive samples with ancestry informative markers.
Mol Ecol Resour
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2014
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Wolves and dogs provide a paradigmatic example of the ecological and conservation implications of hybridization events between wild and domesticated forms. However, our understanding of such implications has been traditionally hampered by both high genetic similarity and the difficulties in obtaining tissue samples (TS), which limit our ability to assess ongoing hybridization events. To assess the occurrence and extension of hybridization in a pack of wolf-dog hybrids in northwestern Iberia, we compared the power of 52 nuclear markers implemented on TS with a subset of 13 ancestry informative markers (AIMs) typed in noninvasive samples (NIS). We demonstrate that the 13 AIMs are as accurate as the 52 markers that were chosen without regard to the power to differentiate between wolves and dogs, also having the advantage of being rapidly screened on NIS. The efficiency of AIMs significantly outperformed ten random sets of similar size and an additional commercial set of 18 markers. Bayesian clustering analysis implemented on AIMs and NIS identified nine hybrids, two wolves and two dogs. Four hybrids were unambiguously assigned to F1xWolf backcrosses. Our approach (AIMs + NIS) overcomes previous difficulties related to sample availability and informative power of markers, allowing a quick identification of wolf-dog hybrids in the first phases of hybridization episodes. This provides managers with a reliable tool to evaluate hybridization and estimate the success of their actions. This approach may be easily adapted for other pairs of wild/domesticated species, thus improving our understanding of the introgression of domestication genes into natural populations.
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First report of an exophilic Anopheles arabiensis population in Bissau city, Guinea-Bissau: recent introduction or sampling bias?
Malar. J.
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
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The malaria vector Anopheles arabiensis exhibits greater behavioural and ecological plasticity than the other major vectors of the Anopheles gambiae complex, which presents challenges for major control methods. This study reports for the first time the presence of An. arabiensis in Antula, a suburb of Bissau city, the capital of Guinea Bissau, where high levels of hybridization between Anopheles coluzzii and An. gambiae have been reported. Given that previous surveys in the area, based on indoor collections, did not sample An. arabiensis, the possibility of a recently introduced exophilic population was investigated.
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An Embedded Stress Sensor for Concrete SHM Based on Amorphous Ferromagnetic Microwires.
Sensors (Basel)
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2014
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A new smart concrete aggregate design as a candidate for applications in structural health monitoring (SHM) of critical elements in civil infrastructure is proposed. The cement-based stress/strain sensor was developed by utilizing the stress/strain sensing properties of a magnetic microwire embedded in cement-based composite (MMCC). This is a contact-less type sensor that measures variations of magnetic properties resulting from stress variations. Sensors made of these materials can be designed to satisfy the specific demand for an economic way to monitor concrete infrastructure health. For this purpose, we embedded a thin magnetic microwire in the core of a cement-based cylinder, which was inserted into the concrete specimen under study as an extra aggregate. The experimental results show that the embedded MMCC sensor is capable of measuring internal compressive stress around the range of 1-30 MPa. Two stress sensing properties of the embedded sensor under uniaxial compression were studied: the peak amplitude and peak position of magnetic switching field. The sensitivity values for the amplitude and position within the measured range were 5 mV/MPa and 2.5 µs/MPa, respectively.
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Risk of developing BRONJ among patients exposed to intravenous bisphosphonates following tooth extraction.
Quintessence Int
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2014
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A study was designed to measure of the incidence of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaws (BRONJ) following tooth extraction in patients receiving or who have received intravenous bisphosphonates (Zometa, zoledronic acid).
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Pharmacology of the capsaicin receptor, transient receptor potential vanilloid type-1 ion channel.
Prog Drug Res
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2014
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The capsaicin receptor, transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 ion channel (TRPV1), has been identified as a polymodal transducer molecule on a sub-set of primary sensory neurons which responds to various stimuli including noxious heat (> -42 degrees C), protons and vanilloids such as capsaicin, the hot ingredient of chilli peppers. Subsequently, TRPV1 has been found indispensable for the development of burning pain and reflex hyperactivity associated with inflammation of peripheral tissues and viscera, respectively. Therefore, TRPV1 is regarded as a major target for the development of novel agents for the control of pain and visceral hyperreflexia in inflammatory conditions. Initial efforts to introduce agents acting on TRPV1 into clinics have been hampered by unexpected side-effects due to wider than expected expression in various tissues, as well as by the complex pharmacology, of TRPV1. However, it is believed that better understanding of the pharmacological properties of TRPV1 and specific targeting of tissues may eventually lead to the development of clinically useful agents. In order to assist better understanding of TRPV1 pharmacology, here we are giving a comprehensive account on the activation and inactivation mechanisms and the structure-function relationship of TRPV1.
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Pharmacogenetics of antiretroviral therapy.
Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2014
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Human genetic testing is rapidly entering into most medical disciplines, mainly as a way to predict hereditary conditions including predisposition to cancers or degenerative diseases. Another area of interest for human genomics is to ascertain the therapeutic effect and prevent potential toxicities and/or drug-drug interactions of medication.
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Multicenter study of outcome in relation to the type of resection in rectal cancer.
Dis. Colon Rectum
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2014
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A surgical teaching and auditing program has been implemented to improve the results of treatment for patients with rectal cancer.
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Molecular and serological study of rickettsial infection in humans, and in wild and farm animals, in the province of Burgos, Spain.
Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis.
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2014
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Limited information is available on the presence of rickettsial infection in humans and animal reservoirs in Spain. Exposure to spotted fever group rickettsia in healthy humans and in farm and wild animals in the Province of Burgos, Spain, was examined by serological methods. Rickettsial DNA was also sought by PCR in animal samples. Of 102 human serum samples examined by indirect immunofluorescence assays (IFA), 5.88% were positive for antibodies against Rickettsia conorii (titers 1/128-1/512). Significant differences were detected in human seroprevalence with respect to age. In further IFAs, 102 out of 375 (27.2%) serum samples from the wild animals reacted with R. conorii antigens (titers 1/64-1/1024); 32 out of 281 (11.38%) samples from farm animals were also positive for R. conorii (titers 1/64-1/2048). The prevalence detected among total wild animals was significantly higher than among total farm animals. No rickettsial DNA was found by PCR in any farm or wild animal sample.
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Dolutegravir, abacavir and lamivudine as HIV therapy.
Expert Opin Pharmacother
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2014
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Antiretroviral therapy has evolved dramatically and more potent, safer and convenient drugs have replaced former compounds. Dolutegravir (DTG) is the most recently approved integrase inhibitor. It displays attractive properties such as one pill once daily (QD) dosing, high barrier to resistance and clean safety profile. Moreover, it is planned to be marketed, co-formulated with abacavir (ABC) and lamivudine (3TC) as a single-tablet regimen (STR). The availability of this QD single pill represents a significant step further for a large number of HIV-infected persons.
