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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Vitamin E concentrations in adults with HIV/AIDS on highly active antiretroviral therapy.
Nutrients
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2014
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HIV/AIDS patients are probably more predisposed to vitamin E deficiency, considering that they are more exposed to oxidative stress. Additionally, there are an extensive number of drugs in the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) regimens that may interfere with vitamin E concentrations. The objective of this study was to compare serum concentrations of alpha-tocopherol in 182 HIV/AIDS patients receiving different HAART regimens. The patients were divided into three groups according to regimen: nucleoside analog reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) + non-nucleoside analog reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs); NRTIs + protease inhibitors + ritonavir; NRTIs + other classes. Alpha-tocopherol was assessed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to evaluate the effects of HAART regimen, time of use, and compliance with the regimen on alpha-tocopherol concentrations. Alpha-tocopherol concentrations were on average 4.12 ?mol/L lower for the NRTIs + other classes regimen when compared to the NRTIs + NNRTIs regimen (p = 0.037). A positive association (p < 0.001) was observed between alpha-tocopherol and cholesterol concentrations, a finding due, in part, to the relationship between liposoluble vitamins and lipid profile. This study demonstrated differences in alpha-tocopherol concentrations between patients using different HAART regimens, especially regimens involving the use of new drugs. Long-term prospective cohort studies are needed to monitor vitamin E status in HIV/AIDS patients since the beginning of treatment.
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Multifocal electroretinography after high dose chloroquine therapy for malaria.
J Ophthalmic Vis Res
PUBLISHED: 12-19-2013
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To investigate changes in multifocal electroretinography (mfERG) parameters associated with high dose chloroquine therapy for treatment of malaria in the Amazonia region of Brazil.
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Cellular and humoral immune responses against the Plasmodium vivax MSP-1?? malaria vaccine candidate in individuals living in an endemic area in north-eastern Amazon region of Brazil.
Malar. J.
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2013
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Plasmodium vivax merozoite surface protein-1 (MSP-1) is an antigen considered to be one of the leading malaria vaccine candidates. PvMSP-1 is highly immunogenic and evidences suggest that it is target for protective immunity against asexual blood stages of malaria parasites. Thus, this study aims to evaluate the acquired cellular and antibody immune responses against PvMSP-1 in individuals naturally exposed to malaria infections in a malaria-endemic area in the north-eastern Amazon region of Brazil.
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Patterns of rDNA and telomeric sequences diversification: contribution to repetitive DNA organization in Phyllostomidae bats.
Genetica
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2013
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Chromosomal organization and the evolution of genome architecture can be investigated by physical mapping of the genes for 45S and 5S ribosomal DNAs (rDNAs) and by the analysis of telomeric sequences. We studied 12 species of bats belonging to four subfamilies of the family Phyllostomidae in order to correlate patterns of distribution of heterochromatin and the multigene families for rDNA. The number of clusters for 45S gene ranged from one to three pairs, with exclusively location in autosomes, except for Carollia perspicillata that had in X chromosome. The 5S gene all the species studied had only one site located on an autosomal pair. In no species the 45S and 5S genes collocated. The fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) probe for telomeric sequences revealed fluorescence on all telomeres in all species, except in Carollia perspicillata. Non-telomeric sites in the pericentromeric region of the chromosomes were observed in most species, ranged from one to 12 pairs. Most interstitial telomeric sequences were coincident with heterochromatic regions. The results obtained in the present work indicate that different evolutionary mechanisms are acting in Phyllostomidae genome architecture, as well as the occurrence of Robertsonian fusion during the chromosomal evolution of bats without a loss of telomeric sequences. These data contribute to understanding the organization of multigene families and telomeric sequences on bat genome as well as the chromosomal evolutionary history of Phyllostomidae bats.
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Chromosomal evolution of rDNA and H3 histone genes in representative Romaleidae grasshoppers from northeast Brazil.
Mol Cytogenet
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2013
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Grasshoppers from the Romaleidae family are well distributed in the Neotropical Region and represent a diversified and multicolored group in which the karyotype is conserved. Few studies have been conducted to understand the evolutionary dynamics of multigene families. Here, we report the chromosomal locations of the 18S and 5S rDNA and H3 histone multigene families in four grasshopper species from the Romaleidae family, revealed by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH).
