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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Analysis of multiple internal reflections in a parallel aligned liquid crystal on silicon SLM.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2014
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Multiple internal reflection effects on the optical modulation of a commercial reflective parallel-aligned liquid-crystal on silicon (PAL-LCoS) spatial light modulator (SLM) are analyzed. The display is illuminated with different wavelengths and different angles of incidence. Non-negligible Fabry-Perot (FP) effect is observed due to the sandwiched LC layer structure. A simplified physical model that quantitatively accounts for the observed phenomena is proposed. It is shown how the expected pure phase modulation response is substantially modified in the following aspects: 1) a coupled amplitude modulation, 2) a non-linear behavior of the phase modulation, 3) some amount of unmodulated light, and 4) a reduction of the effective phase modulation as the angle of incidence increases. Finally, it is shown that multiple reflections can be useful since the effect of a displayed diffraction grating is doubled on a beam that is reflected twice through the LC layer, thus rendering gratings with doubled phase modulation depth.
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[Hepatic artery pseudoaneurysm: report of two cases].
Cir Cir
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2014
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Hepatic pseudoaneurysm is rare and potentially fatal. It occurs as a consequence of injury to the vascular wall, erosion diathermy through clips, biliary leakage and secondary infection. The main symptom is intra-abdominal bleeding.
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Dual diagnosis resource needs in Spain: a national survey of professionals.
J Dual Diagn
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2014
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Since provision of integrated services for patients with dual pathology or dual disorders (coexistence of an addictive disorder and another mental health disorder) is an important challenge in mental health, this study assessed health care professionals' perceptions and knowledge of the current state of specific resources for patients with dual pathology in Spain.
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Is Sphere Assay Useful for the Identification of Cancer Initiating Cells of the Ovary?
Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 11-04-2014
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Current evidence suggests that the presence of tumor-initiating cells (TICs) in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) has a role in chemoresistance and relapse. Surface markers such as CD44/CD24, CD117, and CD133 expression have been reported as potential markers for TICs related to ovarian cancer and tumorigenic cell lines. In this study, we have investigated if spheroid forms are TIC specific or whether they can also be produced by somatic stem cells from healthy tissue in vitro. In addition, we also investigated the specificity of surface markers to identify TICs from papillary serous EOC patients.
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[The effects of methylmercury on health in children and adults; national and international studies].
Nutr Hosp
PUBLISHED: 11-04-2014
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The benefit of fish consumption in children and adults is well-known. However, it has been pointed out that excessive methylmercury intake due to consumption of contaminated fish leads to neurological toxicity in children, affecting cognitive function, memory, visual-motor function and language. After the intoxications in Minamata and Iraq, wide-ranging epidemiological studies were carried out in New Zealand, the Faroe Islands and the Seychelles and international recommendations were established for fish consumption in pregnant women and small children. In Spain, the Childhood and Environmental project (INMA, its Spanish acronym) has studied the effects of diet and the environment on fetal and childhood development in different geographic areas of Spain. National and international sudies have demonstrated that mercury concentrations are mainly dependent on fish consumption, although there are variations among countries which can be explained not only by the levels of fish consumption, but also by the type or species of fish that is consumed, as well as other factors. Although the best documented adverse effects of methylmercury are the effects on nervous sytem development in fetuses and newborns, an increasing number of studies indicate that cognitive function, reproduction and, especially, cardiovascular risk in the adult population can also be affected. However, more studies are necessary in order to confirm this and establish the existance of a causal relationship.
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[Methylmercury exposure in the general population; toxicokinetics; differences by gender, nutritional and genetic factors].
Nutr Hosp
PUBLISHED: 11-04-2014
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Mercury is an environmental toxicant that causes numerous adverse effects on human health and natural ecosystems. The factors that determine the existance of adverse effects, as well as their severity are, among others: the chemical form of mercury (elemental, inorganic, organic), dosis, age, period of exposure, pathways of exposure and environmental, nutritional and genetic factors. In the aquatic cycle of mercury, once it has been deposited, it is transformed into methylmercury due to the action of certain sulphate-reducing bacteria, which bioaccumulates in the aquatic organisms and moves into the food chain. The methylmercury content of large, long-lived fish such as swordfish, shark, tuna or marlin, is higher. Methylmercury binds to protein in fish and is therefore not eliminated by cleaning or cooking the fish. Fetuses and small children are more vulnerable to the neurotoxic effects of methylmercury from the consumption of contaminated fish. Methylmercury is absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract and crosses the blood-brain barrier and the placenta. The intake of certain dietary components such as polyunsaturated fatty acids, selenium, fiber, thiol compounds, certain phytochemicals and other nutrients can modify methylmercury bioaccesibility and its toxicity. Apart from environmental factors, genetic factors can influence mercury toxicity and explain part of the individual vulnerability.
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Optical retarder system with programmable spectral retardance.
Opt Lett
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2014
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An optical system that works as a retarder waveplate with programmable spectral retardance is proposed. The system is based on a pixelated liquid crystal on silicon (LCoS) spatial light modulator (SLM). The input light beam is spectrally dispersed and different spectral components are projected onto different pixels of the LCoS-SLM. A different retardance is then addressed for each pixel, adapted to the incoming wavelength. Light reflected from the SLM is then recombined by the same setup. In this way a programmable polarization spectrum can be encoded. We illustrate the broadband characterization that is required for proper use of the system. Then several examples are shown, including spectral compensation to yield retarders with constant retardance, retarders with abrupt changes in the spectral retardance function, or bandpass variable retarder filters. The system is also demonstrated to provide programmable light spectrum generation.
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Virus-Induced Alterations in Primary Metabolism Modulate Susceptibility to Tobacco rattle virus in Arabidopsis.
Plant Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2014
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During compatible virus infections, plants respond by reprogramming gene expression and metabolite accumulation. While gene expression studies are profuse, our knowledge of the metabolic changes that occur in the presence of the virus is limited. Here we combine gene expression and metabolite profiling in Arabidopsis thaliana infected with Tobacco rattle virus (TRV) in order to investigate the influence of primary metabolism on virus infection. Our results revealed that primary metabolism is reconfigured in many ways during TRV infection, as reflected by significant changes in the levels of sugars and amino acids. Multivariate data analysis revealed that these alterations were particularly conspicuous at the time points of maximal accumulation of TRV although infection time was the dominant source of variance during the process. Furthermore, TRV caused changes in lipid and fatty acid (FA) composition in infected leaves. We found that several Arabidopsis mutants deficient in branched-chain amino acid catabolism or fatty acid metabolism possessed altered susceptibility to TRV. Finally, we showed that increments in the putrescine content in TRV-infected plants correlated with enhanced tolerance to freezing stress in TRV-infected plants, and that impairment of putrescine biosynthesis promoted virus multiplication. Our results thus provide an interesting overview for a better understanding of the relationship between primary metabolism and virus infection.
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Are Modic Changes Able to Help us in Our Clinical Practice? A Study of the Modic Changes in Young Adults During Working Age.
J Spinal Disord Tech
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2014
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Modic changes (VESC, Vertebral Endplate Spinal Changes) have been related to degenerative disc disease, and in past decades it was thought that their presence justified the surgical treatment, in particular spinal fusion.
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The Icare-Pro Rebound Tonometer Versus the Hand-held Applanation Tonometer in Congenital Glaucoma.
J. Glaucoma
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2014
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To compare intraocular pressure (IOP) measurements obtained using the new rebound tonometer Icare-Pro and the hand-held version of Goldmann Applanation Tonometer (Perkins tonometer) in children with primary congenital glaucoma (PCG) under general anesthesia.
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The antibacterial and antifungal activity of essential oils extracted from Guatemalan medicinal plants.