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The role of functionalized magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles in the central nervous system injury and repair: new potentials for neuroprotection with Cerebrolysin therapy.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2014
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Functionalized Magnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles (FMIONPs) are being explored for the development of various biomedical applications, e.g., cancer chemotherapy and/or several other radiological or diagnostic purposes. However, the effects of these NPs per se on the central nervous system (CNS) injury or repair are not well known. This review deals with different aspects of FMIONPs in relation to brain function based on the current literature as well as our own investigation in animal models of CNS injuries. It appears that FMIONPs are innocuous when administered intravenously within the CNS under normal conditions. However, abnormal reactions to FMIONPs in the brain or spinal cord could be seen if they are combined with CNS injuries e.g., hyperthermia or traumatic insults to the brain or spinal cord. Thus, administration of FMIONPs in vivo following whole body hyperthermia (WBH) or a focal spinal cord injury (SCI) exacerbates cellular damage. Since FMIONPs could help in diagnostic purposes or enhance the biological effects of radiotherapy/chemotherapy it is likely that these NPs may have some adverse reaction as well under disease condition. Thus, under such situation, adjuvant therapy e.g., Cerebrolysin (Ever NeuroPharma, Austria), a suitable combination of several neurotrophic factors and active peptide fragments are the need of the hour to contain such cellular damages caused by the FMIONPs in vivo. Our observations show that co-administration of Cerebrolysin prevents the FMIONPs induced pathologies associated with CNS injuries. These observations support the idea that FMIONPs are safe for the CNS in disease conditions when co-administered with cerebrolysin. This indicates that cerebrolysin could be used as an adjunct therapy to prevent cellular damages in disease conditions where the use of FMIONPs is required for better efficacy e.g., cancer treatment.
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Comparison of total hip arthroplasty in osteoarthritis of mechanical and rheumatologic causes.
Acta Ortop Bras
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2014
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To compare the use of uncemented implants in total hip arthroplasty in patients with rheumathologic diseases and mechanical osteoarthrosis.
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Spontaneous hepatitis C virus clearance in HIV patients with chronic hepatitis C bearing IL28B-CC alleles using antiretroviral therapy.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2014
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A quarter of individuals acutely infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) clear the virus spontaneously. Once chronic infection is established, HCV elimination generally can only be achieved using specific antiviral therapy, such as peg-interferon-ribavirin. Herein, we report a group of chronically HIV/HCV-coinfected patients that cleared HCV spontaneously while being treated only with antiretrovirals.
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Seasonal genetic partitioning in the neotropical malaria vector, Anopheles darlingi.
Malar. J.
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2014
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Anopheles darlingi is the main malaria mosquito vector in the Amazonia region. In spite of being considered a riverine, forest-dwelling species, this mosquito is becoming more abundant in peri-urban areas, increasing malaria risk. This has been associated with human-driven environmental changes such as deforestation.
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Hepatitis delta is a major determinant of liver decompensation events and death in HIV-infected patients.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2014
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Coinfection with hepatitis viruses is common in individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and has become a leading cause of complications and death in those receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART).
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[The motor organization of cerebral cortex and the role of the mirror neuron system. Clinical impact for rehabilitation.]
Med Clin (Barc)
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2014
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The basic characteristics of Penfield homunculus (somatotopy and unique representation) have been questioned. The existence of a defined anatomo-functional organization within different segments of the same region is controversial. The presence of multiple motor representations in the primary motor area and in the parietal lobe interconnected by parieto-frontal circuits, which are widely overlapped, form a complex organization. Both features support the recovery of functions after brain injury. Regarding the movement organization, it is possible to yield a relevant impact through the understanding of actions and intentions of others, which is mediated by the activation of mirror-neuron systems. The implementation of cognitive functions (observation, image of the action and imitation) from the acute treatment phase allows the activation of motor representations without having to perform the action and it plays an important role in learning motor patterns.
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Simulation in spinal diseases.
Reumatol Clin
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2014
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Simulation is frequent in spinal disease, resulting in problems for specialists like Orthopedic Surgeons, Neurosurgeons, Reumathologists, etc. Simulation requires demonstration of the intentional production of false or exaggerated symptoms following an external incentive. The clinician has difficulties in demonstrating these criteria, resulting in misdiagnosis of simulation or misinterpretation of the normal patient as a simulator, with the possibility of iatrogenic distress and litigation. We review simulation-related problems in spine, proposing a terminological, as well as a diagnostic strategy including clinical and complementary diagnosis, as a way to avoid misinterpretation and minimize the iatrogenic distress and liability Based on the clinical-Forensic author's expertise, the literature is analyzed and the terminology readdressed to develop new terms (inconsistences, incongruences, discrepancies and contradictions). Clinical semiology and complementary test are adapted to the new scenario. Diagnostic strategy relies on anamnesis, clinical and complementary tests, adapting them to a uniform terminology with clear meaning of signs and symptoms.
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REFOS study: efficacy and safety of lanthanum carbonate in clinical practice in Spain.
Nefrologia
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2014
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Lanthanum carbonate is a powerful phosphate binder that has shown efficacy and safety in clinical trials for hyperphosphataemia management, although there are few data in regular clinical practice. The study's objective was to evaluate, in regular clinical practice, its efficacy and safety in patients on dialysis. We retrospectively collected data from 15 months of monitoring, corresponding to 3 months prior to the start of treatment with lanthanum carbonate until 12 months after the start. Results included values of serum calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, iPTH, hepatic enzymes and haemogram, as well as the daily-prescribed dose of lanthanum carbonate, the concomitant medication, treatment compliance and adverse events. 647 patients were included of which 522 completed the study. Abandonment, for the most part, was due to gastrointestinal disorders (26%) and hypophosphatemia (19%). Serum phosphorus decreased from 6.4±1.7 mg/dl (start) to 4.9±1.4 mg/dl (12 months) (P<.001). At the end of the monitoring period, 47% were within the desired phosphorus range (3.5-5mg/dl). There were no significant variations in the remaining parameters. Initial dose of lanthanum carbonate: 1900 mg/day; and end dose: 2300 mg/day. The variables independently associated with phosphataemia were baseline serum phosphorus and treatment compliance. In relation to safety, we observed 238 slight or moderate adverse effects in 117 patients, with 88% linked to gastrointestinal abnormalities. In conclusion, lanthanum carbonate reduces the serum phosphorus values in patients on dialysis with a good safety profile and acceptable adherence to that profile, with gastrointestinal disorders being the most frequent adverse effect.
