JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
How to reduce the laparoscopic colorectal learning curve.
JSLS
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The laparoscopic approach for colorectal pathologies is becoming more widely used, and surgeons have had to learn how to perform this new technique. The purpose of this work is to study the indicators of the learning curve for laparoscopic colectomy in a community hospital and to find when the group begins to improve.
Related JoVE Video
Methodology for industrial solid waste management: Implementation to sludge management in Asturias (Spain).
Waste Manag Res
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Nowadays, the industry produces an enormous amount of solid waste that has very negative environmental effects. Owing to waste variety and its scattered sites of production, selecting the most proper solid waste treatment is difficult. Simultaneously, social concern about environmental sustainability rises every day and, as a consequence, improvement on waste treatment systems is being demanded. However, when a waste treatment system is being designed, not only environmental but also technical and economic issues should be considered. This article puts forward a methodology to provide industrial factories with an easy way to identify, evaluate and select the most suitable solid waste treatment.
Related JoVE Video
Support Vector Feature Selection for Early Detection of Anastomosis Leakage from Bag-of-Words in Electronic Health Records.
IEEE J Biomed Health Inform
PUBLISHED: 10-15-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The free text in Electronic Health Records (EHRs) conveys a huge amount of clinical information about health state and patient history. Despite a rapidly growing literature on the use of machine learning techniques for extracting this information, little effort has been invested towards feature selection and the features' corresponding medical interpretation. In this work, we focus on the task of early detection of anastomosis leakage (AL), a severe complication after elective surgery for colorectal cancer (CRC) surgery, using free text extracted from EHRs. We use a Bag-of-Words model to investigate the potential for feature selection strategies. The purpose is earlier detection of AL and prediction of AL with data generated in the EHR before the actual complication occur. Due to the high dimensionality of the data, we derive feature selection strategies using the robust support vector machine linear maximum margin classifier, by investigating: (a) a simple statistical criterion (leave-oneout based test); (b) an intensive-computation statistical criterion (Bootstrap resampling); and (c) an advanced statistical criterion (kernel entropy). Results reveal a discriminatory power for early detection of complications after CRC (sensitivity 100%; specificity 72%). These results can be used to develop prediction models, based on EHR data, that can support surgeons and patients in the preoperative decision making phase.
Related JoVE Video
Adenomatoid paratesticular tumor: report of 5 new cases and literature review.
Arch. Esp. Urol.
PUBLISHED: 10-14-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To report 5 cases of adenomatoid tumor of the epididymis that have been diagnosed in the last 11 years at our hospital. We performed a bibliographic review with discussion of diagnosis, differential diagnosis and treatment of this rare type of lesion.
Related JoVE Video
Synthesis, self-assembly and photophysical properties of oligo(2,5-dihexyloxy-1,4-phenylene vinylene)-block-poly(ethylene glycol).
Soft Matter
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We describe the synthesis and characterization of a family of diblock copolymers with 5 units of a dihexyloxy-phenylenevinylene block (OHPV) connected to a series of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) chains of different average lengths (12, 45 and 115 PEG units: OHPV5-b-PEG12, OHPV5-b-PEG45, OHPV5-b-PEG115). All three polymers underwent self-assembly in ethanol, a good solvent for the PEG units, but poor for the OHPV segment. The nature of the structures formed depends sensitively on the length of the PEG block. OHPV5-b-PEG115 formed long fiber-like micelles of uniform width, whereas OHPV5-b-PEG45 formed fragile broad ribbons. We also obtained thin ribbons with OHPV5-b-PEG12 but they tend to fold and twist upon themselves. The structures obtained were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM), as well as by wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). In addition, their photophysical properties were examined by UV-vis, steady state fluorescence and fluorescence decay measurements. The results of these experiments indicate that the OHPV groups pack differently in the fiber-like micelles of OHPV5-b-PEG115 than in the lamellar structures formed by OHPV5-b-PEG45.
Related JoVE Video
[Review of the novelties presented at the 29th Congress of the European Committee for Treatment and Research in Multiple Sclerosis (ECTRIMS) (II)].
Rev Neurol
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The most relevant data presented at the 29th Congress of the European Committee for Treatment and Research in Multiple Sclerosis (ECTRIMS), held in October 2013 in Denmark, were summarised at the sixth edition of the Post-ECTRIMS Expert Meeting, held in Madrid in October 2013, resulting in this review, which is being published in three parts. This second part of the Post-ECTRIMS review focuses on diagnostic imaging and differential diagnosis, the clinical and paraclinical monitoring of neurodegeneration, progression and disability, and functional imaging and neural connectivity. It is clear that conventional multiple sclerosis sequences remain essential for the diagnosis, differential diagnosis and disease monitoring, that new MRI techniques help to assess the neurodegenerative process, and that some of the new sequences are more specific to neuroaxonal injury. Very high field magnetic resonance imaging allows better understanding of the lesion load, distribution and heterogeneity of the lesions, and positron emission tomography studies offer new insight into the patho-physiology of the disease. Functional imaging and neural connectivity studies show that there is cortical reorganisation in multiple sclerosis, whose equilibrium with structural damage is responsible for the impairment.
Related JoVE Video
Long-term characterization of persistent atrial fibrillation: wave morphology, frequency, and irregularity analysis.
Med Biol Eng Comput
PUBLISHED: 09-22-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Short-term properties of atrial fibrillation (AF) frequency, f-wave morphology, and irregularity parameters have been thoroughly studied, but not long-term properties. In the present work, f-wave morphology is characterized by principal component analysis, introducing a novel temporal parameter defined by the cumulative normalized variance of the three largest principal components [Formula: see text]. Based on 7-day recordings from nine patients with stable chronic heart failure and persistent AF, long-term properties were studied in terms of [Formula: see text], AF frequency, and sample entropy [Formula: see text]. The main result of the present study is that detection of circadian rhythms depends on the parameter considered: rhythms were found in six [Formula: see text] and five (AF frequency) patients, but not always in the same patient. Another important result is that circadian rhythms detected in 7-day recordings could not always be detected in 24-h periods, thus shedding new light on the results in previous studies which all were based on 24-h recordings. Infradian rhythms were found in four [Formula: see text] and one (AF frequency) patients.
Related JoVE Video
Validation of semaphorin 7A and ala-?-his-dipeptidase as biomarkers associated with the conversion from clinically isolated syndrome to multiple sclerosis.
J Neuroinflammation
PUBLISHED: 09-15-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In a previous proteomics study using pooled cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples, we proposed apolipoprotein AI, apolipoprotein AIV, vitronectin, plasminogen, semaphorin 7A, and ala-?-his-dipeptidase as candidate biomarkers associated with the conversion to clinically definite multiple sclerosis (CDMS) in patients with clinically isolated syndromes (CIS). Here, we aimed to validate these results in individual CSF samples using alternative techniques.
Related JoVE Video
Validation of semaphorin 7A and ala-ß-his-dipeptidase as biomarkers associated with the conversion from clinically isolated syndrome to multiple sclerosis.