Pharm Biol
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2014
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Abstract Context: Essential oils are prevalent in many medicinal plants used for oral hygiene and treatment of diseases. Objective: Medicinal plant species were extracted to determine the essential oil content. Those producing sufficient oil were screened for activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus acidophilus, and Candida albicans. Materials and methods: Plant samples were collected, frozen, and essential oils were extracted by steam distillation. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were determined using a tube dilution assay for those species yielding sufficient oil. Results: Fifty-nine of the 141 plant species produced sufficient oil for collection and 12 species not previously reported to produce essential oils were identified. Essential oil extracts from 32 species exhibited activity against one or more microbes. Oils from eight species were highly inhibitory to S. mutans, four species were highly inhibitory to C. albicans, and 19 species yielded MIC values less than the reference drugs. Discussion: Results suggest that 11 species were highly inhibitory to the microbes tested and merit further investigation. Oils from Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume (Lauraceae), Citrus aurantiifolia (Christm.) Swingle (Rutaceae), Lippia graveolens Kunth (Verbenaceae), and Origanum vulgare L. (Lamiaceae) yielded highly significant or moderate activity against all microbes and have potential as antimicrobial agents. Conclusion: Teas prepared by decoction or infusion are known methods for extracting essential oils. Oils from 11 species were highly active against the microbes tested and merit investigation as to their potential for addressing health-related issues and in oral hygiene.
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What Differentiates Symptomatic from Asymptomatic Women with Lichen Sclerosus?
Gynecol. Obstet. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2014
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Aims: To investigate the differences between symptomatic and asymptomatic women with vulvar lichen sclerosus (LS). Methods: Data on file concerning 228 LS patients was retrospectively reviewed. Results: Most patients were symptomatic (193/228; 85%). Worsening of symptoms related to specific food intake was experienced by 26% (48/182) and pork was the most frequently cited (25/48; 52%); worsening at night was reported by 47% (87/185). Being over 50 years at the time of diagnosis or being menopausal were associated with being symptomatic (RR = 2.47, 95% CI: 1.15-5.29 and 6.55, 2.05-20.91, respectively). The same was true for urinary incontinence (UI) (5.23, 1.78-15.42), the use of absorbents (without UI) (3.59, 1.05-12.34) and dyspareunia (5.28, 1.64-17.0). All patients with a family history of LS were symptomatic. There was no association with hormonal factors or specific vulvar anatomical changes. Conclusions: Pork consumption may be involved in the worsening of symptoms. UI and the use of absorbents are more commonly present in symptomatic LS patients. Dietary changes and correction of UI might be useful in the control of LS symptoms. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
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MitoBlue: A Nontoxic and Photostable Blue-Emitting Dye That Selectively Labels Functional Mitochondria.
ACS Chem. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2014
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We report the discovery of a fluorogenic dye, N(1),N(3)-di(2-aminidonaphthalen-6-yl) propane-1,3-diamine, MitoBlue, which selectively stains functional mitochondria while displaying low toxicity, bright blue emission, and high resistance to photobleaching. Additionally, we show that a biotin-labeled MitoBlue derivative can be used as a handle for the delivery of streptavidin-tagged species to the mitochondria.
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Flexible polarimeter architecture based on a birefringent grating.
Appl Opt
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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A polarimeter architecture is presented based on a birefringent grating displayed onto a parallel-aligned liquid crystal (LC) on silicon display (PAL-LCoS). The system is compact and flexible, since the size of the image can be adjusted by means of the period of the grating. The LCoS grating permits simultaneously measuring two orthogonal states of polarization (SOPs). By adding a wave plate, different couples of orthogonal SOPs can be detected. First, a basic proof of concept is presented using one quarter-wave and one half-wave plate with fixed retardances, which permit measuring the six SOPs classically used in polarimetry (linear states at 0°, 45°, 90°, and 135°, and R and L circular states). Next, the system is made fully programmable by incorporating a variable LC retarder (LCR). The LCR orientation and retardance values are optimized by means of the condition number indicator, in order to provide equivalent optimal accuracy. Experimental results of calibration images and test images are presented, showing the potentials of this architecture.
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Self-assembly of kagome lattices, entangled webs and linear fibers with vibrating patchy particles in two dimensions.
Soft Matter
PUBLISHED: 10-16-2014
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A vibrating version of patchy particles in two dimensions is introduced to study self-assembly of kagome lattices, disordered networks of looping structures, and linear arrays. Discontinuous molecular dynamics simulations in the canonical ensemble are used to characterize the molecular architectures and thermodynamic conditions that result in each of those morphologies, as well as the time evolution of lattice formation. Several versions of the new model are tested and analysed in terms of their ability to produce kagome lattices. Due to molecular flexibility, particles with just attractive sites adopt a polarized-like configuration and assemble into linear arrays. Particles with additional repulsive sites are able to form kagome lattices, but at low temperature connect as entangled webs. Abundance of hexagonal motifs, required for the kagome lattice, is promoted even for very small repulsive sites but hindered when the attractive range is large. Differences in behavior between the new flexible model and previous ones based on rigid bodies offer opportunities to test and develop theories about the relative stability, kinetics of formation and mechanical response of the observed morphologies.
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The effects of healing abutments of different size and anatomic shape placed immediately in extraction sockets on peri-implant hard and soft tissues. A pilot study in foxhound dogs.
Clin Oral Implants Res
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2014
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The aim of this animal study was to compare the effects of narrow, concave-straight and wide anatomic healing abutments on changes to soft tissues and crestal bone levels around implants immediately placed into extraction sockets in foxhound dogs.
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Rendezvous technique for the treatment of complete common bile duct transection after multiple hepatobiliary surgeries.
J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
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Abstract Common bile duct (CBD) injury during surgical procedures is a serious complication. Partial injury can usually be managed by a combination of percutaneous and/or endoscopic techniques. However, the management of complete transection of the CBD is very challenging. There are small case series of nonsurgical management of complete CBD transection during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. In this particular case, a 55-year-old female patient had multiple operations because of malignant pheochromocytoma with liver metastases. She developed a complete CBD transection during right hepatectomy. A biloma was managed with image-guided percutaneous drainage. However, both attempts of percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC) and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) for CBD stent were unsuccessful, as the native CBD was partially resected during the injury. A rendezvous procedure, in which a guidewire was placed through the distal CBD and into a biloma by ERCP and subsequently snared with PTC, allowed for a biliary-duodenal catheter to be placed successfully and achieve continuity of the patient's biliary tree.
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What do portuguese women prefer regarding vaginal products? Results from a cross-sectional web-based survey.
Pharmaceutics
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2014
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Therapeutic outcomes of vaginal products depend not only on their ability to deliver drugs to or through the vagina but also on acceptability and correct use. Women's preferences, in turn, may vary according to age and cultural backgrounds. In this work, an anonymous online survey was completed by 2529 Portuguese women to assess their preferences for physical characteristics and mode of application of vaginal products, according to age. Additionally, intention to use and misconceptions about these issues were assessed. The majority of women of all age groups would use vaginal products to treat or prevent diseases, upon medical prescription. Women preferred vaginal products to be odorless and colorless gels, creams and ointments composed by natural origin drugs/excipients and applied by means of an applicator. Although the majority of women would prefer not to insert any product in the vagina, intention to use for self and recommendation to use for others was associated with previous experiences with vaginal products. General concerns and misconceptions related to use of vaginal products were rare. These data may contribute to the development of products that women are more prone to use.
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The influence of Mediterranean, carbohydrate and high protein diets on gut microbiota composition in the treatment of obesity and associated inflammatory state.
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2014
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The role of the gut microbiota in understanding the onset and development of obesity is gaining importance. Dietary strategies are the main tool employed to counteract obesity, and nowadays they are focused on a wide range of different aspects of diet and not only on calorie restriction. Additionally, diet is known to be a major factor influencing modification of the gut microbiota. Therefore the influence of both macronutrient and micronutrient content of any dietary strategy to treat obesity on gut bacterial composition should now be taken into consideration, in addition to energy restriction. This review aims to collect the available data regarding the influence of different dietary components on gut microbiota in relation to obesity and inflammatory states in humans. Although more work is needed, specific dietary factors (carbohydrate, protein and Mediterranean foods) have been shown to have an influence on the gut microbiome composition, meaning that there is an opportunity to prevent and treat obesity based on microbiota outcomes.
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Polymethacrylate monoliths with immobilized poly-3-mercaptopropyl methylsiloxane film for high-coverage surface functionalization by thiol-ene click reaction.