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Impact of a diverting stoma on the perioperative results after low rectal resection and anastomosis in a multimodal rehabilitation program.
Cir Esp
PUBLISHED: 02-09-2014
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The association of a loop ileostomy decreases the severity of complications after rectal surgery but can increase the postoperative stay. The aim of this study is to investigate if a diverting ileostomy influences the postoperative outcomes in a series of patients included in a multimodal rehabilitation program (MMRP).
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Foetal and postnatal exposure to high temperatures alter growth pattern but do not modify reproductive function in male rabbits.
Int J Hyperthermia
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2014
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The 'foetal origin hypothesis' postulates that a number of organ structures and associated functions undergo programming during embryonic and foetal life and the neonatal period, which determines the set point of physiological and metabolic responses that carry into adulthood. We evaluate the relationship between high environmental temperatures and the reproductive function of male offspring to determine whether pregnant mammals and their infants are potentially vulnerable to the effects of climate change.
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Towards hepatitis C eradication from the HIV-infected population.
Antiviral Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2014
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Around 10-15% of the 35 million people living with HIV worldwide have chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and are prone to develop liver-related complications. Exposure to HCV is almost universal among injecting drug users and is on the rise among homosexual men. Response to peginterferon-ribavirin therapy is generally lower in coinfection compared to HCV monoinfection. For this reason, the advent of direct-acting antivirals (DAA) is eagerly awaited for this population. The results of trials using DAA in coinfection show that treatment response rates are similar to those obtained in HCV monoinfection. Thus, HIV should no longer be considered as a "special" population, as long as antiretroviral therapy is given and drug interactions are taken into account. Envisioning HCV eradication from the HIV population faces major challenges ahead, including identification of the large number of undiagnosed individuals, and ensuring wide access to the best but often expensive HCV medications. This article forms part of a symposium in Antiviral Research on "Hepatitis C: next steps toward global eradication".
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Cinacalcet for hypercalcaemic secondary hyperparathyroidism after renal transplantation: a multicentre, retrospective, 3-year study.
Nephrology (Carlton)
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2014
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Our aim was to evaluate the long-term effect of cinacalcet in patients with hypercalcaemic secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) after renal transplantation (RT) in order to expand real-world data in this population.
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A seventeen-year epidemiological surveillance study of Borrelia burgdorferi infections in two provinces of northern Spain.
Int J Environ Res Public Health
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
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This paper reports a 17-year seroepidemiological surveillance study of Borrelia burgdorferi infection, performed with the aim of improving our knowledge of the epidemiology of this pathogen. Serum samples (1,179) from patients (623, stratified with respect to age, sex, season, area of residence and occupation) bitten by ticks in two regions of northern Spain were IFA-tested for B. burgdorferi antibodies. Positive results were confirmed by western blotting. Antibodies specific for B. burgdorferi were found in 13.3% of the patients; 7.8% were IgM positive, 9.6% were IgG positive, and 4.33% were both IgM and IgG positive. Five species of ticks were identified in the seropositive patients: Dermacentor marginatus (41.17% of such patients) Dermacentor reticulatus (11.76%), Rhiphicephalus sanguineus (17.64%), Rhiphicephalus turanicus (5.88%) and Ixodes ricinus (23.52%). B. burgdorferi DNA was sought by PCR in ticks when available. One tick, a D. reticulatus male, was found carrying the pathogen. The seroprevalence found was similar to the previously demonstrated in similar studies in Spain and other European countries.
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A simple transcriptomic signature able to predict drug-induced hepatic steatosis.
Arch. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
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It is estimated that only a few marketed drugs are able to directly induce liver steatosis. However, many other drugs may exacerbate or precipitate fatty liver in the presence of other risk factors or in patients prone to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. On the other hand, current in vitro tests for drug-induced steatosis in preclinical research are scarce and not very sensitive or reproducible. In the present study, we have investigated the effect of well-characterized steatotic drugs on the expression profile of 47 transcription factors (TFs) in human hepatoma HepG2 cells and found that these drugs are able to up- and down-regulate a substantial number of these factors. Multivariate data analysis revealed a common TF signature for steatotic drugs, which consistently and significantly repressed FOXA1, HEX and SREBP1C in cultured cells. This signature was also observed in the livers of rats and in cultured human hepatocytes. Therefore, we selected these three TFs as predictive biomarkers for iatrogenic steatosis. With these biomarkers, a logistic regression analysis yielded a predictive model, which was able to correctly classify 92 % of drugs. The developed algorithm also predicted that ibuprofen, nifedipine and irinotecan are potential steatotic drugs, whereas troglitazone is not. In summary, this is a sensitive, specific and simple RT-PCR test that can be easily implemented in preclinical drug development to predict drug-induced steatosis. Our results also indicate that steatotic drugs affect expression of both common and specific subsets of TF and lipid metabolism genes, thus generating complex transcriptomic responses that cause or contribute to steatosis in hepatocytes.
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Clinical and epidemiological characteristics of septic arthritis of the hip, 2006 to 2012, a seven-year review.
Clinics (Sao Paulo)
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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To epidemiologically characterize the population treated at our orthopedic clinic with a diagnosis of septic arthritic of the hip between 2006 and 2012.
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Long-term mycophenolate monotherapy in human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-identical living-donor kidney transplantation.
Transplant Res
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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Although recipients of a first HLA-identical living-donor kidney transplant seem to need less immunosuppression, there are no guideline recommendations for these patients, and few prospective trials are available.
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Spatial heterogeneity in human activities favors the persistence of wolves in agroecosystems.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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As human populations expand, there is increasing demand and pressure for land. Under this scenario, behavioural flexibility and adaptation become important processes leading to the persistence of large carnivores in human-dominated landscapes such as agroecosystems. A growing interest has recently emerged on the outcome of the coexistence between wolves and humans in these systems. It has been suggested that spatial heterogeneity in human activities would be a major environmental factor modulating vulnerability and persistence of this contentious species in agroecosystems. Here, we combined information from 35 den sites detected between 2011 and 2012 in agroecosystems of western Iran (Hamedan province), a set of environmental variables measured at landscape and fine spatial scales, and generalized linear models to identify patterns of den site selection by wolves in a highly-modified agroecosystem. On a landscape level, wolves selected a mixture of rangelands with scattered dry-farms on hillsides (showing a low human use) to locate their dens, avoiding areas with high densities of settlements and primary roads. On a fine spatial scale, wolves primarily excavated dens into the sides of elevated steep-slope hills with availability of water bodies in the vicinity of den sites, and wolves were relegated to dig in places with coarse-soil particles. Our results suggest that vulnerability of wolves in human-dominated landscapes could be compensated by the existence of spatial heterogeneity in human activities. Such heterogeneity would favor wolf persistence in agroecosystems favoring a land sharing model of coexistence between wolves and people.