J Neuroinflammation
PUBLISHED: 09-15-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
BackgroundIn a previous proteomics study using pooled cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples, we proposed apolipoprotein AI, apolipoprotein AIV, vitronectin, plasminogen, semaphorin 7A, and ala-ß-his-dipeptidase as candidate biomarkers associated with the conversion to clinically definite multiple sclerosis (CDMS) in patients with clinically isolated syndromes (CIS). Here, we aimed to validate these results in individual CSF samples using alternative techniques.MethodsIn a first replication study, levels of apolipoproteins AI and AIV, vitronectin, and plasminogen were measured by ELISA in CSF and serum of 56 CIS patients (29 patients who converted to CDMS (MS converters) and 27 patients who remained with CIS during follow-up (MS non-converters)) and 26 controls with other neurological disorders. Semaphorin 7A and ala-ß-his-dipeptidase levels were determined by selected reaction monitoring (SRM) in CSF of 36 patients (18 MS converters, 18 non-converters) and 20 controls. In a second replication study, apolipoprotein AI levels were measured by ELISA in CSF of 74 CIS patients (47 MS converters, 27 non-converters) and 50 individual controls, and levels of semaphorin 7A and ala-beta-his-dipeptidase were determined by SRM in 49 patients (24 MS converters, 25 non-converters) and 22 controls.ResultsCSF levels of apolipoprotein AI were increased (P =0.043) and levels of semaphorin 7A and ala-ß-his-dipeptidase decreased (P =4.4¿×¿10¿10 and P =0.033 respectively) in MS converters compared to non-converters. No significant differences were found in serum levels for apolipoproteins AI and AIV, vitronectin, and plasminogen. Findings with semaphorin 7A and ala-ß-his-dipeptidase were also validated in the second replication study, and CSF levels for these two proteins were again decreased in MS converters versus non-converters (P =1.2¿×¿10¿4 for semaphorin 7A; P =3.7¿×¿10¿8 for ala-ß-his-dipeptidase). Conversely, apolipoprotein AI findings were not replicated and CSF levels for this protein did not significantly differ between groups. Furthermore, CSF semaphorin 7A levels were negatively associated with the number of T2 lesions at baseline and one-year follow-up.ConclusionsThese results validate previous findings for semaphorin 7A and ala-ß-his-dipeptidase, and suggest that these proteins play a role as CSF biomarkers associated with the conversion to CDMS in CIS patients.
Related JoVE Video
WUSCHEL-RELATED HOMEOBOX 8/9 is important for proper embryo patterning in the gymnosperm Norway spruce.
J. Exp. Bot.
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Proper embryo development is crucial as that is when the primary body axes are established. In Arabidopsis, AtWOX8 and AtWOX9, members of the WUSCHEL-RELATED HOMEOBOX (WOX) gene family, are critical for embryo development. In Norway spruce, PaWOX8/9, which is expressed in embryos, is the homologue of AtWOX8 and AtWOX9. In this work, it is shown that the transcript abundance of PaWOX8/9 is high during early and late embryogeny and that it decreases when the maturation phase starts. To address the function of PaWOX8/9 during embryo development, RNAi lines were established to down-regulate the transcript level of PaWOX8/9, using both constitutive and inducible promoters. Embryos in the PaWOX8/9 RNAi lines show an aberrant morphology caused by disturbed orientation of the cell division plane at the basal part of the embryonal mass during early and late embryogeny. In addition, the transcript level of several key cell-cycle-regulating genes, for example, PaE2FAB-LIKE and PaCYCLIN B-LIKE, are affected in the PaWOX8/9 RNAi lines. Taken together, our results suggest that PaWOX8/9 may perform an evolutionarily conserved function as a regulator of the establishment of the apical-basal embryo pattern.
Related JoVE Video
Estradiol and Progesterone Administration After pMCAO Stimulates the Neurological Recovery and Reduces the Detrimental Effect of Ischemia Mainly in Hippocampus.
Mol. Neurobiol.
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Epidemiological studies have suggested a differential response, males versus female, in stroke incidence and prognosis. These divergences in brain response after damage are based mostly on hormonal differences. To date, estradiol and progesterone administered independently have demonstrated neuroprotection after ischemia in animal models. Nonetheless, contradictory results were revealed using a combined administration. In order to evaluate the effects of combinatorial treatment administered after ischemia induction, we used two different approaches: in vivo and in vitro models. Male rats which underwent permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion were treated with a combination of estradiol/progesterone at 6, 24 and 48 h after injury and sacrificed at 54 h post-ischemia. The rat brains were evaluated for reactive gliosis, NeuN-positive neurons, levels of synapse-associated proteins and activity levels of PI3K/Akt/GSK3/?-catenin survival pathway. Also, primary cortical neurons were subjected to oxygen and glucose deprivation for 17 h and returned to a normal environment in the presence of estradiol or estradiol/progesterone. Cell viability was evaluated, and activity levels of the PI3K/Akt/GSK3/?-catenin pathway. Our results indicate that some beneficial effects of estradiol were abolished in the presence of progesterone, particularly in the cerebral cortex (core). However, the combinatorial treatment showed positive effects in the hippocampus.
Related JoVE Video
Guidelines for uniform reporting of body fluid biomarker studies in neurologic disorders.
Neurology
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The aim of these guidelines is to make the process of reporting body fluid biomarker studies in neurologic disorders more uniform and transparent, in line with existing standards for reporting research in other biomedical areas. Although biomarkers have been around for decades, there are concerns over the high attrition rate of promising candidate biomarkers at later phases of development.
Related JoVE Video
Mapping and introgression of QTL involved in fruit shape transgressive segregation into 'Piel de Sapo' melon (Cucucumis melo L.).
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A mapping F2 population from the cross 'Piel de Sapo' × PI124112 was selectively genotyped to study the genetic control of morphological fruit traits by QTL (Quantitative Trait Loci) analysis. Ten QTL were identified, five for FL (Fruit Length), two for FD (Fruit Diameter) and three for FS (Fruit Shape). At least one robust QTL per character was found, flqs8.1 (LOD?=?16.85, R2?=?34%), fdqs12.1 (LOD?=?3.47, R2?=?11%) and fsqs8.1 (LOD?=?14.85, R2?=?41%). flqs2.1 and fsqs2.1 cosegregate with gene a (andromonoecious), responsible for flower sex determination and with pleiotropic effects on FS. They display a positive additive effect (a) value, so the PI124112 allele causes an increase in FL and FS, producing more elongated fruits. Conversely, the negative a value for flqs8.1 and fsqs8.1 indicates a decrease in FL and FS, what results in rounder fruits, even if PI124112 produces very elongated melons. This is explained by a significant epistatic interaction between fsqs2.1 and fsqs8.1, where the effects of the alleles at locus a are attenuated by the additive PI124112 allele at fsqs8.1. Roundest fruits are produced by homozygous for PI124112 at fsqs8.1 that do not carry any dominant A allele at locus a (PiPiaa). A significant interaction between fsqs8.1 and fsqs12.1 was also detected, with the alleles at fsqs12.1 producing more elongated fruits. fsqs8.1 seems to be allelic to QTL discovered in other populations where the exotic alleles produce elongated fruits. This model has been validated in assays with backcross lines along 3 years and ultimately obtaining a fsqs8.1-NIL (Near Isogenic Line) in 'Piel de Sapo' background which yields round melons.
Related JoVE Video
Morphological and Thermodynamic Comparison of the Lesions Created by 4 Open-Irrigated Catheters in 2 Experimental Models.
J. Cardiovasc. Electrophysiol.
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
New generation open-irrigated catheters aim to improve irrigation efficiency. This may change lesion patterns, challenging operators. Indeed, safety issues have recently arisen. We aimed to experimentally assess 4 open-irrigated catheters, comparing lesion size, safety, and heat transfer.
Related JoVE Video
Impact of time to treatment on tissue-type plasminogen activator-induced recanalization in acute ischemic stroke.
Stroke
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Although tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) efficacy depends on time, it is unknown whether its effect on recanalization is time dependent. Information about likelihood of successful recanalization as a function of time to treatment may improve patient selection for advanced reperfusion strategies. We aimed to identify the impact of time to treatment on tPA-induced recanalization in patients with acute ischemic stroke.