J Chromatogr A
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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In this work, new polythiol-functionalized macroporous monolithic polymethacrylate-polysiloxane composite materials are presented which can be useful substrates for highly efficient immobilization of (chiral) catalysts, chromatographic ligands, and other functional moieties by thiol-ene click reaction. Poly(glycidyl methacrylate-co-ethylene dimethacrylate) (poly(GMA-co-EDMA)) monoliths were coated with a poly-3-mercaptopropyl methylsiloxane (PMPMS) film and subsequently the polymer was covalently immobilized by formation of crosslinks via nucleophilic substitution reaction with pendent 2,3-epoxypropyl groups on the monolith surface. This monolith, though, showed similar levels of surface coverage as a reference monolith obtained by opening of the epoxide groups with sodium hydrogen sulfide. However, a 3-step functionalization by amination of the epoxy monolith, followed by its vinylation with allylglycidyl ether and subsequent thiolation by coating of a thin polythiol (PMPMS) film and crosslinking by click reaction furnished a monolith with more than 2-fold elevated thiol coverage. Its further functionalization with a clickable chiral quinine carbamate selector clearly documented the benefit of highly dense thiol surfaces for such reactions and synthesis of functional materials with proper ligand loadings. The new monoliths were chromatographically tested in capillary electrochromatography mode using N-3,5-dinitrobenzoyl-leucine as chiral probe and the capillary column with the monolith having the highest selector coverage, produced from the precursor with the most thiols on the surface, showed the largest separation factor. By performic acid oxidation the surface characteristic could be tuned and strongly altered due to a delicate balance of enantioselective and non-specific interactions.
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Comparative serology techniques for the diagnosis of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in a rural population from the state of Querétaro, Mexico.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2014
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Immunological diagnostic methods for Trypanosoma cruzi depend specifically on the presence of antibodies and parasitological methods lack sensitivity during the chronic and "indeterminate" stages of the disease. This study performed a serological survey of 1,033 subjects from 52 rural communities in 12 of the 18 municipalities in the state of Querétaro, Mexico. We detected anti-T. cruzi antibodies using the following tests: indirect haemagglutination assay (IHA), indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA), ELISA and recombinant ELISA (rELISA). We also performed Western blot (WB) analysis using iron superoxide dismutase (FeSOD), a detoxifying enzyme excreted by the parasite, as the antigen. Positive test results were distributed as follows: ELISA 8%, rELISA 6.2%, IFA and IHA 5.4% in both cases and FeSOD 8%. A comparative study of the five tests was undertaken. Sensitivity levels, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, concordance percentage and kappa index were considered. Living with animals, trips to other communities, gender, age, type of housing and symptomatology at the time of the survey were statistically analysed using SPSS software v.11.5. Detection of the FeSOD enzyme that was secreted by the parasite and used as an antigenic fraction in WBs showed a 100% correlation with traditional ELISA tests.
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Over the sands and far away: Interpreting an Iberian mitochondrial lineage with ancient Western African origins.
Am. J. Hum. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2014
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There is an ongoing effort to characterize the genetic links between Africa and Europe, mostly using lineages and haplotypes that are specific to one continent but had an ancient origin in the other. Mitochondrial DNA has been proven to be a very useful tool for this purpose since a high number of putatively European-specific variants of the African L* lineages have been defined over the years. Due to their geographic locations, Spain and Portugal seem to be ideal places for searching for these lineages.
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Characterization of commercially available vaginal lubricants: a safety perspective.
Pharmaceutics
PUBLISHED: 07-21-2014
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Vaginal lubricants are widely used by women to help solve intercourse difficulties or as enhancers, but recent reports raise questions about their safety. Twelve commercially available gel products were tested for pH value, pH buffering capacity, osmolality and cytotoxicity relevant to vaginal delivery. Obtained data were analyzed in light of the recent Advisory Note by the World Health Organization (WHO) for personal lubricants to be concomitantly used with condoms. Results showed that most products do not comply with pH and osmolality recommended standards, thus posing a potential hazard. Four products presented values of osmolality around three-times higher than the maximum acceptable limit of 1200 mOsm/kg. In vitro cell testing further identified substantial cytotoxicity even at 1:100 dilutions for three products, contrasting with no significant effect of up to at least a 1:5 dilution of a Universal Placebo gel. However, no direct correlation between these last results and pH or osmolality was found, thus suggesting that the individual toxicity of specific formulation components plays an important role in the outcome of a particular product. Although further assessment is required, these results highlight potential safety issues related to the formulation of commercially available vaginal lubricants.
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Programmed stereoselective assembly of DNA-binding helical metallopeptides.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2014
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A flexible and versatile synthetic approach for the construction of water-stable DNA-binding chiral peptide helicates based on the solid phase peptide synthesis (SPPS) methodology is reported.
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Relationships among gene expression and anthocyanin composition of Malbec grapevine clones.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
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Anthocyanin profiles are commonly used for grapevine cultivar identification because it is currently accepted that this trait is closely related to their genetic characteristics. Nevertheless, the extent of the variation for the anthocyanin profiles among clones of the same cultivar has not yet been studied in depth. The relative concentration of anthocyanins of 131 Malbec clones grown in the same vineyard was investigated by HPLC-DAD and the use of comprehensive statistic procedures. Complementarily, the expression level of structural and regulatory genes was studied via real time polymerase chain reaction. Significant variation was identified among the profiles of the clones, mainly due to variations in the amounts of malvidin derivatives. Finally, the differential expression in F3'5'H, OMT1 and AM2 genes seems to be related to the malvidin content variation. This work shows the existence of variation for the anthocyanin profiles among clones from the same grapevine cultivar and the putative involvement of genes related to hydroxylation, methylation, and transport of anthocyanins on the basis of such variation.
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Dietary and health profiles of Spanish women in preconception, pregnancy and lactation.
Nutrients
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2014
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The nutritional status and lifestyle of women in preconception, pregnancy and lactation determine maternal, fetal and child health. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate dietary patterns and lifestyles according the perinatal physiological status in a large sample of Spanish women. Community pharmacists that were previously trained to collect the data recruited 13,845 women. General information, anthropometric measurements, physical activity, unhealthy habits and dietary data were assessed using a validated questionnaire. Mean values and percentages were used as descriptive statistics. The t-test, ANOVA or chi-squared test were used to compare groups. A score that included dietary and behavioral characteristics was generated to compare lifestyles in the three physiological situations. The analysis revealed that diet quality should be improved in the three stages, but in a different manner. While women seeking a pregnancy only met dairy recommendations, those who were pregnant only fulfilled fresh fruits servings and lactating women only covered protein group requirements. In all cases, the consumption allowances of sausages, buns and pastries were exceeded. Food patterns and unhealthy behaviors of Spanish women in preconception, pregnancy and lactation should be improved, particularly in preconception. This information might be useful in order to implement educational programs for each population group.
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A function of SmeDEF, the major quinolone resistance determinant of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, is the colonization of plant roots.
Appl. Environ. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2014
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Quinolones are synthetic antibiotics, and the main cause of resistance to these antimicrobials is mutation of the genes encoding their targets. However, in contrast to the case for other organisms, such mutations have not been found in quinolone-resistant Stenotrophomonas maltophilia isolates, in which overproduction of the SmeDEF efflux pump is a major cause of quinolone resistance. SmeDEF is chromosomally encoded and highly conserved in all studied S. maltophilia strains; it is an ancient element that evolved over millions of years in this species. It thus seems unlikely that its main function would be resistance to quinolones, a family of synthetic antibiotics not present in natural environments until the last few decades. Expression of SmeDEF is tightly controlled by the transcriptional repressor SmeT. Our work shows that plant-produced flavonoids can bind to SmeT, releasing it from smeDEF and smeT operators. Antibiotics extruded by SmeDEF do not impede the binding of SmeT to DNA. The fact that plant-produced flavonoids specifically induce smeDEF expression indicates that they are bona fide effectors regulating expression of this resistance determinant. Expression of efflux pumps is usually downregulated unless their activity is needed. Since smeDEF expression is triggered by plant-produced flavonoids, we reasoned that this efflux pump may have a role in the colonization of plants by S. maltophilia. Our results showed that, indeed, deletion of smeE impairs S. maltophilia colonization of plant roots. Altogether, our results indicate that quinolone resistance is a recent function of SmeDEF and that colonization of plant roots is likely one original function of this efflux pump.
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Benefits of awake uniportal pulmonary resection in a patient with a previous contralateral lobectomy.