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Aspilota-group (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Alysiinae) diversity in Mediterranean Natural Parks of Spain.
Biodivers Data J
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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This work analyses the biodiversity of the Aspilota-group (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Alysiinae) in three Mediterranean Natural parks: Natural Park of La Font Roja, Natural Park of Las Lagunas de la Mata-Torrevieja and Natural Park of La Tinença de Benifassà. Samples were carried out from April 2004 to December 2007. In total, 822 specimens, belonging to 52 species, were collected. Alpha, beta and gamma diversities were analysed, and the Tinença Park was proven to have higher diversity than the Font Roja and Torrevieja. Also, the structure of the Aspilota-group community was analysed.
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Increased antiparkinson efficacy of the combined administration of VEGF- and GDNF-loaded nanospheres in a partial lesion model of Parkinson's disease.
Int J Nanomedicine
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Current research efforts are focused on the application of growth factors, such as glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), as neuroregenerative approaches that will prevent the neurodegenerative process in Parkinson's disease. Continuing a previous work published by our research group, and with the aim to overcome different limitations related to growth factor administration, VEGF and GDNF were encapsulated in poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanospheres (NS). This strategy facilitates the combined administration of the VEGF and GDNF into the brain of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) partially lesioned rats, resulting in a continuous and simultaneous drug release. The NS particle size was about 200 nm and the simultaneous addition of VEGF NS and GDNF NS resulted in significant protection of the PC-12 cell line against 6-OHDA in vitro. Once the poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) NS were implanted into the striatum of 6-OHDA partially lesioned rats, the amphetamine rotation behavior test was carried out over 10 weeks, in order to check for in vivo efficacy. The results showed that VEGF NS and GDNF NS significantly decreased the number of amphetamine-induced rotations at the end of the study. In addition, tyrosine hydroxylase immunohistochemical analysis in the striatum and the external substantia nigra confirmed a significant enhancement of neurons in the VEGF NS and GDNF NS treatment group. The synergistic effect of VEGF NS and GDNF NS allows for a reduction of the dose by half, and may be a valuable neurogenerative/neuroreparative approach for treating Parkinson's disease.
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Intensity of territorial marking predicts wolf reproduction: implications for wolf monitoring.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The implementation of intensive and complex approaches to monitor large carnivores is resource demanding, restricted to endangered species, small populations, or small distribution ranges. Wolf monitoring over large spatial scales is difficult, but the management of such contentious species requires regular estimations of abundance to guide decision-makers. The integration of wolf marking behaviour with simple sign counts may offer a cost-effective alternative to monitor the status of wolf populations over large spatial scales.
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Once-daily raltegravir moving ahead.
AIDS Rev
PUBLISHED: 12-11-2013
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Raltegravir is a highly potent antiretroviral agent, with arguably one of the most favorable adverse event profiles in the HIV armamentarium. However, its standard twice-daily (BID) dosing schedule makes it less convenient than once-daily (QD) options. Although pharmacokinetic data suggest that QD raltegravir may provide adequate drug levels, the randomized phase III QDMRK trial (Eron, et al. Lancet Infect Dis. 2011;11:907-15) showed that 800 mg QD raltegravir failed to meet the criteria for non-inferiority when compared with 400 mg BID RAL in antiretroviral-naive HIV-infected individuals. 83% of patients in the QD arm achieved undetectable HIV viremia, in comparison with 89% in the BID arm. This was largely due to poorer efficacy among people with high baseline viral load (74 vs. 84%, respectively).
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Emerging antiretroviral drugs.
Expert Opin Pharmacother
PUBLISHED: 11-30-2013
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Introduction: The potency, tolerability and convenience of antiretroviral agents have all significantly improved over the past years, making lifelong HIV therapy easier. However, several specific needs are still unmet, including low daily pill burden, friendly metabolic profile, lack of (or few) drug interactions and high resistance barrier. Areas covered: Updated summary of evidence-based information about the efficacy and safety of the most recently approved or forthcoming antiretroviral agents is provided. All data on antiretrovirals in the most advanced development stages available in peer-reviewed journals or presented at international meetings has been reviewed. Expert opinion: Dolutegravir displays greater barrier to resistance and requires simpler administration than other currently existing drugs within the same class. Newer pharmacoenhancers (i.e., cobicistat), CCR5 antagonists (i.e., cenicriviroc) and nucleotide prodrugs (i.e., tenofovir alafenamide fumarate) show promising results and will expand the current HIV armamentarium. The development of newer once-daily, single-tablet coformulations will further improve drug adherence and maximize the success of antiretroviral therapy.
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Oviductal and endometrial mRNA expression of implantation candidate biomarkers during early pregnancy in rabbit.
Zygote
PUBLISHED: 11-30-2013
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Summary Prenatal losses are a complex problem. Pregnancy requires orchestrated communication between the embryo and the uterus that includes secretions from the embryo to signal pregnancy recognition and secretion and remodelling from the uterine epithelium. Most of these losses are characterized by asynchronization between embryo and uterus. To better understand possible causes, an analysis was conducted of gene expression of a set of transcripts related to maternal recognition and establishment of rabbit pregnancy (uteroglobin, SCGB1A1; integrin ?1, ITGA1; interferon-?, IFNG; vascular endothelial growth factor, VEGF) in oviduct and uterine tissue at 16, 72 or 144 h post-ovulation and insemination. In the oviduct tissue, a significant decrease in the level of SCGB1A1 mRNA expression was observed from 144 h post-ovulation. In the case of ITGA1, the transcript abundance was initially lower, but mRNA expression increased significantly at 72 and 144 h post-ovulation. For IFNG, a huge decrease was observed from 16 to 72 h post-ovulation. Finally, no significant differences were observed in the VEGF transcript. For the endometrium, the results showed a significant decline in the level of SCGB1A1 mRNA expression from 16 to 144 h post-ovulation induction. The highest levels of ITGA1 transcript were detected at 144 h, followed by the 16 h group and lower at 72 h post-ovulation. For IFNG there were no significant differences among post-ovulation induction times. Finally, it was possible to observe that VEGF mRNA abundance was present at low levels at 16 h post-ovulation and remained low at 72 h, but increased at 144 h. The functional significance of these observations may provide new insights into the maternal role in prenatal losses.
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Advantages of pinhole collimator double-phase scintigraphy with 99mTc-MIBI in secondary hyperparathyroidism.