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Chromosomal diversification of diploid number, heterochromatin and rDNAs in two species of Phanaeus beetles (Scarabaeidae, Scarabaeinae).
Genet. Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2013
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The genus Phanaeus is included in the tribe Phanaeini, one of the most diverse tribes within the subfamily Scarabaeinae in terms of chromosomal characteristics. However, so far the species of this genus were not studied with differential cytogenetic techniques, limiting any inference of the probable mechanisms responsible for this diversity. In this work, several techniques were applied with the aim of cytogenetically characterizing two Phanaeus species. The karyotype found for Phanaeus (Notiophanaeus) chalcomelas was 2n = 12, neo-XY, and that of P. (N.) splendidulus was 2n = 20, Xyp, considered primitive for the family Scarabaeidae. The chromosomes of both species showed a high amount of constitutive heterochromatin (CH), with blocks rich in base pairs GC (CMA3 (+)). Moreover, in P. (N.) chalcomelas the marks revealed by C-banding and fluorochrome staining were different in size, showing CH variability. Sites of 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) were identified in one autosomal pair of P. (N.) chalcomelas and in five autosomal pairs of P. (N.) splendidulus. On the other hand, only one autosomal pair exhibited 5S rDNA sequences in these species. The results suggest that the karyotype differentiation of the Phanaeus species studied here involved pericentric inversions and centric fusions, as well as mechanisms related to amplification and dispersion of CH and rDNA sequences.
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Chromosome mapping of ribosomal genes and histone H4 in the genus Radacridium (Romaleidae).
Genet. Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2013
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In this study, two species of Romaleidae grasshoppers, Radacridium mariajoseae and R.nordestinum, were analyzed after CMA3/DA/DAPI sequential staining and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to determine the location of the 18S and 5S rDNA and histone H4 genes. Both species presented karyotypes composed of 2n = 23, X0 with exclusively acrocentric chromosomes. CMA3 (+) blocks were detected after CMA3/DA/DAPI staining in only one medium size autosome bivalent and in the X chromosome in R. mariajoseae. On the other hand, all chromosomes, except the L1 bivalent, of R. nordestinum presented CMA3 (+) blocks. FISH analysis showed that the 18S genes are restricted to the X chromosome in R. mariajoseae, whereas these genes were located in the L2, S9 and S10 autosomes in R. nordestinum. In R. mariajoseae, the 5S rDNA sites were localized in the in L1 and L2 bivalents and in the X chromosome. In R. nordestinum, the 5S genes were located in the L2, L3, M4 and M5 pairs. In both species the histone H4 genes were present in a medium size bivalent. Together, these data evidence a great variability of chromosome markers and show that the 18S and 5S ribosomal genes are dispersed in the Radacridium genome without a significant correlation.
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Molecular epidemiology of CTX-M producing Enterobacteriaceae isolated from bloodstream infections in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: emergence of CTX-M-15.
Braz J Infect Dis
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2013
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The present study was designed to evaluate the molecular epidemiology of CTX-M producing Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae and Escherichia coli isolated from bloodstream infections at tertiary care hospitals in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
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Group B Streptococcus in a cohort of HIV-infected pregnant women: prevalence of colonization, identification and antimicrobial susceptibility profile.
Scand. J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2011
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Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is a leading cause of infectious morbidity in newborns. We describe the prevalence of GBS colonization and the serotypes and antibiotic susceptibility profiles of isolates obtained from a cohort of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected pregnant women. This was a cross-sectional study at a centre for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV. Vaginal and rectal swabs were collected at 35-37 weeks of gestation from 158 eligible women. GBS isolates were serotyped and antimicrobial susceptibility tests performed. Patient sociodemographic characteristics, CD4 counts and viral loads were abstracted from records. The overall anogenital prevalence of GBS colonization was 49/158 (31.0%): 40/158 (25.3%) for vagina, 19/158 (12.0%) for rectum and 10/158 (6.3%) for both. Predominant serotypes were Ib (34.9%) and Ia (25.6%). All were penicillin-susceptible. Two were resistant to erythromycin (4.0%) and one to clindamycin (2.0%). The colonization rate by GBS was high in this cohort. Serotype Ib was the most frequently identified.