Related JoVE Video
Sperm-associated antigen 16 is a novel target of the humoral autoimmune response in multiple sclerosis.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We have previously identified eight novel autoantibody targets in the cerebrospinal fluid of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, including sperm-associated Ag 16 (SPAG16). In the current study, we further investigated the autoantibody response against SPAG16-a protein with unknown function in the CNS-and its expression in MS pathology. Using isoelectric focusing, we detected SPAG16-specific oligoclonal bands in the cerebrospinal fluid of 5 of 23 MS patients (22%). Analysis of the anti-SPAG16 Ab reactivity in the plasma of a total of 531 donors using ELISA demonstrated significantly elevated anti-SPAG16 Ab levels (p = 0.002) in 32 of 153 MS patients (21%) compared with all other control groups with 95% specificity for the disease. To investigate the pathologic relevance of anti-SPAG16 Abs in vivo, anti-SPAG16 Abs were injected in mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, resulting in a significant disease exacerbation. Finally, we demonstrated a consistent upregulation of SPAG16 in MS brain and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis spinal cord lesions, more specifically in reactive astrocytes. We conclude that SPAG16 is a novel autoantibody target in a subgroup of MS patients and in combination with other diagnostic criteria, elevated levels of anti-SPAG16 Abs could be used as a biomarker for diagnosis. Furthermore, the pathologic relevance of anti-SPAG16 Abs was shown in vivo.
Related JoVE Video
Comparative diagnostic accuracy of ganglion cell-inner plexiform and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness measures by cirrus and spectralis optical coherence tomography in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Objective. To estimate sensitivity and specificity of several optical coherence tomography (OCT) measurements for detecting retinal thickness changes in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS), such as macular ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer (GCIPL) thickness measured with Cirrus (OCT) and peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (pRNFL) thickness measured with Cirrus and Spectralis OCT. Methods. Seventy patients (140 eyes) with RRMS and seventy matched healthy subjects underwent pRNFL and GCIPL thickness analysis using Cirrus OCT and pRNFL using Spectralis OCT. A prospective, cross-sectional evaluation of sensitivities and specificities was performed using latent class analysis due to the absence of a gold standard. Results. GCIPL measures had higher sensitivity and specificity than temporal pRNFL measures obtained with both OCT devices. Average GCIPL thickness was significantly more sensitive than temporal pRNFL by Cirrus (96.34% versus 58.41%) and minimum GCIPL thickness was significantly more sensitive than temporal pRNFL by Spectralis (96.41% versus 69.69%). Generalised estimating equation analysis revealed that age (P = 0.030), optic neuritis antecedent (P = 0.001), and disease duration (P = 0.002) were significantly associated with abnormal results in average GCIPL thickness. Conclusion. Average and minimum GCIPL measurements had significantly better sensitivity to detect retinal thickness changes in RRMS than temporal pRNFL thickness measured by Cirrus and Spectralis OCT, respectively.
Related JoVE Video
Systems approach identifies TGA1 and TGA4 transcription factors as important regulatory components of the nitrate response of Arabidopsis thaliana roots.
Plant J.
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Nitrate acts as a potent signal to control global gene expression in Arabidopsis. Using an integrative bioinformatics approach we identified TGA1 and TGA4 as putative regulatory factors that mediate nitrate responses in Arabidopsis roots. We showed that both TGA1 and TGA4 mRNAs accumulate strongly after nitrate treatments in roots. Global gene expression analysis revealed 97% of the genes with altered expression in tga1 tga4 double mutant plants respond to nitrate treatments, indicating that these transcription factors have a specific role in nitrate responses in Arabidopsis root organs. We found TGA1 and TGA4 regulate the expression of nitrate transporter genes NRT2.1 and NRT2.2. Specific binding of TGA1 to its cognate DNA sequence on NRT2.1 and NRT2.2 promoters was confirmed by chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. The tga1 tga4 double mutant plants exhibit nitrate-dependent lateral and primary root phenotypes. Lateral root initiation is affected in both tga1 tga4 and nrt1.2 nrt2.2 double mutants, suggesting TGA1 and TGA4 regulate lateral root development at least partly via NRT2.1 and NRT2.2. Additional root phenotypes of tga1 tga4 double mutants indicate that these transcription factors play an important role in root developmental responses to nitrate. These results identify TGA1 and TGA4 as important regulatory factors of the nitrate response in Arabidopsis roots.
Related JoVE Video
Effect of nitrogen source on growth and lipid accumulation in Scenedesmus abundans and Chlorella ellipsoidea.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 07-07-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Discovering microalgae strains containing a high lipid yield and adequate fatty acid composition is becoming a crucial fact in algae-oil factories. In this study, two unknown strains, named Scenedesmus abundans and Chlorella ellipsoidea, have been tested for their response to different nitrogen sources, in order to determine its influence in the production of lipids. For S. abundans, autotrophic culture with ammonium nitrate offers the maximum lipid yield, obtaining up to 3.55mgL(-1)d(-1). For C. ellipsoidea, heterotrophic culture with ammonium nitrate has been shown to be the best condition, reaching a lipid production of 9.27mgL(-1)d(-1). Moreover, fatty acid composition obtained from these cultures meets international biodiesel standards with an important amount of C18:1, achieving 70% of total fatty acids and thus representing a potential use of these two strains at an industrial scale.
Related JoVE Video
Pulmonary infection with hypervirulent Mycobacteria reveals a crucial role for the P2X7 receptor in aggressive forms of tuberculosis.
PLoS Pathog.
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The purinergic P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) is a sensor of extracellular ATP, a damage-associated molecule that is released from necrotic cells and that induces pro-inflammatory cytokine production and cell death. To investigate whether the innate immune response to damage signals could contribute to the development of pulmonary necrotic lesions in severe forms of tuberculosis, disease progression was examined in C57BL/6 and P2X7R-/- mice that were intratracheally infected with highly virulent mycobacterial strains (Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain 1471 of the Beijing genotype family and Mycobacterium bovis strain MP287/03). The low-dose infection of C57BL/6 mice with bacteria of these strains caused the rapid development of extensive granulomatous pneumonia with necrotic areas, intense bacillus dissemination and anticipated animal death. In contrast, in P2X7R-/- mice, the lung pathology presented with moderate infiltrates of mononuclear leukocytes without visible signs of necrosis; the disease attenuation was accompanied by a delay in mortality. In vitro, the hypervirulent mycobacteria grew rapidly inside macrophages and induced death by a P2X7R-dependent mechanism that facilitated the release of bacilli. Furthermore, these bacteria were resistant to the protective mechanisms elicited in macrophages following extracellular ATP stimulation. Based on this study, we propose that the rapid intracellular growth of hypervirulent mycobacteria results in massive macrophage damage. The ATP released by damaged cells engages P2X7R and accelerates the necrotic death of infected macrophages and the release of bacilli. This vicious cycle exacerbates pneumonia and lung necrosis by promoting widespread cell destruction and bacillus dissemination. These findings suggest the use of drugs that have been designed to inhibit the P2X7R as a new therapeutic approach to treat the aggressive forms of tuberculosis.
Related JoVE Video
Chagas disease: still many unsolved issues.
Mediators Inflamm.
PUBLISHED: 06-29-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Over the past 20 years, the immune effector mechanisms involved in the control of Trypanosoma cruzi, as well as the receptors participating in parasite recognition by cells of the innate immune system, have been largely described. However, the main questions on the physiopathology of Chagas disease remain unanswered: "Why does the host immune system fail to provide sterile immunity?" and "Why do only a proportion of infected individuals develop chronic pathology?" In this review, we describe the mechanisms proposed to explain the inability of the immune system to eradicate the parasite and the elements that allow the development of chronic heart disease. Moreover, we discuss the possibility that the inability of infected cardiomyocytes to sense intracellular T. cruzi contributes to parasite persistence in the heart and the development of chronic pathology.