Ann Transl Med
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2014
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Surgical resection of a contralateral recurrence of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is indicated in patients without evidence of disseminated disease and considered functionally operable. General anesthesia and double-lumen intubation involves one lobe ventilation in a patient treated with a previous lobectomy, thus increasing the risks of ventilator-induced injuries and the morbidity. Awake procedures facilitate the surgery decreasing the anesthetic and surgical times, keeping the diaphragm motion and diminishing the ventilator-induced injuries into the remaining contralateral lobe. We present a 43-year-old woman with a previous left-lower lobectomy for a 3.1-cm mucinous adenocarcinoma 15 months before without nodal involvement, who presents a right-lower lobe 8-mm cavitated nodule, with evident radiological growth and fine-needle aspiration concordant with mucinous adenocarcinoma. We suggest an awake procedure with locoregional epidural anesthesia.
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Anti-Candida activity of fluoxetine alone and combined with fluconazole: a synergistic action against fluconazole-resistant strains.
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 05-05-2014
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The purpose of this work was to determine the antimicrobial activity of fluoxetine, alone and combined with fluconazole, against 29 Candida strains isolated from patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis. MIC and minimum lethal concentration values ranged from 9.8 to 625 ?g/ml for all strains tested. The combination of fluconazole with fluoxetine resulted in synergistic activity against six Candida strains, with fractional inhibitory index (FIX) values between 0.15 and 0.31. An indifferent effect was found for the remaining strains, with FIX values between 0.63 and 1.
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Metabolic compensation of fitness costs associated with overexpression of the multidrug efflux pump MexEF-OprN in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2014
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The acquisition of antibiotic resistance has been associated with a possible nonspecific, metabolic burden that is reflected in decreased fitness among resistant bacteria. We have recently demonstrated that overexpression of the MexEF-OprN multidrug efflux pump does not produce a metabolic burden when measured by classical competitions tests but rather leads to a number of changes in the organism's physiology. One of these changes is the untimely activation of the nitrate respiratory chain under aerobic conditions. MexEF-OprN is a proton/substrate antiporter. Overexpression of this element should result in a constant influx of protons, which may lead to cytoplasmic acidification. Acidification was not observed in aerobiosis, a situation in which the MexEF-overproducing mutant increases oxygen consumption. This enhanced oxygen uptake serves to eliminate intracellular proton accumulation, preventing the cytoplasmic acidification that was observed exclusively under anaerobic conditions, a situation in which the fitness of the MexEF-OprN-overproducing mutant decreases. Finally, we determined that the early activation of the nitrate respiratory chain under aerobic conditions plays a role in preventing a deleterious effect associated with the overexpression of MexEF-OprN. Our results show that metabolic rewiring may assist in overcoming the potential fitness cost associated with the acquisition of antibiotic resistance. Furthermore, the capability to metabolically compensate for this effect is habitat dependent, as demonstrated by our results under anaerobic conditions. The development of drugs that prevent metabolic compensation of fitness costs may help to reduce the persistence and dissemination of antibiotic resistance.
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Validation of the Spanish version of the Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST).
Psicothema
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2014
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To evaluate the psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) and its effectiveness as a screening tool for problematic alcohol, tobacco and other psychoactive substance use in groups of low, moderate, and high risk users.
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Cocaine use severity and cerebellar gray matter are associated with reversal learning deficits in cocaine-dependent individuals.
Addict Biol
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2014
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Cocaine addiction involves persistent deficits to unlearn previously rewarded response options, potentially due to neuroadaptations in learning-sensitive regions. Cocaine-targeted prefrontal systems have been consistently associated with reinforcement learning and reversal deficits, but more recent interspecies research has raised awareness about the contribution of the cerebellum to cocaine addiction and reversal. We aimed at investigating the link between cocaine use, reversal learning and prefrontal, insula and cerebellar gray matter in cocaine-dependent individuals (CDIs) varying on levels of cocaine exposure in comparison with healthy controls (HCs). Twenty CDIs and 21 HCs performed a probabilistic reversal learning task (PRLT) and were subsequently scanned in a 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging scanner. In the PRLT, subjects progressively learn to respond to one predominantly reinforced stimulus, and then must learn to respond according to the opposite, previously irrelevant, stimulus-reward pairing. Performance measures were errors after reversal (reversal cost), and probability of maintaining response after errors. Voxel-based morphometry was conducted to investigate the association between gray matter volume in the regions of interest and cocaine use and PRLT performance. Severity of cocaine use correlated with gray matter volume reduction in the left cerebellum (lobule VIII), while greater reversal cost was correlated with gray matter volume reduction in a partially overlapping cluster (lobules VIIb and VIII). Right insula/inferior frontal gyrus correlated with probability of maintaining response after errors. Severity of cocaine use detrimentally impacted reversal learning and cerebellar gray matter.
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Study of parental models: building an instrument for their exploration.
Rev Esc Enferm USP
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2014
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This research presents the construction of an attributional questionnaire concerning the different parental models and factors that are involved in family interactions.
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DNA hypermethylation of the serotonin receptor type-2A gene is associated with a worse response to a weight loss intervention in subjects with metabolic syndrome.
Nutrients
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2014
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Understanding the regulation of gene activities depending on DNA methylation has been the subject of much recent study. However, although polymorphisms of the HTR2A gene have been associated with both obesity and psychiatric disorders, the role of HTR2A gene methylation in these illnesses remains uncertain. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of HTR2A gene promoter methylation levels in white blood cells (WBC) with obesity traits and depressive symptoms in individuals with metabolic syndrome (MetS) enrolled in a behavioural weight loss programme. Analyses were based on 41 volunteers (mean age 49 ± 1 year) recruited within the RESMENA study. Depressive symptoms (as determined using the Beck Depression Inventory), anthropometric and biochemical measurements were analysed at the beginning and after six months of weight loss treatment. At baseline, DNA from WBC was isolated and cytosine methylation in the HTR2A gene promoter was quantified by a microarray approach. In the whole-study sample, a positive association of HTR2A gene methylation with waist circumference and insulin levels was detected at baseline. Obesity measures significantly improved after six months of dietary treatment, where a lower mean HTR2A gene methylation at baseline was associated with major reductions in body weight, BMI and fat mass after the treatment. Moreover, mean HTR2A gene methylation at baseline significantly predicted the decrease in depressive symptoms after the weight loss treatment. In conclusion, this study provides newer evidence that hypermethylation of the HTR2A gene in WBC at baseline is significantly associated with a worse response to a weight-loss intervention and with a lower decrease in depressive symptoms after the dietary treatment in subjects with MetS.
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Monetary delay discounting in gambling and cocaine dependence with personality comorbidities.
Addict Behav
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2014
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Cocaine addiction and pathological gambling are commonly associated with steeper (impulsive) discounting of delayed rewards, which promotes ongoing drug and gambling behaviors. However, it is yet unclear whether impulsive delay discounting is a stable trait in cocaine and gambling disorders during abstinence, and whether it is significantly impacted by dysfunctional personality beliefs.
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Fast simultaneous determination of prominent polyphenols in vegetables and fruits by reversed phase liquid chromatography using a fused-core column.
Food Chem
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2014
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A reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography method with photodiode array detection has been developed enabling the joint determination of 17 prominent flavonoids and phenolic acids in vegetables and fruits. A multi-segmented gradient program using a fused-core column for the separation of several phenolic classes (phenolic acids and flavonoids) has been optimised. The influence of extraction conditions (sample freeze-drying, ultrasound extraction, solvent composition and extraction time) has been also optimised using response surface methodology with tomato samples as a model. Complete recoveries (76-108%) were obtained for the phenolic compounds present in tomato. The developed method provided satisfactory repeatability in terms of peak area (RSD<2.9%) and retention time (RSD<0.2%) both for standards and real samples. Detection limits ranged between 3 and 44?gkg(-1) for the detected polyphenols. This method is recommended for routine analysis of large number of samples typical of production quality systems or plant breeding programs.
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Capsule endoscopy capture rate: Has 4 frames-per-second any impact over 2 frames-per-second?
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2014
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To compare the current capsule and a new prototype at 2 and 4 frames-per-second, respectively, in terms of clinical and therapeutic impact.