Clin Nucl Med
PUBLISHED: 10-04-2013
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The aim of the study was to determine if pinhole collimator-acquired images can improve the detection of hyperfunctioning parathyroid glands in patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism.
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Clinical management of calcific uremic arteriolopathy before and after therapeutic inclusion of bisphosphonates.
Clin. Nephrol.
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2013
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Background and objectives: Calcific uremic arteriolopathy (CUA) is a life-threatening condition almost exclusively affecting patients with end-stage renal failure. Several therapies have been employed to treat this disease with irregular results. Methods: Comparison of a prospective case series with a historical cohort. Group I: 12 patients with CUA diagnosed before 2002 (5 men, 6 on dialysis and 6 with functioning allografts) treated with standard treatment. Group II: 11 patients with CUA diagnosed between 2002 and 2010 (4 men, 6 on dialysis and 5 with functioning allografts) treated with standard treatment and bisphosphonates for 6 months. The diagnosis was made by clinical suspicion and a confirmatory biopsy in both groups. Ten patients had a previous history of high calcium-phosphorus product, 9 had a history of high parathyroid hormone (> 800 pg/ml) levels, 13 had a history of high cumulative steroids and 9 patients were under dicoumarin treatment. Two patients were obese and 5 had diabetes mellitus. Results: In Group I, 58.7% required amputation of the affected limb, 3 patients recovered and 2 died. In all patients of Group II the progression of the skin lesions decreased between 2 and 4 weeks after the start of bisphosphonate therapy with no changes in blood levels of calcium and phosphate. The improvement in pain and lesions was faster in the patients receiving endovenous bisphosphonates. Renal function remained stable in transplant recipients. No adverse effects were observed. Conclusions: Bisphosphonates could constitute an alternative to treat CUA in addition to standard therapy.
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Triple Helicates with Golden Strands: Self-Assembly of M2 Au6 Complexes from Gold(I) Metallaligands and Iron(II), Cobalt(II) or Zinc(II) Cations.
Chemistry
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2013
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Alkynyl gold(I) metallaligands [(AuC?Cbpyl)2 (?-diphosphine)] (bpyl=2,2-bipyridin-5-yl; diphosphine=Ph2 P(CH2 )n PPh2 , [n=3 (L(Pr) ), 4 (L(Bu) ), 5 (L(Pent) ), 6 (L(Hex) )], dppf (L(Fc) ), Binap (L(Binap) ) and Diop (L(Diop) )) react with MX2 (M=Fe, Zn, X=ClO4 ; M=Co, X=BF4 ) to give triple helicates [M2 (L(R) )3 ]X4 . These complexes, except those containing the semirigid L(Binap) metallaligand, present similar hydrodynamic radii (determined by diffusion NMR spectroscopy measurements) and a similar pattern in the aromatic region of their (1) H?NMR spectra, which suggests that in solution they adopt a compact structure where the long and flexible organometallic strands are folded. The diastereoselectivity of the self-assembly process was studied by using chiral metallaligands, and the absolute configuration of the iron(II) complexes with L(Binap) and L(Diop) was determined by circular dichroism spectroscopy (CD). Thus, (R)-L(Binap) or (S)-L(Binap) specifically induce the formation of (?,?)-[Fe2 ((R)-L(Binap) )3 ](ClO4 )4 or (?,?)-[Fe2 ((S)-L(Binap) )3 ](ClO4 )4 , respectively, whereas (R,R)- or (S,S)-L(Diop) give mixtures of the ??- and ??-diastereomers. The ???helicate diastereomer is dominant in the reaction of Fe(II) with (R,R)-L(Diop) , whereas the ???isomer predominates in the analogous reaction with (S,S)-L(Diop) . The photophysical properties of the new dinuclear alkynyl complexes and the helicates have been studied. The new metallaligands and the [Zn2 (L(R) )3 ](4+) helicates present luminescence from [???*] excited states mainly located in the C?Cbpyl units.
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Management of hypercalcemia after renal transplantation.
Nefrologia
PUBLISHED: 08-17-2013
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Post-transplant hypercalcemia due to persistent secondary hyperparathyroidism (HPT) has a high prevalence in the first 3 months after surgery and decreases during the first year, but it persists over time in around 5-10% of renal transplant patients. The increased bone resorption and tubular reabsorption of calcium due to the action of the parathyroid hormone (PTH) appear to be the main mechanisms involved in hypercalcemia. At the time of the renal transplantation (RT), PTH is the factor that determines the development of post-RT hypercalcemia, although it is sometimes masked in patients who are well controlled with medical treatment. The number of dialysis patients receiving treatment with cinacalcet for secondary HPT is increasing. The withdrawal of the calcimimetic at the time of renal transplantation results in a higher prevalence of hypercalcaemia and hyperparathyroidism in these patients. In patients with PTH well controlled with cinacalcet before transplantation, there is a direct relationship between the dose and the subsequent development of hypercalcemia, probably because it indicates the presence of a more severe secondary HPT. Hypercalcemia may have deleterious effects on the renal graft, resulting in tubulointerstitial calcification. Persistent hypercalcemia is a marker of an increased risk of bone disease deterioration in these patients. Nowadays, the first treatment option is cinacalcet and if there is no response, we consider performing a parathyroidectomy. In this review, we propose an algorithm for management of post-RT hypercalcemia.
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Redox tuning and species distribution in Maya Blue-type materials: a reassessment.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2013
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Maya Blue-type specimens prepared from indigo (1 wt %) plus kaolinite, montmorillonite, palygorskite, sepiolite, and silicalite are studied. Liquid chromatography with diode array detection, ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry, and pyrolysis-silylation gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses of the extracts from these specimens combined with spectral and solid-state voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and scanning electrochemical microscopy techniques provide evidence for the presence of a significant amount of dehydroindigo and isatin accompanying indigo and other minority organic compounds in all samples. Solid-state electrochemistry data permits the estimatation of indigo loading in archeological Maya Blue, which is in the range of 0.2 to 1.5 wt %. These results support a view of genuine Maya Blue-type materials as complex polyfunctional organic-inorganic hybrids.
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Update on HIV/HCV coinfection.