Related JoVE Video
[Current management of antithrombotic treatment in patients with non valvular atrial fibrillation and prior history of stroke or transient ischemic attack].
Rev Neurol
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Atrial fibrillation is the most frequent arrhythmia seen in clinical practice and is one of the most important risk factors for suffering a stroke. Strokes associated to atrial fibrillation are more severe, present higher mortality and disability rates, and there is a greater risk of recurrence. Consequently, both primary and secondary prevention of stroke associated to atrial fibrillation by means of suitable antithrombotic treatment is clearly essential in order to lower this risk. Chronic oral anticoagulants are the cornerstone of antithrombotic treatment in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation, especially in those who have already had a stroke. Vitamin K antagonists have traditionally been used for this purpose. Yet, these drugs have several important disadvantages (narrow therapeutic window, unpredictable response, numerous interactions with drugs and foods, as well as starting and finishing their action slowly), which limit their use in clinical practice. The new oral anticoagulants not only overcome these disadvantages but also have proved to be at least as effective as warfarin in the prevention of strokes and systemic embolism in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation. Additionally, they have been shown to have a better safety profile, especially with an important drop in the risk of intracranial haemorrhage, regardless of the antecedents of stroke or transient ischaemic attack, which makes them first-choice drugs in the treatment of these patients.
Related JoVE Video
Prevalence and associated factors of silent brain infarcts in a Mediterranean cohort of hypertensives.
Hypertension
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Silent brain infarcts (SBIs) are detected by neuroimaging in approximately 20% of elderly patients in population-based studies. Limited evidence is available for hypertensives at low cardiovascular risk countries. Investigating Silent Strokes in Hypertensives: a Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study (ISSYS) is aimed to assess the prevalence and risk factors of SBIs in a hypertensive Mediterranean population. This is a cohort study in randomly selected hypertensives, aged 50 to 70 years old, and free of clinical stroke and dementia. On baseline, all participants underwent a brain magnetic resonance imaging to assess prevalence and location of silent infarcts, and data on vascular risk factors, comorbidities, and the presence of subclinical cardiorenal damage (left ventricular hypertrophy and microalbuminuria) were collected. Multivariate analyses were performed to determine SBIs associated factors. A total of 976 patients (49.4% men, mean age 64 years) were enrolled, and 163 SBIs were detected in 99 participants (prevalence 10.1%; 95% CI, 8.4%-12.2%), most of them (64.4%) located in the basal ganglia and subcortical white matter. After adjustment, besides age and sex, microalbuminuria and increasing total cardiovascular risk (assessed by the Framingham-calibrated for Spanish population risk function) were independently associated with SBIs. Male sex increased the odds of having SBIs in 2.5 as compared with females. Our results highlight the importance of considering both global risk assessment and sex differences in hypertension and may be useful to design future preventive interventions of stroke and dementia.
Related JoVE Video
Biomarkers in multiple sclerosis: an update for 2014.
Rev Neurol
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Multiple sclerosis is a chronic, demyelinating and inflammatory disease of the central nervous system that mainly affects young adults. It is characterised by processes involving inflammation, demyelination and axonal destruction, and as a result the pathogenic aspects and response to treatment of the disease vary widely. It is therefore difficult to establish a prognosis for these patients or to determine the effectiveness of the different drugs that are employed. Current clinical research into the development of new biomarkers has advanced a great deal in recent years, especially in the early stages of the disease. Yet, it is essential to further our knowledge about novel markers of the disease, and not only in the more advanced stages, so as to be able to stop disability from progressing and to establish new therapy regimens in these patients. This review presents an update on the information available about the biomarkers that are currently validated and used in multiple sclerosis, together with the possible candidates for utilisation in routine clinical practice.
Related JoVE Video
Predictive criteria to study the pathogenesis of malaria-associated ALI/ARDS in mice.
Mediators Inflamm.
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Malaria-associated acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS) often results in morbidity and mortality. Murine models to study malaria-associated ALI/ARDS have been described; we still lack a method of distinguishing which mice will develop ALI/ARDS before death. This work aimed to characterize malaria-associated ALI/ARDS in a murine model and to demonstrate the first method to predict whether mice are suffering from ALI/ARDS before death. DBA/2 mice infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA developing ALI/ARDS or hyperparasitemia (HP) were compared using histopathology, PaO2 measurement, pulmonary X-ray, breathing capacity, lung permeability, and serum vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels according to either the day of death or the suggested predictive criteria. We proposed a model to predict malaria-associated ALI/ARDS using breathing patterns (enhanced pause and frequency respiration) and parasitemia as predictive criteria from mice whose cause of death was known to retrospectively diagnose the sacrificed mice as likely to die of ALI/ARDS as early as 7 days after infection. Using this method, we showed increased VEGF levels and increased lung permeability in mice predicted to die of ALI/ARDS. This proposed method for accurately identifying mice suffering from ALI/ARDS before death will enable the use of this model to study the pathogenesis of this disease.
Related JoVE Video
Ambulatory postural blood pressure changes and history allow a better selection of the patients that should undergo a head-up tilt test.
Cardiol J
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Syncope is a common symptom and most patients have a neurally mediated origin. These patients have to be studied with a careful history and a physical exploration that should include simple manoeuvers such as blood pressure recordings in decubitus and in standing position. These tools can suggest a diagnosis in a good percentage of patients without the need for expensive or invasive testing.
Related JoVE Video
The Social Gap Index and the prevalence of osteoarthritis in the community: a cross-sectional multilevel study in Mexico.
Clin. Rheumatol.
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Multilevel studies have gained importance for highlighting social inequalities in health. These associations have been reported previously in diseases such as arthritis and chronic pain. We conducted a cross-sectional study using multilevel analysis to identify individual and contextual factors associated with the variation of prevalence of osteoarthritis (OA) in the Mexican population. The sample included 17,566 individuals of which 10,666 (60.7 %) were women. The relationship between individual and contextual factors and OA were analyzed with a multilevel strategy. From the total population, 1,681 individuals had OA. Multilevel analysis showed that individual variables such as female gender (odds ratio (OR)?=?1.3, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.1, 1.4), age range 55-65 years (OR?=?1.6, 95 % CI 1.3, 2.0), musculoskeletal pain in the last 7 days (OR?=?2.6, 95 % CI 2.3, 3.0), and use of pain treatments (OR?=?1.4, 95 % CI 1.2, 1.7) were associated with OA. At the regional level, the Social Gap Index (SGIx) was associated with the diagnosis of OA (coefficient 0.5, 95 % CI 0.2-1.1). The SGIx contextual variable was positively associated with the regional prevalence of OA and the variation in prevalence of OA in different regions. The larger the social gap, the greater the variation in OA prevalence. These factors were independently associated with the prevalence of OA: female gender, pain intensity, physical limitation, and the use of pain treatments were individual variables associated with OA. The association between OA prevalence and regional variations with SGIx reflects inequities in health provisions that should be considered in health programs.
Related JoVE Video
Evaluation of composition and performance of composts derived from guacamole production residues.