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Risk of overweight and obesity in preschoolers attending private and philanthropic schools.
Rev Assoc Med Bras
PUBLISHED: 04-27-2011
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To assess the risk prevalence of overweight and obesity in children enrolled in private and philanthropic preschools in the State of São Paulo.
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Comparative cytogenetic analysis of two grasshopper species of the tribe Abracrini (Ommatolampinae, Acrididae).
Genet. Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2011
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The grasshopper species Orthoscapheus rufipes and Eujivarus fusiformis were analyzed using several cytogenetic techniques. The karyotype of O. rufipes, described here for the first time, had a diploid number of 2n = 23, whereas E. fusiformis had a karyotype with 2n = 21. The two species showed the same mechanism of sex determination (XO type) but differed in chromosome morphology. Pericentromeric blocks of constitutive heterochromatin (CH) were detected in the chromosome complement of both species. CMA(3)/DA/DAPI staining revealed CMA(3)-positive blocks in CH regions in four autosomal bivalents of O. rufipes and in two of E. fusiformis. The location of active NORs differed between the two species, occurring in bivalents M(6) and S(9) of O. rufipes and M(6) and M(7) of E. fusiformsi. The rDNA sites revealed by FISH coincided with the number and position of the active NORs detected by AgNO(3) staining. The variability in chromosomal markers accounted for the karyotype differentiation observed in the tribe Abracrini.
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Trends in dermatomyositis- and polymyositis-related mortality in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, 1985-2007: multiple cause-of-death analysis.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 07-13-2010
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Dermatomyositis (DM) and polymyositis (PM) are rare systemic autoimmune rheumatic diseases with high fatality rates. There have been few population-based mortality studies of dermatomyositis and polymyositis in the world, and none have been conducted in Brazil. The objective of the present study was to employ multiple-cause-of-death methodology in the analysis of trends in mortality related to dermatomyositis and polymyositis in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, between 1985 and 2007.
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Influence of soy protein intake and weight training on the resting energy expenditure of postmenopausal women.
Rev Assoc Med Bras
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2010
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The main objective of this study was to assess the influence of soy protein intake and weight training on resting energy expenditure (REE) in postmenopausal women.
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Effectiveness of a supplementary feeding program in child weight gain.
Rev Saude Publica
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2010
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To evaluate the effectiveness of a governmental supplementary feeding program in child weight gain.
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Cytogenetic analysis of two Coprophanaeus species (Scarabaeidae) revealing wide constitutive heterochromatin variability and the largest number of 45S rDNA sites among Coleoptera.
Micron
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2010
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The Coleopterans of Scarabaeinae clade presents Coprophanaeus (Megaphanaeus) ensifer and C. (Coprophanaeus) cyanescens (Scarabaeidae) when they are studied cytogenetically by different techniques. The species present symmetric karyotypes, diploid number of 2n=20, and meta-submetacentric chromosomes. C. (M.) ensifer present an XY sex-determining mechanism and C. (C.) cyanescens an XY(p) parachute mechanism. Analysis of constitutive heterochromatin (CH) in the two species revealed the presence of diphasic autosomes, with log arm heterochromatics. Moreover, an additional heterochromatic block in four autosomal bivalents were observed in C. (M.) ensifer. CMA(3)/DA/DAPI fluorochrome staining detected CMA(3) positive heterochromatic blocks restricted to the sex chromosomes in C. (C.) cyanescens, whereas in C. (M.) ensifer CMA(3) positive pericentromeric blocks were present in all autosomes, in the Y chromosome and in the four additional heterochromatic blocks. DAPI staining was neutral in both species. Silver nitrate (AgNO(3)) staining was inefficient for the detection of the nucleolar organizer region (NORs), but showed affinity for the heterochromatic regions. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) revealed the presence of 45S rDNA sites in the terminal region of the three autosomal bivalents of C. (C.) cyanescens and in seven bivalents and the Y chromosome of C. (M.) ensifer. These results contribute to a better understanding of chromosome evolution in the genus Coprophanaeus, and demonstrate a wide CH variability and the largest number of ribosomal sites among Coleoptera.
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Health-related quality of life and working conditions among nursing providers.