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Emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance: setting a parameter space.
Ups. J. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 03-30-2014
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The emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance among human pathogens is a relevant problem for human health and one of the few evolution processes amenable to experimental studies. In the present review, we discuss some basic aspects of antibiotic resistance, including mechanisms of resistance, origin of resistance genes, and bottlenecks that modulate the acquisition and spread of antibiotic resistance among human pathogens. In addition, we analyse several parameters that modulate the evolution landscape of antibiotic resistance. Learning why some resistance mechanisms emerge but do not evolve after a first burst, whereas others can spread over the entire world very rapidly, mimicking a chain reaction, is important for predicting the evolution, and relevance for human health, of a given mechanism of resistance. Because of this, we propose that the emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance can only be understood in a multi-parameter space. Measuring the effect on antibiotic resistance of parameters such as contact rates, transfer rates, integration rates, replication rates, diversification rates, and selection rates, for different genes and organisms, growing under different conditions in distinct ecosystems, will allow for a better prediction of antibiotic resistance and possibilities of focused interventions.
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Avian reovirus-triggered apoptosis enhances both virus spread and the processing of the viral nonstructural muNS protein.
Virology
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2014
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Avian reovirus non-structural protein muNS is partially cleaved in infected chicken embryo fibroblast cells to produce a 55-kDa carboxyterminal protein, termed muNSC, and a 17-kDa aminoterminal polypeptide, designated muNSN. In this study we demonstrate that muNS processing is catalyzed by a caspase 3-like protease activated during the course of avian reovirus infection. The cleavage site was mapped by site directed mutagenesis between residues Asp-154 and Ala-155 of the muNS sequence. Although muNS and muNSC, but not muNSN, are able to form inclusions when expressed individually in transfected cells, only muNS is able to recruit specific ARV proteins to these structures. Furthermore, muNSC associates with ARV factories more weakly than muNS, sigmaNS and lambdaA. Finally, the inhibition of caspase activity in ARV-infected cells does not diminish ARV gene expression and replication, but drastically reduces muNS processing and the release and dissemination of progeny viral particles.
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Solar ultraviolet radiation is necessary to enhance grapevine fruit ripening transcriptional and phenolic responses.
BMC Plant Biol.
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2014
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Ultraviolet (UV) radiation modulates secondary metabolism in the skin of Vitis vinifera L. berries, which affects the final composition of both grapes and wines. The expression of several phenylpropanoid biosynthesis-related genes is regulated by UV radiation in grape berries. However, the complete portion of transcriptome and ripening processes influenced by solar UV radiation in grapes remains unknown.
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The peach volatilome modularity is reflected at the genetic and environmental response levels in a QTL mapping population.
BMC Plant Biol.
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2014
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The improvement of fruit aroma is currently one of the most sought-after objectives in peach breeding programs. To better characterize and assess the genetic potential for increasing aroma quality by breeding, a quantity trait locus (QTL) analysis approach was carried out in an F1 population segregating largely for fruit traits.
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Stabilization of Silicon Carbide (SiC) micro- and nanoparticle dispersions in the presence of concentrated electrolyte.
J Colloid Interface Sci
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2014
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Achieving a stable and robust dispersion of ultrafine particles in concentrated electrolytes is challenging due to the shielding of electrostatic repulsion. Stable dispersion of ultrafine particles in concentrated electrolytes is critical for several applications, including electro-codeposition of ceramic particles in protective metal coatings. We achieved the steric stabilization of SiC micro- and nano-particles in highly concentrated electroplating Watts solutions using their controlled coating with linear and branched polyethyleneimines (PEI) as dispersants. Branched polyethyleneimine of 60,000 MW effectively disperses both microparticles and nanoparticles at a concentration of 1000 ppm. However, lower polymer dosages and smaller polymers fail to disperse, presumably due to insufficient coverage and bridging flocculation. Dispersion stability correlates well with the adsorption density of PEI on microparticles. We discuss the results in the framework of DLVO theory and suggest possible dispersion mechanisms. However, though the dispersion is enhanced with extended adsorption time, the residual PEI in solution adversely affects electroplating. We overcome this drawback by precoating the particles with the polymer and resuspending them in Watts solution. With this novel approach, we obtained robust dispersions. These results offer new possibilities to control dispersion at high electrolyte concentration, as well as bring new insights into the dispersion phenomenon.
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Metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents from Mérida city, Venezuela: Comparison of results using local and international reference values (CREDEFAR study).
Endocrinol Nutr
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2014
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To obtain local reference values for blood lipids and blood pressure (BP), and to determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) in children and adolescents from Mérida, Venezuela, and to compare results using local and international cut-off values.
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Interplay between intrinsic and acquired resistance to quinolones in Stenotrophomonas maltophilia.
Environ. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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To analyse whether the mutation-driven resistance-acquisition potential of a given bacterium might be a function of its intrinsic resistome, quinolones were used as selective agents and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia was chosen as a bacterial model. S.?maltophilia has two elements - SmQnr and SmeDEF - that are important in intrinsic resistance to quinolones. Using a battery of mutants in which either or both of these elements had been removed, the apparent mutation frequency for quinolone resistance and the phenotype of the selected mutants were found to be related to the intrinsic resistome and also depended on the concentration of the selector. Most mutants had phenotypes compatible with the overexpression of multidrug efflux pump(s); SmeDEF overexpression was the most common cause of quinolone resistance. Whole genome sequencing showed that mutations of the SmeRv regulator, which result in the overexpression of the efflux pump SmeVWX, are the cause of quinolone resistance in mutants not overexpressing SmeDEF. These results indicate that the development of mutation-driven antibiotic resistance is highly dependent on the intrinsic resistome, which, at least for synthetic antibiotics such as quinolones, did not develop as a response to the presence of antibiotics in the natural ecosystems in which S.?maltophilia evolved.
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The evolutionary conserved oil body associated protein OBAP1 participates in the regulation of oil body size.
Plant Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
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A transcriptomic approach has been used to identify genes predominantly expressed in maize (Zea mays) scutellum during maturation. One of the identified genes is oil body associated protein1 (obap1), which is transcribed during seed maturation predominantly in the scutellum, and its expression decreases rapidly after germination. Proteins similar to OBAP1 are present in all plants, including primitive plants and mosses, and in some fungi and bacteria. In plants, obap genes are divided in two subfamilies. Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) genome contains five genes coding for OBAP proteins. Arabidopsis OBAP1a protein is accumulated during seed maturation and disappears after germination. Agroinfiltration of tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana) epidermal leaf cells with fusions of OBAP1 to yellow fluorescent protein and immunogold labeling of embryo transmission electron microscopy sections showed that OBAP1 protein is mainly localized in the surface of the oil bodies. OBAP1 protein was detected in the oil body cellular fraction of Arabidopsis embryos. Deletion analyses demonstrate that the most hydrophilic part of the protein is responsible for the oil body localization, which suggests an indirect interaction of OBAP1 with other proteins in the oil body surface. An Arabidopsis mutant with a transfer DNA inserted in the second exon of the obap1a gene and an RNA interference line against the same gene showed a decrease in the germination rate, a decrease in seed oil content, and changes in fatty acid composition, and their embryos have few, big, and irregular oil bodies compared with the wild type. Taken together, our findings suggest that OBAP1 protein is involved in the stability of oil bodies.
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The genetic structure of Arabidopsis thaliana in the south-western Mediterranean range reveals a shared history between North Africa and southern Europe.
BMC Plant Biol.
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2014
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Deciphering the genetic structure of Arabidopsis thaliana diversity across its geographic range provides the bases for elucidating the demographic history of this model plant. Despite the unique A. thaliana genomic resources currently available, its history in North Africa, the extreme southern limit in the biodiversity hotspot of the Mediterranean Basin, remains virtually unknown.
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A proficiency-based skills training curriculum for the SAGES surgical training for endoscopic proficiency (STEP) program.
J Surg Educ
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2014
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The surgical training for endoscopic proficiency program is a collaborative project between Society of American Gastrointestinal and Endoscopic Surgeons and Olympus America Inc. dedicated to providing flexible endoscopy training to surgery residency programs. Currently it lacks models for proficiency-based training. This study developed 2 novel flexible endoscopy simulators, purchased a third, and established face and content validity as well as proficiency metrics for all 3.