J. Environ. Manage.
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The utilization of organic wastes to improve soils or for growth media components in local farms and nurseries can reduce the environmental pollution linked to waste disposal while increasing the sustainability of crop production. This approach could be applied to waste products generated from the production of guacamole (an emerging activity in the avocado production areas in mainland Spain), where appropriate treatment of this oily and doughy waste product has not been previously reported. The aim of this work is to study the feasibility of co-composting guacamole production residues (GR) with garden pruning waste (PW) as bulking agent, and the possible use of the compost produced depending on its quality. A windrow composting trial using three GR:PW ratios, 2:1, 1:2, and 1:7 was carried out. Temperature, moisture, organic matter, and C/N ratio were used to follow the evolution of the composting process during 7 months. After an additional 3-month curing period, composts were sieved to less than 10 mm and a set of European quality criteria was used to assess compost quality and intended use. In general, the 3 composting mixtures followed the classical process evolution, with minor differences among them. The 1:2 GR:PW ratio appeared most adequate for combining better process evolution and maximum GR ratio. Except for their high pH that limits their use as growing media component in some particular cases, the obtained composts fulfilled the more stringent European standards for commercial composts. Self-heating tests confirmed the high stability of the composts produced. The germination of cress by the direct contact method was satisfactory for composts GR:PW 1:2 and 1:7, showing no signs of toxicity. Avocado seedlings planted in substrates containing 67% of the GR:PW composts exhibited greater plant growth than those in the control treatment, and with no signs of phytotoxicity. The results open an interesting opportunity for the sustainable treatment of avocado fruit by-products derived from guacamole and avocado oil processing.
Related JoVE Video
Ultrastructure of the lung in a murine model of malaria-associated acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome.
Malar. J.
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The mechanisms through which infection with Plasmodium spp. result in lung disease are largely unknown. Recently a number of mouse models have been developed to research malaria-associated lung injury but no detailed ultrastructure studies of the disease in its terminal stages in a murine model have yet been published. The goal was to perform an ultrastructural analysis of the lungs of mice that died with malaria-associated acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome to better determine the relevancy of the murine models and investigate the mechanism of disease.
Related JoVE Video
Nitrate regulation of AFB3 and NAC4 gene expression in Arabidopsis roots depends on NRT1.1 nitrate transport function.
Plant Signal Behav
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Nitrogen is an essential macronutrient for plants and its availability is a major limiting factor for plant growth and crop production. Nitrate is the main source of inorganic N for plants in aerobic soils and can act as a potent signal to control global gene expression. We found that gene expression in response to nitrate treatment of the AFB3 auxin receptor and its target, the NAC4 transcription factor depends on the nitrate transport function of NRT1.1. This gene regulatory function of NRT1.1 on AFB3 and NAC4 differs from the previously described signaling function controlling NRT2.1, NIA1 and NIA2 transcript levels and root colonization of nitrate-rich patches. Our work suggests two different signaling pathways may exist to control gene expression in response to nitrate downstream of NRT1.1.
Related JoVE Video
Changes in cause-specific mortality during heat waves in central Spain, 1975-2008.
Int J Biometeorol
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The relationship between heat waves and mortality has been widely described, but there are few studies using long daily data on specific-cause mortality. This study is undertaken in central Spain and analysing natural causes, circulatory and respiratory causes of mortality from 1975 to 2008. Time-series analysis was performed using ARIMA models, including data on specific-cause mortality and maximum and mean daily temperature and mean daily air pressure. The length of heat waves and their chronological number were analysed. Data were stratified in three decadal stages: 1975-1985, 1986-1996 and 1997-2008. Heat-related mortality was triggered by a threshold temperature of 37 °C. For each degree that the daily maximum temperature exceeded 37 °C, the percentage increase in mortality due to circulatory causes was 19.3 % (17.3-21.3) in 1975-1985, 30.3 % (28.3-32.3) in 1986-1996 and 7.3 % (6.2-8.4) in 1997-2008. The increase in respiratory cause ranged from 12.4 % (7.8-17.0) in the first period, to 16.3 % (14.1-18.4) in the second and 13.7 % (11.5-15.9) in the last. Each day of heat-wave duration explained 5.3 % (2.6-8.0) increase in respiratory mortality in the first period and 2.3 % (1.6-3.0) in the last. Decadal scale differences exist for specific-causes mortality induced by extreme heat. The impact on heat-related mortality by natural and circulatory causes increases between the first and the second period and falls significantly in the last. For respiratory causes, the increase is no reduced in the last period. These results are of particular importance for the estimation of future impacts of climate change on health.
Related JoVE Video
Symptomatic pain and fibromyalgia treatment through multidisciplinary approach for Primary Care.
Reumatol Clin
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Fibromyalgia is a chronic disease of unknown etiology characterized by widespread muscle pain, with occupational, familial, social, physical and psychological performance involvement. The multidisciplinary approach to the disease leads to improvement in quality of life and symptomatology.
Related JoVE Video
Regulatory lymphocytes are key factors in MHC-independent resistance to EAE.
J Immunol Res
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Resistant and susceptible mouse strains to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an inducible demyelinating experimental disease serving as animal model for multiple sclerosis, have been described. We aimed to explore MHC-independent mechanisms inducing resistance to EAE.
Related JoVE Video
ATP-P2X7 Receptor Modulates Axon Initial Segment Composition and Function in Physiological Conditions and Brain Injury.
Cereb. Cortex
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Axon properties, including action potential initiation and modulation, depend on both AIS integrity and the regulation of ion channel expression in the AIS. Alteration of the axon initial segment (AIS) has been implicated in neurodegenerative, psychiatric, and brain trauma diseases, thus identification of the physiological mechanisms that regulate the AIS is required to understand and circumvent AIS alterations in pathological conditions. Here, we show that the purinergic P2X7 receptor and its agonist, adenosine triphosphate (ATP), modulate both structural proteins and ion channel density at the AIS in cultured neurons and brain slices. In cultured hippocampal neurons, an increment of extracellular ATP concentration or P2X7-green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression reduced the density of ankyrin G and voltage-gated sodium channels at the AIS. This effect is mediated by P2X7-regulated calcium influx and calpain activation, and impaired by P2X7 inhibition with Brilliant Blue G (BBG), or P2X7 suppression. Electrophysiological studies in brain slices showed that P2X7-GFP transfection decreased both sodium current amplitude and intrinsic neuronal excitability, while P2X7 inhibition had the opposite effect. Finally, inhibition of P2X7 with BBG prevented AIS disruption after ischemia/reperfusion in rats. In conclusion, our study demonstrates an involvement of P2X7 receptors in the regulation of AIS mediated neuronal excitability in physiological and pathological conditions.
Related JoVE Video
Baseline National Institutes of Health stroke scale-adjusted time window for intravenous tissue-type plasminogen activator in acute ischemic stroke.
Stroke
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The effect of tissue-type plasminogen activator on functional outcome decreases progressively over time. However, given the differential pattern of arterial occlusion, stroke severity, and speed of ischemic lesion growth among candidates for reperfusion, the time window should be adjusted accordingly. We aimed to identify the impact of time-to-treatment according to stroke severity on functional outcome in patients with acute ischemic stroke.
Related JoVE Video
Influence of fresh date palm co-products on the ripening of a paprika added dry-cured sausage model system.
Meat Sci.
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Date palm co-products are a source of bioactive compounds that could be used as a new ingredient for the meat industry. An intermediate food product (IFP) from date palm co-products (5%) was incorporated into a paprika added dry-cured sausage (PADS) model system and was analysed for physicochemical parameters, lipid oxidation and sensory attributes during ripening. Addition of 5% IFP yielded a product with physicochemical properties similar to the traditional one. Instrumental colour differences were found, but were not detected visually by panellists, who also evaluated positively the sensory properties of the PADS with IFP. Therefore, the IFP from date palm co-products could be used as a natural ingredient in the formulation of PADS.