Rev Saude Publica
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2010
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To evaluate working conditions associated with health-related quality of life (HRQL) among nursing providers.
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Mercury exposure, serum antinuclear/antinucleolar antibodies, and serum cytokine levels in mining populations in Amazonian Brazil: a cross-sectional study.
Environ. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2010
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Mercury is an immunotoxic substance that has been shown to induce autoimmune disease in rodent models, characterized by lymphoproliferation, overproduction of immunoglobulin (IgG and IgE), and high circulating levels of auto-antibodies directed at antigens located in the nucleus (antinuclear auto-antibodies, or ANA) or the nucleolus (antinucleolar auto-antibodies, or ANoA). We have reported elevated levels of ANA and ANoA in human populations exposed to mercury in artisanal gold mining, though other confounding variables that may also modulate ANA/ANoA levels were not well controlled. The goal of this study is to specifically test whether occupational and environmental conditions (other than mercury exposure) that are associated with artisanal gold mining affect the prevalence of markers of autoimmune dysfunction. We measured ANA, ANoA, and cytokine concentrations in serum and compared results from mercury-exposed artisanal gold miners to those from diamond and emerald miners working under similar conditions and with similar socio-economic status and risks of infectious disease. Mercury-exposed gold miners had higher prevalence of detectable ANA and ANoA and higher titers of ANA and ANoA as compared to diamond and emerald miners with no occupational mercury exposure. Also, mercury-exposed gold miners with detectable ANA or ANoA in serum had significantly higher concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, and IFN-gamma in serum as compared to the diamond and emerald miners. This study provides further evidence that mercury exposure may lead to autoimmune dysfunction and systemic inflammation in affected populations.
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The relationship between cortisol concentrations in pregnancy and systemic vascular resistance in childhood.
Early Hum. Dev.
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2010
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To assess the relationship between cortisol concentrations in the last trimester of pregnancy and systemic vascular resistance - SVR in childhood.
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The influence of birthweight on arterial blood pressure of children.
Clin Nutr
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2010
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This study examined the relationship between birthweight and blood pressure in childhood.
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Cardiovascular mortality by gender and age range in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil: 1996 to 1998, and 2003 to 2005.
Arq. Bras. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2009
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Knowledge on the trends of cardiovascular mortality is important to make hypotheses on its occurrence as well as to support prevention and control measures.
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Characterisation of pvmdr1 and pvdhfr genes associated with chemoresistance in Brazilian Plasmodium vivax isolates.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2009
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Plasmodium vivax control is now being hampered by drug resistance. Orthologous Plasmodium falciparum genes linked to chloroquine or sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine chemoresistance have been identified in P. vivax parasites, but few studies have been performed. The goal of the present work is to characterise pvmdr1 and pvdhfr genes in parasite isolates from a Brazilian endemic area where no molecular investigation had been previously conducted. The pvmdr1 analysis revealed the existence of single (85.7%) and double (14.3%) mutant haplotypes, while the pvdhfr examination showed the presence of double (57.2%) and triple (42.8%) mutant haplotypes. The implications of these findings are discussed.
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Amplification of repetitive DNA and origin of a rare chromosomal sex bivalent in Deltochilum (Calhyboma) verruciferum (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae).
Genetica
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2009
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The most intriguing karyotypic variation in the Coleoptera involves variation in sex chromosome structure, origin and behavior. In this report we describe chromosomal characteristics of Deltochilum (Calhyboma) verruciferum (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae) using conventional and differential cytogenetic techniques, with emphasis on the description of a rare sex bivalent in the Coleoptera and dispersion of repetitive DNA. This species shows 2n = 20,XY(p) with biarmed chromosomes. Analysis of constitutive heterochromatin through C-banding revealed mainly diphasic autosomes with short heterochromatic arms, while the X was completely heterochromatic and the Y was heterochromatic in the long arm. This pattern was confirmed through the use of CMA(3) fluorochrome that stained all heterochromatic regions. Silver nitrate staining marked all heterochromatic regions and the lumen of the sex bivalent in metaphase I. These results indicated that karyotypic differentiation in D. (C.) verruciferum involved autosomal amplification and dispersion of repetitive DNA and the origin of unusual sex chromosomes (XY(p)), generating a unique karyotype in this species.