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Phospholipase D2 Is Involved in the Formation of Golgi Tubules and ArfGAP1 Recruitment.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Lipids and lipid-modifying enzymes play a key role in the biogenesis, maintenance and fission of transport carriers in the secretory and endocytic pathways. In the present study we demonstrate that phosphatidic acid generated by phospholipase D2 (PLD2) is involved in the formation of Golgi tubules. The main evidence to support this is: 1) inhibitors of phosphatidic acid formation and PLD2 depletion inhibit the formation of tubules containing resident enzymes and regulators of intra-Golgi transport in a low temperature (15°C) model of Golgi tubulation but do not affect brefeldin A-induced tubules, 2) inhibition of PLD2 enzymatic activity and PLD2 depletion in cells cultured under physiological conditions (37°C) induce the formation of tubules specifically containing Golgi matrix proteins, and, 3) over-expression of PLD2 induces the formation of a tubular network. In addition, it was found that the generation of this lipid by the isoenzyme is necessary for ArfGAP1 recruitment to Golgi membranes. These results suggest that both proteins are involved in the molecular mechanisms which drive the formation of different types of Golgi tubules.
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Early life stress and macaque amygdala hypertrophy: preliminary evidence for a role for the serotonin transporter gene.
Front Behav Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Children exposed to early life stress (ELS) exhibit enlarged amygdala volume in comparison to controls. The primary goal of this study was to examine amygdala volumes in bonnet macaques subjected to maternal variable foraging demand (VFD) rearing, a well-established model of ELS. Preliminary analyses examined the interaction of ELS and the serotonin transporter gene on amygdala volume. Secondary analyses were conducted to examine the association between amygdala volume and other stress-related variables previously found to distinguish VFD and non-VFD reared animals.
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Geometrical custom modeling of human cornea in vivo and its use for the diagnosis of corneal ectasia.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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To establish a new procedure for 3D geometric reconstruction of the human cornea to obtain a solid model that represents a personalized and in vivo morphology of both the anterior and posterior corneal surfaces. This model is later analyzed to obtain geometric variables enabling the characterization of the corneal geometry and establishing a new clinical diagnostic criterion in order to distinguish between healthy corneas and corneas with keratoconus.
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Dissecting the Transcriptional Response to Elicitors in Vitis vinifera Cells.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The high effectiveness of cyclic oligosaccharides like cyclodextrins in the production of trans-resveratrol in Vitis vinifera cell cultures is enhanced in the presence of methyl jasmonate. In order to dissect the basis of the interactions among the elicitation responses triggered by these two compounds, a transcriptional analysis of grapevine cell cultures treated with cyclodextrins and methyl jasmonate separately or in combination was carried out. The results showed that the activation of genes encoding enzymes from phenylpropanoid and stilbene biosynthesis induced by cyclodextrins alone was partially enhanced in the presence of methyl jasmonate, which correlated with their effects on trans-resveratrol production. In addition, protein translation and cell cycle regulation were more highly repressed in cells treated with cyclodextrins than in those treated with methyl jasmonate, and this response was enhanced in the combined treatment. Ethylene signalling was activated by all treatments, while jasmonate signalling and salicylic acid conjugation were activated only in the presence of methyl jasmonate and cyclodextrins, respectively. Moreover, the combined treatment resulted in a crosstalk between the signalling cascades activated by cyclodextrins and methyl jasmonate, which, in turn, provoked the activation of additional regulatory pathways involving the up-regulation of MYB15, NAC and WRKY transcription factors, protein kinases and calcium signal transducers. All these results suggest that both elicitors cause an activation of the secondary metabolism in detriment of basic cell processes like the primary metabolism or cell division. Crosstalk between cyclodextrins and methyl jasmonate-induced signalling provokes an intensification of these responses resulting in a greater trans-resveratrol production.
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Professionals' perceptions about healthcare resources for co-occuring disorders in Spain.
Int J Ment Health Syst
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Since provision of integrated services for patients with dual pathology or dual disorders (coexistence of an addictive disorder and other psychiatric disorders) constitutes an important challenge, this study compared the perceptions of health-care professionals with the existing, current state of specific resources for patients with dual pathology in Spain.
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Expression of Caveolin 1 is enhanced by DNA demethylation during adipocyte differentiation. status of insulin signaling.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Caveolin 1 (Cav-1) is an essential constituent of adipocyte caveolae which binds the beta subunit of the insulin receptor (IR) and is implicated in the regulation of insulin signaling. We have found that, during adipocyte differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells the promoter, exon 1 and first intron of the Cav-1 gene undergo a demethylation process that is accompanied by a strong induction of Cav-1 expression, indicating that epigenetic mechanisms must have a pivotal role in this differentiation process. Furthermore, IR, PKB-Akt and Glut-4 expression are also increased during the differentiation process suggesting a coordinated regulation with Cav-1. Activation of Cav-1 protein by phosphorylation arises during the differentiation process, yet in fully mature adipocytes insulin is no longer able to significantly increase Cav-1 phosphorylation. However, these long-term differentiated cells are still able to respond adequately to insulin, increasing IR and PKB-Akt phosphorylation and glucose uptake. The activation of Cav-1 during the adipocyte differentiation process could facilitate the maintenance of insulin sensitivity by these fully mature adipocytes isolated from additional external stimuli. However, under the influence of physiological conditions associated to obesity, such as chronic inflammation and hypoxia, insulin sensitivity would finally be compromised.
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Transcriptional analysis of tendril and inflorescence development in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.).
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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In grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.), the lateral meristem can give rise to either tendrils or inflorescences which are determined organs. To get insights into the processes of tendril and inflorescence development, we characterized the transcriptional variation taking place in both organs. The results of the global transcriptional analyses along tendril and inflorescence development suggested that these two homologous organs initially share a common transcriptional program related to cell proliferation and growth functions. In later developmental stages they showed organ specific gene expression programs related to the particular differentiation processes taking place in each organ. In this way, tendrils showed higher transcription of genes related to photosynthesis, hormone signaling and secondary metabolism than inflorescences, while inflorescences displayed higher transcriptional activity for genes encoding transcription factors, mainly those belonging to the MADS-box gene family. The expression profiles of selected transcription factors related with inflorescence and flower meristem identity and with flower organogenesis were generally conserved with respect to their homologs in model species. Regarding tendrils, it was interesting to find that genes related with reproductive development in other species were also recruited for grapevine tendril development. These results suggest a role for those genes in the regulation of basic cellular mechanisms common to both developmental processes.
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Evaluation of epidemiological cut-off values indicates that biocide resistant subpopulations are uncommon in natural isolates of clinically-relevant microorganisms.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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To date there are no clear criteria to determine whether a microbe is susceptible to biocides or not. As a starting point for distinguishing between wild-type and resistant organisms, we set out to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) distributions for four common biocides; triclosan, benzalkonium chloride, chlorhexidine and sodium hypochlorite for 3319 clinical isolates, with a particular focus on Staphylococcus aureus (N?=?1635) and Salmonella spp. (N?=?901) but also including Escherichia coli (N?=?368), Candida albicans (N?=?200), Klebsiella pneumoniae (N?=?60), Enterobacter spp. (N?=?54), Enterococcus faecium (N?=?53), and Enterococcus faecalis (N?=?56). From these data epidemiological cut-off values (ECOFFs) are proposed. As would be expected, MBCs were higher than MICs for all biocides. In most cases both values followed a normal distribution. Bimodal distributions, indicating the existence of biocide resistant subpopulations were observed for Enterobacter chlorhexidine susceptibility (both MICs and MBCs) and the susceptibility to triclosan of Enterobacter (MBC), E. coli (MBC and MIC) and S. aureus (MBC and MIC). There is a concern on the potential selection of antibiotic resistance by biocides. Our results indicate however that resistance to biocides and, hence any potential association with antibiotic resistance, is uncommon in natural populations of clinically relevant microorganisms.
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[Study on drug use among students in the province of Valencia, Spain].