Related JoVE Video
Phytochemicals in date co-products and their antioxidant activity.
Food Chem
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The date agro-industry needs to find appropriate techniques to give value to their co-products. This study analyzes twelve intermediate food products (IFPs) from date co-products, Medjool and Confitera cv. at several ripening stages, blanched and unblanched, for their content in bioactive compounds (phenols, tannins, flavonoids, carotenoids and anthocyanins) and the antioxidant activity (AA). IFPs from the more unripe stages had the highest AA and phytochemicals content, mainly phenols, up to 1.4 g GAE/100 g, with high proportions of tannins. Flavonoids were found in high amounts, up to 874 mg RE/100 g. Among the AA are significant the antiradical efficiency (4.62 mM TE/100 g) and chelating activity (252 ?M EDTA/100 g). Blanching was beneficial for Confitera IFPs. A positive correlation was found between phenols, tannins and flavonoids and the AA; and their content could be used as indicator of the AA. Date IFPs have potential use as an antioxidant functional ingredient.
Related JoVE Video
Characterization of novel intermediate food products from Spanish date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L., cv. Confitera) co-products for industrial use.
Food Chem
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The nutritive, physicochemical and technological characteristics of several intermediate food products (IFPs) from Spanish Confitera fresh date co-products were investigated. Three IFPs were obtained, two from unblanched dates in different ripening stages (Khalal and Rutab), and a third one from blanched Khalal fruits. The IFPs were rich in dietary fibre (13-16%, dry matter), phenolics (0.56-4.26g GAE/100g dry matter) and sugars (55-82%, dry matter), with glucose and fructose as the predominant sugars. Malic acid was the major organic acid, and potassium was the main mineral. Blanching Khalal dates aided to prevent browning in the IFP, but also the thermal treatment modified the sugars profile. The results indicated that both maturity stages yield IFPs with potential in the food industry; and according to their sugar and phenolic content they could be suitable for the elaboration of new ingredients with different industrial applications. In addition, it would be recommendable blanching unripe fruits.
Related JoVE Video
Quality characteristics of pork burger added with albedo-fiber powder obtained from yellow passion fruit (Passiflora edulis var. flavicarpa) co-products.
Meat Sci.
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The aim of this work determined the technological, nutritional and sensory characteristics of pork burgers, added with different concentrations (2.5 and 5%) of passion fruit albedo (PFA) co-product, obtained from passion fruit juice processing. The addition of PFA on pork burgers improves their nutritional value (higher fiber content). In raw and cooked burger, all textural parameters, except springiness and cohesiveness, were affected by the incorporation of PFA. PFA addition was found to be effective improving the cooking yield, moisture retention and fat retention. The raw and cooked pork burgers added with PFA had lower TBA values and lower counts of aerobic mesophilic bacteria and enterobacteria than the control samples. No Escherichia coli and molds were found in the samples. The overall acceptability scores showed that the most appreciated sample was the one containing 2.5% PFA. According to the results obtained, 2.5 and 5% of PFA addition can be recommended in pork burger production as a new dietary fiber source.
Related JoVE Video
[Malformations of cortical development in adult patients with epilepsy: a series of 79 cases].
Rev Neurol
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Malformations of cortical development (MCD) are an important cause of epilepsy, delayed psychomotor development or neurological deficits. AIM. To report on the long-term clinical course and differential characteristics of several groups of MCD in adults with epilepsy.
Related JoVE Video
Triflusal and aspirin in the secondary prevention of atherothrombotic ischemic stroke: a very long-term follow-up.
Cerebrovasc. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The mean follow-up in the clinical trials of antiplatelet drugs in the secondary prevention of ischemic atherothrombotic stroke ranges from 1 to 5.5 years. Thus, the safety and efficacy of these drugs in the very long term is not totally documented. We have assessed the safety and effectiveness of triflusal and aspirin for a very long-term period in the secondary prevention of patients with ischemic atherothrombotic stroke.
Related JoVE Video
Monitoring of Cortical Activity Postreperfusion. A Powerful Tool for Predicting Clinical Response Immediately After Recanalization.
J Neuroimaging
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In acute ischemic stroke, although early recanalization predicts rapid neurological recovery, in some cases early reperfusion does not immediately correlate to clinical improvement as "stunned brain" patients. The cortical activity monitoring in stroke patients is usually performed to evaluate epileptic activity through electroencephalogram. Bispectral index (BIS) monitor the cortical activity by fronto-temporal electrodes and is currently used for monitoring level of conscious on sedo-analgesia patients. Some studies have shown certain sensibility to detect cerebrovascular events during carotid revascularization. We aimed to evaluate the impact of BIS monitoring before and shortly after reperfusion on early and delayed clinical improvement on stroke patients.
Related JoVE Video
Stroke Echoscan Protocol: A Fast and Accurate Pathway to Diagnose Embolic Strokes.
J Neuroimaging
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Cardiac Echoscan is the simplified transthoracic echocardiogram focused on the main source of emboli detection in the acute stroke diagnosis (Stroke Echoscan). We describe the clinical impact related to the Stroke Echoscan protocol in our Center.
Related JoVE Video
Barriers to implementing the "2008 Mexican Clinical Practice Guideline recommendations for the management of hip and knee osteoarthritis" in primary healthcare practice.
Reumatol Clin
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To evaluate the implementability of the "2008 Mexican Clinical Practice Guideline for the management of hip and knee osteoarthritis at the primary level of care" within primary healthcare of three Mexican regions using the Guideline Implementability Appraisal methodology version 2 (GLIA.v2).
Related JoVE Video
Culture-sensitive adaptation and validation of the community-oriented program for the control of rheumatic diseases methodology for rheumatic disease in Latin American indigenous populations.
Rheumatol. Int.
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The purpose of the study is to validate a culturally sensitive adaptation of the community-oriented program for the control of rheumatic diseases (COPCORD) methodology in several Latin American indigenous populations. The COPCORD Spanish questionnaire was translated and back-translated into seven indigenous languages: Warao, Kariña and Chaima (Venezuela), Mixteco, Maya-Yucateco and Raramuri (Mexico) and Qom (Argentina). The questionnaire was administered to almost 100 subjects in each community with the assistance of bilingual translators. Individuals with pain, stiffness or swelling in any part of the body in the previous 7 days and/or at any point in life were evaluated by physicians to confirm a diagnosis according to criteria for rheumatic diseases. Overall, individuals did not understand the use of a 0-10 visual analog scale for pain intensity and severity grading and preferred a Likert scale comprising four items for pain intensity (no pain, minimal pain, strong pain, and intense pain). They were unable to discriminate between pain intensity and pain severity, so only pain intensity was included. For validation, 702 subjects (286 male, 416 female, mean age 42.7 ± 18.3 years) were interviewed in their own language. In the last 7 days, 198 (28.2 %) subjects reported having musculoskeletal pain, and 90 (45.4 %) of these had intense pain. Compared with the physician-confirmed diagnosis, the COPCORD questionnaire had 73.8 % sensitivity, 72.9 % specificity, a positive likelihood ratio of 2.7 and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.73. The COPCORD questionnaire is a valid screening tool for rheumatic diseases in indigenous Latin American populations.
Related JoVE Video
Potential blood pressure thresholds and outcome in acute intracerebral hemorrhage.
Eur. Neurol.
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Little is known about the relationships between different systolic blood pressure (SBP) thresholds and their outcomes in acute intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). We aimed to determine the associations of potential systolic blood pressure (SBP) thresholds with hematoma growth (HG) and clinical outcome in patients with acute ICH.