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Comparative cytogenetic analysis between Lonchorhina aurita and Trachops cirrhosus (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae).
Genet. Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2009
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Phyllostomidae comprises the most diverse family of neotropical bats, its wide range of morphological features leading to uncertainty regarding phylogenetic relationships. Seeing that cytogenetics is one of the fields capable of providing support for currently adopted classifications through the use of several markers, a comparative analysis between two Phyllostomidae species was undertaken in the present study, with a view to supplying datasets for the further establishment of Phyllostomidae evolutionary relationships. Karyotypes of Lonchorhina aurita (2n = 32; FN = 60) and Trachops cirrhosus (2n = 30; FN = 56) were analyzed by G- and C-banding, silver nitrate staining (Ag-NOR) and base-specific fluorochromes. Chromosomal data obtained for both species are in agreement with those previously described, except for X chromosome morphology in T. cirrhosus, hence indicating chromosomal geographical variation in this species. A comparison of G-banding permitted the identification of homeologies in nearly all the chromosomes. Furthermore, C-banding and Ag-NOR patterns were comparable to what has already been observed in the family. In both species CMA(3) /DA/DAPI staining revealed an R-banding-like pattern with CMA (3) , whereas DAPI showed uniform staining in all the chromosomes. Fluorochrome staining patterns for pericentromeric constitutive heterochromatin (CH) regions, as well as for nucleolar organizing regions (NORs), indicated heterogeneity regarding these sequences among Phyllostomidae species.
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Comparative cytogenetics of three species of Dichotomius (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae).
Genet. Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 05-10-2009
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Meiotic and mitotic chromosomes of Dichotomius nisus, D. semisquamosus and D. sericeus were analyzed after conventional staining, C-banding and silver nitrate staining. In addition, Dichotomius nisus and D. semisquamosus chromosomes were also analyzed after fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with an rDNA probe. The species analyzed had an asymmetrical karyotype with 2n = 18 and meta-submetacentric chromosomes. The sex determination mechanism was of the Xy(p) type in D. nisus and D. semisquamosus and of the Xy (r) type in D. sericeus. C-banding revealed the presence of pericentromeric blocks of constitutive heterochromatin (CH) in all the chromosomes of the three species. After silver staining, the nucleolar organizer regions (NORs) were located in autosomes of D. semisquamosus and D. sericeus and in the sexual bivalent of D. nisus. FISH with an rDNA probe confirmed NORs location in D. semisquamosus and in D. nisus. Our results suggest that chromosome inversions and fusions occurred during the evolution of the group.
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Analysis of genetic variability of Plasmodium vivax isolates from different Brazilian Amazon areas using tandem repeats.
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2009
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Few genetic markers have been described to analyze populations of Plasmodium vivax. The genetic variability of P. vivax has been analyzed mainly among isolates taken from areas ranging from hyper- to holoendemic areas. These studies of genetic variability have neglected many areas with different epidemiologic profiles. The purpose of this study was to analyze the genetic variability of P. vivax isolates from four different Brazilian Amazon areas. We chose to study the five most polymorphic tandem repeats (TRs) identified so far. All TRs studied were polymorphic in at least one studied population, with a modal allele at nearly all loci. Expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.462 to 0.666 and did not correlate with the repeat array length. The genetic distances among the populations varied from 0.027 to 0.241, and did not correlate with their geographic separation. Tandem repeats identified in P. vivax isolates failed to allow geographic clustering.
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Prevalence of arterial hypertension in young military personnel and associated factors.
Rev Saude Publica
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2009
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To estimate the prevalence of arterial hypertension among young military personnel and associated factors.
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Chloroquine and sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine sensitivity of Plasmodium falciparum parasites in a Brazilian endemic area.
Malar. J.
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2009
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The goal of the present study was the characterization of Plasmodium falciparum genes associated to malaria drug resistance (pfcrt, pfdhfr and pfdhps), in samples from two Brazilian localities.
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Breastfeeding, complementary feeding, overweight and obesity in pre-school children.
Rev Saude Publica
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2009
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To analyze the association of overweight and obesity with breastfeeding and complementary feeding in pre-school children.
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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.