Vertex
PUBLISHED: 12-07-2013
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Drug use among youth has increased in recent years dramatically during adolescence, a key phase in the integral development of the individual. The main aim of this cross-sectional, descriptive study was to assess the current drug use trends, as a function of age and gender among secondary education students from representative centers in the Valencia province during the school year 2009-2010. A total of 328 adolescents, 44.8% (n=147) males and 55.2% (n=181) females, with a mean age of 15.61 (SD 2.5) years, divided in three age groups: 12-14 years old (n=134, 40.9%), 14-18 years old (n=123, 37.5%), and older than 18 years of age (n=71, 21.6%) participated in the study. Alcohol and tobacco, followed by cannabis, were the substances more commonly used by the secondary education students. There were statistically significant differences between the three age groups in lifetime use of tobacco, alcohol, cannabis, cocaine, amphetamines and tranquilizers. The highest prevalences were observed in students older than 18 years of age, therefore evidencing a common pattern of increase in substance use with age. Alcohol and tobacco use were significantly higher among girls compared to boys, while males more commonly used inhalants and opioids. Therefore, it appears essential to promote prevention campaigns at earlier ages, when adolescents are more vulnerable to initial substance use, and adapted to the specific needs of the diverse populations of school age children.
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Executive functions in cocaine-dependent patients with Cluster B and Cluster C personality disorders.
Neuropsychology
PUBLISHED: 11-11-2013
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Objective: Cocaine dependence often co-occurs with personality disorders from Clusters B and C, which are inherently associated with some of the executive dysfunctions found in addiction. We address the question of whether the comorbidity between cocaine dependence and different types of personality disorders is associated with differential profiles of executive deficits compatible with their personality dysfunction. We predicted that the comorbidity with Cluster B disorders would be associated with inhibition and shifting deficits, whereas the comorbidity with Cluster C disorders would be associated with working memory deficits. Method: We tested 107 participants (22 cocaine users with Cluster B disorders, 15 cocaine users with Cluster C disorders, 36 cocaine users without comorbidities, and 34 controls) using tests of working memory, attention, inhibition, and shifting. Groups were statistically matched on IQ and had no Axis I comorbidities (other than substance-related). Based on the performance of the control group, we obtained z-score composite measures of working memory, attention/inhibition, shifting, and global executive impairment. We tested group differences in these composite measures using univariate analyses of variance and Sidak tests corrected for multiple comparisons. Results: Cocaine users with Cluster B disorders had poorer attention/inhibition, whereas cocaine users with comorbid Cluster C disorders had poorer working memory. Cluster B and noncomorbid cocaine users (but not Cluster C users) differed from controls on the global executive impairment measure. Conclusion: The comorbidity between cocaine dependence and personality disorders from Clusters B and C is associated with executive function deficits that are compatible with their respective personality dysfunctions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).
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Laparoscopic lymphadenectomy in advanced cervical cancer: prognostic and therapeutic value.
Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2013
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Clinical benefit of surgical staging in locally advanced cervical cancer has not yet been proved. The goal of this study was to analyze the prognostic and therapeutic value of laparoscopic para-aortic lymphadenectomy with selective excision of suspicious pelvic nodes in patients with locally advanced cervical cancer.
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Cerebellar and parkinsonian phenotypes in multiple system atrophy: similarities, differences and survival.
J Neural Transm
PUBLISHED: 09-27-2013
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Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a neurodegenerative disease with two motor phenotypes: parkinsonian (MSA-P) and cerebellar (MSA-C). To elucidate whether in addition to the motor abnormalities there are other significant differences between these phenotypes, we performed a retrospective review of 100 patients (61 males, 39 females) with a diagnosis of possible (12 %), or probable (88 %) MSA. Four patients eventually had post-mortem confirmation (i.e., definite MSA). Sixty percent were classified as having MSA-P and 40 % as MSA-C. MSA-C and MSA-P patients had similar male prevalence (60 %), age of onset (56 ± 9 years), and frequency of OH (69 %). Brain MRI abnormalities were more frequent in MSA-C patients (p < 0.001). Mean survival was 8 ± 3 years for MSA-C and 9 ± 4 years for MSA-P patients (p = 0.22). Disease onset before 55 years predicted longer survival in both phenotypes. Initial autonomic involvement did not influence survival. We conclude that patients with both motor phenotypes have mostly similar survivals and demographic distributions. The differences here identified could help counseling of patients with MSA.
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The Value of Impulsivity to Define Subgroups of Addicted Individuals Differing in Personality Dysfunction, Craving, Psychosocial Adjustment, and Wellbeing: A Latent Class Analysis.
Arch Clin Neuropsychol
PUBLISHED: 09-06-2013
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High impulsivity is common to substance and gambling addictions. Despite these commonalities, there is still substantial heterogeneity on impulsivity levels within these diagnostic groups, and variations in impulsive levels predict higher severity of symptoms and poorer outcomes. We addressed the question of whether impulsivity scores can yield empirically driven subgroups of addicted individuals that will exhibit different clinical presentations and outcomes. We applied latent class analysis (LCA) to trait (UPPS-P impulsive behavior scale) and cognitive impulsivity (Stroop and d2 tests) scores in three predominantly male addiction diagnostic groups: Cocaine with Personality Disorders, Cocaine Non-comorbid, and Gambling and analyzed the usefulness of the resulting subgroups to differentiate personality beliefs and relevant outcomes: Craving, psychosocial adjustment, and quality of life. In accordance with impulsivity scores, the three addiction diagnostic groups are best represented as two separate classes: Class 1 characterized by greater trait impulsivity and poorer cognitive impulsivity performance and Class 2 characterized by lower trait impulsivity and better cognitive impulsivity performance. The two empirically derived classes showed significant differences on personality features and outcome variables (Class 1 exhibited greater personality dysfunction and worse clinical outcomes), whereas conventional diagnostic groups showed non-significant differences on most of these measures. Trait and cognitive impulsivity scores differentiate subgroups of addicted individuals with more versus less severe personality features and clinical outcomes.
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Helichrysum italicum: From traditional use to scientific data.
J Ethnopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 07-19-2013
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Helichrysum italicum (Roth) G. Don fil. (family Asteraceae) has been used for its medicinal properties for a long time and, even nowadays, continues to play an important role in the traditional medicine of Mediterranean countries. Based on this traditional knowledge, its different pharmacological activities have been the focus of active research. This review aims to provide an overview of the current state of knowledge of the pharmacological activities of Helichrysum italicum, as well as its traditional uses, toxicity, drug interactions and safety.
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Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and dual disorders. Educational needs for an underdiagnosed condition.
Int J Adolesc Med Health
PUBLISHED: 07-13-2013
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A wide range of comorbid psychiatric disorders overlap with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) across the life span. There is a robust and complex link between ADHD and substance use disorders (SUD). The aim of this report was to review the neurobiological and other vulnerability factors explaining the comorbidity of ADHD and an addictive disorder, as well as the key aspects of the assessment and diagnosis of dually diagnosed ADHD patients. A comprehensive and systematic search of relevant databases (PubMed, Embase, and PsychINFO) was conducted to identify studies published in peer-reviewed journals until July 31, 2012, with the aim of exploring the association of ADHD and SUD with postgraduate training and residency education. Across the life span, ADHD is associated with significant impairment and comorbidity. Data from epidemiological, clinical and epidemiological studies show a very solid link between ADHD and SUD. Therefore, it is very important to carefully and systematically assess for any substance use in patients with suspected ADHD coming to initial assessment, and vice versa. While there are various valid and reliable rating and screening scales, diagnosis cannot solely rely on any of the instruments available for both SUD and ADHD in adult patients with dual pathology. The most important and effective tool in the assessment of dually diagnosed patients with ADHD and SUD is a full and comprehensive clinical and psychosocial assessment. Hence, it is essential to actively incorporate training opportunities on the assessment, diagnosis, and management of adult ADHD and dually diagnosed ADHD patients during postgraduate education residency or specialist training.
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[Vaginal evisceration. Report of a case and a literature review].
Ginecol Obstet Mex
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2013
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Vaginal evisceration is a rare event associated to be associated with several factors. In premenopausal women it is often associated with trauma during intercourse, rape, iatrogenic injury and introduction of foreign objects. In postmenopausal women 73% of cases are associated with previous vaginal surgery or hysterectomy.