Related JoVE Video
Treatment of the calcific tendinopathy of the rotator cuff by ultrasound-guided percutaneous needle lavage. Two years prospective study.
Muscles Ligaments Tendons J
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
to evaluate the short and long term effectiveness of ultrasonography (US)-guided percutaneous needle lavage in calcific tendinopathy of the rotator cuff. To study the evolution of the size of calcifications and pain in the two years after treatment.
Related JoVE Video
Related JoVE Video
Fluorescent Molecular Peroxidation Products: A Prognostic Biomarker of Early Neurologic Deterioration After Thrombolysis.
Stroke
PUBLISHED: 12-12-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Fluorescent molecular peroxidation products (FMPPs) are considered potential markers of molecular oxidative damage and may provoke increased permeability and disruption of the blood-brain barrier. This study aimed to determine the value of FMPPs as a biomarker to predict neurological worsening related to early hemorrhagic transformation.
Related JoVE Video
Detection of Life-threatening Arrhythmias Using Feature Selection and Support Vector Machines.
IEEE Trans Biomed Eng
PUBLISHED: 11-13-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Early detection of ventricular fibrillation (VF) and rapid ventricular tachycardia (VT) is crucial for the success of the defibrillation therapy. A wide variety of detection algorithms have been proposed based on temporal, spectral, or complexity parameters extracted from the ECG. However, these algorithms are mostly constructed by considering each parameter individually. In this work, we present a novel life-threatening arrhythmias detection algorithm which combines a number of previously proposed ECG parameters by using support vector machines (SVM) classifiers. A total of 13 parameters were computed accounting for temporal (morphological), spectral, and complexity features of the ECG signal. A filter-type feature selection (FS) procedure was proposed to analyze the relevance of the computed parameters and how they affect the detection performance. The proposed methodology was evaluated in two different binary detection scenarios: shockable (FV plus VT) vs nonshockable arrhythmias, and VF vs nonVF rhythms, using the information contained in the MITDB, the CUDB, and the VFDB. Sensitivity (SE) and specificity (SP) analysis on the out of sample test data showed values of SE= 95%, SP= 99%, and SE= 92%, SP= 97% in the case of shockable and VF scenarios, respectively. Our algorithm was benchmarked against individual detection schemes, significantly improving their performance. Our results demonstrate that the combination of ECG parameters using statistical learning algorithms improves the efficiency for the detection of life-threatening arrhythmias.
Related JoVE Video
NLRP3 controls Trypanosoma cruzi infection through a caspase-1-dependent IL-1R-independent NO production.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi) is an intracellular protozoan parasite and the etiological agent of Chagas disease, a chronic infectious illness that affects millions of people worldwide. Although the role of TLR and Nod1 in the control of T. cruzi infection is well-established, the involvement of inflammasomes remains to be elucidated. Herein, we demonstrate for the first time that T. cruzi infection induces IL-1? production in an NLRP3- and caspase-1-dependent manner. Cathepsin B appears to be required for NLRP3 activation in response to infection with T. cruzi, as pharmacological inhibition of cathepsin B abrogates IL-1? secretion. NLRP3(-/-) and caspase1(-/-) mice exhibited high numbers of T. cruzi parasites, with a magnitude of peak parasitemia comparable to MyD88(-/-) and iNOS(-/-) mice (which are susceptible models for T. cruzi infection), indicating the involvement of NLRP3 inflammasome in the control of the acute phase of T. cruzi infection. Although the inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IFN-? were found in spleen cells from NLRP3(-/-) and caspase1(-/-) mice infected with T. cruzi, these mice exhibited severe defects in nitric oxide (NO) production and an impairment in macrophage-mediated parasite killing. Interestingly, neutralization of IL-1? and IL-18, and IL-1R genetic deficiency demonstrate that these cytokines have a minor effect on NO secretion and the capacity of macrophages to control T. cruzi infection. In contrast, inhibition of caspase-1 with z-YVAD-fmk abrogated NO production by WT and MyD88(-/-) macrophages and rendered them as susceptible to T. cruzi infection as NLRP3(-/-) and caspase-1(-/-) macrophages. Taken together, our results demonstrate a role for the NLRP3 inflammasome in the control of T. cruzi infection and identify NLRP3-mediated, caspase-1-dependent and IL-1R-independent NO production as a novel effector mechanism for these innate receptors.
Related JoVE Video
[Aetiology and treatment of epilepsy in a series of 1,557 patients].
Rev Neurol
PUBLISHED: 09-21-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The aetiology of epilepsy is an important decisive factor in its treatment and prognosis. Diagnostic and therapeutic advances suggest that the causal distribution, treatment and prognosis of the population with epilepsy may have undergone some modification.
Related JoVE Video
Investigating silent strokes in hypertensives: a magnetic resonance imaging study (ISSYS): rationale and protocol design.
BMC Neurol
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Silent brain infarcts are detected by neuroimaging in up to 20% of asymptomatic patients based on population studies. They are five times more frequent than stroke in general population, and increase significantly both with advancing age and hypertension. Moreover, they are independently associated with the risk of future stroke and cognitive decline.Despite these numbers and the clinical consequences of silent brain infarcts, their prevalence in Mediterranean populations is not well known and their role as predictors of future cerebrovascular and cardiovascular events in hypertensive remains to be determined.ISSYS (Investigating Silent Strokes in Hypertensives: a magnetic resonance imaging study) is an observational cross-sectional and longitudinal study aimed to: 1- determine the prevalence of silent cerebrovascular infarcts in a large cohort of 1000 hypertensives and to study their associated factors and 2-to study their relationship with the risk of future stroke and cognitive decline.
Related JoVE Video
Age-adjusted infarct volume threshold for good outcome after endovascular treatment.
J Neurointerv Surg
PUBLISHED: 07-06-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Infarct volume and age are strong predictors of outcome in patients with stroke. We aimed to determine the impact of infarct volume on outcome according to age.
Related JoVE Video
Factors influencing haemorrhagic transformation in ischaemic stroke.
Lancet Neurol
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Haemorrhagic transformation (HT) of ischaemic infarction occurs when an area of brain infarction is stained with blood products, mainly red blood cells. An abnormally permeable blood-brain barrier resulting from ischaemia of the capillary endothelium allows this extravasation of blood products. HT is part of the natural history of some forms of ischaemic infarction, especially cerebral embolism, but it can be precipitated or enhanced by therapeutic interventions used in the acute phase of ischaemic stroke. The old view of HT after cerebral embolism as a generally asymptomatic change in a tissue that is already necrotic has been challenged by observations from therapeutic thrombolysis that suggest that HT can have a negative effect on patients outcomes. Understanding of the risk factors for and the underlying mechanisms and clinical variability of HT in the context of acute therapeutic interventions in ischaemic stroke could help in the early detection of this complication, in determining the safety of recanalisation approaches, and in setting the stage for future research into the prevention or treatment of HT in patients with acute ischaemic stroke.
Related JoVE Video
Stentrievers versus other endovascular treatment methods for acute stroke: comparison of procedural results and their relationship to outcomes.