Curr HIV/AIDS Rep
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2013
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Liver disease is currently one of the leading causes of hospitalization and death in HIV-positive individuals. Coinfection with the hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major contributor to this trend. Besides hepatic damage, which is enhanced in the presence of HIV-associated immunosuppression, HCV may contribute to disease in coinfected individuals by potentiating immune activation and chronic inflammation, which ultimately account for an increased risk of cardiovascular events, kidney disease, and cancers in this population. Fortunately, hepatitis C therapeutics has entered a revolutionary era in which we hope that most patients treated with the new oral direct-acting antivirals (DAA) will be cured. However, many challenges preclude envisioning a prompt elimination of HCV from the coinfected population. Issues that should be addressed include the following: (1) rising incidence of acute hepatitis C in men who have sex with men, and expansion/recrudescence of injection drug use in some settings/regions; (2) adverse drug interactions between antiretrovirals and DAA; and (3) high cost of DAA, which may lead many to defer or fail to access appropriate therapy.
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Muscle strength and executive function as complementary parameters for the assessment of impairment in Parkinsons disease.
Arq Neuropsiquiatr
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2013
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Objective To evaluate the relationship between the quantitative results of functional and cognitive performance of patients with Parkinsons disease (PD) and disease severity; and to study the relationship between patients functional and cognitive capacity and motor impairment (Unified Parkinsons Disease Rating Scale - UPDRS III). Method Twenty-nine subjects clinically diagnosed with PD were classified into three groups according to disease severity using the modified Hoehn and Yahr Scale (H&Y). They were submitted to functional (Senior Fitness Test) and neuropsychological tests. Stepwise regression analysis showed a significant association between H&Y and upper limb strength (r 2 =0.30; p=0.005) and executive function (r 2 =0.37; p=0.004). In relation to UPDRS III, there was a significant association between lower limb strength (r 2 =0.27; p=0.010) and global cognitive status (r 2 =0.24; p=0.024). Conclusion The implementation of simple tests of functional capacity associated with neuropsychological testing can help to assess disease severity and motor impairment, and can be used to monitor the response to treatment in PD.
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Benzyne-benzyne-RNC or CO triple sequential insertion into the Pd-C bond: synthesis of ten-membered N-heterocycles through stable ten- and eleven-membered palladacycles.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2013
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Insertion of two molecules of benzyne into the Pd-C bond of an ortho-palladated derivative of homoveratrylamine allows the synthesis and XRD characterization of a ten-membered palladacycle, which further reacts with CO or RCN to afford, upon depalladation, tribenzazecine derivatives. The iminoacyl eleven-membered palladacycle intermediate can also be isolated.
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Pharyngoesophageal diverticulum: evaluation of treatment results.
Rev Col Bras Cir
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2013
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To evaluate the postoperative outcome of patients with pharyngoesophageal diverticulum submitted to surgical and endoscopic treatments.
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Low risk of liver toxicity using the most recently approved antiretroviral agents but still increased in HIV-hepatitis C virus coinfected patients.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 06-07-2013
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Liver enzyme elevations (LEE) were investigated in 2717 episodes of initiation of antiretroviral therapy since January 2010 in 1982 HIV patients. Serum hepatitis C virus (HCV)-RNA was positive in 24%. Any grade of LEE was recognized in 9% of episodes, being 6% in HCV-negative and 17% in HCV-positive patients (P < 0.001). Grades 3-4 LEE only occurred in 0.4% of patients. Overall, LEE were more frequent with ritonavir-boosted darunavir and atazanavir than with raltegravir and etravirine.
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[Effectiveness of an educational program for reducing blood culture contamination.]
Enferm Clin
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2013
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Blood culture contaminations can lead to unnecessary diagnostic procedures and treatments, increasing workload, length of stay, and costs.
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Arabin cerclage pessary as a treatment of an acute urinary retention in a pregnant woman with uterine prolapse.
Case Rep Obstet Gynecol
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2013
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A 35-year-old gravida 7, para 1, and abortus 5?female with hypogastric pain and inability to void urine after 14?+?3 weeks of amenorrhea was examined in the emergency department. One year before, a uterine prolapse had been diagnosed in another hospital. Examination showed a uterine prolapse grade 2 with palpable bladder. The patient was unable to void urine. After a manual reduction of the uterine prolapse, the patient underwent an emergency catheterization for bladder drainage. A Hodge pessary (size 70) was placed, which led to spontaneous micturitions. Due to the persistence of the symptoms the following day, Hodge pessary was replaced by an Arabin cerclage pessary. Although the pessary could be removed from the beginning of the second trimester, due to the uterine prolapse as a predisposing factor in the patient and the uncomplicated progression of pregnancy, it was decided to maintain it in our patient. Therefore, Arabin cerclage pessary allowed a successful pregnancy outcome and was not associated with threatened preterm delivery or vaginal infection.
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Hepatitis C therapy with HCV NS5B polymerase inhibitors.
Expert Opin Pharmacother
PUBLISHED: 04-27-2013
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Several HCV polymerase inhibitors are in advanced stages of clinical development. They are nucleos(t)ide and non-nucleoside analogs. Nucleos(t)ides inhibit viral replication acting as chain terminators whereas non-nucleosides block allosterically the HCV polymerase. Sofosbuvir is an uridine analog and currently the most promising HCV polymerase inhibitor, being active across all HCV genotypes. It has good tolerability and a robust barrier to resistance. In contrast, non-nucleoside analogs have low to moderate antiviral potency, a low barrier to resistance and inhibit only HCV genotype 1.
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Responses of a top and a meso predator and their prey to moon phases.
Oecologia
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2013
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We compared movement patterns and rhythms of activity of a top predator, the Iberian lynx Lynx pardinus, a mesopredator, the red fox Vulpes vulpes, and their shared principal prey, the rabbit Oryctolagus cuniculus, in relation to moon phases. Because the three species are mostly nocturnal and crepuscular, we hypothesized that the shared prey would reduce its activity at most risky moon phases (i.e. during the brightest nights), but that fox, an intraguild prey of lynx, would avoid lynx activity peaks at the same time. Rabbits generally moved further from their core areas on darkest nights (i.e. new moon), using direct movements which minimize predation risk. Though rabbits responded to the increased predation risk by reducing their activity during the full moon, this response may require several days, and the moon effect we observed on the rabbits had, therefore, a temporal gap. Lynx activity patterns may be at least partially mirroring rabbit activity: around new moons, when rabbits moved furthest and were more active, lynxes reduced their travelling distances and their movements were concentrated in the core areas of their home ranges, which generally correspond to areas of high density of rabbits. Red foxes were more active during the darkest nights, when both the conditions for rabbit hunting were the best and lynxes moved less. On the one hand, foxes increased their activity when rabbits were further from their core areas and moved with more discrete displacements; on the other hand, fox activity in relation to the moon seemed to reduce dangerous encounters with its intraguild predator.
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Mono- and dinuclear Ag(I), Au(I), and Au(III) metallamacrocycles containing N-heterocyclic dicarbene ligands.