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Pathogen and Circadian Controlled 1 (PCC1) regulates polar lipid content, ABA-related responses, and pathogen defence in Arabidopsis thaliana.
J. Exp. Bot.
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2013
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Pathogen and Circadian Controlled 1 (PCC1) was previously characterized as a regulator of defence against pathogens and stress-activated transition to flowering. Plants expressing an RNA interference construct for the PCC1 gene (iPCC1 plants) showed a pleiotropic phenotype. They were hypersensitive to abscisic acid (ABA) as shown by reduced germination potential and seedling establishment, as well as reduced stomatal aperture and main root length in ABA-supplemented media. In addition, iPCC1 plants displayed alterations in polar lipid contents and their corresponding fatty acids. Importantly, a significant reduction in the content of phosphatidylinositol (PI) was observed in iPCC1 leaves when compared with wild-type plants. A trend in reduced levels of 18:0 and increased levels of 18:2 and particularly 18:3 was also detected in several classes of polar lipids. The enhanced ABA-mediated responses and the reduced content of PI might be responsible for iPCC1 plants displaying a complex pattern of defence against pathogens of different lifestyles. iPCC1 plants were more susceptible to the hemi-biotrophic oomycete pathogen Phytophthora brassicae and more resistant to the necrotrophic fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea compared with wild-type plants.
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Risk of serious cardiovascular problems with medications for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.
CNS Drugs
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2013
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Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a chronic neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by persistent symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity and/or impulsivity. The proportion of patients diagnosed with ADHD receiving pharmacological treatments has increased enormously in recent years. Despite the well established efficacy and the good safety and tolerability profile, there is concern about the potential for rare but serious cardiovascular adverse events, as well as sudden cardiac death, with pharmacotherapies used for treating ADHD in children, adolescents and adults. The present paper aims to comprehensively and critically review the published evidence on the controversial association between medications approved for treating patients with ADHD and the risk of serious cardiovascular problems, specifically the risk of corrected QT interval (QTc) prolongation, and the risk of sudden cardiac death. A comprehensive search of relevant databases (PubMed, EMBASE and PsychINFO) was conducted to identify studies published in peer-reviewed journals until 21 July 2012. Clinical reports, as well as retrospective or prospective population-based studies with children, adolescents or adults as participants, of pharmacotherapies for ADHD reporting cardiovascular adverse events were included. Stimulant medications for ADHD, including methylphenidate and amphetamine derivatives, are generally safe and well tolerated. Small but statistically significant increases in blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) are among the adverse events of stimulant treatment in all age groups. Similarly, the non-stimulant medication atomoxetine has also been associated with increased HR and BP, although as is the case with stimulants, these are generally minor, time limited and of minor clinical significance in children, adolescents or adults. Growing evidence suggests that these medications do not cause sudden and unexpected cardiac death or serious cardiovascular problems including statistically or clinically significant increases in QTc, at therapeutic doses in ADHD patients across the lifespan. Small decreases in mean systolic BP, diastolic BP and HR have been observed in studies with guanfacine-extended release (-XR) or clonidine-XR, two ?(2)-adrenergic receptor agonists, administered alone or in combination with psychostimulants to children and adolescents with ADHD. There are also no statistically or clinically significant increases in QTc associated with clonidine or guanfacine. There are no reports of torsades de pointes clearly and directly related to medications used for treating ADHD in patients of all age groups. The risk for serious cardiovascular adverse events, including statistically or clinically significant increases in QTc, and sudden cardiac death associated with stimulants, atomoxetine or ?(2)-adrenergic agonists prescribed for ADHD is extremely low and the benefits of treating individual patients with ADHD, after an adequate assessment, outweigh the risks. However, great caution is advised when considering stimulant and non-stimulant medications for patients of any age with a diagnosis of ADHD and a personal or family history or other known risk factors for cardiovascular disease.
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SERPINE1, PAI-1 protein coding gene, methylation levels and epigenetic relationships with adiposity changes in obese subjects with metabolic syndrome features under dietary restriction.
J Clin Biochem Nutr
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2013
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Plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) has been associated with metabolic disorders, through different mechanisms, which could involve changes in DNA methylation. This work aimed to assess the potential relationships of the cytosine methylation levels within SERPINE1 gene transcriptional regulatory region, which codes for PAI-1, in peripheral white blood cells with anthropometrical, metabolic and inflammatory features. Forty-six obese subjects with metabolic syndrome features followed Control or Metabolic Syndrome Reduction in Navarra (RESMENA) energy-restricted (-30%E) diets for 8 weeks. SERPINE1 transcriptional regulatory region methylation at baseline was analyzed by a microarray technical. Both dietary strategies reduced anthropometric and biochemical parameters. The Control group significantly reduced plasma PAI-1 concentrations but not the RESMENA group. Participants from both nutritional interventions with higher SERPINE1 methylation levels at baseline showed significantly major reductions in body weight, total fat mass, android fat mass, total cholesterol and triglycerides, as compared with those with lower initial SERPINE1 methylation levels. In conclusion, the DNA methylation levels of SERPINE1 transcriptional regulatory region were associated with some metabolic and anthropometric changes in obese subjects with metabolic syndrome under energy restriction, suggesting a complex epigenetic network in the regulation of this recognized pro-inflammatory marker. (www.clinicaltrials.gov; NCT01087086).
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Golgi tubules: their structure, formation and role in intra-Golgi transport.
Histochem. Cell Biol.
PUBLISHED: 06-16-2013
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Tubules are common Golgi elements that can form extensive networks associated with the cis-, lateral and trans-Golgi sides, but despite this, they have almost been forgotten for decades. The molecular mechanisms involved in their formation, elongation and fission are only just beginning to be understood. However, the role of these membranes is not well understood. In the present review, we analyze the mechanisms that induce Golgi tubulation or, conversely, disrupt tubules in order to throw some lights on the nature of these elements. The putative role of these elements in the framework of current models for intra-Golgi transport is also discussed.
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Differential proinflammatory and oxidative stress response and vulnerability to metabolic syndrome in habitual high-fat young male consumers putatively predisposed by their genetic background.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2013
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The current nutritional habits and lifestyles of modern societies favor energy overloads and a diminished physical activity, which may produce serious clinical disturbances and excessive weight gain. In order to investigate the mechanisms by which the environmental factors interact with molecular mechanisms in obesity, a pathway analysis was performed to identify genes differentially expressed in subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SCAAT) from obese compared to lean male (21-35 year-old) subjects living in similar obesogenic conditions: habitual high fat dietary intake and moderate physical activity. Genes involved in inflammation (ALCAM, CTSB, C1S, YKL-40, MIF, SAA2), extracellular matrix remodeling (MMP9, PALLD), angiogenesis (EGFL6, leptin) and oxidative stress (AKR1C3, UCHL1, HSPB7 and NQO1) were upregulated; whereas apoptosis, signal transcription (CITED 2 and NR3C1), cell control and cell cycle-related genes were downregulated. Interestingly, the expression of some of these genes (C1S, SAA2, ALCAM, CTSB, YKL-40 and tenomodulin) was found to be associated with some relevant metabolic syndrome features. The obese group showed a general upregulation in the expression of inflammatory, oxidative stress, extracellular remodeling and angiogenic genes compared to lean subjects, suggesting that a given genetic background in an obesogenic environment could underlie the resistance to gaining weight and obesity-associated manifestations.
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Production of the Phanerochaete flavido-alba laccase in Aspergillus niger for synthetic dyes decolorization and biotransformation.
World J. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2013
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We investigated the expression of Phanerochaete flavido-alba laccase gene in Aspergillus niger and the physical and biochemical properties of the recombinant enzyme (rLac-LPFA) in order to test it for synthetic dye biotransformation. A. niger was able to produce high levels of active recombinant enzyme (30 mgL(-1)), whose identity was further confirmed by immunodetection using Western blot analysis and N-terminal sequencing. Interestingly, rLac-LPFA exhibited an improved stability at pH (2-9) and organic solvents tested. Furthermore, the percentage of decoloration and biotransformation of synthetic textile dyes, Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR) and Acid Red 299 (NY1), was higher than for the native enzyme. Its high production, simple purification, high activity, stability and ability to transform textile dyes make rLac-LPFA a good candidate for industrial applications.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.