J Neurointerv Surg
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The use of stentrievers (ST) is rapidly growing due to several potential benefits over other available treatments. ST potentially restore flow before clot retrieval and reduce procedural time. We aimed to study the impact of these potential benefits. METHODS: Patients with acute stroke treated with endovascular procedures in two stroke centers were studied. According to device availability, patients were treated either with intra-arterial tissue plasminogen activator (IAT), Merci or ST. We defined time to initial flow restoration as time from symptom onset to first pass of contrast to previously occluded arteries either through the deployed device or after recanalization. Complete recanalization (Thrombolysis In Cerebral Infarction >2b), day 5 National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score and favorable outcome at 3 months (modified Rankin Scale score?2) were recorded. RESULTS: A total of 315 patients were studied: 127 IAT, 119 Merci, 69 ST (26 Trevo, 43 Solitaire). No major differences were observed in baseline characteristics between the treatment groups. The rate of complete recanalization was higher with ST (67.2%) than with IAT (50.8%) or Merci (57.3%) (p=0.05). Time from groin puncture to final recanalization was lower with ST (88±46 min) than with IAT (103±70 min) or Merci (128±62 min) (p<0.01) and time from groin puncture to initial flow restoration was shorter with ST (36±18 min) than with IAT (92±67 min) or Merci (114±57 min) (p<0.01). Discharge NIHSS was lower in the ST group (7, IQR 1-26) than in the IAT (14, 2-30) or Merci (12, 5-30) groups (p=0.05) and the rate of favorable outcome was higher: ST (52.9%) vs IAT (33.9%) and Merci (40%) (p=0.03). The use of a ST increased the odds of a favorable outcome (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.04 to 3.39; p=0.037). CONCLUSIONS: In acute endovascular treatment of stroke, the use of ST may increase recanalization and reduce time to flow restoration leading to improved outcomes.
Related JoVE Video
Consensus definitions and application guidelines for control groups in cerebrospinal fluid biomarker studies in multiple sclerosis.
Mult. Scler.
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The choice of appropriate control group(s) is critical in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarker research in multiple sclerosis (MS). There is a lack of definitions and nomenclature of different control groups and a rationalized application of different control groups. We here propose consensus definitions and nomenclature for the following groups: healthy controls (HCs), spinal anesthesia subjects (SASs), inflammatory neurological disease controls (INDCs), peripheral inflammatory neurological disease controls (PINDCs), non-inflammatory neurological controls (NINDCs), symptomatic controls (SCs). Furthermore, we discuss the application of these control groups in specific study designs, such as for diagnostic biomarker studies, prognostic biomarker studies and therapeutic response studies. Application of these uniform definitions will lead to better comparability of biomarker studies and optimal use of available resources. This will lead to improved quality of CSF biomarker research in MS and related disorders.
Related JoVE Video
Effect of inorganic and organic copper fertilizers on copper nutrition in Spinacia oleracea and on labile copper in soil.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To ensure an optimal concentration of Cu in food crops, the effectiveness of eight liquid Cu fertilizers was studied in a spinach ( Spinacia oleracea L.) crop grown on Cu-deficient soil under greenhouse conditions. Plant dry matter yields, Cu concentrations in spinach plants (total and morpholino acid (MES)- and ethylenediaminedisuccinic acid (EDDS)-extractable), and Cu uptakes were studied. The behavior of Cu in soil was evaluated by both single and sequential extraction procedures. The highest quantities of Cu in labile forms in the soil, total uptakes, and Cu concentrations in the plants were associated with the application of the two sources that contained Cu chelated by EDTA and/or DTPA. The fertilizers containing these Cu chelates represent a promising approach to achieve high levels of agronomic biofortification. The stronger correlations obtained between low-molecular-weight organic acid-extractable Cu in soil and the Cu concentrations and Cu uptakes by the plants show the suitability of this soil extraction method for predicting Cu available to spinach plants.
Related JoVE Video
[Chorea due to TITF1/NKX2-1 mutation: phenotypical description and therapeutic response in a family].
Rev Neurol
PUBLISHED: 05-10-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Chorea due to a mutation in the TITF1 gene, which is also known as benign hereditary chorea, is an autosomal dominant disorder that usually begins before the age of 5 years. In most cases, the chorea tends to improve as the child gets older. It may be associated to hypothyroidism and respiratory problems, such as neonatal alveolar respiratory distress syndrome or interstitial disease, since TITF1 is a transcription factor that is essential for the development of the brain, thyroid gland and lung.
Related JoVE Video
Genes involved in hemorrhagic transformations that follow recombinant t-PA treatment in stroke patients.
Pharmacogenomics
PUBLISHED: 04-06-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Despite the benefits of recombinant t-PA (rt-PA) for stroke patients some of them suffer from adverse hemorrhagic transformations (HTs) following treatment. Our objective is to study the transcriptomics of HTs patients.
Related JoVE Video
[Biomarkers in multiple sclerosis].
Rev Neurol
PUBLISHED: 03-23-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Multiple sclerosis is the most frequent disabling neurological disease in young adults. Its development includes independent processes of inflammation, demyelination, neurodegeneration, gliosis and repair, which are responsible for the heterogeneity and individual variability in the expression of the disease, its prognosis and response to treatment. As part of personalised medicine, the progress made in the search for new biomarkers has identified promising candidates that may be useful for the early diagnosis of the disease, for detecting prognostic and developmental profiles of the disease, and for monitoring the response to treatment. Unfortunately, few of them have been validated adequately, which prevents them from being applied in clinical practice. In view of the latest findings, the experts recommend orienting research in another direction, not so much towards the discovery of new molecules or imaging techniques, but instead towards a clinical validation of these markers, with the aim of fostering translational research. This review offers an update on the information about the biomarkers in multiple sclerosis that have currently been validated and are thus potential candidates, as well as looking at their value in the diagnosis, prognosis, evaluation of the development of the disability caused by the disease and the response to therapy.
Related JoVE Video
Immunological biomarkers improve the accuracy of clinical risk models of infection in the acute phase of ischemic stroke.
Cerebrovasc. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Infection is an independent risk factor for adverse outcome in stroke patients. The risk of developing an infection in this setting is partly related to a stroke-induced immunodepression, in which a shift to a predominant Th2 (immunosuppressive) phenotype has been postulated to play a major role. Our aim was to study whether clinical variables or changes in plasma cytokine expression can predict poststroke infections.
Related JoVE Video
Selecting endovascular treatment strategy according to the location of intracranial occlusion in acute stroke.
Cerebrovasc. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Selection of endovascular approaches for acute stroke patients remains unclear. The efficacy of intra-arterial therapy (IAT) has been demonstrated in the past. However, in the last years, the use of mechanical thrombectomy by retrievers (RET) is increasing at the expense of IAT. We aimed to compare several clinical outcomes between patients treated with IAT or RET.
Related JoVE Video
Color-code agreement among stratus, cirrus, and spectralis optical coherence tomography in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis with and without prior optic neuritis.
Am. J. Ophthalmol.
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To evaluate the agreement of retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) color codes among Stratus, Cirrus, and Spectralis optical coherence tomography (OCT) in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis.
Related JoVE Video
Long-term treatment with citicoline may improve poststroke vascular cognitive impairment.
Cerebrovasc. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Cognitive decline after stroke is more common than stroke recurrence. Stroke doubles the risk of dementia and is a major contributor to vascular cognitive impairment and vascular dementia. Nonetheless, few pharmacological studies have addressed vascular cognitive impairment after stroke. We assessed the safety of long-term administration and its possible efficacy of citicoline in preventing poststroke cognitive decline in patients with first-ever ischemic stroke.
Related JoVE Video
Cognitive improvement in patients with severe carotid artery stenosis after transcervical stenting with protective flow reversal.
Cerebrovasc. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Impaired cognitive function is often reported in patients with carotid artery stenosis. Revascularization by transcervical carotid artery stenting (CAS) with flow reversal is associated with increased cognition regardless of age, asymtomatic status, previous stroke events, baseline brain parenchyma status, and contralateral carotid artery stenosis. The findings of this preliminary prospective study suggest that transcervical CAS and stenting with flow reversal for cerebral protection is a safe technique that will improve, or at least not worsen, cognitive performance.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.