Inorg Chem
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2013
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Ag(I) dicarbene complexes [Ag(m)(L(n))m]X(m) (L(n) = Im(Me)(CH2)(n)Im(Me), Im(Me) = N-methylimidazol-N-yl-2-ylidene; n = 3, X = PF6, m = 2; n = 6-8, 10, X = AgBr2, m = 1, 2) were prepared by reacting Ag2O with 1 equiv of the corresponding bisimidazolium salt [H2L(n)]A2 (A = PF6, Br). The dibromoargentates react with 1 equiv of AgTfO to afford [Ag(m)(L(n))m](TfO)m (m = 1, 2). The room temperature transmetalation reaction of [Ag(m)(L(n))m][AgBr2]m (n = 3, 5, 6-8, 10) with [AuCl(SMe2)] and AgTfO (L(n):Au:TfO = 1:1:1) affords [Au2(?-L(n))2](TfO)2 (n = 3, 5, 10), or mixtures of [Au(?(2)-L(n))]TfO (main product for n = 7) and [Au2(?-L(n))2](TfO)2 (main product for n = 6, 8). At room temperature, the equilibrium between [M2(?-L(n))2](TfO)2 and [M(?(2)-L(n))]TfO is fast for M = Ag, but slow for M = Au, in the NMR time scale. When n ? 7 and M = Ag or Au, the equilibrium is shifted toward the mononuclear complexes in the order 8 > 10 > 7, which proves that the (CH2)8 linker has the optimal length for trans chelation. Correspondingly, the high-temperature metalation of [H2L(n)]Br2 (n = 8, 10) with 1 equiv of [AuCl(SMe2)] and excess of NaAcO, affords [Au(?(2)-L(n))]Br with a small amount of [Au2(?-L(n))2]Br2. If AgTfO is added to the reaction mixture, [Au(?(2)-L(8))]2[AgBr3] is isolated instead of the desired triflate, which can be obtained by reacting the mixture of [Au(?(2)-L(8))]Br and [Au2(?-L(8))2]Br2 with AgTfO. [Au(?(2)-L(10))]TfO was isolated after thermal conversion of [Au2(?-L(10))2](TfO)2. [Au(?(2)-L(8))]TfO reacts with I2 to give trans-[AuI2(?(2)-L(8))]TfO, which is the first Au(III) complex containing a trans-spanning bidentate ligand. We have determined the crystal structures of complexes [Ag2(?-L(3))2](PF6)2, [Ag(?(2)-L(7))]TfO, [Au2(?-L(3))2](TfO)2, [Au(?(2)-L(8))]Br, [Au(?(2)-L(8))]2[AgBr3], and trans-[AuI2(?(2)-L(8))]TfO.
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Cows milk allergy: color Doppler ultrasound findings in infants with hematochezia.
J Pediatr (Rio J)
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2013
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ultrasound (US) has been an important diagnostic tool to identify several causes of gastrointestinal bleeding. Infants with cows milk allergy (CMA) may present hematochezia and the confirmation of the diagnosis can be difficult. The aim of this study is to describe grayscale and color Doppler ultrasound findings in patients with CMA.
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In vivo administration of VEGF- and GDNF-releasing biodegradable polymeric microspheres in a severe lesion model of Parkinsons disease.
Eur J Pharm Biopharm
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2013
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In this work, the neuroregenerative potentials of microencapsulated VEGF, GDNF and their combination on a severely lesioned rat model were compared with the aim of developing a new strategy to treat advanced stages of Parkinsons disease. Both neurotrophic factors were separately encapsulated into polymeric microspheres (MSs) to obtain a continuous drug release over time. The regenerative effects of these growth factors were evaluated using a rotation behaviour test and quantified by the number of surviving TH+cells. The biological activities of encapsulated vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) were investigated in HUVEC and PC12 cells, respectively. The treatment of 6-OHDA-lesioned rats with GDNF microspheres and with both VEGF and GDNF microspheres resulted in improved results in the rotation behaviour test. Both groups also showed higher levels of neuroregeneration/neuroreparation in the substantia nigra than the control group did. These results were confirmed by the pronounced TH+neuron recovery in the group receiving VEGF+GDNF-MS, demonstrating regenerative effects.
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Assessment of Osstell ISQs reliability for implant stability measurement: a cross-sectional clinical study.
Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2013
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Resonance frequency analysis (RFA) allows assess implant stability by measuring implant oscillation frequency on the bone. RFA is an objective and non-invasive method for implant stability measurement, although scarce evidence has been provided so far on its reliability. Objective: Assess the Osstell ISQ systems reliability (i.e., its measurement reproducibility and repeatability) by means of the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) as statistical method. Design of the Study: Two implant stability registers were completed by means of Osstell ISQ on 85 implants on 23 patients. Six measurements were completed on each implant by means of two different SmartPegs (types I and II); that is, three consecutive measurements with each transducer. Results: Average ISQ was 72.40, 72.22 and 72.79, and 72.06, 72.59 and 72.82 in the first, second, and third measurements with SmartPegs I and II, respectively. Equal values or differences below three ISQ points were observed in 52.9% and 62.4% of the cases with SmartPegs I and II, respectively. The intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.97 for both SmartPegs, and repeatability and reproducibility also reached 0.97 for both SmartPegs. Conclusions: The RFA system Osstell ISQ presents almost perfect repeatability and reproducibility after intraclass correlation coefficient analysis. Osstell ISQ measurements are highly reliable regarding reproducibility. Therefore, one measurement proves enough.
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Breast milk lead concentrations of mothers living near tin smelters.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol
PUBLISHED: 02-09-2013
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We compared Pb concentration in human milk from 37 mothers living in a neighborhood of tin-ore smelters to that from 45 mothers living in a fishing community. The median breast-milk-Pb (BM-Pb) concentration was significantly (p = 0.0000001) higher (11.3 ?g L(-1); ?0.96-29.4 ?g L(-1)) in mothers living in the vicinity of smelters than that of rural mothers (1.9 ?g L(-1); ?0.96-20.0 ?g L(-1)). These mothers also showed a statistically significant correlation between length of residence and BM-Pb concentration (Spearman r = 0.6864; p < 0.0001). The estimated median exposure (for infants <6 months) was 3.0 ?g kg(-1) b.w. for rural infants compared to 7.5 ?g kg(-1) b.w. for infants in the vicinity of metal smelters. Overall, most BM-Pb concentrations (79 %) in the metal smelter area were above the critical limit of 5.0 ?g L(-1) set by the WHO.
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White blood cell counts as risk markers of developing metabolic syndrome and its components in the PREDIMED study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2013
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The Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of metabolic abnormalities that includes hyperglucemia, hypertension, dyslipidemia and central obesity, conferring an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. The white blood cell (WBC) count has been proposed as a marker for predicting cardiovascular risk. However, few prospective studies have evaluated the relationship between WBC subtypes and risk of MetS.
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The human liver fatty acid binding protein (FABP1) gene is activated by FOXA1 and PPAR?; and repressed by C/EBP?: Implications in FABP1 down-regulation in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2013
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Liver fatty acid binding protein (FABP1) prevents lipotoxicity of free fatty acids and regulates fatty acid trafficking and partition. Our objective is to investigate the transcription factors controlling the human FABP1 gene and their regulation in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Adenovirus-mediated expression of multiple transcription factors in HepG2 cells and cultured human hepatocytes demonstrated that FOXA1 and PPAR? are among the most effective activators of human FABP1, whereas C/EBP? is a major dominant repressor. Moreover, FOXA1 and PPAR? induced re-distribution of FABP1 protein and increased cytoplasmic expression. Reporter assays demonstrated that the major basal activity of the human FABP1 promoter locates between -96 and -229bp, where C/EBP? binds to a composite DR1-C/EBP element. Mutation of this element at -123bp diminished basal reporter activity, abolished repression by C/EBP? and reduced transactivation by HNF4?. Moreover, HNF4? gene silencing by shRNA in HepG2 cells caused a significant down-regulation of FABP1 mRNA expression. FOXA1 activated the FABP1 promoter through binding to a cluster of elements between -229 and -592bp, whereas PPAR? operated through a conserved proximal element at -59bp. Finally, FABP1, FOXA1 and PPAR? were concomitantly repressed in animal models of NAFLD and in human nonalcoholic fatty livers, whereas C/EBP? was induced or did not change. We conclude that human FABP1 has a complex mechanism of regulation where C/EBP? displaces HNF4? and hampers activation by FOXA1 and PPAR?. Alteration of expression of these transcription factors in NAFLD leads to FABP1 gen repression and could exacerbate lipotoxicity and disease progression.
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Feeding patterns of molestus and pipiens forms of Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae) in a region of high hybridization.
Parasit Vectors
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2013
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Two biological forms of the mosquito Culex pipiens s.s., denoted pipiens and molestus, display behavioural differences that may affect their role as vectors of arboviruses. In this study, the feeding patterns of molestus and pipiens forms were investigated in Comporta (Portugal), where high levels of inter-form admixture have been recorded.
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Trivalent cations switch the selectivity in nanopores.
J Mol Model
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2013
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In this letter, we study the effect of cation charge on anion selectivity in the pore using grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations. The mechanism of anion selectivity inside nanopores was found to be primarily a consequence of the screening of negative charges by the cations. In the case of monovalent cations, screening was not very effective and anions were rejected. We found an off-state at high pH and an on-state at low pH. When there are divalent cations, screening is good and there is no rejection of the anion. The concentration of anions at high pH is similar to that at low pH. The system is always in an on-state. Trivalent cations show an inverse selectivity mechanism: at high pH the concentration is higher than at low pH, i.e., the pore is in the on-state at high pH and in the off-state at low pH.
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Liver stiffness predicts liver-related complications and mortality in HIV patients with chronic hepatitis C on antiretroviral therapy.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2013
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Liver disease is currently one of the leading causes of death in HIV individuals. Hepatic fibrosis largely mediates this effect and infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the most common cause. Few studies have examined so far the predictive value of liver fibrosis staging on mortality and liver decompensation in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients.
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Live birth from slow-frozen rabbit oocytes after in vivo fertilisation.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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In vivo fertilisation techniques such as intraoviductal oocyte transfer have been considered as alternatives to bypass the inadequacy of conventional in vitro fertilisation in rabbit. There is only one study in the literature, published in 1989, that reports live offspring from cryopreserved rabbit oocytes. The aim of the present study was to establish the in vivo fertilisation procedure to generate live offspring with frozen oocytes. First, the effect of two recipient models (i) ovariectomised or (ii) oviduct ligated immediately after transfer on the ability of fresh oocytes to fertilise were compared. Second, generation of live offspring from slow-frozen oocytes was carried out using the ligated oviduct recipient model. Throughout the experiment, recipients were artificially inseminated 9 hours prior to oocyte transfer. In the first experiment, two days after unilateral transfer of fresh oocytes, oviducts and uterine horns were flushed to assess embryo recovery rates. The embryo recovery rates were low compared to control in both ovariectomised and ligated oviduct groups. However, ligated oviduct recipient showed significantly (P<0.05) higher embryo recovery rates compared to ovariectomised and control-transferred. In the second experiment, using bilateral oviduct ligation model, all females that received slow-frozen oocytes became pregnant and delivered a total of 4 live young naturally. Thus, in vivo fertilisation is an effective technique to generate live offspring using slow-frozen oocytes in rabbits.
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Increased physical activity is not enough to recover astrocytic population from dark-rearing. Synergy with multisensory enrichment is required.
Front Cell Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Elimination of sensory inputs (deprivation) modifies the properties of the sensory cortex and serves as a model for studying plasticity during postnatal development. Many studies on the effects of deprivation have been performed in the visual cortex using dark-rearing as a visual deprivation model. It induces changes in all cellular and molecular components, including astrocytes, which play an important role in the development, maintenance, and plasticity of the cortex, mediated by cytokines which have been termed angioglioneurins. When one sense is deprived, a compensatory mechanism called cross-modal plasticity increases performance in the remaining senses. Environmental enrichment is so far the best-known method to compensate sensorial deprivation. The aim of this work is to study the effects of exercise alone, and of an enriched environment combined with exercise, on astroglial population in order to observe the effects of exercise by itself, or the potential synergistic effect during the rat visual system development. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were raised in one of the following rearing conditions: in total darkness and enriched environment conditions with physical exercise, and in total darkness with voluntary physical exercise. Astrocytic density was estimated by immunohistochemistry for S-100? protein and quantifications were performed in layer IV. The somatosensorial cortex barrel field was also studied as control. Our main result shows that an enriched environment combined with voluntary physical exercise manages to reverse the negative effects induced by darkness over the astroglial population of both the visual and the somatosensory cortices. On the other hand, exercise alone only produces effects upon the astroglial population of the somatosensory cortex, and less so when combined with an enriched environment.
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Pregnancy outcomes after kidney transplantation-immunosuppressive therapy comparison.
J. Matern. Fetal. Neonatal. Med.
PUBLISHED: 11-25-2011
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To assess maternal, neonatal and graft outcomes after pregnancy in patients with kidney transplantation, and to compare the immunosuppressive therapies used.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.